Kinetic study on CO2 adsorption behaviors of amine-modified co-firing fly ash J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-13 Yafei Guo, Chang Tan, Peng Wang, Jian Sun, Junjie Yan, Weiling Li, Chuanwen Zhao, Ping Lu
Coal and biomass fly ash was impregnated with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) to prepare solid CO2 sorbent. Experimental CO2 adsorption capacities of the sorbent in fixed-bed column were fitted to several kinetic equations. The modified Avrami fractional kinetic model could accurately predict the CO2 adsorption kinetic behaviors of the sorbent under different conditions. CO2 adsorption rate increases with the increase in temperature, initial CO2 concentration and gas flow rate, as a result of the decreased CO2 diffusion resistance. A mathematical model was proposed and demonstrated to well predict the CO2 adsorption breakthrough curves in the fixed-bed column. Effects of temperature, initial CO2 concentration and gas flow rate on the mass transfer kinetic behaviors of the desired sorbent were investigated. The positive effect of these factors on promoting the overall mass transfer coefficient and the internal mass transfer coefficient is not significant. The external mass transfer coefficient will be remarkably reinforced with the increase in these operating parameters, due to the change in viscosity and density of the gas phase and the reduced external mass transfer resistance. Internal mass transfer process is determined as the rate-limiting step for CO2 adsorption. The results will lay the groundwork for future scale-up application of the sorbent in post-combustion CO2 capture.
Development of a high-performance corrosion protective functional nano-film based on poly acrylic acid-neodymium nitrate on mild steel surface J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-13 Mehdi Tabatabaei majd, Taghi Shahrabi, Bahram Ramezanzadeh, Ghasem Bahlakeh
This study aims at development of a high-performance nano-film based on poly acrylic acid and neodymium cation. The microstructure, chemical composition, topography and surface chemistry of deposited film were studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), attenuated total reflection (ATR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle evaluation. The corrosion resistance of the samples treated by Nd-PAA (Neodymium-Poly acrylic acid) composite was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization tests, respectively. Also for further examination, the film formation and active adsorption sites were surveyed by computational studies. The result showed the precipitation of a dense and crack free and ultrafine Nd-PAA film on the steel surface. It was found that the PAA retarded the precipitation of Nd on the surface. Neodymium was present in both trivalent and tetravalent state. Due to the anionic nature of the PAA, high volume of Nd-PAA complexes deposited in the surface. Also, the positive role of PAA addition on the steel substrate corrosion resistance enlargement was proved by electrochemical tests results. The molecular simulation outcomes clarified the adsorption of neodymium-poly acrylic acid complex on the iron substrate.
Deciphering electron-shuttling characteristics of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and ingredients for bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cells J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-13 Shuping Zhang, Ziwei Qu, Chung-Chuan Hsueh, Chang-Tang Chang, Bor-Yann Chen
Prior studies mentioned that extracts of polyphenolics-abundant edible flora might provide compositions of reversible electron shuttles for bioenergy extraction; however, detailed mysteries behind such phenomena still remained open to be explored. This first-attempt study selected a medicinal herb Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and its main flavonoid ingredients to quantitatively decipher their electron-mediating activities for bioenergy applications. The main ingredients with strong shuttling activities (e.g., baicalin, baicalein and wogonin) were chemical structure-associated to disclose electrochemical and bioenergetics characteristics for comparative analysis. Evidently, baicalin owned the most promising electron shuttling capabilities. Although extract of flavonoids-rich S. baicalensis Georgi also showed promising redox-mediating characteristics, typical ingredient-baicalein still exhibited high biotoxicity to bacterial CO2 respirometric production, thereby resisting fully expression of electron transfer capabilities. Supplementation of baicalin and extract of S. baicalensis Georgi to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was conducted to quantify such stimulating capabilities of bioelectricity generation. That is, with toxicity attenuation, processed flavonoids-rich medicinal herbs were possibly electroactive for bioenergy extraction due to favorable electron-shuttling activities.
Heterogeneous catalytic degradation of organic compounds using nanoscale zero-valent iron supported on kaolinite: Mechanism, kinetic and feasibility studies J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-11 Babak Kakavandi, Afshin Takdastan, Sudabeh Pourfadakari, Mehdi Ahmadmoazzam, Sahand Jorfi
Herein, nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles were anchored on kaolinite (K) for preparation of a mesoporous heterogeneous catalyst (marked as NZVI@K) in Fenton-like oxidation of Acid Black 1 (AB1) dye. The properties of morphological, physico-chemical and textural of catalyst were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), transmission electron microscope (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) techniques. Results indicated that NZVI particles with 40–80 nm diameter were incorporated successfully on K surface and iron was predominantly in Feo form. Prior oxidation experiments, adsorption studies were performed to determine the equilibrium point and also modeling (kinetic and isotherm) of the process. Fenton-like oxidation showed a better performance in decolorization of AB1, compared to adsorption process. The excellent reusability and high stability were found for NZVI@K during four consecutive use cycles. Under optimum operational conditions (pH: 2.0, catalyst dose: 0.3 g/L, H2O2 amount: 4.0 Mm), over 98% of dye (30 mg/L) and 76% of TOC were removed within 120 min reaction. A tentative mechanism was proposed for decomposition of H2O2 and production of reactive oxidizing species, based on the results of quenching tests. Decreasing decolorization rate in the presence of anions obeys the order of bicarbonate > chloride > nitrate > sulfate. A significant synergistic effect was detected when NZVI@K were coupled with H2O2. Reducing removal efficiency and the scavenging effect were observed at excessive concentrations of both catalyst and oxidant. Integration of adsorption and oxidation processes using NZVI@K coupled with H2O2 can be introduced as a promising technique for efficient decolorization of wastewaters, due to high adsorption capacity, good catalytic activity and minimal iron leaching.
Hydrogenation of glucose and fructose into hexitols over heterogeneous catalysts: A review J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-10 M.J. Ahmed, B.H. Hameed
Biomass-derived sugars are a promising source of high-value chemicals because of their low cost, availability, and renewability. Catalytic hydrogenation of fructose and glucose into hexitols, including sorbitol and mannitol is of great industrial importance due to hexitols application in the food, medical, chemical, and petroleum industries. For this purpose, heterogeneous catalysts are preferred owing to their high efficiency, easy separation, and reusability. In this review article, the hydrogenation performance of both sugars into hexitols was discussed and analyzed under various reaction conditions. The catalyst stability and hydrogenation kinetics are also reviewed. Moreover, important challenges and promising routes are suggested for the future development of the heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of sugars to hexitols.
Multiple probability principal component analysis for process monitoring with multi-rate measurements J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-07 Le Zhou, Junghui Chen, Jing Jie, Zhihuan Song
To obtain the informative enough data from the modern chemical processes, various sensors and measuring instruments have been applied. Among them, both the online measurements and offline laboratory analyser results are collected and used for multivariate statistical process monitoring purpose. Hence, it indicates that the obtained measurements indeed contain different sampling rates due to the different demands of the control systems and the equipment constraints. To handle the multi-rate process monitoring problem, it is desirable to effectively integrate the measurements with different sampling rates. In this paper, a multiple probability principal component analysis (MPPCA) model is proposed for efficient collection of data and the improvement of the performance on model prediction and process monitoring. In the proposed model, it has been derived as a general form for any multi-rate systems and the model parameters are calibrated by the expectation–maximization algorithm. Based on it, several statistics are constructed for different sampling rates in the process monitoring scenario. Finally, two case studies are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Hydrothermal synthesis of flower-like Na-doped α-Bi2O3 and improved photocatalytic activity via the induced oxygen vacancies J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-08 Yanlin Huang, Jie Qin, Xuanxuan Liu, Donglei Wei, Hyo Jin Seo
Na-doped α-Bi2O3 with a hierarchical flower-like shape was successfully prepared via a facile hydrothermal reaction. The samples consisted of well-crystalized nanoplates with smooth surfaces and a thickness of tens of nanometers. The phase formation was investigated via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns and structural refinements. The formations of oxygen vacancies were verified and its effects on the optical and photocatalysis were discussed. The band gap of α-Bi2O3 was narrowed via forming the local energy levels by oxygen vacancy defect complexes in the lattices. The photocatalytic activities on photo-degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) were significantly improved. The effective photocatalysis was discussed on the improved visible-light response, band structure, and dynamic luminescence decay. The photocatalysis of Na-doped α-Bi2O3 was improved via the induced oxygen vacancies. The reported hydrothermal synthesis was advantageous approach to prepare α-Bi2O3 by considering the simplicity, low reaction temperature, no post-sintering, without using any template or surfactant, large-scale production, low cost, etc.
