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  • Receptor kinase module targets PIN-dependent auxin transport during canalization
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Jakub Hajný, Tomáš Prát, Nikola Rydza, Lesia Rodriguez, Shutang Tan, Inge Verstraeten, David Domjan, Ewa Mazur, Elwira Smakowska-Luzan, Wouter Smet, Eliana Mor, Jonah Nolf, BaoJun Yang, Wim Grunewald, Gergely Molnár, Youssef Belkhadir, Bert De Rybel, Jiří Friml

    Spontaneously arising channels that transport the phytohormone auxin provide positional cues for self-organizing aspects of plant development such as flexible vasculature regeneration or its patterning during leaf venation. The auxin canalization hypothesis proposes a feedback between auxin signaling and transport as the underlying mechanism, but molecular players await discovery. We identified part

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Origins and genetic legacy of prehistoric dogs
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Anders Bergström, Laurent Frantz, Ryan Schmidt, Erik Ersmark, Ophelie Lebrasseur, Linus Girdland-Flink, Audrey T. Lin, Jan Storå, Karl-Göran Sjögren, David Anthony, Ekaterina Antipina, Sarieh Amiri, Guy Bar-Oz, Vladimir I. Bazaliiskii, Jelena Bulatović, Dorcas Brown, Alberto Carmagnini, Tom Davy, Sergey Fedorov, Ivana Fiore, Deirdre Fulton, Mietje Germonpré, James Haile, Evan K. Irving-Pease, Alexandra

    Dogs were the first domestic animal, but little is known about their population history and to what extent it was linked to humans. We sequenced 27 ancient dog genomes and found that all dogs share a common ancestry distinct from present-day wolves, with limited gene flow from wolves since domestication but substantial dog-to-wolf gene flow. By 11,000 years ago, at least five major ancestry lineages

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in Europe and North America.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Michael Worobey,Jonathan Pekar,Brendan B Larsen,Martha I Nelson,Verity Hill,Jeffrey B Joy,Andrew Rambaut,Marc A Suchard,Joel O Wertheim,Philippe Lemey

    Accurate understanding of the global spread of emerging viruses is critical for public health responses and for anticipating and preventing future outbreaks. Here we elucidate when, where, and how the earliest sustained severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission networks became established in Europe and North America. Our results suggest that rapid early interventions

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Cryptic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Washington state.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Trevor Bedford,Alexander L Greninger,Pavitra Roychoudhury,Lea M Starita,Michael Famulare,Meei-Li Huang,Arun Nalla,Gregory Pepper,Adam Reinhardt,Hong Xie,Lasata Shrestha,Truong N Nguyen,Amanda Adler,Elisabeth Brandstetter,Shari Cho,Danielle Giroux,Peter D Han,Kairsten Fay,Chris D Frazar,Misja Ilcisin,Kirsten Lacombe,Jover Lee,Anahita Kiavand,Matthew Richardson,Thomas R Sibley,Melissa Truong,Caitlin

    After its emergence in Wuhan, China, in late November or early December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus rapidly spread globally. Genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 allows the reconstruction of its transmission history, although this is contingent on sampling. We analyzed 453 SARS-CoV-2 genomes collected between 20 February and 15 March 2020 from infected patients

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Singing in a silent spring: Birds respond to a half-century soundscape reversion during the COVID-19 shutdown
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Elizabeth P. Derryberry, Jennifer N. Phillips, Graham E. Derryberry, Michael J. Blum, David Luther

    Actions taken to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have conspicuously reduced motor vehicle traffic, potentially alleviating auditory pressures on animals that rely on sound for survival and reproduction. Here, by comparing soundscapes and songs across the San Francisco Bay Area before and during the recent statewide shutdown, we evaluated whether a common songbird responsively

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Denisovan ancestry and population history of early East Asians
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Diyendo Massilani, Laurits Skov, Mateja Hajdinjak, Byambaa Gunchinsuren, Damdinsuren Tseveendorj, Seonbok Yi, Jungeun Lee, Sarah Nagel, Birgit Nickel, Thibaut Devièse, Tom Higham, Matthias Meyer, Janet Kelso, Benjamin M. Peter, Svante Pääbo

    We present analyses of the genome of a ~34,000-year-old hominin skull cap discovered in the Salkhit Valley in northeastern Mongolia. We show that this individual was a female member of a modern human population that, following the split between East and West Eurasians, experienced substantial gene flow from West Eurasians. Both she and a 40,000-year-old individual from Tianyuan outside Beijing carried

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Denisovan DNA in Late Pleistocene sediments from Baishiya Karst Cave on the Tibetan Plateau
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Dongju Zhang, Huan Xia, Fahu Chen, Bo Li, Viviane Slon, Ting Cheng, Ruowei Yang, Zenobia Jacobs, Qingyan Dai, Diyendo Massilani, Xuke Shen, Jian Wang, Xiaotian Feng, Peng Cao, Melinda A. Yang, Juanting Yao, Jishuai Yang, David B. Madsen, Yuanyuan Han, Wanjing Ping, Feng Liu, Charles Perreault, Xiaoshan Chen, Matthias Meyer, Janet Kelso, Svante Pääbo, Qiaomei Fu

