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Toxicity of insecticides on Neotropical stingless bees Plebeia emerina (Friese) and Tetragonisca fiebrigi (Schwarz) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini)
Ecotoxicology ( IF 2.460 ) Pub Date : 2019-12-20 , DOI: 10.1007/s10646-019-02150-x
A. C. Padilha, B. Piovesan, M. C. Morais, J. de B. Pazini, M. J. Zotti, M. Botton, A. D. Grützmacher

Abstract Use of pesticides in agroecosystems is considered a major cause of bees diversity losses in the Neotropics, where Plebeia emerina (Friese) and Tetragonisca fiebrigi (Schwarz) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) are wild pollinators of native and crop plants. The aim of this study was to know the acute lethal toxicity of acetamiprid, malathion, phosmet and spinosad insecticides on P. emerina and T. fiebrigi. We obtained the mean concentration and mean lethal dose (LC50 and LD50) and the mean survival of workers after oral and topical exposure to insecticides, respectively. The LC50 values (ng a.i./μl of diet) and the decreasing order of toxicity for P. emerina was spinosad (4.96) > malathion (18.75) > phosmet (97.33) > acetamiprid (4204.06), and for T. fiebrigi also was spinosad (5.65) > malathion (8.39) > phosmet (53.91) > acetamiprid (9841.32), when orally exposed. The LD50 values (ng a.i./bee) and the decreasing order of toxicity for P. emerina was spinosad (1.90) > malathion (10.90) > phosmet (19.54) > acetamiprid (6216.55) and for T. fiebrigi was malathion (29.29) ≥ spinosad (29.79) > phosmet (41.95) > acetamiprid (1421.23), when topically exposed. The mean survival (hours) of contaminated bees by malathion, phosmet, and spinosad, was 11.81, 7.20, and 12.32 for P. emerina and 8.55, 7.20, and 13.34 for T. fiebrigi when orally exposed; and was 4.87, 9.87 and 11.17 for P. emerina, and 4.87, 4.76, and 19.05 for T. fiebrigi when topically exposed. Malathion, phosmet, and spinosad were highly toxic, while acetamiprid was moderately toxic. Our results indicated that the insecticides tested, mainly malathion, phosmet, and spinosad may be harmful to P. emerina and T. fiebrigi, making it essential to propose measures to minimize their impact on wild pollinators.
更新日期:2020-01-04

 

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