Journal of South American Earth Sciences ( IF 1.704 ) Pub Date : 2019-12-30 , DOI: 10.1016/j.jsames.2019.102481 Consuelo Lima Navarro De Andrade; Tereza Regina Machado Cardoso; Rafael Regueira Santos; Rodolfo Dino; Altair De Jesus Machado
A detailed study of organic facies and palynological assemblages was carried out on 11 samples of potential hydrocarbon source rocks of the Pimenteiras Formation, an outcropping at the western edge of the Parnaiba Basin, Brazil. The main objectives are to characterize the depositional paleoenvironment and hydrocarbon source potential. The selection of this outcrop occurred in the function of its preservation and accessibility, and the samples collection observed 1 m of vertical spacing. Generally, the organic matter and the palynomorphs showed a good state of preservation and fluorescence. The most notable spores and acritarchs and phycomates species were discussed in light of international biozones, and the chronostratigraphic range defined as Late Eifelian - Latest Frasnian in age. TOC results show ranges from 0.40 to 2.91%, with most samples showing greater than 1%, thereby holding a high potential generation. The S1 values were virtually null, and the S2 peak ranged from 0.9 to 5.33 mg/g. The kerogen 435 °C, and the ICE between 4.0 and 4.5 demonstrating the material immaturity. For the palynofacies associations definition, only 10 out of the 25 total quantified of subgroups of kerogen categories were considered in the counting of 300 particles. A dendrogram constructed based on these results through cluster analysis, revealed four palynofacies, as follows: I constituted mainly by palynomorphs (acritarchs, prasinophytes and sporomorphs); II – Dominance of Translucent organic matter (cuticles, epidermal tissue and translucent phytoclasts with and without structure); III - Dominance of Opaque/non-fluorescent (opaque phytoclasts and non-fluorescent AOM) and IV - Dominance of AOM fluorescent (amorphous organic matter with fluorescence). The palynomorphs are the most abundant constituents of all studied kerogen. Quantitative analysis based on the distribution of palynomorphs groups throughout the section indicates the dominance of sporomorphs in the palynological assemblages from the Middle Devonian aged samples. On the other hand, occurred the predominance of microplankton elements in the Late Devonian aged samples. Thus, the depositional paleoenvironment was established as a distal oxic mud-dominated shelf with the deltaic influence of the Late Eifelian to Late Givetian, and there is a tendency distal (dysoxic-anoxic ‘shelf’) from the Frasnian, which indicates the maximum flooding surface.