    A late Middle Pleistocene mandible from Baishiya Karst Cave (BKC) on the Tibetan Plateau has been inferred to be from a Denisovan, an Asian hominin related to Neanderthals, on the basis of an amino acid substitution in its collagen. Here we describe the stratigraphy, chronology, and mitochondrial DNA extracted from the sediments in BKC. We recover Denisovan mitochondrial DNA from sediments deposited

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Metal-organic magnets with large coercivity and ordering temperatures up to 242°C
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Panagiota Perlepe, Itziar Oyarzabal, Aaron Mailman, Morgane Yquel, Mikhail Platunov, Iurii Dovgaliuk, Mathieu Rouzières, Philippe Négrier, Denise Mondieig, Elizaveta A. Suturina, Marie-Anne Dourges, Sébastien Bonhommeau, Rebecca A. Musgrave, Kasper S. Pedersen, Dmitry Chernyshov, Fabrice Wilhelm, Andrei Rogalev, Corine Mathonière, Rodolphe Clérac

    Magnets derived from inorganic materials (e.g., oxides, rare-earth–based, and intermetallic compounds) are key components of modern technological applications. Despite considerable success in a broad range of applications, these inorganic magnets suffer several drawbacks, including energetically expensive fabrication, limited availability of certain constituent elements, high density, and poor scope

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Parallel single-shot measurement and coherent control of solid-state spins below the diffraction limit
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Songtao Chen, Mouktik Raha, Christopher M. Phenicie, Salim Ourari, Jeff D. Thompson

    Solid-state spin defects are a promising platform for quantum science and technology. The realization of larger-scale quantum systems with solid-state defects will require high-fidelity control over multiple defects with nanoscale separations, with strong spin-spin interactions for multi-qubit logic operations and the creation of entangled states. We demonstrate an optical frequency-domain multiplexing

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • CdPS3 nanosheets-based membrane with high proton conductivity enabled by Cd vacancies
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Xitang Qian, Long Chen, Lichang Yin, Zhibo Liu, Songfeng Pei, Fan Li, Guangjin Hou, Shuangming Chen, Li Song, Khalid Hussain Thebo, Hui-Ming Cheng, Wencai Ren

    Proton transport in nanochannels under humid conditions is crucial for the application in energy storage and conversion. However, existing materials, including Nafion, suffer from limited conductivity of up to 0.2 siemens per centimeter. We report a class of membranes assembled with two-dimensional transition-metal phosphorus trichalcogenide nanosheets, in which the transition-metal vacancies enable

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Generation of helical topological exciton-polaritons
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Wenjing Liu, Zhurun Ji, Yuhui Wang, Gaurav Modi, Minsoo Hwang, Biyuan Zheng, Volker J. Sorger, Anlian Pan, Ritesh Agarwal

    Topological photonics in strongly coupled light-matter systems offer the possibility for fabricating tunable optical devices that are robust against disorder and defects. Topological polaritons, i.e., hybrid exciton-photon quasiparticles, have been proposed to demonstrate scatter-free chiral propagation, but their experimental realization to date has been at deep cryogenic temperatures and under strong

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Surface deformation associated with fractures near the 2019 Ridgecrest earthquake sequence
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Xiaohua Xu, David T. Sandwell, Lauren A. Ward, Chris W. D. Milliner, Bridget R. Smith-Konter, Peng Fang, Yehuda Bock

    Contemporary earthquake hazard models hinge on an understanding of how strain is distributed in the crust and the ability to precisely detect millimeter-scale deformation over broad regions of active faulting. Satellite radar observations revealed hundreds of previously unmapped linear strain concentrations (or fractures) surrounding the 2019 Ridgecrest earthquake sequence. We documented and analyzed

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • A complex phenotype in salmon controlled by a simple change in migratory timing
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Neil F. Thompson, Eric C. Anderson, Anthony J. Clemento, Matthew A. Campbell, Devon E. Pearse, James W. Hearsey, Andrew P. Kinziger, John Carlos Garza

    Differentiation between ecotypes is usually presumed to be complex and polygenic. Seasonal patterns of life history in salmon are used to categorize them into ecotypes, which are often considered “distinct” animals. Using whole-genome sequencing and tribal fishery sampling of Chinook salmon, we show that a single, small genomic region is nearly perfectly associated with spawning migration timing but

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Physical traits of cancer
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Hadi T. Nia, Lance L. Munn, Rakesh K. Jain

    The role of the physical microenvironment in tumor development, progression, metastasis, and treatment is gaining appreciation. The emerging multidisciplinary field of the physical sciences of cancer is now embraced by engineers, physicists, cell biologists, developmental biologists, tumor biologists, and oncologists attempting to understand how physical parameters and processes affect cancer progression

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • The coupling mechanism of mammalian respiratory complex I
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Domen Kampjut, Leonid A. Sazanov

    Mitochondrial complex I couples NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreduction to proton pumping by an unknown mechanism. Here, we present cryo–electron microscopy structures of ovine complex I in five different conditions, including turnover, at resolutions up to 2.3 to 2.5 angstroms. Resolved water molecules allowed us to experimentally define the proton translocation pathways. Quinone binds at three positions along

