显示样式:     当前期刊: Cellular Signalling    加入关注       排序: 导出
我的关注
我的收藏
您暂时未登录!
登录
  • Chemical genetic screen identifies Gapex-5/GAPVD1 and STBD1 as novel AMPK substrates
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2019-02-14
    Serge Ducommun, Maria Deak, Anja Zeigerer, Olga Göransson, Susanne Seitz, Caterina Collodet, Agnete B. Madsen, Thomas E. Jensen, Benoit Viollet, Marc Foretz, Philipp Gut, David Sumpton, Kei Sakamoto

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, acting as a sensor of energy and nutrient status. As such, AMPK is considered a promising drug target for treatment of medical conditions particularly associated with metabolic dysfunctions. To better understand the downstream effectors and physiological consequences of AMPK activation, we have employed a chemical genetic screen in mouse primary hepatocytes in an attempt to identify novel AMPK targets. Treatment of hepatocytes with a potent and specific AMPK activator 991 resulted in identification of 65 proteins phosphorylated upon AMPK activation, which are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as lipid/glycogen metabolism, vesicle trafficking, and cytoskeleton organization. Further characterization and validation using mass spectrometry followed by immunoblotting analysis with phosphorylation site-specific antibodies identified AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of Gapex-5 (also known as GTPase-activating protein and VPS9 domain-containing protein 1 (GAPVD1)) on Ser902 in hepatocytes and starch-binding domain 1 (STBD1) on Ser175 in multiple cells/tissues. As new promising roles of AMPK as a key metabolic regulator continue to emerge, the substrates we identified could provide new mechanistic and therapeutic insights into AMPK-activating drugs in the liver.

    更新日期:2019-02-15
  • Comparative transcriptomics reveals mechanisms underlying cln3-deficiency phenotypes in Dictyostelium
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2019-02-14
    Robert J. Huber, Sabateeshan Mathavarajah

    Mutations in CLN3 cause a juvenile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). This devastating neurological disorder, commonly known as Batten disease, is currently untreatable due to a lack of understanding of the physiological role of the protein. Recently, work in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has provided valuable new insight into the function of CLN3 in the cell. More specifically, research has linked the Dictyostelium homolog (gene: cln3, protein: Cln3) to protein secretion, adhesion, and aggregation during starvation, which initiates multicellular development. In this study, we used comparative transcriptomics to explore the mechanisms underlying the aberrant response of cln3− cells to starvation. During starvation, 1153 genes were differentially expressed in cln3− cells compared to WT. Among the differentially expressed genes were homologs of other human NCL genes including TPP1/CLN2, CLN5, CTSD/CLN10, PGRN/CLN11, and CTSF/CLN13. STRING and GO term analyses revealed an enrichment of genes linked to metabolic, biosynthetic, and catalytic processes. We then coupled the findings from the RNA-seq analysis to biochemical assays, specifically showing that loss of cln3 affects the expression and activity of lysosomal enzymes, increases endo-lysosomal pH, and alters nitric oxide homeostasis. Finally, we show that cln3− cells accumulate autofluorescent storage bodies during starvation and provide evidence linking the function of Cln3 to Tpp1 and CtsD activity. In total, this study enhances our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying Cln3 function in Dictyostelium.

    更新日期:2019-02-14
  • Inositol pyrophosphates and Akt: Is the pancreatic β-cell the exception to the rule?
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2019-02-08
    Jaeyoon Kim, Elisabetta Daré, Subu Surendran Rajasekaran, Sung Ho Ryu, Per-Olof Berggren, Christopher J. Barker
    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • The biphasic effects of the oxLDL/β2GPI/anti-β2GPI complex on VSMC proliferation and apoptosis
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2019-02-07
    Ting Wang, Hong Zhou, Yudan Chen, Peng Zhang, Ting Wang

