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  • Colloidal nanocrystals for heterogeneous catalysis
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2019-01-17
    Pit Losch, Weixin Huang, Emmett D. Goodman, Cody J. Wrasman, Alexander Holm, Andrew R. Riscoe, Jay A. Schwalbe, Matteo Cargnello
    更新日期:2019-01-18
  • Gold nanoparticles in biological optical imaging
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2019-01-05
    Yue Wu, Moustafa R.K. Ali, Kuangcai Chen, Ning Fang, Mostafa A. El-Sayed

    Optical imaging represents one of the most essential tools in biological studies. Although with great advances, bio-optical imaging still suffers from problems such as resolution, sensitivity, speed, and penetration depth. Due to the unique optical properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), i.e., surface plasmon resonance, AuNPs can be readily used to enhance optical imaging based on their absorption, scattering, fluorescence, Raman scattering, etc. Here, we include the most recent achievements and challenges associated with using AuNPs to improve resolution and sensitivity in biological imaging in vitro and in vivo. The application of AuNPs in the following three aspects were discussed: 1) Direct visualization of AuNPs inside the biosystems using i) dark field (DF) microscopy, ii) differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, and iii) other techniques, such as interferometric scattering (iSCAT) microscopy and photothermal imaging. Additionally, since orientation and rotational motions are closely related to various biological processes, we also summarized the recent advances of optical imaging methods in the rotational and orientation tracking of AuNPs. 2) Monitoring of biomolecular events and physiological processes using i) surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and ii) plasmon enhanced fluorescence (PEF) for ultra-sensitive detection of biomolecules, including proteins, metabolites, DNA, RNA, etc.3) In vivo deep tissue imaging using i) two-photon and/or multi-photon imaging, ii) optical coherence tomography (OCT), and iii) photoacoustic (PA) imaging for disease diagnoses, such as detecting tumors and other diseases in eye, brain, and bone. In conclusion, based on our literature study, AuNPs-assisted bioimaging acts as a promising tool in exploring fundamental biological questions and early diagnosis of diseases.

    更新日期:2019-01-06
  • Progress of binary cooperative complementary interfacial nanomaterials
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2019-01-05
    Ruochen Fang, Mingjie Liu, Lei Jiang

    The binary cooperative complementary phenomenon refers to two opposite but cooperative and complementary species or states, which can be observed from atom scale to universe. When binary cooperative complementary pairs in nanoscale are separated by a related characteristic physical distance, the electron and energy transfer through interface can be well tuned, consequently the macroscopic property of a nanomaterial can be highly enhanced, such materials are defined as binary cooperative complementary interfacial nanomaterials (BCCINMs). A variety of BCCINMs have been developed and exhibited outstanding performance. In this review, for fabrication, various binary cooperative complementary pairs are summarized, the obtained BCCINMs and building blocks are classified into 0D, 1D, 2D and 3D materials, some effective methods and advices are also given. In the following, various properties and applications of existing BCCINMs are introduced. In the next part, BCCINMs are extended, multiple binary cooperative complementary pairs and smart BCCINMs are introduced. Moreover, temporal and spatial regulation is also essential for BCCINMs such as bulk heterojunctions and core-shell quantum dots. There is plenty of room at the bottom for BCCINMs, in the future, more binary cooperative complementary pairs should be employed, effective methods should be created and applied to assemble binary cooperative complementary pairs with suitable distribution size and for spatial and temporal regulation.

    更新日期:2019-01-06
  • Laser-derived graphene: A three-dimensional printed graphene electrode and its emerging applications
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2019-01-02
    Narendra Kurra, Qiu Jiang, Pranati Nayak, Husam N. Alshareef

    Printing of binder-free graphene electrodes directly on substrates has the potential to enable a large number of applications. Though conventional processing techniques such as ink-jet, screen-printing, and roll coating methods offer reliable and scalable fabrication, device performance has often been limited by re-stacking of the graphene sheets and by presence of passive binders and or additives. Laser-based, direct-write technologies have shown promise as a reliable, maskless, and template-free patterning method. Thus, laser-derived graphene (LDG) electrode is emerging as a promising three-dimensional graphene electrode that can be simultaneously derived from precursor carbons or polymers and patterned upon laser exposure. The LDG can be obtained through irradiation by a variety of laser sources including CO2 infrared laser and femtosecond laser pulses, depending on the nature of the starting carbon precursors. Controlling the microstructure, amount and types of doping, and post-deposition methods enable a variety of applications including energy storage, catalysis, sensing and biomedicine. In this review article, we discuss recent progress in using laser-based fabrication of printed 3D graphene electrodes and its wide spectrum of applications. The review also discusses the material aspects of 3D graphene electrodes and provides an outlook for future potential.

    更新日期:2019-01-03
  • Porous carbon nanosheets: Synthetic strategies and electrochemical energy related applications
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Yafei He, Xiaodong Zhuang, Chaojun Lei, Lecheng Lei, Yang Hou, Yiyong Mai, Xinliang Feng

    Development of two-dimensional (2D) porous carbon nanosheets (PCNs) with an interlinked hierarchical porous structure has attracted great attention due to their synergetic features combining both 2D materials and porous architectures. In recent years, rapid development of synthetic methods for the fabrication of PCNs with hierarchical porous structure, high specific surface area, controlled heteroatom doping, and excellent electrical conductivity has shown signifcant potential in energy-related applications. This review article comprehensively summarizes the recent developments in synthetic methods, including the hard template strategy, soft template strategy, and template-free strategy for successful preparation of PCNs. Three representative electrochemical applications of such PCNs materials for lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, and electrocatalytic oxygen reductions are presented. At the end of this review, the current existing challenges for the controlled synthesis of PCNs with desired properties and future perspectives for developments of new synthesis methods and new electrochemical energy applications are also discussed.