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Atomic-scale microstructure of metal halide perovskite
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Mathias Uller Rothmann, Judy S. Kim, Juliane Borchert, Kilian B. Lohmann, Colum M. O’Leary, Alex A. Sheader, Laura Clark, Henry J. Snaith, Michael B. Johnston, Peter D. Nellist, Laura M. Herz

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have high potential as materials for solar energy applications, but their microscopic properties are still not well understood. Atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy has provided invaluable insights for many crystalline solar cell materials, and we used this method to successfully image formamidinium lead triiodide [CH(NH2)2PbI3] thin films

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Multi-omics analyses of radiation survivors identify radioprotective microbes and metabolites
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Hao Guo, Wei-Chun Chou, Yunjia Lai, Kaixin Liang, Jason W. Tam, W. June Brickey, Liang Chen, Nathan D. Montgomery, Xin Li, Lauren M. Bohannon, Anthony D. Sung, Nelson J. Chao, Jonathan U. Peled, Antonio L. C. Gomes, Marcel R. M. van den Brink, Matthew J. French, Andrew N. Macintyre, Gregory D. Sempowski, Xianming Tan, R. Balfour Sartor, Kun Lu, Jenny P. Y. Ting

    Ionizing radiation causes acute radiation syndrome, which leads to hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, and cerebrovascular injuries. We investigated a population of mice that recovered from high-dose radiation to live normal life spans. These “elite-survivors” harbored distinct gut microbiota that developed after radiation and protected against radiation-induced damage and death in both germ-free and

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • A human tissue screen identifies a regulator of ER secretion as a brain size determinant
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    Christopher Esk, Dominik Lindenhofer, Simon Haendeler, Roelof A. Wester, Florian Pflug, Benoit Schroeder, Joshua A. Bagley, Ulrich Elling, Johannes Zuber, Arndt von Haeseler, Jürgen A. Knoblich

    Loss-of-function (LOF) screens provide a powerful approach to identify regulators in biological processes. Pioneered in laboratory animals, LOF screens of human genes are currently restricted to two-dimensional (2D) cell culture hindering testing of gene functions requiring tissue context. Here we present CRISPR-LIneage tracing at Cellular resolution in Heterogenous Tissue (CRISPR-LICHT), enabling

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Fetal mast cells mediate postnatal allergic responses dependent on maternal IgE
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    Rasha Msallam, Jozef Balla, Abhay P. S. Rathore, Hassen Kared, Benoit Malleret, Wilfried A. A. Saron, Zhaoyuan Liu, Jing Wen Hang, Charles Antoine Dutertre, Anis Larbi, Jerry K. Y. Chan, Ashley L. St. John, Florent Ginhoux

    Mast cells (MCs) are central effector cells in allergic reactions, often mediated by IgE. Allergies commonly start at an early age, and both MCs and IgE are detectable in fetuses. However, whether fetal MCs are functionally competent to IgE-mediated activation and the origin of fetal IgE are presently unknown. We show that human and mouse fetal MCs phenotypically mature through pregnancy and can be

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Robust neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 infection persist for months
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Ania Wajnberg, Fatima Amanat, Adolfo Firpo, Deena R. Altman, Mark J. Bailey, Mayce Mansour, Meagan McMahon, Philip Meade, Damodara Rao Mendu, Kimberly Muellers, Daniel Stadlbauer, Kimberly Stone, Shirin Strohmeier, Viviana Simon, Judith Aberg, David L. Reich, Florian Krammer, Carlos Cordon-Cardo

    SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic with millions infected and numerous fatalities. Questions regarding the robustness, functionality, and longevity of the antibody response to the virus remain unanswered. Here we report that the vast majority of infected individuals with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 experience robust IgG antibody responses against the viral spike protein, based on a dataset of 30

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • De novo design of picomolar SARS-CoV-2 miniprotein inhibitors.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Longxing Cao,Inna Goreshnik,Brian Coventry,James Brett Case,Lauren Miller,Lisa Kozodoy,Rita E Chen,Lauren Carter,Alexandra C Walls,Young-Jun Park,Eva-Maria Strauch,Lance Stewart,Michael S Diamond,David Veesler,David Baker

    Targeting the interaction between the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein and the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor is a promising therapeutic strategy. We designed inhibitors using two de novo design approaches. Computer-generated scaffolds were either built around an ACE2 helix that interacts with the spike receptor binding domain (RBD) or

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Orderly compartmental mapping of premotor inhibition in the developing zebrafish spinal cord
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Sandeep Kishore, Eli B. Cadoff, Moneeza A. Agha, David L. McLean

    In vertebrates, faster movements involve the orderly recruitment of different types of spinal motor neurons. However, it is not known how premotor inhibitory circuits are organized to ensure alternating motor output at different movement speeds. We found that different types of commissural inhibitory interneurons in zebrafish form compartmental microcircuits during development that align inhibitory

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Polyethylene upcycling to long-chain alkylaromatics by tandem hydrogenolysis/aromatization
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Fan Zhang, Manhao Zeng, Ryan D. Yappert, Jiakai Sun, Yu-Hsuan Lee, Anne M. LaPointe, Baron Peters, Mahdi M. Abu-Omar, Susannah L. Scott