    In our previous study, the oxLDL/β2GPI/anti-β2GPI complex was demonstrated to further enhance the foam cell formation and migration of VSMC, as well as the expression of inflammatory cytokines, via the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. However, sparse information is available on other pro-atherogenic pathogenic effects of the oxLDL/β2GPI/anti-β2GPI complex, such as effects on proliferation and apoptosis. In the present study, we focused on the biphasic effects and underlying mechanisms of the oxLDL/β2GPI/anti-β2GPI complex on VSMC survival. The data showed that short exposure to the oxLDL/β2GPI/anti-β2GPI complex could activate NF-κB and ERK1/2 pathways and stimulate cell proliferation in VSMC. In contrast, longer exposure increased the level of p38 pathway activation and cell apoptosis. Additionally, the promotion effect of the oxLDL/β2GPI/anti-β2GPI complex on both proliferation and apoptosis, as well as signaling pathway activation, was stronger than that of the other control groups. The use of selective blockers showed that TLR4/NF-κB and ERK1/2 partly mediated oxLDL/β2GPI/anti-β2GPI complex-induced proliferation and had an inhibitory effect on complex-stimulated apoptosis. Conversely, TLR2/p38 partly mediated oxLDL/β2GPI/anti-β2GPI complex-induced apoptosis and had a negative effect on complex-stimulated proliferation. Specific inhibitors of NF-κB and ERK1/2 activation could augment the oxLDL/β2GPI/anti-β2GPI complex-induced phosphorylation of p38 and vice versa. Under pretreatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitors, intracellular ROS generation was confirmed to participate in oxLDL/β2GPI/anti-β2GPI complex-induced proliferation and apoptosis, as well as the phosphorylation of NF-κB and MAPKs. Taken together, our data clearly revealed that the oxLDL/β2GPI/anti-β2GPI complex had biphasic effects on VSMC survival, partly mediated by ROS-induced NF-κB and MAPKs activation. The TLR4/NF-κB and TLR2/p38 pathways played supporting roles in this dual effects-initiated signal network, and there is a trade-off relationship between the phosphorylation of NF-κB, ERK1/2 and p38. The dual effects of the oxLDL/β2GPI/anti-β2GPI complex on VSMC survival contribute to the development of the structure typical of atherosclerotic lesions, particularly focal excessive growth alternating with necrosis.

    更新日期:2019-02-08
  • Inhibition of MALAT1 reduces tumor growth and metastasis and promotes drug sensitivity in colorectal cancer
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2019-02-01
    Dongxin Tang, Zhu Yang, Fengxi Long, Li Luo, Bing Yang, Ruyi Zhu, Xianan Sang, Gang Cao

    Human metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a long non-coding RNA known to be highly expressed in several tumors. In colorectal cancer (CRC), MALAT1 promoted cell proliferation, metastasis, and invasion in vitro and in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MALAT1 on the proliferation, migration, and drug sensitivity of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo and the mechanisms involved therein. We observed increased expression of MALAT1 in six CRC cell lines compared to that in normal cells, suggesting its involvement in CRC progression. Downregulation of MALAT1 inhibited cell migration and induced apoptosis in vitro and inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice. Furthermore, MALAT1 silencing downregulated the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and multi-drug resistance proteins including MDR1 and MRP1, resulting in decreased resistance of cancer cells to 5-FU. In addition, the metastasis and invasion of HCT-116 and HCT-116/5-FU cells were regulated via targeting miR-20b-5p. Based on these observations, we infer that inhibition of MALAT1 suppressed CRC progression and metastasis and improved the sensitivity of cancer cells to 5-FU. The present study proposes a new direction to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the invasion and metastasis of CRC, whereby the interaction between MALAT1 and miR-20b-5p could be a novel therapeutic target for CRC.