Efficient removal of textile dye using nanosized fly ash derived zeolite-x: Kinetics and process optimization study J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-05 Sivamani Sivalingam, Sujit Sen
A novel nanocrystalline zeolite X (nZX) was synthesized using coal fly ash of eastern India for adsorptive removal of a textile dye—crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solution. nZX was characterized by TEM, XRF, FESEM, XRD, FTIR, and BET. The nZX has a surface area, an average crystal size, an average particle size, crystallinity, and product yield of 651.34 m2/g, 16.28 nm, 27.28 nm, 82% and 91% respectively. A maximum of 99.52% CV was removed at optimized condition of pH 9, 60 min contact time, 50 °C temperature, 100 mg/L initial dye concentration and 1.0 g/L adsorbent mass. A high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.998) good agreement between the predicted and experimental values. The maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity of 234.57 mg/g was obtained. The adsorption of CV followed a pseudo-second order kinetic model. The synthesized nZX was also found to be very efficient up to five regenerative cycle in removing the dye. Therefore, the synthesized nZX could be utilized for efficient removal of CV dye in real wastewater.
Biomass pretreatment by cooking with active oxygen and solid alkali (CAOSA): Selectively oxidation of CAOSA wastewater to formic and acetic acids J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-05 Xiaoqiang Song, Ning Ding, Yuxia Zai, Xianhai Zeng, Yong Sun, Xing Tang, Tingzhou Lei, Lu Lin
Cooking with active oxygen and solid alkali (CAOSA), a oxygen delignification process for lignocellulose fractionation was developed by our group. In this study, a treatment process for yellow liquor, which is the aqueous solution of the CAOSA process, was proposed whilst producing formic and acetic acids with hydrothermal deep oxidation. A series of experiments were performed at reaction temperature of 160–280 °C and residence time of 30 s to 30 min. The highest yield of the acids defined as the total mass percentage of formic and acetic acids to biomass feedstock is 21.47%. The highest yield which defined as the percentage of carbon content relative to the total organics in the yellow liquor is 57.01%. Our results show that the process could be a universal and effective to other wastewater from the traditional pulping processes.
Highly sensitive and selective electrochemical detection of antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine in biological samples based on poly-N-isopropylacrylamide microgel J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-05 Bhuvanenthiran Mutharani, Palraj Ranganathan, Shen-Ming Chen
Nowadays, smart polymers have been received a great attention in biomedical applications, especially in sensors because of their novel and peculiar properties. In this study, sphere-like structure of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) microgel was prepared via one-step precipitation polymerization method. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiment showed that the PNIPAM microgel could enhance the electrochemical performance of the electrodes, as a consequence of the large surface area presented by the PNIPAM. The PNIPAM microgel modified glassy carbon electrode (PNIPAM microgel modified GCE) exhibited an enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine (CPZ) detection. The electrochemical response of CPZ using PNIPAM microgel modified GCE was linear over the range from 0.05 to 7999 µM. The sensitivity and limit of detection were 0.084 µAµM−1cm−2 and 0.016 µM, respectively. In addition, the sensor is highly sensitive, selective and durable even in the presence of potentially interfering electroactive compounds. The good analytical performance of the PNIPAM microgel modified GCE was confirmed for determining trace level CPZ in human serum and urine samples with satisfactory results.
Platinum nanoparticles decorated graphene nanoribbon with eco-friendly unzipping process for electrochemical sensors J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-05 Min-Han Lee, Shan-Yu Wang, Wei-Hung Chiang, Hao Feng, Tzu-Yen Huang, Min-Hsin Yeh, Kevin Chia-Wen Wu, Kuo-Chuan Ho
In this study, an innovative large-scale synthesis of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with the eco-friendly unzipping process (only 0.1 mL H2SO4 acid solution for 1.0 mg carbon nanotube) was proposed. Nearly 100% yields of carbon nanotube derived GNRs was achieved by the proposed procedure. Through the longitudinal unzipping method, abundant oxygen-based functional groups were formed at the edges of GNRs, thus offering tremendous advantages for material synthesis and design. Furthermore, the reduction of platinum precursor to form platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) can be facilitated by the functional groups on GNR surface for specific sensing. In fact, PtNPs played a role in connecting nodes to synergize the synthesized composite. The composite of PtNPs/GNRs could be further utilized as non-enzymatic biosensing materials against either oxidative or reductive analyte. Two essential biomarkers, namely hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), were chosen to prove the feasibility of the proposed biosensors. From the experimental results of the amperometric analysis, sensitivities of the modified PtNPs/GNRs electrode toward H2O2 (378.5 µA/mM/cm–2) and NADH (724.3 µA/mM/cm–2) were obtained. The composite of PtNPs/GNRs has been verified to be a potential material for electrochemical biosensing with attractive sensitivity, selectivity, and stability.
Enhanced visible light assisted Fenton-like degradation of dye via metal-doped zinc ferrite nanosphere prepared from metal-rich industrial wastewater J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-05 Yang Li, Dan Chen, Shisuo Fan, Ting Yang
In this work, a novel catalyst, metal-doped zinc ferrite nanosphere, was prepared from metal-rich industrial wastewater using two-step method for the removal of organic contaminants in the Vis-light/catalyst/H2O2 system. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst were well characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, XPS, and UV−vis. The results indicated that the catalyst exhibited better catalytic performance than pure ZnFe2O4 synthesized from chemical reagents, and Congo red (CR) decolorization efficiency reached 94.6% within 3 h. During the photo-Fenton process, •OH played an key role, which was generated through the photo-generated holes and the oxidation of H2O2 by metal ions (Fe3+ and Mn3+) on the surface of catalysts. Moreover, 75.5% of CR decolorization efficiency could be still retained at the third run. Thus, metal-doped ZnFe2O4 nanosphere prepared from metal-rich industrial wastewater is a promising photocatalyst for the removal of organic chemicals in practical application of wastewater treatment.
La2O3 media enhanced electrons transfer for improved CeVO4@halloysite nanotubes photocatalytic activity for removing tetracycline J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-03 Jingru Guan, Jinze Li, Zhefei Ye, Dongyao Wu, Chongyang Liu, Huiqin Wang, Changchang Ma, Pengwei Huo, Yongsheng Yan
A series of La2O3/CeVO4@halloysite nanotubes composites were successfully fabricated by the hydrothermal method. The La2O3/CeVO4@halloysite nanotubes composites display outstanding photocatalytic activity for removing tetracycline (TC) solution under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm). After irradiation 60 min, an optimized La2O3/CeVO4@halloysite nanotube composite exhibited a high photocatalytic activity (87.1%), which is 3.89 times higher than that of raw CeVO4 (22.4%). The improvement of ternary composites performance is attributed to the Ce3+ and Ce4+ pairs in CeVO4. Besides, constructing heterojunctions between La2O3 and CeVO4 can inhibit the recombination of photoinduced electrons and holes, which is ascribed to the La3+ as electron trap to enhance the charge transfer. According to the trapper experiments and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) analysis, the h+ and •O2− are major reactive species during the degradation. In addition, the oxygen vacancies are in the ternary photocatalyssts. The photocatalytic degradation intermediates of the solution were identified by High performance liquid chromatography-Mass spectra (HPLC-MS).