    The current scale of plastics production and the accompanying waste disposal problems represent a largely untapped opportunity for chemical upcycling. Tandem catalytic conversion by platinum supported on γ-alumina converts various polyethylene grades in high yields (up to 80 weight percent) to low-molecular-weight liquid/wax products, in the absence of added solvent or molecular hydrogen, with little

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Supertwisted spirals of layered materials enabled by growth on non-Euclidean surfaces
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Yuzhou Zhao, Chenyu Zhang, Daniel D. Kohler, Jason M. Scheeler, John C. Wright, Paul M. Voyles, Song Jin

    Euclidean geometry is the fundamental mathematical framework of classical crystallography. Traditionally, layered materials are grown on flat substrates; growing Euclidean crystals on non-Euclidean surfaces has rarely been studied. We present a general model describing the growth of layered materials with screw-dislocation spirals on non-Euclidean surfaces and show that it leads to continuously twisted

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Triple iron isotope constraints on the role of ocean iron sinks in early atmospheric oxygenation
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Andy W. Heard, Nicolas Dauphas, Romain Guilbaud, Olivier J. Rouxel, Ian B. Butler, Nicole X. Nie, Andrey Bekker

    The role that iron played in the oxygenation of Earth’s surface is equivocal. Iron could have consumed molecular oxygen when Fe3+-oxyhydroxides formed in the oceans, or it could have promoted atmospheric oxidation by means of pyrite burial. Through high-precision iron isotopic measurements of Archean-Paleoproterozoic sediments and laboratory grown pyrites, we show that the triple iron isotopic composition

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Structural basis of nucleosome-dependent cGAS inhibition.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Joshua A Boyer,Cathy J Spangler,Joshua D Strauss,Andrew P Cesmat,Pengda Liu,Robert K McGinty,Qi Zhang

    Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)–adenosine monophosphate (AMP) synthase (cGAS) recognizes cytosolic foreign or damaged DNA to activate the innate immune response to infection, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. By contrast, cGAS reactivity against self-DNA in the nucleus is suppressed by chromatin tethering. We report a 3.3-angstrom-resolution cryo–electron microscopy structure of cGAS in complex

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Structural basis for the inhibition of cGAS by nucleosomes.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Tomoya Kujirai,Christian Zierhut,Yoshimasa Takizawa,Ryan Kim,Lumi Negishi,Nobuki Uruma,Seiya Hirai,Hironori Funabiki,Hitoshi Kurumizaka

    The cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS) senses invasion of pathogenic DNA and stimulates inflammatory signaling, autophagy, and apoptosis. Organization of host DNA into nucleosomes was proposed to limit cGAS autoinduction, but the underlying mechanism was unknown. Here, we report the structural basis for this inhibition. In the cryo–electron microscopy structure of

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Metasurface-driven OLED displays beyond 10,000 pixels per inch
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Won-Jae Joo, Jisoo Kyoung, Majid Esfandyarpour, Sung-Hoon Lee, Hyun Koo, Sunjin Song, Young-Nam Kwon, Seok Ho Song, Jun Cheol Bae, Ara Jo, Myong-Jong Kwon, Sung Hyun Han, Sung-Han Kim, Sungwoo Hwang, Mark L. Brongersma

    Optical metasurfaces are starting to find their way into integrated devices, where they can enhance and control the emission, modulation, dynamic shaping, and detection of light waves. In this study, we show that the architecture of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays can be completely reenvisioned through the introduction of nanopatterned metasurface mirrors. In the resulting meta-OLED displays

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Lineage analysis reveals an endodermal contribution to the vertebrate pituitary
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Peter Fabian, Kuo-Chang Tseng, Joanna Smeeton, Joseph J. Lancman, P. Duc Si Dong, Robert Cerny, J. Gage Crump

    Vertebrate sensory organs arise from epithelial thickenings called placodes. Along with neural crest cells, cranial placodes are considered ectodermal novelties that drove evolution of the vertebrate head. The anterior-most placode generates the endocrine lobe [adenohypophysis (ADH)] of the pituitary, a master gland controlling growth, metabolism, and reproduction. In addition to known ectodermal contributions

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Proximal colon–derived O-glycosylated mucus encapsulates and modulates the microbiota
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Kirk Bergstrom, Xindi Shan, David Casero, Albert Batushansky, Venu Lagishetty, Jonathan P. Jacobs, Christopher Hoover, Yuji Kondo, Bojing Shao, Liang Gao, Wesley Zandberg, Benjamin Noyovitz, J. Michael McDaniel, Deanna L. Gibson, Sepideh Pakpour, Negin Kazemian, Samuel McGee, Courtney W. Houchen, Chinthalapally V. Rao, Timothy M. Griffin, Justin L. Sonnenburg, Rodger P. McEver, Jonathan Braun, Lijun

    Colon mucus segregates the intestinal microbiota from host tissues, but how it organizes to function throughout the colon is unclear. In mice, we found that colon mucus consists of two distinct O-glycosylated entities of Muc2: a major form produced by the proximal colon, which encapsulates the fecal material including the microbiota, and a minor form derived from the distal colon, which adheres to

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Social selectivity in aging wild chimpanzees
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Alexandra G. Rosati, Lindsey Hagberg, Drew K. Enigk, Emily Otali, Melissa Emery Thompson, Martin N. Muller, Richard W. Wrangham, Zarin P. Machanda

