Scientific Reports ( IF 4.6 ) Pub Date : 2020-07-28 , DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-69388-y John B Whitfield 1 , Gu Zhu 1 , J George Landers 2 , Nicholas G Martin 1
- Genetic Epidemiology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 300 Herston Road, Brisbane, QLD, 4006, Australia.
- , Chania, Crete, Greece.
乐观悲观人格量表的分数与死亡率有关，但乐观和悲观分数是可分离的特征，尚不清楚哪一种对健康或长寿有影响。在1993-1995年间，一项针对50岁以上澳大利亚人健康的双胞胎研究中包括了生活取向测试（LOT），其中包含乐观和悲观的项目。平均20年后，参与者与来自澳大利亚国家死亡指数的死亡信息相匹配。在2,978名具有很多可用分数的参与者中，有1,068人死亡。生存分析测试了各种乐观因素和悲观情绪分数与任何原因，癌症，心血管疾病或其他已知原因的死亡率之间的关联。年龄调整后的悲观量表上的核心与全因和心血管疾病死亡率相关（每1个标准差单位的危险比，95％置信区间和p值1.134、1.065–1.207、8.85×10 –5和1.196、1.045–1.368、0.0093 ），但不会因癌症死亡。乐观得分与悲观得分之间的相关性很弱（年龄调整后的等级相关系数= − 0.176），但与总死亡率或特定原因死亡率没有显着相关性。反向因果关系（引起悲观情绪的疾病）是不可能的，因为在那种情况下，心血管疾病和癌症都会导致悲观情绪。
Pessimism is associated with greater all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, but optimism is not protective.
Scores on an optimistic-pessimistic personality scale have been associated with mortality, but optimism and pessimism scores are separable traits and it is unclear which has effects on health or longevity. The Life Orientation Test (LOT), containing items for optimism and pessimism, was included in a twin study on health of Australians aged over 50 in 1993–1995. After a mean of 20 years, participants were matched against death information from the Australian National Death Index. 1,068 out of 2,978 participants with useable LOT scores had died. Survival analysis tested for associations between separate optimism and pessimism scores and mortality from any cause, and from cancers, cardiovascular diseases or other known causes. Age-adjusted scores on the pessimism scale were associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (Hazard Ratios per 1 standard deviation unit, 95% confidence intervals and p-values 1.134, 1.065–1.207, 8.85 × 10–5 and 1.196, 1.045–1.368, 0.0093, respectively) but not with cancer deaths. Optimism scores, which were only weakly correlated with pessimism scores (age-adjusted rank correlation = − 0.176), did not show significant associations with overall or cause-specific mortality. Reverse causation (disease causing pessimism) is unlikely because in that case both cardiovascular diseases and cancers would be expected to lead to pessimism.