    更新日期:2019-01-02
  • Recent advances in colloidal photonic crystal sensors: Materials, structures and analysis methods
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-08-31
    Jue Hou, Mingzhu Li, Yanlin Song

    Colloidal photonic crystal (PC) sensors have been well developed due to their unique advantages in preparation and functionalization, and have been applied into diverse sensing systems. Recently, many breakthroughs about new-type colloidal PC sensors with fast respond speed, high sensitivity and excellent selectivity have been achieved. In this review, we summarize the recent advances of colloidal PC sensors from aspects of materials, structures, and analysis methods, to exhibit the diverse developing strategies. Firstly, an overview of colloidal PC sensors composed of new responsive materials is presented. Next, the unique structures are systematically summarized according to their scale increasing from nanoscale to macroscale, including the colloidal nanoparticles with novel structures and morphologies, the micro-sized PC units, and the integrated PC devices. Then, two series of new analysis methods, cross-reactive analysis based on PC sensors and time/spatial resolved reflection spectra analysis, are highlighted and discussed in details because they can greatly improve the selectivity of recognitions. Finally, a summary and some perspectives on several development directions in this attractive research field are presented.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Emerging core-shell nanostructured catalysts of transition metal encapsulated by two-dimensional carbon materials for electrochemical applications
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-08-31
    Duy Thanh Tran, Tolendra Kshetri, Nguyen Dinh Chuong, Jagadis Gautam, Hoa Van Hien, Le Huu Tuan, Nam Hoon Kim, Joong Hee Lee

    Development of cost-effective, rich-reserve, and highly efficient substitutes to replace the precious metal catalysts is necessary in the field of electro-catalysis to reduce the costs and enhance the efficiency of catalysts. Although, various nonprecious metal catalysts have received much attention, some critical issues still remain in practically applied catalytic processes due to their insufficient activity and poor stability. A novel and potential approach to design catalysts based on nonprecious metal encapsulated by two-dimensional (2D) carbon supporting materials has demonstrated unique advantages in terms of enhanced catalytic activity and stability, especially under harsh operational conditions. This is due to the enriched electrochemical active sites and highly improved interaction between the components by exceptional structural design and alternation of the associated electronic properties. This review highlights the recent advancement of state-of-the-art research on the synthesis, morphology, properties, and applications of the transition metal-based catalysts encapsulated in 2D-carbon supporting material hybrids. The pros and cons of various synthesis methods are discussed in detail to understand the relationships between such unique morphology/structure and physicochemical properties for enhanced catalytic performance. In addition, their potential electrochemical applications are also emphasized, including biosensors, supercapacitors, batteries, fuel cells, and water splitting. Finally, the current challenges in fundamental research and practical applications, and forthcoming opportunities for these promising materials, are also briefly discussed.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Janus nanoarchitectures: From structural design to catalytic applications
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-08-31
    Ziyang Wu, Li Li, Ting Liao, Xinqi Chen, Wan Jiang, Wei Luo, Jianping Yang, Ziqi Sun

    Janus nanoarchitectures, an emerging class of nanostructures named after the Roman god having two faces, have been considered as a fascinating class of nanomaterials for promising applications in various areas, such as optical imaging, emulsion stabilizers, catalysis, drug delivery, etc. The asymmetric structures or counterparts of Janus nanostructures provide access to construct a single unit with multifunctional properties, and thus allow the design of nanocomposites with a possible synergistic effect, especially for catalytic reactions. In the last decade, Janus nanomaterials have been successfully applied in the field of catalysis, by providing solutions to some complex situations, such as biphasic reactions, catalysts recovery, self-propelled movements, and biocompatible catalysis. In this review, we intend to highlight the recent progress of Janus nanoarchitectures for the growing field of catalytic applications. Herein, the fabrication and catalytic applications of Janus nanoarchitectures are critically reviewed in terms of three categories of compositions, i.e., polymeric, inorganic, and polymeric/inorganic Janus nanostructures. Specifically, typical applications of Janus nanoarchitectures in micro/nano motors, interfacial catalysis, and photocatalytic reactions are summarized and discussed. An outlook of the future applications and possible further study of Janus nanomaterials is also provided.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Strain engineering in two-dimensional nanomaterials beyond graphene
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-08-09
    Shikai Deng, Anirudha V. Sumant, Vikas Berry

    Strain engineering is the process of tuning a material's properties by altering its mechanical or structural attributes. Atomically thin two-dimensional nanomaterials (2DNMs), which have been extensively studied in recent years, are particularly well-suited for strain engineering because they can withstand large strain. Thermal vibration, surface adhesion, substrate deformation, pre-stretched substrate, epitaxial grown, thermal expansion mismatch, substrate topography modification, pressurized blisters and tip indentation can lead to strain in 2DNMs. Strain in 2DNMs can modify their atomic structure, lattice vibration, thermal conductivity, electronic and optical, electrical and device performance, and chemical activities. This review focuses on the structural and mechanical properties of various 2DNMs, different experimental strategies to induce strain and modify properties, and applications of strained 2DNMs. Also, the review proposes prospective research areas for future strain engineering studies in 2DNMs.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerators: Trends and impacts
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-08-30
    Hassan Askari, Amir Khajepour, Mir Behrad Khamesee, Zia Saadatnia, Zhong Lin Wang

    Piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerators are the two recently developed technologies for effective harvesting of ambient mechanical energy for self-powered systems. The work herein briefly reports the trends and impacts of research based on piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerators. For the first time, a statistical study of publication trends in piezo- and triboelectric nanogenerators is used to investigate the current state of the research. We investigate the status of the research in these fields, based on their S-shaped history, as a description of their growth in size over time, considering the number of citations and published papers that use these two novel technologies. A brief discussion of the outlook for these technologies and their potential impact on everyday life is presented, particularly in the development of future ‘smart’ cities.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Synthesis of two dimensional materials on extremely clean surfaces
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-05-09
    Zhen Zhen, Xuesong Li, Hongwei Zhu

    Studies in surface science have yielded many perspectives and techniques to solve the two biggest issues in the synthesis of two dimensional materials: degradation during transfer and restriction of applying functional substrates. Atomic manipulation of the surface environment is considered as an essential factor to solve these issues. For example, for the synthesis of graphene, an extremely clean surface can modify the substrate catalytic activity, assist uniform nucleation and avoid structural defects, which can improve the quality of graphene. In addition, many surface treatment techniques have shown great potential for achieving smooth and clean surfaces via physical and chemical etching methods while providing sufficient energy for precursors to decompose, which could potentially avoid the transfer process and enable the use of dielectric substrates at low temperatures. In all, an extremely clean surface is key to the success of direct synthesis of high quality 2D materials on functional substrates in different shapes.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Principal component analysis of personalized biomolecular corona data for early disease detection
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-05-03
    Massimiliano Papi, Giulio Caracciolo

    Today, early disease detection (EDD) is a matter of more importance than ever in medicine. Upon interaction with human plasma, nanoparticles are covered by proteins leading to formation of a biomolecular corona (BC). As the protein patterns of patients with conditions differ from those of healthy subjects, current research into technologies based on the exploitation of personalized BC patterns could be a turning point for early disease detection. Here, we present a framework based on principal component analysis of large personalized BC datasets. We comment on how principal component analysis of personalized BC data is a fundamental step towards turning the output of basic research into fast, safe and inexpensive technologies with superior prediction ability than current methods.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Risk associated with engineered nanomaterials: Different tools for different ways to govern
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-06-05
    Benjamin D. Trump, Danail Hristozov, Timothy Malloy, Igor Linkov

    As the use of manufactured nanomaterials continues to grow internationally, policymakers, regulators, and key stakeholders in industry need to foster governance for such materials and their resulting products. Various stakeholders in government and industry have traditionally employed risk assessment quantifying material hazard, exposure, and effects assessments based upon available measurable data to derive safe exposure limits and acceptable environmental releases. This approach forms the foundation of risk-based governance. However, where manufactured nanomaterials do not have robust quantitative data to populate models for evaluation of hazard, exposure and effects, an alternative set of tools is needed for nanomaterial governance. One option is governance using holistic, multi-criteria approaches, which comparatively review risks, benefits, and other implications of nano-enabled products against conventional alternatives. Such multi-criteria approaches are in line with recent calls for research by the European Commission, and are increasingly discussed in scholarly literature. Based upon the needs and legal/regulatory requirements of a given stakeholder, risk-based or multi-criteria tools can help inform nanomaterial assessment and decision making.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Cu-based nanocatalysts for electrochemical reduction of CO2
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-05-21
    Huan Xie, Tanyuan Wang, Jiashun Liang, Qing Li, Shouheng Sun

    Understanding CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) and developing robust catalysts for selective CO2RR is key to closing carbon cycle and to achieving energy sustainability with desired environmental remediation. Electrochemical CO2RR on a catalyst surface is an attractive method to realize high reaction activity and selectivity under mild reaction conditions. Among various catalysts studied thus far, metallic Cu-based nanocatalysts have demonstrated to be promising for selective CO2RR to HCOOH, CO or, more importantly, to CH4, C2H4 and C2H6 with relatively high efficiency. This review summarizes recent progresses made on these Cu-based nanocatalysts for CO2RR, including fundamental of electrochemical CO2RR, representative approaches to Cu-based nanocatalysts via nanoporous structure, nanoparticle size, composition, surface, support and morphology controls. The review should offer readers some important insights on Cu-catalyzed CO2RR, and will further help readers in their efforts to design and develop robust catalysts for active and selective CO2RR.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Nanomedicine for tumor microenvironment modulation and cancer treatment enhancement
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-07-07
    Jingjing Liu, Qian Chen, Liangzhu Feng, Zhuang Liu

    Cancer, one of major threats to the human health, possesses intricate structure and constituents distinctive from normal organs and tissues. It has been well recognized that the unique tumor microenvironment (TME) would promote tumor progression and metastases, and in the meanwhile result in resistance of tumors to different types of therapies. Therefore, modulation of TME, instead of directly killing tumor cells, has been proposed as an alternative approach to improve the therapeutic outcomes of current cancer therapies. In this regard, nanomedicine strategies have shown significant potential as intensively reported in recent years. In this review, we would like to summarize the latest efforts utilizing nanomedicine to modulate various features within the microenvironment of solid tumors, including tumor hypoxia, tumor pH, the extracellular matrix, as well as the immune microenvironment within the tumor. The therapeutic benefits after such treatments, especially in combination with many existing cancer therapies, will be introduced. On the other hand, how the modulation of TME would in turn favor the therapeutic efficacy of nanomedicine, will also be discussed. The future perspectives of those strategies, especially towards clinical translation, will be addressed in the end.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Methodologies to investigate intracellular barriers for nucleic acid delivery in non-viral gene therapy
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-07-19
    Lotte M.P. Vermeulen, Toon Brans, Stefaan C. De Smedt, Katrien Remaut, Kevin Braeckmans