    Humans prioritize close, positive relationships during aging, and socioemotional selectivity theory proposes that this shift causally depends on capacities for thinking about personal future time horizons. To examine this theory, we tested for key elements of human social aging in longitudinal data on wild chimpanzees. Aging male chimpanzees have more mutual friendships characterized by high, equitable

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Experimental evolution makes microbes more cooperative with their local host genotype
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Rebecca T. Batstone, Anna M. O’Brien, Tia L. Harrison, Megan E. Frederickson

    Advances in microbiome science require a better understanding of how beneficial microbes adapt to hosts. We tested whether hosts select for more-cooperative microbial strains with a year-long evolution experiment and a cross-inoculation experiment designed to explore how nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) adapt to legumes. We paired the bacterium Ensifer meliloti with one of five Medicago truncatula

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Oxygen-sensing mechanisms across eukaryotic kingdoms and their roles in complex multicellularity
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Emma U. Hammarlund, Emily Flashman, Sofie Mohlin, Francesco Licausi

    Oxygen-sensing mechanisms of eukaryotic multicellular organisms coordinate hypoxic cellular responses in a spatiotemporal manner. Although this capacity partly allows animals and plants to acutely adapt to oxygen deprivation, its functional and historical roots in hypoxia emphasize a broader evolutionary role. For multicellular life-forms that persist in settings with variable oxygen concentrations

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Inborn errors of type I IFN immunity in patients with life-threatening COVID-19
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Qian Zhang, Paul Bastard, Zhiyong Liu, Jérémie Le Pen, Marcela Moncada-Velez, Jie Chen, Masato Ogishi, Ira K. D. Sabli, Stephanie Hodeib, Cecilia Korol, Jérémie Rosain, Kaya Bilguvar, Junqiang Ye, Alexandre Bolze, Benedetta Bigio, Rui Yang, Andrés Augusto Arias, Qinhua Zhou, Yu Zhang, Fanny Onodi, Sarantis Korniotis, Léa Karpf, Quentin Philippot, Marwa Chbihi, Lucie Bonnet-Madin, Karim Dorgham, Nikaïa

    Clinical outcome upon infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) ranges from silent infection to lethal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We have found an enrichment in rare variants predicted to be loss-of-function (LOF) at the 13 human loci known to govern Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)– and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)–dependent type I interferon (IFN) immunity

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Autoantibodies against type I IFNs in patients with life-threatening COVID-19
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Paul Bastard, Lindsey B. Rosen, Qian Zhang, Eleftherios Michailidis, Hans-Heinrich Hoffmann, Yu Zhang, Karim Dorgham, Quentin Philippot, Jérémie Rosain, Vivien Béziat, Jérémy Manry, Elana Shaw, Liis Haljasmägi, Pärt Peterson, Lazaro Lorenzo, Lucy Bizien, Sophie Trouillet-Assant, Kerry Dobbs, Adriana Almeida de Jesus, Alexandre Belot, Anne Kallaste, Emilie Catherinot, Yacine Tandjaoui-Lambiotte, Jeremie

    Interindividual clinical variability in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is vast. We report that at least 101 of 987 patients with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia had neutralizing immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies (auto-Abs) against interferon-ω (IFN-ω) (13 patients), against the 13 types of IFN-α (36), or against

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Design of higher valency in covalent organic frameworks
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Cornelius Gropp, Tianqiong Ma, Nikita Hanikel, Omar M. Yaghi

    The valency (connectivity) of building units in covalent organic frameworks (COFs) has been primarily 3 and 4, corresponding to triangles and squares or tetrahedrons, respectively. We report a strategy for making COFs with valency 8 (cubes) and “infinity” (rods). The linker 1,4-boronophenylphosphonic acid—designed to have boron and phosphorus as an isoelectronic combination of carbon-group elements—was

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Deep abiotic weathering of pyrite
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Xin Gu, Peter J. Heaney, Fabio D. A. Aarão Reis, Susan L. Brantley

    Pyrite is a ubiquitous iron sulfide mineral that is oxidized by trace oxygen. The mineral has been largely absent from global sediments since the rise in oxygen concentration in Earth’s early atmosphere. We analyzed weathering in shale, the most common rock exposed at Earth’s surface, with chemical and microscopic analysis. By looking across scales from 10−9 to 102 meters, we determined the factors

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Enteroviral 3C protease activates the human NLRP1 inflammasome in airway epithelia
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Kim S. Robinson, Daniel Eng Thiam Teo, Kai Sen Tan, Gee Ann Toh, Hsiao Hui Ong, Chrissie Kaishi Lim, Kenneth Lay, Bijin Veonice Au, Tian Sheng Lew, Justin Jang Hann Chu, Vincent Tak Kwong Chow, De Yun Wang, Franklin L. Zhong, Bruno Reversade

    Immune sensor proteins are critical to the function of the human innate immune system. The full repertoire of cognate triggers for human immune sensors is not fully understood. Here, we report that human NLRP1 is activated by 3C proteases (3Cpros) of enteroviruses, such as human rhinovirus (HRV). 3Cpros directly cleave human NLRP1 at a single site between Glu130 and Gly131. This cleavage triggers N-glycine–mediated

