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  • Stretching diamonds
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Ankita Anirban

    A paper in Science shows that diamond can be elastically stretched by up to 9% which could make it more electrically conducting.

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Physics of viral dynamics
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2021-01-12
    Robijn F. Bruinsma; Gijs J. L. Wuite; Wouter H. Roos

    Viral capsids are often regarded as inert structural units, but in actuality they display fascinating dynamics during different stages of their life cycle. With the advent of single-particle approaches and high-resolution techniques, it is now possible to scrutinize viral dynamics during and after their assembly and during the subsequent development pathway into infectious viruses. In this Review,

    更新日期:2021-01-12
  • Proton puzzles
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2021-01-08

    Over a century after its discovery, the proton still keeps physicists busy understanding its basic properties, but a new generation of experiments may help finally nail down its radius, stability and the origin of its spin.

    更新日期:2021-01-08
  • Making waves without inertia
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Zoe Budrikis

    A paper in Communications Physics reports that cornstarch suspensions flowing down slopes form ripples like water does — but via a completely different mechanism, which involves their unusual rheology.

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • From superconducting qubits to optical photons
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-12-25
    Iulia Georgescu

    A Nature paper reports on the conversion of microwave-frequency quantum excitations of a superconducting qubit into photons at optical telecommunication frequencies, a step closer to realizing a working quantum transducer.

    更新日期:2020-12-25
  • Quantum phases driven by strong correlations
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-12-22
    Silke Paschen; Qimiao Si

    It has long been thought that strongly correlated systems are adiabatically connected to their non-interacting counterpart. Recent developments have highlighted the fallacy of this traditional notion in a variety of settings. In this Review, we use a class of strongly correlated electron systems to illustrate the type of quantum phases and fluctuations that are created by strong correlations. Examples

    更新日期:2020-12-22
  • Publisher Correction: What we know and what we don’t know about the proton spin after 30 years
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-12-21
    Xiangdong Ji; Feng Yuan; Yong Zhao

    A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s42254-020-00274-2.

    更新日期:2020-12-21
  • Guide to optical spectroscopy of layered semiconductors
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-12-16
    Shivangi Shree; Ioannis Paradisanos; Xavier Marie; Cedric Robert; Bernhard Urbaszek

    Potential applications in photonics and optoelectronics are based on our understanding of the light–matter interaction on an atomic monolayer scale. Atomically thin 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, such as MoS2 and WSe2, are model systems for layered semiconductors with a bandgap in the visible region of the optical spectrum. They can be assembled to form heterostructures and combine the unique

    更新日期:2020-12-16
  • Getting a grip on fingerprints
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-12-14
    Zoe Budrikis

    A paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows that the ridges on finger pads promote grip by acting as a microfluidic array that maintains optimal moisture levels and by deforming when wet to block sweat pores.

    更新日期:2020-12-14
  • Lessons for delivering big science projects
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-12-14
    Jim Yeck

    As the construction of the Electron–Ion Collider (EIC) is starting, the EIC Project Director Jim Yeck shares his experience on the main ingredients for success of big science projects.

    更新日期:2020-12-14
  • Stable magnetic vortices
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-12-11
    Ankita Anirban

    A paper in Nature Physics images magnetic vortices using X-ray ptychography and finds that they are stable under high magnetic fields.

    更新日期:2020-12-11
  • Year 2 in numbers
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-12-01

    Closing the second volume of Nature Reviews Physics we thank our authors, readers and referees. As we close volume 2 of Nature Reviews Physics we look at the richness of topics covered, the variety of article types and the geographical diversity of the community we serve.

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Author Correction: The dawn of the nickel age of superconductivity
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Warren E. Pickett

    An Erratum to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1038/s42254-020-00265-3.

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Chiral magnetic effect reveals the topology of gauge fields in heavy-ion collisions
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Dmitri E. Kharzeev; Jinfeng Liao

    The topological structure of vacuum is the cornerstone of non-Abelian gauge theories describing strong and electroweak interactions within the standard model of particle physics. However, transitions between different topological sectors of the vacuum (believed to be at the origin of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe) have never been observed directly. An experimental observation of such transitions

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Publisher Correction: Deuterium experiments reveal conditions in the early Universe
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    Zoe Budrikis

    An Erratum to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s42254-020-00263-5.