The relationship between size-segregated particles migration phenomenon and combined membrane fouling in ultrafiltration processes: The significance of shear stress J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-04 Xing Du, Kaiming Zhang, Haiyang Yang, Kai Li, Xuefei Liu, Zhihong Wang, Qianqian Zhou, Guibai Li, Heng Liang
Shear stress generated by cross flow velocity (CFV) was employed to investigate the migration of particles with varied sizes ranging from 0.5 µm to 100 µm in a laboratory flat sheet cell, which was implemented to investigate particle size segregation during the formation of combined membrane fouling. Computational fluid dynamic simulations of shear stress on the membrane surface over a range of CFV indicated that the peak value of shear stress (0.95–5.17 Pa) and average shear stress (0.267–1.873 Pa) all increased as the CFV increased (0.05–0.30 m/s). In case of the combine membrane fouling formed under short-term (6 h) filtration of mixed solution, the particle size segregation caused by shear stress was demonstrated using a laser scattering particle analyzer. In details, the volume fraction of small particles within cake layer was larger compared to that in the initial solution, whereas the large particles were susceptible to remain in the end solution. Under lower CFV, increasing shear stress could mitigate combined membrane fouling caused by organic matter and inorganic particles, however, under high CFV, increasing shear stress could enhance combined fouling, and the main reason was that higher shear stress increased the lift force exerted on particles, which could help large particles moving away from the membrane surface, leading to small particles depositing on the membrane surface and causing a severe membrane fouling. The implication is that the option of suitable hydrodynamic condition is preferable to reduce membrane fouling of mixed solution in the field of water treatment.
Impact of Cu particles on adsorption and photocatalytic capability of mesoporous Cu@TiO2 hybrid towards ciprofloxacin antibiotic removal J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-04 Yixin Gan, Mengmeng Zhang, Jinyan Xiong, Jiaxin Zhu, Weijie Li, Chunfei Zhang, Gang Cheng
In this study, Cu@TiO2 hybrids consisting of Cu nanoparticles and mesoporous TiO2 nanoaggregates have been successfully synthesized through a simple reduction method. The Cu2+ concentration can not only engineer the mass ratio of Cu specie in the hybrids, but also tailored the size of Cu particles during this synthesis. The adsorption and photocatalytic performance towards degrading ciprofloxacin of the as-synthesized Cu@TiO2 hybrids were determined by the mass ratio as well as the Cu particle size of Cu@TiO2 in the hybrids. It was found that the Cu@TiO2 hybrid with low Cu content promoted photocatalytic performance, while high Cu content improves the adsorption efficiency. Among the as-prepared Cu@TiO2 samples, the 0.1-Cu@TiO2 sample with Cu particle content of 0.1 wt% displayed the best charge separation and transfer efficiency for photogenerated electrons and holes, and accordingly, presented the best photocatalytic efficiency, which is around 3 times higher than that for pure TiO2. In contrast, 10-Cu@TiO2 with 10 wt% Cu showed the highest adsorption capability (888.57 mg/g, about 5 times larger than that of TiO2), since it had the most negative zeta potential, although its Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area was less than that of the pure TiO2 material. This work has not only developed a facile approach to prepare Cu-based hybrids, but also reveals how Cu@TiO2 hybrids can be tailored and optimized for adsorption and photocatalytic removal of antibiotic pollution.
A new approach for developing exact local composition models for lattice fluids J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-04 Te-Chien Liu, Shiang-Tai Lin
In this work, we propose a novel approach for obtaining thermodynamic properties of lattice fluids based on local compositions. Rather than imposing a prescribed function for local compositions (e.g., the Boltzmann distribution as in most conventional local composition models), the local composition is determined based on minimization of free energy of the system in this new approach. This is made possible by expressing the potential energy and entropy (all possible arrangements of species on the lattice) of a system in terms of a given bulk and local composition. We show that the model resulted from this approach coincides with the well-known Ising model for a binary mixture in one-dimension with an interchangeable chemical reaction. However, this new model is applicable even when the species are not interchangeable, and therefore the free energy surface at all possible composition can be obtained. In the infinitely large lattice, this model also coincides with the COSMO-SAC model. This model could serve as a valuable basis for development of local composition models of more complicated systems.
Synthesis and characterizations of CoCr2O4/C composite using high energy ball-milling technique as novel anode materials for Li-ion batteries J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-03 Jun-Ying Huang, Wei-Ren Liu
In this study, we successfully synthesize CoCr2O4/C composite (CCO/CB) as novel anode materials for Li-ion batteries by using hydrothermal reaction and high energy ball milling technique. The crystal structure and surface morphologies of as-prepared samples are carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The electrochemical results showed that the initial reversible capacity of CoCr2O4 and CCO/CB-7:3 samples are 582 mAh/g and 1189 mAh/g at a current density of 0.1 A/g, respectively. After cycling for 50 cycles at 0.2 A/g, CCO/CB-7:3 reach reversible capacity of as high as 1058 mAh/g. Bare CoCr2O4, however, deliver reversible capacity of only 699 mAh/g. Furthermore, CCO/CB-7:3 also exhibits superior rate capability that of CCO at different current densities from 0.1 to 5 A/g. In addition, the reaction mechanism of CoCr2O4 during charge and discharge process are identified by ex-situ XRD and HRTEM measurements. These results indicate that CCO/CB-7:3 is a novel and potential candidate as an anode material for Li-ion batteries.
Experimental and modeling phase equilibria of gas hydrate systems for post-combustion CO2 capture J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-01 Luling Li, Shuanshi Fan, Qiuxiong Chen, Guang Yang, Jinzhou Zhao, Na Wei, Yonggang Wen
Accurate knowledge of hydrate phase equilibria is of fundament in terms of the hydrate-based gas separation process (HBGS) for post-combustion CO2 capture. In this work, we experimentally investigated the phase equilibria of flue gas during hydrate-based CO2 capture. Additionally, new experimental data for dissociation pressure of flue gases with different CO2 concentration were reported. Subsequently, a more accurate thermodynamic model combining Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State (CPA-EoS) and Chen-Guo model was employed to predict the dissociation pressure of flue gases. To better perform the hydrate equilibria, a temperature dependent binary interaction parameter kij and new parameters for Chen-Guo model were developed. The results showed that the general tender of the new experimental data was in line with previous results. In addition, an improved accuracy was noticed for the mixtures with an Average Absolution Deviation (AAD) approximately to 4.07%, through comparing the predicted results with the experimental data. Especially, in terms of the gases with a CO2 concentration less than 85.32%, the improvement was significant. Lastly, this work also utilized the thermodynamic model and the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to predict the dissociation enthalpies of CO2 hydrate. The results showed that the prediction results were located in the margin of experimental data, which demonstrated the thermodynamic model proposed in our work was capable of describing the gas hydrate behavior with high accuracy.
