Pattern Recognition ( IF 7.196 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-13 , DOI: 10.1016/j.patcog.2019.107103 Daniel Heestermans Svendsen; Luca Martino; Gustau Camps-Valls
Many fields of science and engineering rely on running simulations with complex and computationally expensive models to understand the involved processes in the system of interest. Nevertheless, the high cost involved hamper reliable and exhaustive simulations. Very often such codes incorporate heuristics that ironically make them less tractable and transparent. This paper introduces an active learning methodology for adaptively constructing surrogate models, i.e. emulators, of such costly computer codes in a multi-output setting. The proposed technique is sequential and adaptive, and is based on the optimization of a suitable acquisition function. It aims to achieve accurate approximations, model tractability, as well as compact and expressive simulated datasets. In order to achieve this, the proposed Active Multi-Output Gaussian Process Emulator (AMOGAPE) combines the predictive capacity of Gaussian Processes (GPs) with the design of an acquisition function that favors sampling in low density and fluctuating regions of the approximation functions. Comparing different acquisition functions, we illustrate the promising performance of the method for the construction of emulators with toy examples, as well as for a widely used remote sensing transfer code.