    更新日期:2019-02-05
  • Minocycline inhibits PDGF-BB-induced human aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration by reversing miR-221- and -222-mediated RECK suppression
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2019-02-01
    Yusuke Higashi, Mummidi Srinivas, Sergiy Sukhanov, Tadashi Yoshida, Makoto Noda, Patrice Delafontaine, Bysani Chandrasekar

    Minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, is known to exert vasculoprotective effects independent of its anti-bacterial properties; however the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Reversion Inducing Cysteine Rich Protein with Kazal Motifs (RECK) is a cell surface expressed, membrane anchored protein, and its overexpression inhibits cancer cell migration. We hypothesized that minocycline inhibits platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced human aortic smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and migration via RECK upregulation. Our data show that the BB homodimer of recombinant PDGF (PDGF-BB) induced SMC migration and proliferation, effects significantly blunted by pre-treatment with minocycline. Further investigations revealed that PDGF-BB induced PI3K-dependent AKT activation, MEK-dependent ERK activation, reactive oxygen species generation, Nuclear Factor-κB and Activator Protein-1 activation, microRNA (miR)-221 and miR-222 induction, RECK suppression, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP2 and 9) activation, effects that were reversed by minocycline. Notably, minocycline induced RECK expression dose-dependently within the therapeutic dose of 1–100 μM, and silencing RECK partially reversed the inhibitory effects of minocycline on PDGF-BB-induced MMP activation, and SMC proliferation and migration. Further, targeting MMP2 and MMP9 blunted PDGF-BB-induced SMC migration. Together, these results demonstrate that minocycline inhibits PDGF-BB-induced SMC proliferation and migration by restoring RECK expression and inhibiting MMP activation. These results indicate that the induction of RECK is one of the mechanisms by which minocycline exerts vasculoprotective effects.

    更新日期:2019-02-05
  • MiR-146a attenuates liver fibrosis by inhibiting transforming growth factor-β1 mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocytes
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2019-01-31
    Yanting Zou, Shuyu Li, Zhengliang Li, Dongqiang Song, Shuncai Zhang, Qunyan Yao

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has emerged as a vital process in embryogenesis, carcinogenesis, and tissue fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)-mediated signaling pathways play important roles in the EMT process. MicroRNA-146a (miR-146a) has been suggested as a significant regulatory molecule in fibrogenesis. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of miR-146a on the EMT of hepatocytes and to investigate the role of overexpressing miR-146a on rat hepatic fibrosis. The results showed that the miR-146a level decreased during the EMT process of L02 hepatocytes induced by TGF-β1 in vitro. Moreover, miR-146a overexpression led to significant reduction of EMT-related markers expression in hepatocytes. Subsequent experiments revealed that miR-146a attenuated the EMT process in hepatocytes by targeting small mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) 4. Meanwhile, restoration of SMAD4 expression rescued the inhibitory effect of miRNA-146a on EMT. Further in vivo studies revealed that intravenous injection of miR-146a-expressing adenovirus (Ad-miR-146a) successfully restored the miR-146a levels and mitigated fibrogenesis in the livers of CCl4-treated rats. More importantly, after Ad-miR-146a treatment, inhibition of both EMT traits and SMAD4 expression was observed. The results of the present study showed that miR-146a/SMAD4 is a key signaling cascade that inhibits hepatocyte EMT, and the introduction of miR-146a might present a promising therapeutic option for liver fibrosis.

    更新日期:2019-02-05
  • Understanding and exploiting cell signalling convergence nodes and pathway cross-talk in malignant brain cancer
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2019-01-30
    Nok Him Fung, Corrina Grima, Samuel S. Widodo, Andrew H. Kaye, Clarissa A. Whitehead, Stanley S. Stylli, Theo Mantamadiotis

    In cancer, complex intracellular and intercellular signals constantly evolve for the advantage of the tumour cells but to the disadvantage of the whole organism. Decades of intensive research have revealed the critical roles of cellular signalling pathways in regulating complex cell behaviours which influence tumour development, growth and therapeutic response, and ultimately patient outcome. Most studies have focussed on specific pathways and the resulting tumour cell function in a rather linear fashion, partly due to the available methodologies and partly due to the traditionally reductionist approach to research. Advances in cancer research, including genomic technologies have led to a deep appreciation of the complex signals and pathway interactions operating in tumour cells. In this review we examine the role and interaction of three major cell signalling pathways, PI3K, MAPK and cAMP, and their interactions in regulating tumour cell functions and discuss the prospects for exploiting this knowledge to better treat difficult to treat cancers using glioblastoma, the most common and deadly malignant brain cancer, as the example disease.