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • What we know and what we don’t know about the proton spin after 30 years
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Xiangdong Ji; Feng Yuan; Yong Zhao

    More than three decades ago, the European Muon Collaboration published a surprising result on the spin structure of the proton: the spins of its three quark components account for only a small part of the spin of the proton. Ever since, theoretical and experimental progress has been made in understanding the origins of the proton spin. In this Review, we discuss what has been learned so far, what is

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Quantum programming languages
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    Bettina Heim; Mathias Soeken; Sarah Marshall; Chris Granade; Martin Roetteler; Alan Geller; Matthias Troyer; Krysta Svore

    Quantum programming languages are essential to translate ideas into instructions that can be executed by a quantum computer. Not only are they crucial to the programming of quantum computers at scale but also they can facilitate the discovery and development of quantum algorithms even before hardware exists that is capable of executing them. Quantum programming languages are used for controlling existing

    更新日期:2020-11-16
  • Deuterium experiments reveal conditions in the early Universe
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Zoe Budrikis

    Understanding the first few minutes of the Universe has been hampered by uncertainty in the cross section of the so-called deuterium burning process. A paper in Nature reports a much-improved cross section, putting models of the early Universe on firmer footing.

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • The dawn of the nickel age of superconductivity
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Warren E. Pickett

    Whereas high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates has been studied for 30 years, during the past year it has been reported in nickelates. This raises new questions for physicists and chemists about the mechanism of superconductivity — despite the electronic similarities of Cu and Ni, it seems that nickelate superconductivity requires consideration of a second orbital. Whereas high-temperature

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Topological methods for data modelling
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Gunnar Carlsson

    The analysis of large and complex data sets is one of the most important problems facing the scientific community, and physics in particular. One response to this challenge has been the development of topological data analysis (TDA), which models data by graphs or networks rather than by linear algebraic (matrix) methods or cluster analysis. TDA represents the shape of the data (suitably defined) in

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Twist and curve
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-11-04
    Ankita Anirban

    A Science paper presents a method of growing twisted spiral structures of 2D materials by using curved substrates.

    更新日期:2020-11-04
  • The DiVincenzo criteria 20 years on
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Iulia Georgescu

    In 2000, David DiVincenzo gave a set of basic criteria for building a quantum computer, which have guided research for the past 20 years. Today, despite not all the criteria having been cleared, additional complex requirements have emerged.

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Data pioneers
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-10-30

    This month we explore the evolution of curated data in physics and ponder on the past and future role of journals.

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • From anyons to Majoranas
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Jay Sau; Steven Simon; Smitha Vishveshwara; James R. Williams

    Anyons, particles that are neither bosons nor fermions, were predicted in the 1980s, but strong experimental evidence for the existence of the simplest type of anyons has only emerged this year. Further theoretical and experimental advances promise to nail the existence of more exotic types of anyons, such as Majorana fermions, which would make topological quantum computation possible. Strong experimental

    更新日期:2020-10-13
  • The emerging commercial landscape of quantum computing
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Evan R. MacQuarrie; Christoph Simon; Stephanie Simmons; Elicia Maine

    Quantum computing technologies are advancing, and the class of addressable problems is expanding. Together with the emergence of new ventures and government-sponsored partnerships, these trends will help to lower the barrier for adoption of new technology and provide stability in an uncertain market. Until then, quantum computing presents an exciting testbed for different strategies in an emerging

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • Quantum equilibration, thermalization and prethermalization in ultracold atoms
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Masahito Ueda

    Over the past decade, there has been remarkable progress in our understanding of equilibration, thermalization and prethermalization, due in large part to experimental breakthroughs in ultracold atomic gases. These advances have made it possible to investigate how isolated quantum systems thermalize and why certain special many-body states do not. An overview on recent theoretical and experimental

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Raindrops falling on pine needles
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Ankita Anirban

    A paper in Physics of Fluids shows that the wedge-shaped cross-section of pine needles enhances their capacity to shed water.

