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Sediment archives reveal irreversible shifts in plankton communities after World War II and agricultural pollution
Current Biology ( IF 9.601 ) Pub Date : 2021-04-21 , DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.03.079
Raffaele Siano, Malwenn Lassudrie, Pierre Cuzin, Nicolas Briant, Véronique Loizeau, Sabine Schmidt, Axel Ehrhold, Kenneth Neil Mertens, Clément Lambert, Laure Quintric, Cyril Noël, Marie Latimier, Julien Quéré, Patrick Durand, Aurélie Penaud

To evaluate the stability and resilience1 of coastal ecosystem communities to perturbations that occurred during the Anthropocene,2 pre-industrial biodiversity baselines inferred from paleoarchives are needed.3,4 The study of ancient DNA (aDNA) from sediments (sedaDNA)5 has provided valuable information about past dynamics of microbial species6, 7, 8 and communities9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 in relation to ecosystem variations. Shifts in planktonic protist communities might significantly affect marine ecosystems through cascading effects,19, 20, 21 and therefore the analysis of this compartment is essential for the assessment of ecosystem variations. Here, sediment cores collected from different sites of the Bay of Brest (northeast Atlantic, France) allowed ca. 1,400 years of retrospective analyses of the effects of human pollution on marine protists. Comparison of sedaDNA extractions and metabarcoding analyses with different barcode regions (V4 and V7 18S rDNA) revealed that protist assemblages in ancient sediments are mainly composed of species known to produce resting stages. Heavy-metal pollution traces in sediments were ascribed to the World War II period and coincided with community shifts within dinoflagellates and stramenopiles. After the war and especially from the 1980s to 1990s, protist genera shifts followed chronic contaminations of agricultural origin. Community composition reconstruction over time showed that there was no recovery to a Middle Ages baseline composition. This demonstrates the irreversibility of the observed shifts after the cumulative effect of war and agricultural pollutions. Developing a paleoecological approach, this study highlights how human contaminations irreversibly affect marine microbial compartments, which contributes to the debate on coastal ecosystem preservation and restoration.



中文翻译:

沉积物档案显示第二次世界大战和农业污染后浮游生物群落发生了不可逆转的变化

为了评估沿海生态系统群落1对人类世期间发生的扰动的稳定性和复原力,需要从古档案学中推断出2种工业前生物多样性基准。3 4古DNA的(的aDNA)沉积物(该研究的sed的aDNA)5已提供了有关微生物物种6、7、8和群落9、10、11、12、13、14、15、16、17、18与生态系统变化相关的过去动态的有价值的信息。浮游生物界的转变可能会通过级联效应19、20、21显着影响海洋生态系统,因此,对该舱室的分析对于评估生态系统变化至关重要。在这里,从布雷斯特湾(法国东北大西洋)的不同地点收集的沉积物核芯允许约有。1400年回顾性分析了人类污染对海洋生物的影响。sed的比较aDNA提取和不同条形码区域(V4和V7 18S rDNA)的元条形码分析表明,古代沉积物中的原生生物组合主要由已知会产生静止期的物种组成。沉积物中的重金属污染痕迹可归因于第二次世界大战时期,并与甲鞭毛虫和Stramenopiles内的群落转移相吻合。战后,尤其是从1980年代到1990年代,由于农业起源的长期污染,原始人的属发生了转变。随着时间的推移,社区组成的重建表明,没有恢复到中世纪基线组成。这表明在战争和农业污染的累积影响之后,观察到的变化是不可逆的。开发一种古生态方法,

更新日期:2021-04-21
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