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Structural analysis of full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from an advanced vaccine candidate
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-20
    Sandhya Bangaru, Gabriel Ozorowski, Hannah L. Turner, Aleksandar Antanasijevic, Deli Huang, Xiaoning Wang, Jonathan L. Torres, Jolene K. Diedrich, Jing-Hui Tian, Alyse D. Portnoff, Nita Patel, Michael J. Massare, John R. Yates, David Nemazee, James C. Paulson, Greg Glenn, Gale Smith, Andrew B. Ward

    Vaccine efforts against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic are focused on SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, the primary target for neutralizing antibodies. We performed cryo-EM and site-specific glycan analysis of one of the leading subunit vaccine candidates from Novavax based on a full-length spike protein formulated in polysorbate

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Neuropilin-1 is a host factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-20
    James L. Daly, Boris Simonetti, Katja Klein, Kai-En Chen, Maia Kavanagh Williamson, Carlos Antón-Plágaro, Deborah K. Shoemark, Lorena Simón-Gracia, Michael Bauer, Reka Hollandi, Urs F. Greber, Peter Horvath, Richard B. Sessions, Ari Helenius, Julian A. Hiscox, Tambet Teesalu, David A. Matthews, Andrew D. Davidson, Brett M. Collins, Peter J. Cullen, Yohei Yamauchi

    SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, uses the viral Spike (S) protein for host cell attachment and entry. The host protease furin cleaves the full-length precursor S glycoprotein into two associated polypeptides: S1 and S2. Cleavage of S generates a polybasic Arg-Arg-Ala-Arg C-terminal sequence on S1, which conforms to a C-end rule (CendR) motif that binds to cell surface Neuropilin-1 (NRP1)

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Neuropilin-1 facilitates SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and infectivity
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-20
    Ludovico Cantuti-Castelvetri, Ravi Ojha, Liliana D. Pedro, Minou Djannatian, Jonas Franz, Suvi Kuivanen, Franziska van der Meer, Katri Kallio, Tuğberk Kaya, Maria Anastasina, Teemu Smura, Lev Levanov, Leonora Szirovicza, Allan Tobi, Hannimari Kallio-Kokko, Pamela Österlund, Merja Joensuu, Frédéric A. Meunier, Sarah J. Butcher, Martin Sebastian Winkler, Brit Mollenhauer, Ari Helenius, Ozgun Gokce, Tambet

    The causative agent of coronavirus induced disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). For many viruses, tissue tropism is determined by the availability of virus receptors and entry cofactors on the surface of host cells. Here, we found that neuropilin-1 (NRP1), known to bind furin-cleaved substrates, significantly potentiates SARS-CoV-2 infectivity

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Microbiota-modulated CART+ enteric neurons autonomously regulate blood glucose.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Paul A Muller,Fanny Matheis,Marc Schneeberger,Zachary Kerner,Veronica Jové,Daniel Mucida

    The gut microbiota affects tissue physiology, metabolism, and function of both the immune and nervous systems. We found that intrinsic enteric-associated neurons (iEANs) in mice are functionally adapted to the intestinal segment they occupy; ileal and colonic neurons are more responsive to microbial colonization than duodenal neurons. Specifically, a microbially responsive subset of viscerofugal CART+

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Patterning and growth control in vivo by an engineered GFP gradient
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Kristina S. Stapornwongkul, Marc de Gennes, Luca Cocconi, Guillaume Salbreux, Jean-Paul Vincent

    Morphogen gradients provide positional information during development. To uncover the minimal requirements for morphogen gradient formation, we have engineered a synthetic morphogen in Drosophila wing primordia. We show that an inert protein, green fluorescent protein (GFP), can form a detectable diffusion-based gradient in the presence of surface-associated anti-GFP nanobodies, which modulate the

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Engineering synthetic morphogen systems that can program multicellular patterning
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Satoshi Toda, Wesley L. McKeithan, Teemu J. Hakkinen, Pilar Lopez, Ophir D. Klein, Wendell A. Lim

    In metazoan tissues, cells decide their fates by sensing positional information provided by specialized morphogen proteins. To explore what features are sufficient for positional encoding, we asked whether arbitrary molecules (e.g., green fluorescent protein or mCherry) could be converted into synthetic morphogens. Synthetic morphogens expressed from a localized source formed a gradient when trapped

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Coherently forming a single molecule in an optical trap
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Xiaodong He, Kunpeng Wang, Jun Zhuang, Peng Xu, Xiang Gao, Ruijun Guo, Cheng Sheng, Min Liu, Jin Wang, Jiaming Li, G. V. Shlyapnikov, Mingsheng Zhan

    Ultracold single molecules have wide-ranging potential applications, such as ultracold chemistry, precision measurements, quantum simulation, and quantum computation. However, given the difficulty of achieving full control of a complex atom-molecule system, the coherent formation of single molecules remains a challenge. Here, we report an alternative route to coherently bind two atoms into a weakly

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Cartilage-inspired, lipid-based boundary-lubricated hydrogels
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Weifeng Lin, Monika Kluzek, Noa Iuster, Eyal Shimoni, Nir Kampf, Ronit Goldberg, Jacob Klein

