International Journal of Multiphase Flow ( IF 3.083 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-09 , DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2019.103197 Fardin Sharif, Amir Hossein Azimi
Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the dynamics of particle clouds released vertically downward into stagnant water. The importance of nozzle diameter, sand particle mass, and particle size were studied in the form of an aspect ratio and Stokes number. The axial and radial profiles of sand concentration and velocity of particle clouds were measured by an accurate and robust optical probe (PV6). Empirical formulations were developed to explain the variations in sand concentration and velocity profiles. It was found that the zone of jet development was smaller in particle clouds than in single-phase water jets and sand jets. Laboratory measurements also indicated that the centerline sand concentration in particle clouds decreased with a slower rate in comparison to single-phase buoyant and sand jets. Important parameters such as mass, momentum fluxes, and drag and entrainment coefficients were calculated inside particle clouds to better understand the evolution of particle clouds in stagnant water. The radial variation of drag coefficient indicated a particle grouping effect in the core region of particle clouds where the drag coefficients decreased from 0.4 to less than 0.1. The entrainment coefficient decreased non-linearly in the radial direction. A new mathematical correlation was also developed to calculate the distribution of entrainment coefficient inside particle clouds. It was observed that the aspect ratio can significantly alter the radial entrainment coefficient in transverse directions. The inter-particle collision of particle clouds was evaluated by calculating the Bagnold number in both axial and radial directions. It was found that the inter-particle collision occurred for x/do ≤ 10 for St = 0.74 and for St = 0.52, and the Bagnold number values were smaller than 45 for x/do ≥ 20, indicating that a micro viscose regime controls the flow in these particle cloud dynamics.