    更新日期:2019-01-31
  • Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) enhances FcεRI-mediated signaling and mast cell function
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2019-01-29
    Yuefei Jin, Minghua Zhu, Yanli Guo, Daniel Foreman, Feifei Feng, Guangcai Duan, Weidong Wu, Weiguo Zhang

    Persistent exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can exacerbate allergic diseases in humans. Mast cells play an important role in allergic inflammation in peripheral tissues, such as skin, mucosa, and lung. Engagement of the high-affinity Fc receptor leads to mast cell degranulation, releasing a variety of highly active mediators including histamine, leukotrienes, and inflammatory cytokines. How PM2.5 exposure affects mast cell activation and function remains largely unknown. To characterize the effect of PM2.5 on mast cells, we used bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) to examine whether PM2.5 affected FcεRI-mediated signaling, cytokine production, and degranulation. Exposure to high doses of PM2.5 caused pronounced apoptosis and death of BMMCs. In contrast, exposure to low doses of PM2.5 enhanced mast cell degranulation and FcεRI-mediated cytokine production. Further analysis showed that PM2.5 treatment increased Syk activation and subsequently phosphorylation of its substrates including LAT, PLC-γ1, and SLP-76. Moreover, PM2.5 treatment led to activation of the PI3K and MAPK pathways. Intriguingly, water-soluble fraction of PM2.5 were found responsible for the enhancement of FcεRI-mediated signaling, mast cell degranulation, and cytokine production. Our data suggest that PM2.5, mainly water-soluble fraction of PM2.5, could affect mast cell activation through enhancing FcεRI-mediated signaling.

    更新日期:2019-01-30
  • ER stress activation impairs the expression of circadian clock and clock-controlled genes in NIH3T3 cells via an ATF4-dependent mechanism
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2019-01-28
    Lei Gao, Huatao Chen, Cuimei Li, Yaoyao Xiao, Dan Yang, Manhui Zhang, Dong Zhou, Wei Liu, Aihua Wang, Yaping Jin
    更新日期:2019-01-29
  • Src family kinases, HCK and FGR, associate with local inflammation and tumour progression in colorectal cancer
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2019-01-23
    Antonia K. Roseweir, Arfon G.M.T. Powell, Sheryl L. Horstman, Jitwadee Inthagard, James H. Park, Donald C. McMillan, Paul G. Horgan, Joanne Edwards

    Background In colorectal cancer (CRC), inflammatory responses have been reported to associate with patient survival. However, the specific signalling pathways responsible for regulating inflammatory responses are not clear. Src family kinases (SFKs) impact tumourigenic processes, including inflammation. Methods The relationship between SFK expression, inflammatory responses and cancer specific survival (CSS) in stage I-III CRC patients was assessed using immunohistochemistry on a 272 patient discovery cohort and an extended 822 patient validation cohort. Results In the discovery cohort, cytoplasmic FGR associated with improved CSS (P = 0.019), with membrane HCK (p = 0.093) trending towards poorer CSS. In the validation cohort membrane FGR (p = 0.016), membrane HCK (p = 0.019), and cytoplasmic HCK (p = 0.030) all associated with poorer CSS. Both markers also associated with decreased proliferation and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (all p < 0.05). Furthermore, cytoplasmic HCK was an independent prognostic marker compared to common clinical factors. To assess synergy a combine FGR + HCK score was assessed. The membrane FGR + HCK score strengthened associations with poor prognosis (p = 0.006), decreased proliferation (p < 0.001) and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (p < 0.001). Conclusions SFKs associate with prognosis and the local inflammatory response in patients with stage I-III CRC. Active membrane FGR and HCK work in parallel to promote tumour progression and down-regulation of the local inflammatory lymphocytic response.