Experimental study on emissions of algal biodiesel and its blends on a diesel engine J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-01 Meena Yadav, Supriya B Chavan, Reena Singh, Faizal Bux, Yogesh Chandra Sharma
An laboratory-scale experimental study has been performed to evaluate the physicochemical characterization and exhaust gas emissions of algal oil methyl ester blends (biodiesel + diesel) and pure diesel fuel on a single cylinder, VCR diesel engine at varying load (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 Kg) and CRs (13, 14, 15, 16 and 17) conditions. The algal oil obtained was transesterified using previously reported efficient catalyst potassium impregnated zinc oxide 60 K/ZnO-900 and methanol to synthesize methyl esters (AOMEs). Different AOMEs blends such as AB5, AB10, AB15, AB20, AB25, AB30, and AB50 were prepared with diesel fuel on the volume basis. All blended fuels were tested for important physicochemical properties such as density, calorific value, flash point and fire point as per ASTM standards and these blended fuels showed the comparable results within the test limit. Furthermore, exhaust emission analysis of HC, NOx, CO, CO2 and O2 gases of the prepared blends were performed and results were compared with baseline diesel fuel. Results showed that the AB30 blend exhibited the minimum exhaust emissions of pollutant gases. It reduces the emission of HC and CO gases up to 35.13 and 30%, respectively with an increase in NOx up to 25–30% due to presence of unsaturation moiety. The increased emissions of CO2 and O2 gases up to 9–20% and 8–20% were also observed due to oxygen content present in the blended fuel. In general trend, improved exhaust emissions were observed for AB30 at optimum parameter of 9 Kg load and CR 16 conditions that closely followed the standard diesel.
Synthesis of asymmetrical cellulose acetate/cellulose triacetate forward osmosis membrane: Optimization J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-12-01 Guan-Jie Chen, Duu-Jong Lee
This study aims at identifying asymmetric cellulose acetate (CA)/cellulose triacetate (CTA) forward osmosis (FO) membranes that have high water flux (Jv) and low reverse salt diffusion flux (Js) with acetic acid to replace the 1,4-dioxane for the mixed solvent for CA/CTA dissolution. The optimum fabrication parameters for the CA/CTA FO membranes are determined by using response surface methodology with a 43 Box-Behnken design. Effects of weight fraction of CA (at CA/CTA = 2), spinning speed, annealing temperature and annealing time on the Jv and Js are investigated. The optimum conditions to maximize the Jv to 6.4 L/m2/h and minimize Js to 0.47 g/m2/h together are: 6%/3% CA/CTA, 2993 rpm spinning speed, 87.8 °C annealing temperature and 180 s annealing time. The fabricated FO membranes can reject over 99.9% heavy metal ions from feed wastewater and can be used as an effective barrier for alginate gels with easy flux recovery by ultrasound cleaning.
Two novel thiadiazole derivatives as highly efficient inhibitors for the corrosion of mild steel in the CO2-saturated oilfield produced water J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-30 Q.H. Zhang, B.S. Hou, N. Xu, H.F. Liu, G.A. Zhang
The corrosion of mild steel pipelines is a tough issue during the extraction of oil and gas. In this work, two novel thiadiazole derivatives, 5-(benzylthio)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amine (BTTA) and 5,5′-disulfanediylbis (1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amine) (DSTA), were synthesized as inhibitors for the corrosion of mild steel in the CO2-saturated oilfield produced water. Their inhibitive effects and mechanisms were studied by electrochemical measurements, surface characterization, quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. It is shown that both DSTA and BTTA exhibit high inhibition efficiencies. Especially for DSTA, the inhibition efficiency reaches 98.7% even in a fairly low concentration of 0.0025 mM, and reaches 99.37% with a concentration of 0.025 mM. DSTA presents a better inhibitive performance than BTTA in low concentration. These two thiadiazole derivatives act as mixed type inhibitors with predominant anodic effectiveness, and their adsorptions on mild steel surface follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. According to the experimental results and theoretical calculations, the inhibitive mechanisms of BTTA and DSTA are discussed.
Anneal-hardening behaviour of CrC, CrNiC and CrNiFeC alloy deposits J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-28 Ching An Huang, Jhih You Chen, Kang Yu Liao, Po Liang Lai, Chia Hsuan Shen
CrC, CrNiC and CrFeNiC deposits were successfully prepared from Cr3+-based plating baths with suitable amounts of complex agents and metal salts. The Cr-based alloy deposits could be hardened after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 500 °C for a few seconds. The highest hardness of 1800 Hv could be detected from the CrC deposit after RTA at 500 °C for 15 s. The hardening mechanism of annealed Cr-based alloy deposits is attributed to the precipitation of crystalline diamond-like phases. The diamond-like phase in a membrane shape was observed in the annealed-hardened CrC alloy deposits, while nano-sized membranes and particles were found in annealed-hardened CrNiC and CrNiFeC deposits, respectively.
Grain-like bismuth-rich bismuth/bismuth oxychlorides intra-heterojunction: Efficacious solar-light-driven photodegradation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics and 2-level factorial approach J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-28 Maryam Shabani, Mohammad Haghighi, Davood Kahforoushan, Shirin Heidari
The grain-like BiOCl (60%)–Bi24O31Cl10 (40%) intra-heterojunction nanophotocatalyst was fabricated by a facile one-pot combustion route using sorbitol fuel. It was characterized by the utilization of XRD, FESEM, PSD, BET–BJH and DRS, which proved its successful synthesis. The solar-light-driven photocatalytic activity of BiOCl (60%)–Bi24O31Cl10 (40%) was appraised through the destruction of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQAs) such as ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and levofloxacin as persistent and resisting emerging pollutants in an aqueous solution. Consequences obtained were implied to its prominent performance. To investigate the individual and interplay influences of the input operating parameters (catalyst loading, initial pollutant concentration, initial pH and reaction time), the modelling of the photocatalytic destruction of ofloxacin as the response was done by 2-level full factorial experimental design approach. A semi-empirical fourth-order regression model with R2= 0.9878 was expressed to relate between the response and independent variables. Results obtained of the mentioned approach demonstrated the high adequacy of the model. The influence of individual parameters and their interactions on the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of ofloxacin was possessed by the main effect graphs, contour and response surface plots. This study not only illustrates a hopeful application of the grain-like BiOCl–Bi24O31Cl10 in the solar-light-driven photo-destruction of resistant pollutants such as FQAs but also shows the favourable direction to gain the high-performance.
Biodegradability enhancement of real antibiotic metronidazole wastewater by a modified electrochemical Fenton J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-27 Yan Xia, Qinggang Zhang, Guang Li, Xiaobo Tu, Yuanquan Zhou, Xiaohong Hu
This paper proposes a modified electrochemical Fenton method with a pair of iron electrodes, which Fe anode is electrodisolved supplying stoichiometric Fe2+. Then the electrodisolved Fe2+ reacts with H2O2 to generate hydroxyl radical (· OH). The experiment shows that 62.6% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) is removed and the ratio of the five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to COD increases from 0.17 to 0.45 under the optimal experimental conditions (current density of 30 mA/cm2, electrolysis time of 15 min, H2O2 dosage of 75 mmol/L, pH 3.00 and stirring time of 2.5 hours). Meanwhile, the high concentration of metronidazole (1000 mg/L) is dramatically decreased (> 95%). In order to explore the mineralization pathway for metronidazole, the intermediate by-products of the modified electrochemical Fenton process are investigated by GC/MS, FTIR and HPLC. Good results are achieved in treatment of the real metronidazole wastewater by the proposed method, BOD5/COD increases from 0.17 to 0.35. This method has been successfully applied to a large scale industrial treatment of real metronidazole wastewater as a pretreatment process for the biochemical treatment.