    更新日期:2020-10-06
  • Keeping the labs running
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-10-01
    Zoe Budrikis

    A report from the UK’s Science Council-supported Technician Commitment highlights the role played by technical staff in minimizing the disruption to research caused by COVID-19.

    更新日期:2020-10-02
  • Axion physics in condensed-matter systems
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Dennis M. Nenno; Christina A. C. Garcia; Johannes Gooth; Claudia Felser; Prineha Narang

    Axions are hypothetical particles that were proposed to solve the strong charge–parity problem in high-energy physics. Although they have long been known in quantum field theory, axions have so far not been observed as elementary particles in nature. Yet, in condensed-matter systems, axions can also emerge as quasiparticles in certain materials such as strong topological insulators. The corresponding

    更新日期:2020-10-02
  • The proton size
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Jean-Philippe Karr; Dominique Marchand; Eric Voutier

    The proton charge radius has been measured since the 1950s using elastic electron–proton scattering and ordinary hydrogen atomic spectroscopy. In 2010, a highly precise measurement of the proton charge radius using, for the first time, muonic hydrogen spectroscopy unexpectedly led to controversy, as the value disagreed with the previously accepted one. Since then, atomic and nuclear physicists have

    更新日期:2020-10-02
  • 25 years of quantum error correction
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Iulia Georgescu

    The first quantum error-correcting code was devised by Peter Shor 25 years ago. Ever since there have been numerous advances on both the theoretical and experimental fronts, and quantum error correction turned out to have unexpected applications.

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Engaging with African physics
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-09-30

    Physics in Africa is often overlooked. We explore the challenges facing African physicists and what their needs are as authors and readers.

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Computer-inspired quantum experiments
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Mario Krenn; Manuel Erhard; Anton Zeilinger

    The design of new devices and experiments has historically relied on the intuition of human experts. Now, design inspirations from computers are increasingly augmenting the capability of scientists. We briefly overview different fields of physics that rely on computer-inspired designs using a variety of computational approaches based on topological optimization, evolutionary strategies, deep learning

    更新日期:2020-09-29
  • Publisher Correction: Domain-wall engineering and topological defects in ferroelectric and ferroelastic materials
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    G. F. Nataf; M. Guennou; J. M. Gregg; D. Meier; J. Hlinka; E. K. H. Salje; J. Kreisel

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-09-28
  • Quantum many-body physics from a gravitational lens
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Hong Liu; Julian Sonner

    The past two decades have seen the emergence of remarkable interconnections among previously remotely related disciplines, such as condensed matter, nuclear physics, gravity and quantum information, fuelled both by experimental advances and by the new powerful theoretical methods offered by holographic duality. In this Review, we sample some recent developments in holographic duality in connection

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Light–matter interactions with photonic quasiparticles
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Nicholas Rivera; Ido Kaminer

    Interactions between light and matter play an instrumental role in spectroscopy, sensing, quantum information processing and lasers. In most of these applications, light is considered in terms of electromagnetic plane waves propagating at the speed of light in vacuum. As a result, light–matter interactions can usually be treated as very weak and captured at the lowest order in quantum electrodynamics

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • From Andreev to Majorana bound states in hybrid superconductor–semiconductor nanowires
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Elsa Prada; Pablo San-Jose; Michiel W. A. de Moor; Attila Geresdi; Eduardo J. H. Lee; Jelena Klinovaja; Daniel Loss; Jesper Nygård; Ramón Aguado; Leo P. Kouwenhoven

    Inhomogeneous superconductors can host electronic excitations, known as Andreev bound states (ABSs), below the superconducting energy gap. With the advent of topological superconductivity, a new kind of zero-energy ABS with exotic qualities, known as a Majorana bound state (MBS), has been discovered. A special property of MBS wavefunctions is their non-locality, which, together with non-Abelian braiding

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • Domain-wall engineering and topological defects in ferroelectric and ferroelastic materials
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    G. F. Nataf; M. Guennou; J. M. Gregg; D. Meier; J. Hlinka; E. K. H. Salje; J. Kreisel

    Ferroelectric and ferroelastic domain walls are 2D topological defects with thicknesses approaching the unit cell level. When this spatial confinement is combined with observations of emergent functional properties, such as polarity in non-polar systems or electrical conductivity in otherwise insulating materials, it becomes clear that domain walls represent new and exciting objects in matter. In this