    A plethora of biological barriers, intended to defend tissues and cells against external influences, stand in the way of efficient nucleic acid delivery by non-viral nanoplexes. Even when nanoplexes successfully evade extracellular barriers and reach their target cell, many intracellular barriers remain to be conquered. These include overcoming the plasma membrane, evading endosomal compartmentalization, and in some cases crossing the nuclear envelope. At the same time, exocytosis, autophagy and cytoplasmic degradation of the cargo should be avoided. Currently, there is a growing appreciation that the interaction of nanoplexes with these barriers should be understood in detail in order to rationally design a second generation of non-viral nanoplexes, capable of overcoming these many hurdles. Studying intracellular biobarriers is, however, quite challenging and specialized methods are constantly being developed. In this review, we present an overview of established as well as emerging techniques and assays that are currently available to the experimentalist to study nanoplex-barrier interaction, with a focus on quantitative methods.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Emerging Pt-based electrocatalysts with highly open nanoarchitectures for boosting oxygen reduction reaction
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-07-19
    Cuiling Li, Haibo Tan, Jianjian Lin, Xiliang Luo, Shengping Wang, Jungmok You, Yong-Mook Kang, Yoshio Bando, Yusuke Yamauchi, Jeonghun Kim

    Developing highly efficient and stable platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is the most essential step toward the commercialization of fuel cells. Highly accessible reactive surfaces play a key role in boosting ORR for superior fuel cell performance due to the adequate exposure of the active surfaces and the feasible mass transport. Herein, we begin with a brief introduction to the design principles for an effective ORR electrocatalyst, which could plausibly possess high activity and durability at the same time. Corresponding with the requirements, the recent progress of rational design based on nanoarchitecture, synthesis, and electrochemical performances of Pt-based electrocatalysts with open construction is reviewed and explained accordingly.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Ultrasmall noble metal nanoparticles: Breakthroughs and biomedical implications
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-07-19
    Xingya Jiang, Bujie Du, Yingyu Huang, Jie Zheng

    As a bridge between individual atoms and large plasmonic nanoparticles, ultrasmall (core size <3 nm) noble metal nanoparticles (UNMNPs) have been serving as model for us to fundamentally understand many unique properties of noble metals that can only be observed at an extremely small size scale. With decades’ efforts, many significant breakthroughs in the synthesis, characterization and functionalization of UNMNPs have laid down a solid foundation for their future applications in the healthcare. In this review, we aim to tightly correlate these breakthroughs with their biomedical applications and illustrate how to utilize these breakthroughs to address long-standing challenges in the clinical translation of nanomedicines. In the end, we offer our perspective on the remaining challenges and opportunities at the frontier of biomedical-related UNMNPs research.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Emerging trends in 2D nanotechnology that are redefining our understanding of “Nanocomposites”
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-05-24
    Pingwei Liu, Anton L. Cottrill, Daichi Kozawa, Volodymyr B. Koman, Dorsa Parviz, Albert Tianxiang Liu, Jingfan Yang, Thang Q. Tran, Min Hao Wong, Song Wang, Michael S. Strano

    The goal of this review is to summarize the recent development of nanocomposites of 2D materials, especially polymer nanocomposites with large-area, high-quality 2D sheets, and more importantly, the future direction of this field. Scientists and engineers have a tendency to review and envision the future based on the past, but innovation does not work like this. Herein, we do not provide a comprehensive review of nanocomposites with 2D materials; rather, we highlight unusual or unconventional directions emerging for nanocomposite materials research. This forward-looking perspective of current trends focuses on new research directions. In this review, we summarize the fundamentals of nanocomposites in regards to the mechanical and functional reinforcement at the theoretical limit, and we briefly introduce the synthesis of large-area 2D materials with high quality and their controlled dispersion into matrix materials to achieve the maximum reinforcement predicted by theory. We continue with the classical and fundamentally important problem of the mechanical reinforcement in nanocomposites; that is, does the reinforcing contribution come from the modification of matrix or the direct mechanical reinforcement by the nanofillers? We present and discuss new forms of nanocomposites with layered and scrolled structure and well-positioned, semi-infinite 2D layers in detail. We also address the functional reinforcement from the continuous 2D sheets and the unusual applications of nanocomposites enabled by these functional 2D layers. In particular, we discuss fiber devices, such as an electromagnetic inductor and a thermal spiral conductor, an atomic-thick barrier film, a bioactive hybrid via attaching 2D layers to a living organism such as plant leaves, intelligent particle devices acting as state machines, and optical devices such as single photon emitters. With these, we further introduce the new nanocomposite concept of a three-dimensional (3D) macroscopic nanocomposite body comprised exclusively of 2D topology. Finally, we discuss the scalability challenges of the production process and the outlook of potential solutions. We hope this review and perspective can intrigue researchers who are currently working in the fields of 2D materials, polymers, and nanocomposites and provide some new insights to promote the future development of nanocomposites.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Graphene, related two-dimensional crystals and hybrid systems for printed and wearable electronics
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-11-23
    Felice Torrisi, Tian Carey

    Graphene, related two-dimensional crystals and hybrid systems showcase several key properties that can address emerging needs in electronics and optoelectronics, in particular for the ever growing markets of printed, flexible and wearable electronic devices. Graphene's flexibility, large surface area, and chemical stability, combined with its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, make it promising as a printed flexible electrodes in flexible and wearable electronic devices. Chemically functionalized graphene and self-assembly of graphene-organic molecule composites can also improve mobility and conductivity of organic semiconducting thin film transistors (TFT). Two-dimensional crystals and hybrid systems provide optical and electrical properties complementary to those of graphene, enabling the realization of printed an flexible ultrathin-film photodetectors or photovoltaic systems. Here, we review the use of graphene and related materials for printed and wearable electronics and optoelectronics, defining the roadmap for future applications in this area.