A novel sensitive and reliable electrochemical determination of palmatine based on CeO2/RGO/MWCNT ternary composite J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-27 Rajalakshmi Sakthivel, Muthaiah Annalakshmi, Shen-Ming Chen, Subbiramaniyan Kubendhiran, Rajeshkumar Anbazhagan, Hsieh-Chih Tsai
A sensitive and reliable electrochemical determination of natural alkaloid palmatine was proposed based on CeO2/RGO/MWCNT ternary composite modified screen printed carbon electrode. The proposed ternary composite was prepared via simple hydrothermal synthesis method without using of hazardous chemicals. The surface morphology, elemental compositions, functional group moieties, crystalline structure and defects and disorder of the prepared CeO2/RGO/MWCNT ternary composite was confirmed by various spectrometric techniques. In addition, the electrochemical properties of the modified electrodes were investigated by voltammetry techniques. Notably, the proposed CeO2/RGO/MWCNT modified electrode exhibited two linear concentration ranges from 0.1 to 118 µM and 118 to 1198 µM with the lowest detection limit of 0.03 µM for the determination of palmatine at neutral condition. Additionally, the proposed electrode material showed a good sensitivity of 1. 791 µA µM−1 cm−2 and detects the palmatine with good selectivity in the presence of interfering substances. Furthermore, the practical feasibility of the sensor was analyzed in human serum and urine samples.
TiOF2/TiO2 composite nanosheets: Effect of hydrothermal synthesis temperature on physicochemical properties and photocatalytic activity J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-28 Zhendong Liu, Xiaona Liu, Qifang Lu, Qinyu Wang, Zhen Ma
TiOF2/TiO2 nanosheets were prepared by hydrothermal processing of Ti(OBu)4 in the presence of aqueous HF solution. The effect of different hydrothermal synthesis temperatures (140, 160, 180, and 200 °C) on the compositions, morphologies, crystal sizes, and photoelectric properties of the resulting samples was studied via various characterization methods. The photocatalytic properties of the samples were studied through photodegradation of organic pollutants such as rhodamine B (RhB), methyl orange (MO), and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP-HCl). TiOF2/TiO2 nanosheets prepared by hydrothermal synthesis at 160 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity among these samples, and it is much more active than P25 (a benchmark photocatalyst) and TiO2 prepared hydrothermally (without adding aqueous HF solution during the hydrothermal synthesis). A possible photocatalytic mechanism is discussed.
Visual MINTEQ model, ToF–SIMS, and XPS study of smithsonite surface sulfidation behavior: Zinc sulfide precipitation adsorption J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-28 Chunlong Li, Shaojun Bai, Zhan Ding, Pan Yu, Shuming Wen
In this study, we investigate the smithsonite surface sulfidation by zinc sulfide precipitation adsorption. Smithsonite solubility experiments indicated that the CZnT in Na2S solution (1.0 × 10−3 mol/L) was 1–2 orders of magnitude lower compared with the corresponding experiment results in deionized water. Na2S addition benefited the dissolution rate of smithsonite in deionized water. Visual MINTEQ model results confirmed that the zinc sulfide precipitation formed after the main sulfidation reaction between Zn(OH)2(aq) and HS− ions at pH 10, compared with the conversion from ZnS(aq), Zn2S32− ions, and Zn4S64− ions to sphalerite. Moreover, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that the average crystallite sizes of zinc sulfide precipitation particle obtained by co-precipitation technique were approximately 2.32 nm in size. These particles were composed of zinc monosulfide and zinc polysulfide. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and XPS analysis provided strong evidence for zinc sulfide precipitation adsorption on the smithsonite surfaces. Furthermore, more mass signals of S−, ZnS−, S2−, and Zn2S− were observed from the zinc sulfide precipitation than from natural sphalerite, and the monosulfide in the zinc sulfide precipitation was easily adsorbed on the smithsonite surfaces. Results elucidate the smithsonite surface sulfidation behavior during zinc sulfide precipitation adsorption.
Decoration of SrTiO3 nanofibers by BiOI for photocatalytic methyl orange degradation under visible light irradiation J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-24 Chechia Hu, Hui-Xin Huang, Yi-Feng Lin, Masaaki Yoshida, Tzu-Hsin Chen
BiOI decorated electrospun SrTiO3 nanofibers (BE) with a spiky club structure were fabricated using a rapid microwave-assisted solvothermal method. The exposed (102) plane of BiOI preferentially coupled with the electrospun SrTiO3 fibers aiming to achieve charge neutrality. XRD analysis demonstrated that a BE composite coupled with an optimal content of BiOI exhibited few crystal imperfections. The resulting BE samples showed a higher degradation efficiency towards methyl orange dye under visible light irradiation (λ > 400 nm) compared to the individual BiOI and SrTiO3. The BE composite possessed a high degradation rate of 0.015 (kapp, min–1) and a normalized rate constant of 2.46 × 10–3 (kapp/surface area), which was 7.7 and 1120 times higher than those of BiOI and SrTiO3 alone, and a degradation level over 94.6% within 3 h of irradiation under visible light. The high photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the heterostructure formation, p-n junction at the BE interface, high contact between water and dye molecules with the BiOI covered surface, and extended visible light absorption. This work provides an effective approach to produce BE nanofibers for dealing with methyl orange dye and proves that BE composites have the potential to serve as visible-light-driven photocatalysts.
Preparing a magnetic activated carbon with expired beverage as carbon source and KOH as activator J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-24 Yunjie Liu, Zhibao Huo, Zhiyuan Song, Chuntao Zhang, Dezhang Ren, Heng Zhong, Fangming Jin
The purpose of this study is to prepare a magnetic activated carbon by KOH activation using expired beverage of several brands as raw material. The maximum adsorption capacity of MBAC for MB (Methylene blue) at 298 K was 404.73 mg/g, could be recycled for 3 times, this study achieved a dual purpose of resource reuse and beverage wastewater treatment. The preparation of activated carbon was divided into two stages: the hydrothermal treatment and activation process. Before and after the hydrothermal treatment, the content of fructose, sucrose, glucose in expired beverages was tested by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), it indicated that under the same reaction condition (4 h, 180 °C, 20 mL), the fructose can be converted to hydrothermal carbon much easier than that of sucrose and glucose. According to the data obtained from TOC (total organic carbon) analyzer, the removal rate of 71.6% of organic matters from the beverage can be achieved in 4 h after the hydrothermal treatment. In terms of the activation process, an activated carbon with a specific surface area of 1237 m2/g and pore size of 2.05 nm could be achieved; the XRD and magnetization analysis confirmed the Fe3O4’s crystal structure was preserved and the saturation magnetization of MBAC (magnetic beverage activated carbon) was 12.4 emu/g after the activation process. To describe the adsorption process, the pseudo-second-order and Langmuir model was more suitable.
Investigation of optical and dielectric properties of CsPbI3 inorganic lead iodide perovskite thin film J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-24 Rajan K. Singh, Ranveer Kumar, Neha Jain, Saumya R. Dash, Jai Singh, Amit Srivastava
This experimental work reports refractive index, extinction coefficients, and dielectric functions at different incident angles in visible range for the first time. The refractive index of CsPbI3 thin film is 2.46 at 435 nm with this result implies that Cs based lead halide solar cells may be, ideal antireflection coating for many tandem solar cells. Thus lower refractive index of CsPbI3 inorganic perovskite material is beneficial for perovskite device fabrications because of the minimum light looses to reflection at the front of the active layer. Furthermore microstructure of the cubic phase Pm-3 m was investigated by X-ray diffraction. CsPbI3 perovskite thin film showed the sharp absorption edge and PL emission near infrared region with direct band gap of 1.67 eV with high color purity of red emission. In addition, the higher dielectric function value of CsPbI3, will helps to many optoelectronic devices.