    The lubrication of hydrogels arises from fluid or solvated surface phases. By contrast, the lubricity of articular cartilage, a complex biohydrogel, has been at least partially attributed to nonfluid, lipid-exposing boundary layers. We emulated this behavior in synthetic hydrogels by incorporating trace lipid concentrations to create a molecularly thin, lipid-based boundary layer that renews continuously

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Zeptosecond birth time delay in molecular photoionization
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Sven Grundmann, Daniel Trabert, Kilian Fehre, Nico Strenger, Andreas Pier, Leon Kaiser, Max Kircher, Miriam Weller, Sebastian Eckart, Lothar Ph. H. Schmidt, Florian Trinter, Till Jahnke, Markus S. Schöffler, Reinhard Dörner

    Photoionization is one of the fundamental light-matter interaction processes in which the absorption of a photon launches the escape of an electron. The time scale of this process poses many open questions. Experiments have found time delays in the attosecond (10−18 seconds) domain between electron ejection from different orbitals, from different electronic bands, or in different directions. Here,

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Thermosensitive crystallization-boosted liquid thermocells for low-grade heat harvesting.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Boyang Yu,Jiangjiang Duan,Hengjiang Cong,Wenke Xie,Rong Liu,Xinyan Zhuang,Hui Wang,Bei Qi,Ming Xu,Zhong Lin Wang,Jun Zhou

    Low-grade heat (below 373 kelvin) is abundant and ubiquitous but is mostly wasted because present recovery technologies are not cost-effective. The liquid-state thermocell (LTC), an inexpensive and scalable thermoelectric device, may be commercially viable for harvesting low-grade heat energy if its Carnot-relative efficiency (ηr) reaches ~5%, which is a challenging metric to achieve experimentally

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Species richness and redundancy promote persistence of exploited mutualisms in yeast
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Mayra C. Vidal, Sheng Pei Wang, David M. Rivers, David M. Althoff, Kari A. Segraves

    Mutualisms, or reciprocally beneficial interspecific interactions, constitute the foundation of many ecological communities and agricultural systems. Mutualisms come in different forms, from pairwise interactions to extremely diverse communities, and they are continually challenged with exploitation by nonmutualistic community members (exploiters). Thus, understanding how mutualisms persist remains

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • The GATOR–Rag GTPase pathway inhibits mTORC1 activation by lysosome-derived amino acids
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Geoffrey G. Hesketh, Fotini Papazotos, Judy Pawling, Dushyandi Rajendran, James D. R. Knight, Sebastien Martinez, Mikko Taipale, Daniel Schramek, James W. Dennis, Anne-Claude Gingras

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) couples nutrient sufficiency to cell growth. mTORC1 is activated by exogenously acquired amino acids sensed through the GATOR–Rag guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) pathway, or by amino acids derived through lysosomal degradation of protein by a poorly defined mechanism. Here, we revealed that amino acids derived from the degradation of protein

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Structural and spectroscopic characterization of an Fe(VI) bis(imido) complex
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Jorge L. Martinez, Sean A. Lutz, Hao Yang, Jiaze Xie, Joshua Telser, Brian M. Hoffman, Veronica Carta, Maren Pink, Yaroslav Losovyj, Jeremy M. Smith

    High-valent iron species are key intermediates in oxidative biological processes, but hexavalent complexes apart from the ferrate ion are exceedingly rare. Here, we report the synthesis and structural and spectroscopic characterization of a stable Fe(VI) complex (3) prepared by facile one-electron oxidation of an Fe(V) bis(imido) (2). Single-crystal x-ray diffraction of 2 and 3 revealed four-coordinate

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Structural and mechanistic bases for a potent HIV-1 capsid inhibitor
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Stephanie M. Bester, Guochao Wei, Haiyan Zhao, Daniel Adu-Ampratwum, Naseer Iqbal, Valentine V. Courouble, Ashwanth C. Francis, Arun S. Annamalai, Parmit K. Singh, Nikoloz Shkriabai, Peter Van Blerkom, James Morrison, Eric M. Poeschla, Alan N. Engelman, Gregory B. Melikyan, Patrick R. Griffin, James R. Fuchs, Francisco J. Asturias, Mamuka Kvaratskhelia

    The potent HIV-1 capsid inhibitor GS-6207 is an investigational principal component of long-acting antiretroviral therapy. We found that GS-6207 inhibits HIV-1 by stabilizing and thereby preventing functional disassembly of the capsid shell in infected cells. X-ray crystallography, cryo–electron microscopy, and hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments revealed that GS-6207 tightly binds two adjoining

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Comprehensive quantification of fuel use by the failing and nonfailing human heart
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Danielle Murashige, Cholsoon Jang, Michael Neinast, Jonathan J. Edwards, Alexis Cowan, Matthew C. Hyman, Joshua D. Rabinowitz, David S. Frankel, Zolt Arany

    The heart consumes circulating nutrients to fuel lifelong contraction, but a comprehensive mapping of human cardiac fuel use is lacking. We used metabolomics on blood from artery, coronary sinus, and femoral vein in 110 patients with or without heart failure to quantify the uptake and release of 277 metabolites, including all major nutrients, by the human heart and leg. The heart primarily consumed

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Transient cortical circuits match spontaneous and sensory-driven activity during development
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Zoltán Molnár, Heiko J. Luhmann, Patrick O. Kanold