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • mRNA therapeutics deliver a hopeful message
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-11-23
    Zifu Zhong, Séan Mc Cafferty, Francis Combes, Hanne Huysmans, Joyca De Temmerman, Arlieke Gitsels, Daisy Vanrompay, João Portela Catani, Niek N. Sanders

    Messenger RNA based therapeutics have the potential to cause a big revolution in medicine as they can facilitate personalized medicines and allow patients to produce their own therapeutic proteins without the current purification, solubility and inappropriate glycosylation issues associated with recombinant therapeutic proteins. Moreover, a generic and much cheaper production process can be used for mRNA therapeutics as the physicochemical properties of mRNA are independent of its sequence. Furthermore, mRNA vaccines will allow us to respond much quicker to epidemic outbreaks of dangerous infectious diseases as their production is much faster and more flexible than the production of the current vaccines. In the past, the in vivo delivery of mRNA therapeutics was considered as a major bottleneck. However, very recently it has been demonstrated that in vivo delivery issues like low cellular uptake and in vivo degradation by nucleases can be overcome by formulating the therapeutic mRNA into nanoparticles. In this review, we describe the different synthetic mRNA platforms, their production and purification, strategies to tackle the inherent innate immunogenicity of synthetic mRNA, the recent progress in the development of nanoformulations for the in vivo delivery of mRNA, as well as the efficacy and safety of mRNA therapeutics in recent clinical trials.

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • Influence of molecular fluorophores on the research field of chemically synthesized carbon dots
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-11-20
    Yuan Xiong, Julian Schneider, Elena V. Ushakova, Andrey L. Rogach

    Carbon dots (CDs) – small crystalline or amorphous carbon-based nanoparticles – have attracted much attention as promising fluorescent materials for a wide range of applications. One of their widely accepted advantages is the simplicity of the formation of highly luminescent CDs from a wide variety of organic precursors. At the same time, several recent studies on these chemically synthesized CDs raised questions about the nature of the resulting products. Their strong fluorescence can arise due to the presence of molecular organic fluorophores, not necessary CDs, as was assumed in the earlier publications. In this review, we consider fundamental characteristics of CDs and discuss several issues that currently prevent a better understanding of their structure-property correlation. Analysis of recent related studies identifying the presence of organic fluorophores in CDs with an emphasis on the optical properties of the synthesis products shows that their emission characteristics may be a complex interplay of stand-alone molecular fluorophores and their aggregates, possibly embedded in an amorphous carbon/polymer network. The review concludes with an outlook towards the challenges in the field of the bottom-up synthesized CDs, and their proper identification within the variety of the organic side-products eventually formed during the synthesis.

    更新日期:2018-11-21
  • Two-dimensional peptide based functional nanomaterials
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-11-16
    Lei Liu, Lasse Hyldgaard Klausen, Mingdong Dong

    Polypeptides and proteins have a high density of chemical functionality, which can be used to construct defined macromolecular nano architectures, such as low dimensional assemblies (i.e., nanoparticles, nanofibers and nanotubes), two-dimensional nanosheets, and extended three-dimensional structures (i.e., crystalline solids). Two-dimensional nanosheets are a fundamentally important geometry that bridges the gap between low dimensional assemblies and three-dimensional structures. In view of the considerable impact on a great many fundamental and applied aspects of biological and material sciences, it is therefore significant and valuable to review the recent works related to this field. In recent years, a central goal is to design novel materials with molecular-level information that can be utilized to direct highly specific intra- and intermolecular interactions promoting self-assembly of thermodynamically stable and structurally defined two-dimensional (2D) assemblies. In this review, we present a variety of strategies for constructing the 2D nanoscale assemblies and nanomaterials using specific interactions of polypeptides or similar peptoid molecules in a well-predictable manner. These controllable 2D nanomaterials can also display a variety of functionalities. Initially, the primary and secondary structure of peptides will be introduced. Examples of controlled fabrication of two-dimensional assemblies on the nanoscale are subsequently presented based on different secondary structures of the peptides, e.g. two-dimensional crystals from α-helix, nanoscale sheets from self-assembly of collagen-mimetic peptides with triple helix, co-assembled nanosheet structures assembled from peptide-organic molecules with β-strand conformation, and 2D crystals assembled from peptoid with Σ-strand structure. Furthermore, macrofilms assembled from protein fibril arrays are introduced. These bottom-up strategies can arrange polypeptides and proteins into well-ordered 2D structures, which can have wide-ranging applications, such as membrane-based separations with specific mechanical properties, the control of surface properties in nanodevice and nanosensor fabrication, retroviral transduction in biology and diagnosis of some disease in biomedicine.