Comparisons of a class of IGCC polygeneration/power plants using calcium/chemical looping combinations J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-24 Wei Wu, Fang Wen, Jhao-Rong Chen, Po-Chih Kuo, Bin Shi
To retrofit the traditional integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants, four plant designs using different combinations of the chemical-looping air separation (CLAS), calcium-looping (CaL), and syngas chemical-looping (SCL) are presented, where the modeling of calcium/chemical looping cycles in fast fluidized-bed and moving-bed reactors have been validated by experimental data. The IGCC polygeneration plants (Designs 1 and 2) and the IGCC power plants (Designs 3 and 4) are developed in an integration simulation platform, and their performances in terms of gross power efficiency (GPE), net thermal efficiency (NTE), carbon emission rate (CER) and water recycling rate (WRR) are evaluated. The comparison results show that (i) Design 1 possesses high thermal efficiency and low water consumption since the SCL cycle can improve NTE and increase WRR by producing the high-purity hydrogen and recovering water from exhaust gases, and (ii) Design 4 possesses high power efficiency and low CO2 emissions since a combination of Rankine and Brayton cycles is integrated to increase GPE and CO2-rich gas is partially recycled in the CLAS cycle to decrease CER.
Synthesis and sustainable assessment of thiol-functionalization of magnetic graphene oxide and superparamagnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 for Hg(II) removal from aqueous solution and petrochemical wastewater J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-25 Ali Kazemi, Nader Bahramifar, Akbar Heydari, Stig Irving Olsen
Adsorbents used in adsorption processes play an important role in wastewater treatment technologies. It is therefore of interest how manufactured adsorbents can perform better or be more efficient. Is the adsorption capacity a sufficient indicator to select a good adsorbent? In this study, two nanoadsorbents of Hg(II) were successfully synthesized. They are magnetic graphene oxide (MGONH-SH) and magnetic nanoparticle (Fe3O4@SiONH-SH), both functionalized with a thiol group, acetylcysteine. The nanoadsorbents, in addition to their adsorption capacity, were investigated from the viewpoints of reuse and regeneration, economic costs, and environmental impact (carbon footprint). The prepared nanoadsorbents were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA, FE-SEM, VSM, AFM, Raman, and elemental analysis. Their adsorption of Hg(II) fits well with the Langmuir isotherm model and follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Under optimal conditions, the results of Hg(II) removal from real wastewater and polluted water by MGONH-SH exhibited a higher adsorption capacity, reuse, and regeneration, and as well lower cost and greenhouse gas emissions compared to Fe3O4@SiONH-SH. The findings of the present study highlight that MGONH-SH as a promising adsorbent is more economically and environmentally friendly than Fe3O4@SiONH-SH in the efficient removal of Hg(II) from real wastewater and polluted water.
A competent simultaneously co-electrodeposited Pt-MnOx nanocatalyst for enhanced formic acid electro-oxidation J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-25 Yaser M. Asal, Islam M. Al-Akraa, Ahmad M. Mohammad, Mohamed S. El-Deab
In this paper, a new methodology replacing the typical sequential layer-by-layer immobilization, i.e., simultaneous co-electrodeposition protocol is proven eminent for assembling efficient binary nanoelectrocatalysts for formic acid (FA) electro-oxidation (FAO). This strategy is successful to integrate homogeneously Pt nanoparticles (nano-Pt; essential component for FA adsorption/oxidation) with manganese oxide nanowires (nano-MnOx; a CO poisoning alleviator) in a single blend avoiding the poisoning CO adsorption at the catalyst surface. The molar ratio of the catalyst's ingredients (Pt:Mn) in the deposition bath is critical in identifying the catalyst's composition of the prepared binary catalyst and thus, a molar ratio of (1:8) is optimum yielding the highest catalytic activity. It is believed that adjusting the catalyst's composition could preferably act against the adsorption of poisoning CO intermediate and/or providing an electronic support to the desired (low over potential) direct dehydrogenation pathway of FAO to CO2.
Glyco-functionalized graphene oxides as green antibacterial absorbent materials J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-22 Beheshteh Khodadadi Chegeni, Abbas Dadkhah Tehrani, Mohsen Adeli
Green glyco-conjugated graphene oxides, incorporating mannose and glucose, developed in the design of new antibacterial absorbents. In this context, graphene oxide (GO) was functionalized by ethylenediamine (EDA). Then, the aminated GO (rG-NH2) modified by Glucose (Glu) and Mannose (Man) separately via reductive amination method to fabricate glyco-conjugated GOs known as rG-NH-Glu and rG-NH-Man respectively. The biofunctionalized GOs were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, SEM and TGA technique. The glyco-conjugated GOs showed antibacterial activities. The mannose conjugated GOs exhibited higher bactericidal efficiency than GO and rGO-NH-Glu. Moreover, the obtained glyco-conjugated GOs used as absorbent. The results showed that they could effectively remove MB. The maximum adsorption capacity of rGO-NH-Glu and rGO-NH-Man were 100 and 96 mg/g, respectively. Glucose conjugated GOs could remove MB very faster than mannose conjugated ones. Finally, the adsorption kinetics was studied. The results showed that Kinetics data were fitted with the pseudo second order model. Glyco-conjugated GOs could develop new promising materials with enhanced antibacterial activities as well as adsorbent with higher adsorption capacities. The glyco-conjugated GOs could be applied for treatment of polluted waters by pathogenic bacteria and dyes and especially those conjugated with mannose could be considered as potent bacterial targeting agents.
Stable poly(vinyl alcohol) and alginate cross-linked granules with immobilized ferric hexacyanoferrate for cesium removal from waters J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-23 Cheng-Jui Tsai, Yin-Ru Chang, Man-Li Chen, Yu-Kuo Lo, Duu-Jong Lee
The poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) granules can immobilize Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles to form efficient cesium adsorbent. This paper for the first time produced the PVA-PB granules with shape stability at drying-re-wetting cycles by crosslinking PVA, alginate and PB drops with boric acid (PVA-B) followed by extended crosslinking of the formed granules with nucleophiles, 6 hr for phosphate (PVA-P), 12 hr for sulfate (PVA-S), and > 12 hr for nitrate (PVA-N). The qmax values for the yielded PVA granules ranged 76.8–87.6 mg/g PB. The PVA-B matrix has effective diffusivity for Cs ions at 7% of that in the bulk water. The PVA-P has similar diffusivity with PVA-B, while the PV-S and PVA-N have further reduced internal diffusivities (by 46% and 67%, respectively). Repeated washing can minimize the hexacyanoferrate release potential from the PVA granules. The present dried, nucleophile-crosslinked PVA granules can be stored for long time period and can be used directly as the “first-aid” radioactive Cs barrier for waterworks and pipeline stations when meeting urgent radioactive threats.
Multifunctional nanocarrier as a potential micro-RNA delivery vehicle for neuroblastoma treatment J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-23 Ndumiso Vukile Mdlovu, Yun Chen, Kuen-Song Lin, Ming-Wei Hsu, Steven S.-S. Wang, Chun-Ming Wu, You-Sheng Lin, Kazuki Ohishi
Neuroblastoma accounts for about 6% of all cancers in children, with a 5–year survival rate of only 20–25%. The increased expressin of MYCN is associated with poor prognosis in patients with neuroblastoma. MicroRNA–34 (miR–34) may serve as a potential target for cancer treatment, owing to its function as an oncogene and tumor suppressor. In this study, positively charged magnetic nanocarriers comprising cross-linked polyethylenimine (PEI)–tripolyphosphate (TPP)–coated iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were developed using co-precipitation method. These nanocarriers were capable of penetrating the cell wall and used for the delivery of miRNA–34a into the cells. The diffraction peak of synthesized magnetic nanocarriers at 2θ = 35.44° corresponded to that of magnetite (Fe3O4) (311), consistent with Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS) database. The characteristic peaks at 3380, 1620, 2900, and 2840/cm corresponded to those of NH and − CH2− groups, indicating the successful coating of PEI. In addition, the small angle neutron scattering (SANS) spectra showed that the alternative magnetic field (AMF) triggered core heat generation, which softened the shells. The results of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed the nontoxicity of these nanocarriers to BE–2–M17 cells. The expression of miR-34a was raised and the expression of MYCN, the target of miR-34a, was significantly suppressed.
