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APEX Proximity Labeling as a Versatile Tool for Biological Research
Biochemistry ( IF 2.952 ) Pub Date : 2019-12-03 , DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.9b00791
Thanh My Thi Nguyen, Junhyung Kim, Thi Tram Doan, Min-Woo Lee, Mihye Lee

Most proteins are specifically localized in membrane-encapsulated organelles or non-membrane-bound compartments. The subcellular localization of proteins facilitates their functions and integration into functional networks; therefore, protein localization is tightly regulated in diverse biological contexts. However, protein localization has been mainly analyzed through immunohistochemistry or the fractionation of subcellular compartments, each of which has major drawbacks. Immunohistochemistry can examine only a handful of proteins at a time, and fractionation inevitably relies on the lysis of cells, which disrupts native cellular conditions. Recently, an engineered ascorbate peroxidase (APEX)-based proximity labeling technique combined with mass spectrometry was developed, which allows for temporally and spatially resolved proteomic mapping. In the presence of H2O2, engineered APEX oxidizes biotin-phenols into biotin-phenoxyl radicals, and these short-lived radicals biotinylate electron-rich amino acids within a radius of several nanometers. Biotinylated proteins are subsequently enriched by streptavidin and identified by mass spectrometry. This permits the sensitive and efficient labeling of proximal proteins around locally expressed APEX. Through the targeted expression of APEX in the subcellular region of interest, proteomic profiling of submitochondrial spaces, the outer mitochondrial membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–mitochondrial contact, and the ER membrane has been performed. Furthermore, this method has been modified to define interaction networks in the vicinity of target proteins and has also been applied to analyze the spatial transcriptome. In this Perspective, we provide an outline of this newly developed technique and discuss its potential applications to address diverse biological questions.
更新日期:2019-12-04

 

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