    更新日期:2018-11-17
  • Stimuli-responsive switchable organic-inorganic nanocomposite materials
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-11-16
    Wonsik Lee, Dongjun Kim, Seokhee Lee, Jihyeon Park, Seoyeah Oh, Geonho Kim, Joonyoung Lim, Jiwon Kim

    Organic-inorganic nanocomposite materials have attracted a great attention since they cover a wide range of properties by combining the contrasting properties and/or creating novel properties. Functional properties of composites could further be manipulated by stimuli such as light, pH, magnetic/electric field, mechanical force, and heat. When the stimuli can control a wide range of materials’ property, it can be applied to a device with an ON-OFF system: a switch. A switchable material should exhibit the property that is noticeably different upon stimulation (i.e. ON and OFF states) with reversible mechanism. Research on switchable materials has been actively carried out to maximize the difference between ON and OFF states by modifying the structure and composition of nanocomposites, and also on stimuli to control the response time. Switchable materials find their applications in various fields such as catalysts, sensors, photodetectors, memory devices, and drug delivery systems. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in the design/synthesis of organic-inorganic nanoscale materials in which their properties can be controlled in response to a specific stimulus. In addition, we introduce various stimuli (furthermore, multi-stimuli), applications of switchable nanocomposites in a wide range of fields, and also challenges with an outlook.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Theranostic nanosystems for targeted cancer therapy
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-11-16
    Homan Kang, Shuang Hu, Mi Hyeon Cho, Suk Ho Hong, Yongdoo Choi, Hak Soo Choi

    Nanomaterials have revolutionized cancer imaging, diagnosis, and treatment. Multifunctional nanoparticles in particular have been designed for targeted cancer therapy by modulating their physicochemical properties to be delivered to the target and activated by internal and/or external stimuli. This review will focus on the fundamental “chemical” design considerations of stimuli-responsive nanosystems to achieve favorable tumor targeting beyond biological barriers and, furthermore, enhance targeted cancer therapy. In addition, we will summarize innovative smart nanosystems responsive to external stimuli (e.g., light, magnetic field, ultrasound, and electric field) and internal stimuli in the tumor microenvironment (e.g., pH, enzyme, redox potential, and oxidative stress).

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • 更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Advanced colloidal lithography: From patterning to applications
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Yandong Wang, Mengyuan Zhang, Yuekun Lai, Lifeng Chi
    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Stimulus-responsive gold nanotheranostic platforms for targeting the tumor microenvironment
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-09-03
    Jun Jin, Muhammad Ovais, Chunying Chen
    更新日期:2018-09-04
  • Recent advances in phosphorene as a sensing material
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-04-26
    Aijun Yang, Dawei Wang, Xiaohua Wang, Dongzhi Zhang, Nikhil Koratkar, Mingzhe Rong

    A monolayer of black phosphorus (BP), also called phosphorene, is an emerging member of the family of two-dimensional (2D) materials. It has sparked a surge of research activities in material science since its first preparation by mechanical exfoliation in 2014. Several reviews have focused on the structure and anisotropic properties of phosphorene as well as its applications in transistors, batteries, and solar cells. Compared to graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), phosphorene possesses higher surface to volume ratio due to its “puckered” lattice structure and has presented some unique advantages in sensing applications. This review aims to summarize recent developments in the sensing applications of phosphorene, including gas sensing, humidity sensing, photo-detection, bio-sensing and ion sensing. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for the production and sensing applications of phosphorene.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Reassessment of nanomaterials immunotoxicity
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Mahmoud Elsabahy, Karen L. Wooley
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Putting carbon nanomaterials on the carbon cycle map
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-02-12
    Ming Chen, Shuang Zhou, Guangming Zeng, Chang Zhang, Piao Xu
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Chemiresistive nanosensors with convex/concave structures
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    Songyue Chen, Yongliang Tang, Kan Zhan, Daoheng Sun, Xu Hou

    Nanosensors have attracted tremendous, scientific and application, interests promoted by the advances in nanotechnology and emerging new nanomaterials. There has been rapid progress in developing chemiresistive nanosensors, and these sensor technologies are being transferred among a variety of different fields, from energy, environment to life science. This review presents nanomaterials with special convex/concave structures used for chemiresistive sensors, which mainly composed of one-dimensional conductive structures, e.g. nanowires, nanotubes, nanopores and nanochannels. Furthermore, designing, operation, and applications of current chemiresistive nanosensors are discussed to give an outlook of this field, especially for ionic solution and gas as the working chemical environments. The authors hope this review could inspire the active interest in the scientific field of sensor development and application.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Graphene oxide membranes: Functional structures, preparation and environmental applications
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    Meng Sun, Jinghong Li

    Graphene oxide (GO) membranes, as laminated and channel-rich architectures assembled by stacked GO nanosheets, have surpassed other two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials and present preeminent structural specialization and potential applicability in a wide range of environmental applications. This review mainly surveys the latest GO-based macroscopic membranes, which feature distinct functionalized structures, interior fluid flows, and tunable physicochemical properties. The GO-based membranes are classified and presented in three typical forms: single-layered porous GO membranes, few-layered laminated GO membranes, and multi-layered composited GO membranes. More attention is paid to target-oriented preparation strategies for the assembly of GO building blocks, involving multiple interactions and technical advantages, and to the resulting membrane characteristics. The overview also explores the serviceability of these GO-based membranes for full-scale use in environmental practices in gas, water, and biological treatments to pave the way for the promising development and realization of their prospects.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Rational construction of metal nanoparticles fixed in zeolite crystals as highly efficient heterogeneous catalysts
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    Liang Wang, Shaodan Xu, Shenxian He, Feng-Shou Xiao