Review on graphene and its derivatives: Synthesis methods and potential industrial implementation J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-23 Xin Jiat Lee, Billie Yan Zhang Hiew, Kar Chiew Lai, Lai Yee Lee, Suyin Gan, Suchithra Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Sean Rigby
Graphene and its derivatives have gained significant attention of late due to their remarkable physicochemical properties. This review focuses firstly on the synthesis methods of graphene and its derivatives along with their attributes and characterization techniques. This is followed by a discussion of the potential industrial implementation of the synthesis routes. The potential industrial implementation of the graphene synthesis methods are reviewed using the key criteria of cost, process condition, yield, scalability, product quality and environmental impact. The literature data supported that synthesis routes such as oxidative exfoliation-reduction, liquid-phase exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition have the potential to be commercialized due to their ability to produce large amount of high quality graphene. Further development is necessary to overcome barriers such as environmental concerns and the high graphene cost.
A co-relation study of efficient photocatalytic reduction of aromatic nitriles and band energies of Cu loaded elongated TiO2 nanocatalysts J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-23 Manpreet Kaur Aulakh, Bonamali Pal
Photoreduction of nitroaromatics into amines with TiO2 (P25) via greener method has attracted a great deal of interest. Generally, this reaction is feasible as the reduction potential of nitro groups (-0.5 eV) lies below the conduction band (-0.85 eV vs. NHE) of TiO2. However, functional groups such as nitrile (-CN), azido (-N3), aceto (-CH3CO), etc. are generally not photoreduced by conventional P25 due to their unfavorable reduction potential relative to titania. This report demonstrates efficient photocatalytic reduction of aromatic nitriles by tuning the band energies of Cu-TiO2 nanostructures of different morphologies. The band energetics were determined by optical and electrochemical studies which revealed that Cu loaded titania nanotubes (Cu-TNT) possess more negative conduction band gap (-2.7 eV vs. vacuum) energy as compared to LUMO level of benzonitrile (-2.82 eV). This factor has probably facilitated better reduction efficiency of benzonitrile (> 90%) and its derivatives with Cu-TNT in comparison to almost no reactivity with Cu-P25 under similar conditions. In addition to suitable conduction band position of Cu-TNT, presence of anatase phase and higher surface area (204 m2/g) might have enhanced the reaction rate.
One-pot synthesis of LiEuTiO4 as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries operating at 0.8 V J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-24 Da Wei, Qi Juan Tang, Dong Ge Tong
A single phase of LiEuTiO4 was prepared by a one-pot synthesis, assisted by a solution plasma technique in an ionic liquid. We characterized the sample by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Our single-phase material exhibited better electrochemical performance than that of a sample prepared via multi-step synthesis, which we attribute to the smaller particle size and larger specific surface area of the former. The single phase LiEuTiO4 showed an initial discharge capacity of 237.3 mAhg−1 and good capacity retention of 97.0% after 100 cycles. Our samples also had a high specific capacity of 156.2 mAhg−1 at 5 Ag−1. These results demonstrate that one-pot synthesis is effective for preparing LiEuTiO4 with small particle size and high specific surface area offering a potential approach to LiEuTiO4 as a low-operating voltage anode material for lithium ion batteries.
Thermodynamics and phase separation phenomenon of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate in micellar solutions containing inorganic salts J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-19 Zhao Hua Ren, Jing Huang, Lu Lai, Xiao Rong Yu, Dong Po Shi, Yan Ling Chang
The phase separation behavior of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (1.000 mmol/L) was investigated in aqueous micellar solution containing inorganic salt, especially the high concentration of different cationic chlorides including NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, CaCl2, BaCl2 and AlCl3. The continuous decrease in the cloud point (CP) was observed on adding the univalent cationic chlorides (NaCl and KCl). While the addition of multivalent cationic chlorides initially depress the phase separation and then promote the solvation of surfactant in water phase. The relationship between the reciprocal of CP and the concentration of inorganic salt is found to well linearize in the range of a certain concentration of inorganic salt. The dependence of related constant terms in the obtained equations on the nature of inorganic ions was theoretically discussed. The ionic charge vs. atom radium ratio was also used to probe the difference in the effect of different cations on the phase separation. In the framework of phase separation model, the obtained thermodynamic parameters indicate that the process of phase separation is non-spontaneous and the entropy makes an overwhelming contribution.
Cu(HBTC)(4,4′-bipy)·3DMF nanorods supported on platinum electrode as an electrochemical sensing platform for efficient vitamin B12 detection J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-19 Perumal Manivel, Kanagaraj Madasamy, Vembu Suryanarayanan, Noel Nesakumar, Arockia Jayalatha Kulandaisamy, Murugavel Kathiresan, Marimuthu Parthiban, David Velayutham, Kun Mu Lee
Monitoring of vitamin B12 is important in the quality control of various pharmaceutical products. In this work, we design an ultrasensitive electrochemical sensor for the detection of vitamin B12 employing Pt modified Cu(HBTC)(4,4′-bipy)·3DMF (Pt = Platinum; DMF = N,N′-dimethylformamide; 4,4′-bipy = 4,4′-bipyridine; HBTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) electrode as an efficient electrocatalyst. The copper (Cu) complex nanorods were synthesised by solvothermal method and characterised by different surface analytical techniques. Cyclic voltammetric analysis reveals that the modified electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic redox reversibility towards Co3+/Co2+ redox couple at −0.192 and -0.268 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with a sensitivity of 0.104 µA µM−1, a low detection limit of 50 nM, a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and a wide linear range of 0.1–188.2 µM. The novelty of the system is that both oxidation and reduction currents Co3+/Co2+ redox couple has been used for the calibration curve so that the analytical errors during the course of analysis would be minimised. The enhanced electrocatalytic ability of the material has enabled discrimination of vitamin B12 from potential interfering species. The fabricated electrode was applied for the detection of vitamin B12 in two commercial pharmaceutical tablets and the results were found to be satisfactory.
Solvent effect on morphological evolution and photocatalytic property of α-SnWO4 J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Xuewei Liu, Bo Liang, Jingkai Yang, Weifeng Li
Alpha-phase stannous tungstate (α-SnWO4) nano-crystals with different morphologies were successfully synthesized by changing water content in ethylene glycol (EG) using a solvothermal method. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the morphologies of α-SnWO4 samples transformed from nanostrip to nanosheet with increasing water content, which is ascribed to the improved mass transfer in the water medium. Photocatalytic activities of the products were evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. The microstructure of α-SnWO4 played an important role on its photocatalytic activity. As a result, the α-SnWO4 with high crystallinity and large surface area exhibited the best photocatalytic activity and its degradation efficiency reached to 90.4% within 30 min. Based on active species trapping experiments, both hole (h+) and superoxide radical (·O2−) are dominant active species in the photodegradation of MO over α-SnWO4 nano-materials and thus a possible mechanism was proposed.
