Trends in Food Science & Technology ( IF 11.077 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-07 , DOI: 10.1016/j.tifs.2019.12.032 Wan Jun Lee; Zhen Zhang; Oi Ming Lai; Chin Ping Tan; Yong Wang
Diacylglycerol (DAG) has been a research topic that is of great interest due to its multiple functionalities which enables its extensive use in various lipid systems besides of the sought-after health benefits. However, there are several drawbacks and safety risks which DAG demonstrated that limits its wide applications. This article aims to provide a review both on the desirable traits and the drawbacks of DAG.
Scope and approach
This review encompassed several main sections including: (i) major pathways for the production of DAG followed by the techniques used to enhance the purity of DAG, (ii) health benefits, (iii) previous and recent DAG applications in the food industry, and (iv) the potential hazards or risks regarding the applications and consumption of DAG.
Key Findings and Conclusion: The use of enzymes which are regioselective and reusable, aids in increasing the DAG yield and purity besides of reducing production cost. DAG has been applied as an emulsifier, crystallization modifier and functional ingredient in various fat-based products which not only exhibited great functionalities but also with great health beneficial properties. Nonetheless, DAG exhibited inferior performance as cooking due to the low oxidative and thermal stability. The exposure to high temperature also potentially cause the formation of glycidyl fatty esters and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol fatty acid esters. Future research can be performed to address the subjects on the low stability of DAG through synthesizing medium chain or medium-long chain DAG, incorporation of anti-oxidants or by microencapsulation technologies.