    The zeolites, a class of materials with uniform porosity, high crystallinity, structural diversity, and large surface area, have been extensively studied in both synthesis and applications in catalysis, separation, and adsorption. In the zeolite crystals, the uniform nanopores benefit molecular diffusion, but the absence of catalytically active metal species (e.g. isolated metal site, nanocluster, and nanoparticle) strongly limits their wide applications. Solution to this problem is to fix the active sites inside of the nanoporous crystals. In this review, it is briefly summarized recent developments on metal-based active species fixed in zeolite crystals, including the synthesis strategies, catalytic performances, and mechanism investigations. It is emphasized that the nanoparticles of metals and metal oxides fixed inside of zeolite crystals effectively combine the advantages of high activity of the nanoparticles and the selectivity/stability of the zeolite, resulting in enhanced catalytic performances in a series of reactions. Particularly, the metal nanoparticles are effectively stabilized by the zeolite sheath, giving superior sinter resistance at harsh reaction conditions.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Dynamic behavior of metal nanoparticles for catalysis
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    Yan Zhou, Chuanchuan Jin, Yong Li, Wenjie Shen

    The geometrical and electronic properties of the active sites on the surface of metal nanoparticles and their structure evolution and dynamic behavior during catalysis, consitute the core issue of heterogeneous catalysis. Metal nanoparticles are characterized by the highly reduced size, in a typical range of 1–10 nm, and the significantly enhanced catalytic performance; but they are subject to structural and chemical changes under the reaction conditions, primarily induced by the reactive gases at elevated temperatures. In situ characterization techniques, like environmental transmission electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, allow to directly visualize the structural variations at nano and atomic scales and simultaneously probe the chemical variations of the metal nanoparticles at functionalities. This review article summarizes the most recent advances on the structure evolution and dynamic behavior of metal nanoparticles, including late transition metals and IB metals, during their activation and reaction processing. Analyses on the correlation between the dynamic nanostructures observed under or close to reaction conditions and the catalytic performance shed profound insights into the fundamental understanding of the structure-reactivity relationship of metal nanoparticles.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Colloidal bioplasmonics
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-05-02
    Ester Polo, María F. Navarro Poupard, Luca Guerrini, Pablo Taboada, Beatriz Pelaz, Ramón A. Alvarez-Puebla, Pablo del Pino

    Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of plasmonic nanomaterials for applications in biology and medicine generating a new field, the so-called bioplasmonics. At present, plasmonic nanoparticles can be found in many applications serving as therapeutics, diagnostic or theranostic agents. The rapid advancement of bioplasmonics has gone hand in hand with the multiplication of the synthetic methods to produce finely-tailored plasmonic nanomaterials and the development of their surface functionalization tools, which is key to provide them with colloidal stability and/or specificity in complex biological media. This review aims to highlight basic physicochemical properties in the bioplasmonics context, as well as the most important bioapplications based on the properties of plasmonic colloids. Pioneering works that stimulated the rise of the bioplasmonics field, as well as most recent advances and future directions are discussed.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Heterogeneous nanostructure array for electrochemical energy conversion and storage
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-04-25
    Min Zhou, Yang Xu, Yong Lei
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide hybrid materials for energy applications
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-03-07
    Nitin Choudhary, Md Ashraful Islam, Jung Han Kim, Tae-Jun Ko, Anthony Schropp, Luis Hurtado, Dylan Weitzman, Lei Zhai, Yeonwoong Jung
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Digital resonant laser printing: Bridging nanophotonic science and consumer products
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Xiaolong Zhu, Mehdi Keshavarz Hedayati, Søren Raza, Uriel Levy, N. Asger Mortensen, Anders Kristensen

    Nanophotonics research relies heavily on state-of-the-art and costly nano and microfabrication technologies. While such technologies are fairly mature, their implementation in large-scale manufacturing of photonic devices is not straightforward. This is a major roadblock for integrating nanophotonic functionalities, such as flat optics or high definition, ink-free color printing, into real life applications. In particular, optical metasurfaces – nanoscale textured surfaces with engineered optical properties – hold great potential for a myriad of such applications. Digital laser printing has recently been introduced as a low-cost lithography solution, which allows the fabrication of high-resolution features on optical substrates. By exploiting resonant opto-thermal modification of individual nanoscale elements, laser printing can achieve nanometer-sized resolution. In addition, the concept of digital resonant laser printing at the nanoscale supports mass-customization and may therefore convert nanophotonic science into everyday consumer products.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • 更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Graphene/Semiconductor Hybrid Heterostructures for Optoelectronic Device Applications
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-02-28
    Chao Xie, Yi Wang, Zhi-Xiang Zhang, Di Wang, Lin-Bao Luo
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Constructing and controlling of highly dispersed metallic sites for catalysis
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-03-02
    Guixia Zhao, Huimin Liu, Jinhua Ye
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Guiding Rules for Selecting a Nanothermometer
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-03-07
    Marta Quintanilla, Luis M. Liz-Marzán
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Recent advances in functional nanomaterials for light–triggered cancer therapy
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-03-13
    Shili Gai, Guixin Yang, Piaoping Yang, Fei He, Jun Lin, Dayong Jin, Bengang Xing
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Colloidal aggregation: From screening nuisance to formulation nuance
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-03-10
    Ahil N. Ganesh, Eric N. Donders, Brian K. Shoichet, Molly S. Shoichet
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Recent progress on the photocatalysis of carbon dots: Classification, mechanism and applications
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Mei Han, Shoujun Zhu, Siyu Lu, Yubin Song, Tanglue Feng, Songyuan Tao, Junjun Liu, Bai Yang
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Carbon nanomaterials for advanced lithium sulfur batteries
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-03-07
    Zheng-Long Xu, Jang-Kyo Kim, Kisuk Kang
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Toward chemical communication between nanodevices
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2017-10-06
    Antoni Llopis-Lorente, Paula Díez, Alfredo Sánchez, María D. Marcos, Félix Sancenón, Paloma Martínez-Ruiz, Reynaldo Villalonga, Ramón Martínez-Máñez
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Old materials with new properties II: The metal carbides
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Tianchao Niu
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • 更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Design of structural and functional nanomaterials for lithium-sulfur batteries
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Jungjin Park, Seung-Ho Yu, Yung-Eun Sung
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Dual-targeted nanomedicines for enhanced tumor treatment
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    Yaqin Zhu, Jan Feijen, Zhiyuan Zhong
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Heterogeneous catalysis by gold and gold-based bimetal nanoclusters
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Jianbo Zhao, Rongchao Jin
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Advances in nanotechnology for cancer biomarkers
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-02-17
    Fei Ye, Ying Zhao, Ramy El-Sayed, Mamoun Muhammed, Moustapha Hassan
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Nanomedicine development guided by FRET imaging
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Danielle M. Charron, Gang Zheng
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Principal component analysis of personalized biomolecular corona data for early disease detection
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-05-03
    Massimiliano Papi, Giulio Caracciolo