Aqueous ozone decomposition kinetics in a rotating packed bed J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Peizhen Yang, Shuai Luo, Hongyan Liu, Weizhou Jiao, Youzhi Liu
The decomposition kinetics of aqueous ozone in a rotating packed bed (RPB) at 18 ± 2°C and in the pH range 3.0–11.0 was firstly investigated. The decomposition rate of ozone increased with increasing pH value and rotor speed. Moreover, a reaction kinetic model for ozone decomposition in RPB was developed, which can be applied for an extended range of pHs from acidic to alkaline operating conditions. It was deduced that ozone decomposition was based on pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to the ozone concentration. The degree of the chain reaction between ozone molecule and hydroxyl ion in RPB was found higher than that in batch reactor. Furthermore, experiments showed that NO3−, Cl−, HCO3− and CO32− ions could promote the self-decomposition of ozone to some extent and the promotion effect of CO32− ion was the largest.
Ionic liquid modified multiwalled carbon nanotube embedded styrene butadiene rubber membranes for the selective removal of toluene from toluene/methanol mixture via pervaporation J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-12 Jiji Abraham, Thomaskutty Jose, Grace Moni, Soney C. George, Nandakumar Kalarikkal, Sabu Thomas
Present work reports the fabrication of elastomeric membrane based on ionic liquid functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNT) incorporated Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) for the separation of azeotropic composition of toluene and methanol. The fabricated membranes were characterized by morphological analysis using transmission electron microscopy and glass transition temperature and heat capacity measurements by differential scanning calorimetry. Composite membranes demonstrate impressive separation performance with preferential selectivity towards toluene and 5 phr f-MWCNT loaded membranes was found to show the best result with respect to toluene flux and selectivity. Optimal separation performance with the permeation flux 225% of SBR control membrane and separation factor of 128 (1.6 times of SBR control membrane) is obtained for this membrane. The concurrent optimization of the physical and chemical structures of toluene permeation path on f-MWCNT surface provides the membrane with high-efficiency toluene permeation. Ionic liquid on MWCNT surface confer aromatic pi-pi interaction with toluene molecules leading to greater toluene affinity and higher repellency against methanol. Pervaporation characteristics of the membranes were also strongly influenced by the feed mixture composition. The study confirmed that increasing toluene concentration improved the toluene flux but reduced the separation factor. The experimental pervaporation fluxes were compared with the calculations based on modified Maxwell–Stefan equation. The model allows a good quantitative prediction of experimental flux values.
MnOx promoted phase-pure M1 MoVNbTe oxide for ethane oxidative dehydrogenation J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-13 Xin Chen, Dan Dang, Hang An, Bozhao Chu, Yi Cheng
M1 phase of MoVNbTe oxide catalyst is a promising catalyst for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane (ODHE) process. Raising V5+ concentration in the catalyst is an effective way to improve the catalytic performance while thermal oxidation in air has limited effect on the increase of vanadium valence state. In this work, manganese is introduced into the catalyst system, acting as oxygen facilitator, making M1 oxidized by gas phase oxygen at lower temperature during the preparation process. The influence of manganese addition amount and combination method on catalyst activity is studied. BET, XPS, SEM, TEM, ICP, TPR, and TPD characterizations are performed to study the correlation between catalyst properties and catalytic performance. Corresponding to the valence state increment, the catalyst promoted by MnOx gives an improved catalytic performance, e.g., over 20% improvement in ODHE process at 400 °C based on the ethane conversion.
Recent progress in the synthesis of inorganic particulate materials using microfluidics J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-12 Kyoung-Ku Kang, Byungjin Lee, Chang-Soo Lee
Microfluidic systems have unique advantages originating from the miniaturization of real chemical processes. On this basis, the synthesis of inorganic materials, including micro- and nanomaterials, can be used to develop useful features, such as a uniform particle size distribution, morphology control, online monitoring, etc. In this review, we introduce and discuss the recent progress in the preparation of inorganic materials, mainly microfluidics systems. Furthermore, utilizing microfluidic devices, we present the basic principles and representative shape of microfluidic systems. In addition, the synthesis of various inorganic material particles using microfluidic systems, such as metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles, semiconductor nanoparticles, organic-inorganic hybrid particles, surface functionalized particles, core-shell particles, and traditional porous materials, is introduced. Finally, we propose the future prospects of microfluidics in the synthesis of noble inorganic materials.
Design and investigation of ytterbium tungstate nanoparticles: An efficient catalyst for the sensitive and selective electrochemical detection of antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-10 Periyasamy Sundaresan, Alagumalai Krishnapandi, Shen-Ming Chen
Development of a novel double-templated mesoporous carbon with outstanding desulfurization capacity J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-10 Le Yu, Ning Tian, Congmin Liu, Qing Liu, Yuan Gao, Wei Dai
Multifunctional magnetic ZnFe2O4-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite particles for local anti-cancer drug delivery and bacterial infection inhibition: An in vitro study J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-07 Amir Seyfoori, S.A. Seyyed Ebrahimi, Sajjad Omidian, Seyed Morteza Naghib
Mesoscopic analysis of MHD double diffusive natural convection and entropy generation in an enclosure filled with liquid metal J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-02 Sathiyamoorthi Arun, Anbalagan Satheesh
Simple construction based on epoxy-bonded super-hydrophobic anti-corrosion coating J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-02 Mengyu Li, Ning Liu, Jinhang Chen, Qiaoling Li
Efficient degradation of rhodamine B with sustainable electricity generation in a photocatalytic fuel cell using visible light Ag3PO4/Fe/GTiP photoanode and ZnIn2S4 photocathode J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-02 Noor Ahmed Nahyoon, Lifen Liu, Kané Rabé, Sarwan Ahmed Nahyoon, Azmat Hussain Abro, Fenglin Yang
Sustainable carbon nanodots synthesised from kitchen derived waste tea residue for highly selective fluorimetric recognition of free chlorine in acidic water: A waste utilization approach J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-02 Datta B. Gunjal, Vaibhav M. Naik, Ravindra D. Waghmare, Chandrashekhar S. Patil, Rajendra V. Shejwal, Anil H. Gore, Govind B. Kolekar
Plant-mediated Cu/Cr/Ni nanoparticle formation strategy for simultaneously separation of the mixed ions from aqueous solution J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-11-03 Zahra Vaseghi, Ali Nematollahzadeh, Omid Tavakoli
Three-dimensional flower-like Pd3Pb nanocrystals enable efficient ethylene glycol electrocatalytic oxidation J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-10-30 Zhao Li, Bohan Gu, Zizhan Jiang, Xu Zhao, Wenyou Zhu, Yixin Zhang, Tongxiang Li, Xihua Du, Jianjun Wu
Influence of temperature and electroosmotic flow on the rectification behavior of conical nanochannels J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-10-30 Jyh-Ping Hsu, Yung-Che Chen, Yu-Min Chen, Shiojenn Tseng
Facile fabrication of g-C3N4 QDs/BiVO4 Z-scheme heterojunction towards enhancing photodegradation activity under visible light J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-10-28 Chunxue Li, Huinan Che, Chunbo Liu, Guangbo Che, Paul. A. Charpentier, William Z. Xu, Xiuyan Wang, Lihui Liu
Improvement in inverted polymer solar cells via 1-benzoyl-2-thiourea as surface modifier on sol-gel ZnO J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-10-29 Ren-Xiu Ou, Chen-Hsueh Lin, Tzung-Fang Guo, Ten-Chin Wen
Decomposition of 14 organophosphate flame retardants during supercritical water oxidation J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-10-27 Bowen Yang, Zhiwen Cheng, Zhemin Shen
Enhancing carbon capture and lipid accumulation by genetic carbonic anhydrase in microalgae J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-10-27 Way-Rong Lin, Yu-Cheng Lai, Po-Kuei Sung, Shih-I Tan, Chien-Hsiang Chang, Chun-Yen Chen, Jo-Shu Chang, I-Son Ng
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