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • Physics in Africa
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Rabia Salihu Sa’id; Ibiyinka Fuwape; Alain Moise Dikandé; Jamal Mimouni; Francis Hasford; Delia Haynes; Igle Gledhill; George Amolo; Omololu Akin-Ojo; Nashwa Eassa

    Africa tends to be isolated and sometimes forgotten when it comes to scientific research and in particular physics. But the region has great potential, being home to the youngest population in the world, and despite a variety of issues, there has been steady, albeit uneven progress towards establishing a scientific infrastructure. Ten African researchers discuss the diverse challenges and opportunities

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Collective excitations in 2D materials
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Aleksandr Rodin; Maxim Trushin; Alexandra Carvalho; A. H. Castro Neto

    Research on 2D materials has been one of the fastest-growing fields in condensed matter and materials science research in the past 10 years. The low dimensionality and strong correlations of 2D systems give rise to electronic and structural properties, in the form of collective excitations, that do not have counterparts in ordinary 3D materials used in modern technology. These 2D materials present

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Floating upside down
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-09-04
    Ankita Anirban

    A Nature paper shows how vertical oscillations can be used to levitate a fluid and float a boat upside down.

    更新日期:2020-09-05
  • A new kind of big science
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-09-02

    The 5 years since the first detection of gravitational waves have witnessed the rise of multi-messenger astronomy, a field that expands our understanding of astrophysical processes and reshapes the way science is done. The 5 years since the first detection of gravitational waves have witnessed the rise of multi-messenger astronomy, a field that expands our understanding of astrophysical processes and

    更新日期:2020-09-02
  • Understanding dense hydrogen at planetary conditions
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Ravit Helled; Guglielmo Mazzola; Ronald Redmer

    Materials at high pressures and temperatures are of great interest for planetary science and astrophysics, warm dense-matter physics and inertial confinement fusion research. Planetary structure models rely on an understanding of the behaviour of elements and their mixtures under conditions that do not exist on Earth; at the same time, planets serve as natural laboratories for studying materials at

    更新日期:2020-09-02
  • Fast economic indicators
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-08-28
    Andy Haldane; Shiv Chowla

    Faced with an economic crisis as large and rapid as that precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, economists have turned to new ‘fast indicators’ based on big data, as Andy Haldane and Shiv Chowla of the Bank of England explain.

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Complexity science approach to economic crime
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    János Kertész; Johannes Wachs

    János Kertész and Johannes Wachs discuss how complexity science and network science are particularly useful for identifying and describing the hidden traces of economic misbehaviour such as fraud and corruption.

    更新日期:2020-08-27
  • Phase transitions in cell migration
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Caterina A. M. La Porta; Stefano Zapperi

    Phase transitions from a static to a moving phase are observed in a variety of physical systems and are thought to play a key role in cellular assemblies such as healthy and cancerous tissue. Caterina La Porta and Stefano Zapperi discuss how a suitable identification of the control and order parameters can shed light on the nature of phase transitions in cell migration. Caterina La Porta and Stefano

    更新日期:2020-08-25
  • Publisher Correction: Comparing acoustic and optical forces for biomedical research
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-08-21
    Kishan Dholakia; Bruce W. Drinkwater; Monika Ritsch-Marte

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-08-21
  • Comparing acoustic and optical forces for biomedical research
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Kishan Dholakia; Bruce W. Drinkwater; Monika Ritsch-Marte

    The application of acoustic and optical waves to exert non-contact forces on microscopic and mesoscopic objects has grown considerably in importance in the past few decades. Different physical principles govern the acoustic and optical forces, leading to diverse biomedical applications. Biocompatibility is crucial, and useful optical and acoustic forces can be applied in devices that maintain local

    更新日期:2020-08-17
  • Publisher Correction: Emergent mystery in the Kondo insulator samarium hexaboride
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    Lu Li; Kai Sun; Cagliyan Kurdak; J. W. Allen

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-08-14
  • How to microwave your tea (but using a kettle is better)
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Ankita Anirban

    A paper in AIP Advances reports on heating liquids in a microwave and proposes a solution for more uniform temperature distribution.