    Today, early disease detection (EDD) is a matter of more importance than ever in medicine. Upon interaction with human plasma, nanoparticles are covered by proteins leading to formation of a biomolecular corona (BC). As the protein patterns of patients with conditions differ from those of healthy subjects, current research into technologies based on the exploitation of personalized BC patterns could be a turning point for early disease detection. Here, we present a framework based on principal component analysis of large personalized BC datasets. We comment on how principal component analysis of personalized BC data is a fundamental step towards turning the output of basic research into fast, safe and inexpensive technologies with superior prediction ability than current methods.

    更新日期:2018-05-04
  • Colloidal bioplasmonics
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-05-02
    Ester Polo, María F. Navarro Poupard, Luca Guerrini, Pablo Taboada, Beatriz Pelaz, Ramón A. Alvarez-Puebla, Pablo del Pino

    Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of plasmonic nanomaterials for applications in biology and medicine generating a new field, the so-called bioplasmonics. At present, plasmonic nanoparticles can be found in many applications serving as therapeutics, diagnostic or theranostic agents. The rapid advancement of bioplasmonics has gone hand in hand with the multiplication of the synthetic methods to produce finely-tailored plasmonic nanomaterials and the development of their surface functionalization tools, which is key to provide them with colloidal stability and/or specificity in complex biological media. This review aims to highlight basic physicochemical properties in the bioplasmonics context, as well as the most important bioapplications based on the properties of plasmonic colloids. Pioneering works that stimulated the rise of the bioplasmonics field, as well as most recent advances and future directions are discussed.

    更新日期:2018-05-03
  • Recent advances in phosphorene as a sensing material
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-04-26
    Aijun Yang, Dawei Wang, Xiaohua Wang, Dongzhi Zhang, Nikhil Koratkar, Mingzhe Rong

    A monolayer of black phosphorus (BP), also called phosphorene, is an emerging member of the family of two-dimensional (2D) materials. It has sparked a surge of research activities in material science since its first preparation by mechanical exfoliation in 2014. Several reviews have focused on the structure and anisotropic properties of phosphorene as well as its applications in transistors, batteries, and solar cells. Compared to graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), phosphorene possesses higher surface to volume ratio due to its “puckered” lattice structure and has presented some unique advantages in sensing applications. This review aims to summarize recent developments in the sensing applications of phosphorene, including gas sensing, humidity sensing, photo-detection, bio-sensing and ion sensing. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for the production and sensing applications of phosphorene.

    更新日期:2018-04-27
  • Graphene oxide membranes: Functional structures, preparation and environmental applications
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    Meng Sun, Jinghong Li

    Graphene oxide (GO) membranes, as laminated and channel-rich architectures assembled by stacked GO nanosheets, have surpassed other two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials and present preeminent structural specialization and potential applicability in a wide range of environmental applications. This review mainly surveys the latest GO-based macroscopic membranes, which feature distinct functionalized structures, interior fluid flows, and tunable physicochemical properties. The GO-based membranes are classified and presented in three typical forms: single-layered porous GO membranes, few-layered laminated GO membranes, and multi-layered composited GO membranes. More attention is paid to target-oriented preparation strategies for the assembly of GO building blocks, involving multiple interactions and technical advantages, and to the resulting membrane characteristics. The overview also explores the serviceability of these GO-based membranes for full-scale use in environmental practices in gas, water, and biological treatments to pave the way for the promising development and realization of their prospects.

    更新日期:2018-04-25
  • Rational construction of metal nanoparticles fixed in zeolite crystals as highly efficient heterogeneous catalysts
    Nano Today (IF 17.753) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    Liang Wang, Shaodan Xu, Shenxian He, Feng-Shou Xiao

    The zeolites, a class of materials with uniform porosity, high crystallinity, structural diversity, and large surface area, have been extensively studied in both synthesis and applications in catalysis, separation, and adsorption. In the zeolite crystals, the uniform nanopores benefit molecular diffusion, but the absence of catalytically active metal species (e.g. isolated metal site, nanocluster, and nanoparticle) strongly limits their wide applications. Solution to this problem is to fix the active sites inside of the nanoporous crystals. In this review, it is briefly summarized recent developments on metal-based active species fixed in zeolite crystals, including the synthesis strategies, catalytic performances, and mechanism investigations. It is emphasized that the nanoparticles of metals and metal oxides fixed inside of zeolite crystals effectively combine the advantages of high activity of the nanoparticles and the selectivity/stability of the zeolite, resulting in enhanced catalytic performances in a series of reactions. Particularly, the metal nanoparticles are effectively stabilized by the zeolite sheath, giving superior sinter resistance at harsh reaction conditions.

    更新日期:2018-04-25
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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