    At the earliest developmental stages, spontaneous activity synchronizes local and large-scale cortical networks. These networks form the functional template for the establishment of global thalamocortical networks and cortical architecture. The earliest connections are established autonomously. However, activity from the sensory periphery reshapes these circuits as soon as afferents reach the cortex

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Apical stress fibers enable a scaling between cell mechanical response and area in epithelial tissue
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Jesús M. López-Gay, Hayden Nunley, Meryl Spencer, Florencia di Pietro, Boris Guirao, Floris Bosveld, Olga Markova, Isabelle Gaugue, Stéphane Pelletier, David K. Lubensky, Yohanns Bellaïche

    Biological systems tailor their properties and behavior to their size throughout development and in numerous aspects of physiology. However, such size scaling remains poorly understood as it applies to cell mechanics and mechanosensing. By examining how the Drosophila pupal dorsal thorax epithelium responds to morphogenetic forces, we found that the number of apical stress fibers (aSFs) anchored to

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Behavioral state coding by molecularly defined paraventricular hypothalamic cell type ensembles
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Shengjin Xu, Hui Yang, Vilas Menon, Andrew L. Lemire, Lihua Wang, Fredrick E. Henry, Srinivas C. Turaga, Scott M. Sternson

    Brains encode behaviors using neurons amenable to systematic classification by gene expression. The contribution of molecular identity to neural coding is not understood because of the challenges involved with measuring neural dynamics and molecular information from the same cells. We developed CaRMA (calcium and RNA multiplexed activity) imaging based on recording in vivo single-neuron calcium dynamics

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • The nucleus measures shape changes for cellular proprioception to control dynamic cell behavior
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Valeria Venturini, Fabio Pezzano, Frederic Català Castro, Hanna-Maria Häkkinen, Senda Jiménez-Delgado, Mariona Colomer-Rosell, Monica Marro, Queralt Tolosa-Ramon, Sonia Paz-López, Miguel A. Valverde, Julian Weghuber, Pablo Loza-Alvarez, Michael Krieg, Stefan Wieser, Verena Ruprecht

    The physical microenvironment regulates cell behavior during tissue development and homeostasis. How single cells decode information about their geometrical shape under mechanical stress and physical space constraints within tissues remains largely unknown. Here, using a zebrafish model, we show that the nucleus, the biggest cellular organelle, functions as an elastic deformation gauge that enables

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • The nucleus acts as a ruler tailoring cell responses to spatial constraints
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    A. J. Lomakin, C. J. Cattin, D. Cuvelier, Z. Alraies, M. Molina, G. P. F. Nader, N. Srivastava, P. J. Saez, J. M. Garcia-Arcos, I. Y. Zhitnyak, A. Bhargava, M. K. Driscoll, E. S. Welf, R. Fiolka, R. J. Petrie, N. S. De Silva, J. M. González-Granado, N. Manel, A. M. Lennon-Duménil, D. J. Müller, M. Piel

    The microscopic environment inside a metazoan organism is highly crowded. Whether individual cells can tailor their behavior to the limited space remains unclear. In this study, we found that cells measure the degree of spatial confinement by using their largest and stiffest organelle, the nucleus. Cell confinement below a resting nucleus size deforms the nucleus, which expands and stretches its envelope

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Mammalian lipid droplets are innate immune hubs integrating cell metabolism and host defense
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Marta Bosch, Miguel Sánchez-Álvarez, Alba Fajardo, Ronan Kapetanovic, Bernhard Steiner, Filipe Dutra, Luciana Moreira, Juan Antonio López, Rocío Campo, Montserrat Marí, Frederic Morales-Paytuví, Olivia Tort, Albert Gubern, Rachel M. Templin, James E. B. Curson, Nick Martel, Cristina Català, Francisco Lozano, Francesc Tebar, Carlos Enrich, Jesús Vázquez, Miguel A. Del Pozo, Matthew J. Sweet, Patricia

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are the major lipid storage organelles of eukaryotic cells and a source of nutrients for intracellular pathogens. We demonstrate that mammalian LDs are endowed with a protein-mediated antimicrobial capacity, which is up-regulated by danger signals. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), multiple host defense proteins, including interferon-inducible guanosine triphosphatases and

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Comparative host-coronavirus protein interaction networks reveal pan-viral disease mechanisms
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    David E. Gordon, Joseph Hiatt, Mehdi Bouhaddou, Veronica V. Rezelj, Svenja Ulferts, Hannes Braberg, Alexander S. Jureka, Kirsten Obernier, Jeffrey Z. Guo, Jyoti Batra, Robyn M. Kaake, Andrew R. Weckstein, Tristan W. Owens, Meghna Gupta, Sergei Pourmal, Erron W. Titus, Merve Cakir, Margaret Soucheray, Michael McGregor, Zeynep Cakir, Gwendolyn Jang, Matthew J. O’Meara, Tia A. Tummino, Ziyang Zhang, Helene

    The COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease-2019) pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, is a significant threat to public health and the global economy. SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to the more lethal but less transmissible coronaviruses SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV. Here, we have carried out comparative viral-human protein-protein interaction and viral protein localization analysis for all three viruses

    更新日期:2020-10-15
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