Bachelor's Degree(s): Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 1981 Chemistry, Saginaw Valley State University, 1992
PhD: Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 2002
PostDoc: Hunter College, CUNY 2003; NIST, 2004
Our investigations apply a nanoengineering approach using structural characterization, nanofabrication and properties measurements at surfaces. Research projects provide cross-disciplinary training for students, applying analytical methods to solve problems in combination with systematic studies using analytical chemistry, surface science and protein chemistry. Scientific discoveries in the emerging field of nanoscience are the foundation of new technologies in areas such as molecular electronics, bioinformatics, medical diagnostics, and drug discovery.
Techniques applied in our lab for characterizing thin films, biomolecules and nanomaterials include:
* High-resolution imaging using atomic force microscopy (AFM) & scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)
* Fluorescence microscopy
* Conductive probe measurements using AFM/STM
* Measurements of surface properties (elasticity, magnetic, friction and adhesion forces)
* Development of nanoscale lithographies for structuring surfaces
Nanoengineering is applied to optimize the affinity and selectivity of surfaces of biosensors and biochips.Surfaces can be engineered to avoid non-specific protein adsorption, and yet make specific interactions with targeted proteins to be assayed. Very few surfaces are protein resistive, and it is still a major challenge to understand the mechanisms that contribute to protein resistance or adhesion. Designed surfaces are useful for viewing antigen-antibody binding at the nanometer scale, to assess the specificity of binding, and to evaluate protein orientation and the accessibility of targeted ligands.
Lithographic approaches have been developed for constructing nanostructured surfaces for fundamental studies of protein binding. Particle lithography with proteins can be applied to organize viable protein nanostructures for biosensing. AFM-based lithography with self-assembled monolayers can be used to rapidly and reproducibly create precise arrays of nanometer-sized test structures on surfaces. The height, density, and surface chemistry of nanopatterns can be fine-tuned by the selection of thiolated molecules to be patterned, with designated chain lengths and terminal groups.
In situscanning probe methods provide precise control of surface reaction conditions such as spatial arrangement, chemical composition, and density of ligands. Strengths of an in situ SPM-based approach include the highly local level of morphological detail, as well as imaging and fabrication capabilities in near-physiological, buffered liquid environments. These studies can facilitate the development of new approaches for immobilization and bioconjugation chemistries, which are key technologies used in manufacturing biochip and biosensing surfaces
The reliability and sensitivity of biosensing and biochip technologies depend on the affinity, viability and accessibility of immobilized biological components. Engineering surfaces using the feedback of in situ nanoscale characterization may substantially improve protein detection, revealing detailed information regarding the bioaffinity of designed surfaces. To advance analytical chemistry measurements to the ultimate limits of sensitivity, miniaturization offers rewards of reduced quantities of analytes and reagents, increased density of sensor and chip elements, faster reaction/response time and potential for massive parallel analyses.
Saner, C. K.; Lusker, K. L.; LeJeune, Z. M.; Serem, W. K.; Garno, J. C.* Self-assembly of octadecyltrichlorosilane: Surface structures formed using different protocols of particle lithography. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, 2012, 3,114–122.
Daniels, S. L.; Serem, W. K.; Garno, J. C.* Ferritin as a model nanomaterial: Nanolithography and scanning probe microscopy studies. Invited review for Journal of Nanoscience Letters, 2012, 2,14.
Lusker, K. L.; Li, J.-R.; Garno, J. C.* Nanostructures of functionalized gold nanoparticles prepared by particle lithography with organosilanes. Langmuir, 2011, 27, 13269-13275.
Lusker, K. L.; Yu, J.-J.; Garno, J. C.* Particle Lithography with vapor deposition of organosilanes: A molecular toolkit for studying confined surface reactions in nanoscale liquid volumes. Thin Solid Films (by invitation) 2011, 7(519), 5223-5229.
Lewandowski, B. R.; Daniels, S. L.; LeJeune, Z. M.; Lusker, K. L.; Zhou, P.; Sprunger, P.; Lytle, D. A.; Garno, J. C.* Impact of pH, dissolved inorganic carbon and polyphosphates for the initial stages of water corrosion of copper surfaces. CheM, 2011, 1(1), 16-26.
Brown, T. T.; LeJeune, Z. M.; Liu, K.; Hardin, S.; Li, J.-R.; Rupnik, K.; Garno, J. C.* Automated scanning probe lithography with n-alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Au(111): Application for teaching undergraduate laboratories. Journal of the American Lab Association, 2011, 16, 112-125.
Tian, T.; LeJeune, Z. M.; Serem, W. K.; Yu, J.-J.; Garno, J. C.* Nanografting: A method for bottom-up fabrication of designed nanostructures. Invited Chapter, Ampere A. Tseng (ed.), Tip-Based Nanofabrication, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-9899-6_5, Springer Science + Business Media, LLC, 2011.
Serem, W. K.; Lusker, K. L.; Garno, J. C.* Using scanning probe microscopy to characterize nanoparticles and nanocrystals. Invited chapter for Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, Supplementary Volumes S1-S3, edited by Robert A. Meyers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2011, 859-894. ISBN 978-1-119-999120-5.
Serem, W. K.; Bett, C. K.; Ngunjiri, J. N.; Garno, J. C.* Studies of the growth, evolution and self-aggregation of β-amyloid fibrils using tapping-mode atomic force microscopy. Microscopy Research and Technique, 2010, 74(7), 699-708.
Fabre, B.; Hao, E.; LeJeune, Z. M.; Barrière, F.; Garno, J. C.; Vicente, M. G. H. Polythiophenes containing in-chain cobaltabisdicarbollide centers. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 2010, 2(3), 691-702.
Kelley, A. T.; Ngunjiri, J. N.; Serem, W. K.; Yu, J.-J.; Lawrence, S.; Crowe, S.; Garno, J. C.* Applying AFM-based nanofabrication for measuring the thickness of nanopatterns: The role of headgroups in the vertical self-assembly of ω-functionalized n-alkanethiols. Langmuir, 2010, 26 (5), 3040–3049.
Yang, G.; Garno, J. C.; Liu, G.-Y. Scanning probe-based lithography for production of biological and organic nanostructures on surfaces, in Comprehensive Nanoscience and Technology. Ed. David Andrews, Gregory Scholes, Gary Wiederrecht. Elsevier B. V., Amsterdam, 2010. ISBN 13: 978-0-12-374390-9.
LeJeune, Z. M.; Serem, W.; Kelley, A. T.; Ngunjiri, J. N.; Garno, J. C.* AFM-based nanofabrication with self-assembled monolayers. Invited chapter for Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Technology, (2nd edition). Ed. H. S. Nalwa, American Scientific Publishers Stevenson Ranch, CA, 2010.
Lewandowski, B. R.; Lytle, D. A.; Garno, J. C.* Nanoscale investigation of the impact of pH and orthophosphates on the corrosion of copper surfaces in Water. Langmuir, 2010, 26(18), 14671-14679.
Bett, C.; Serem, W. K.; Fontenot, K.; Hammer, R. P. Garno, J. C.* Effects of peptides derived from terminal modifications of the Aβ central hydrophobic core on Aβ fibrillization. ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 2010, 1(10), 661-678. DOI: 10.1021/cn900019r.