Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research ( IF 1.938 ) Pub Date : 2020-10-13 , DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2020.08.006 Yulán Úbeda; Jaume Fatjó; Carles Rostán; Dietmar Crailsheim; Alba Gomara; Javier Almunia; Miquel Llorente
The diagnosis of psychopathologies in nonhuman primates has received increasing interest in the last decade. However, only a limited number of categories of pathology have been diagnosed in some chimpanzees exclusively by using adapted versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). With this in mind, we have created a questionnaire for the assessment of psychopathologies in twenty-three rescued ex-performer and ex-pet chimpanzees, based on an inclusion-exclusion adaptation of the 5th Edition of the DSM. A total of 70 items were retained for the Chimpanzee Psychopathology Questionnaire (CPQ), according to three main criteria: deleting those that could not be applied to the subjects, retaining those that could be applied and adapted when needed. Principal components analysis and regularized exploratory factor analysis revealed nine statistically significant factors with acceptable standards of interrater reliability and validity, accounting for 70.78 % of the variance. The factors obtained were clear and similar to some of the main categories of diagnosis for humans. Nevertheless, the limitation of the sample, the subjectivity in the creation of the questionnaire, as well as the theoretical and methodological challenges of the adaptation of the DSM to chimpanzees, led to the fact that the this research should be considered as a first contact study on the identification of disorder categories in a group of chimpanzees. The main purpose of this study is to start a debate in order to promote research on psychopathology in chimpanzees and other animals. Likewise, it is important to emphasize that the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders in chimpanzees could be translated to important pragmatic aspects for the species related to awareness, legal implications, welfare and comparative psychopathology.