    更新日期:2020-08-14
  • The future is now
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Mansi M. Kasliwal

    Mansi M. Kasliwal, the Principal Investigator of the Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen (GROWTH) collaboration, shares her enthusiasm about the future of multi-messenger astrophysics. Mansi M. Kasliwal discusses the Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen (GROWTH) collaboration and shares her enthusiasm about the future of multi-messenger astrophysics.

    更新日期:2020-08-14
  • Sperm swimming is more complicated than thought
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-08-11
    Zoe Budrikis

    A paper in Science Advances shows that the classic picture of sperm cells moving via symmetrical side-to-side wiggling is an artefact of 2D imaging — the actual motion is far more complex.

    更新日期:2020-08-11
  • Emergent mystery in the Kondo insulator samarium hexaboride
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Lu Li; Kai Sun; Cagliyan Kurdak; J. W. Allen

    Samarium hexaboride (SmB6) is an example of a Kondo insulator, in which strong electron correlations cause a band gap to open. SmB6 hosts both a bulk insulating state and a conductive surface state. Within a Fermi-liquid framework, the strongly correlated ground-state electronic structure can be mapped to a simple state resembling a topological insulator. Although uncertainties remain, many experiments

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Publisher Correction: New fractional states
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    Ankita Anirban

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-08-04
  • Why we edit
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-07-31

    All articles in Nature Reviews Physics are extensively edited in-house before publication. What do we do, and why?

    更新日期:2020-07-31
  • The Supernova Early Warning System
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Alec Habig; Kate Scholberg

    Alec Habig and Kate Scholberg describe the Supernova Early Warning System (SNEWS), an international network of neutrino detectors set up to provide a fast alert to the astronomical community if the participating experiments detect the distinctive burst of neutrinos from a stellar core collapse in or near the Milky Way. Alec Habig and Kate Scholberg describe the Supernova Early Warning System (SNEWS)

    更新日期:2020-07-30
  • Physical foundations and basic properties of magnetic skyrmions
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Alexei N. Bogdanov; Christos Panagopoulos

    Magnetic skyrmions (or vortices) are spatially inhomogeneous spin textures localized in nanoscale cylindrical regions. Their small size and unique stability make skyrmions attractive for the study of spin topology and technologies wherein information is carried by the electron spin in addition to, or instead of, the electron charge. Despite advances in the synthesis of materials in which axisymmetric

    更新日期:2020-07-30
  • Physics for neuromorphic computing
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Danijela Marković; Alice Mizrahi; Damien Querlioz; Julie Grollier

    Neuromorphic computing takes inspiration from the brain to create energy-efficient hardware for information processing, capable of highly sophisticated tasks. Systems built with standard electronics achieve gains in speed and energy by mimicking the distributed topology of the brain. Scaling-up such systems and improving their energy usage, speed and performance by several orders of magnitude requires

    更新日期:2020-07-28
  • Multi-messenger astrophysics and the GRANDMA generation
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-07-24
    Sarah Antier

    Sarah Antier describes the Global Rapid Advanced Network Devoted to the Multi-messenger Addicts (GRANDMA), which aims to identify and characterize the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave sources. Sarah Antier describes the Global Rapid Advanced Network Devoted to the Multi-messenger Addicts (GRANDMA), which aims to identify and characterize the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational

    更新日期:2020-07-24
  • 40 years of the quantum Hall effect
    Nat. Rev. Phys. Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    Klaus von Klitzing; Tapash Chakraborty; Philip Kim; Vidya Madhavan; Xi Dai; James McIver; Yoshinori Tokura; Lucile Savary; Daria Smirnova; Ana Maria Rey; Claudia Felser; Johannes Gooth; Xiaoliang Qi

    The discovery of the quantum Hall effect (QHE) marked a turning point in condensed-matter physics. The measurement of the Hall resistance showed that electronic resistance could be defined precisely in terms of fundamental constants, even in a disordered and irregular sample. Over the past 40 years, the QHE has inspired new theories and led to experimental discoveries in a range of fields going beyond

    更新日期:2020-07-23
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