    更新日期:2019-01-23
  • Evolving complexity of MIF signaling
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2019-01-23
    Stanislovas S. Jankauskas, Dickson W.L. Wong, Richard Bucala, Sonja Djudjaj, Peter Boor

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine expressed in various cell types, including hematopoietic, epithelial, endothelial, mesenchymal and neuronal cells. Altered MIF expression has been associated with a multitude of diseases ranging from inflammatory disorders like sepsis, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis to organ pathologies such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, acute kidney injury, organ fibrosis and a number of malignancies. The implication of MIF in these diseases was supported by numerous animal studies. MIF acts in an autocrine and paracrine manner via binding and activating the receptors CD74/CD44, CXCR2, CXCR4 and CXCR7. Upon receptor binding, several downstream signaling pathways were shown to be activated in vivo, including ERK1/2, AMPK and AKT. Expression of MIF receptors is not uniform in various cells, resulting in differential responses to MIF across various tissues and pathologies. Within cells, MIF can directly bind and interact with intracellular proteins, such as the constitutive photomorphogenic-9 (COP9) signalosome subunit 5 (CSN5), p53 or thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT or MIF-2) was recognized to be a structural and functional homolog of MIF, which could exert overlapping effects, raising further the complexity of canonical MIF signaling pathways. Here, we provide an overview of the expression and regulation of MIF, D-DT and their receptors. We also discuss the downstream signaling pathways regulated by MIF/D-DT and their pathological roles in different tissue, particularly in the heart and the kidney.

    更新日期:2019-01-23
  • A steroid alkaloid derivative 02F04 upregulates thymic stromal lymphopoietin expression slowly and continuously through a novel Gq/11-ROCK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway in mouse keratinocytes
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2019-01-19
    Yan Weng, Jingwen Wang, Zhifu Yang, Miaomiao Xi, Jialin Duan, Chao Guo, Ying Yin, Ryosuke Segawa, Takahiro Moriya, Takayuki Yonezawa, Byung Yoon Cha, Je-Tae Woo, Aidong Wen, Noriyasu Hirasawa
    更新日期:2019-01-23
  • SGTb regulates a surface localization of a guidance receptor BOC to promote neurite outgrowth
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2019-01-09
    Tuan Anh Vuong, Sang-Jin Lee, Young-Eun Leem, Jae-Rin Lee, Gyu-Un Bae, Jong-Sun Kang

    Neuritogenesis is a critical event for neuronal differentiation and neuronal circuitry formation during neuronal development and regeneration. Our previous study revealed a critical role of a guidance receptor BOC in a neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth. However, regulatory mechanisms for BOC signaling pathway remain largely unexplored. In the current study, we have identified Small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing b (SGTb) as a BOC interacting protein through yeast two-hybrid screening. Like BOC, SGTb is highly expressed in brain and P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells differentiated into neuronal cells. BOC and SGTb proteins co-precipitate in mouse brain and differentiated P19 EC cells. Furthermore, BOC and SGTb co-localize in neurites and especially are concentrated at the tip of neurites in various neuronal cells. SGTb depletion attenuates neuronal differentiation of P19 cells through reduction of the surface level of BOC. Additionally, SGTb depletion causes BOC localization at neurite tip, coinciding with decreased p-JNK levels critical for actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The overexpression of SGTb or BOC restores JNK activation in BOC or SGTb-depleted cells, respectively. Finally, SGTb elevates the level of surface-resident BOC in BOC-depleted cells, restoring JNK activation. Taken together, our data suggest that SGTb interacts with BOC and regulates its surface level and consequent JNK activation, thereby promoting neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth.

    更新日期:2019-01-10
  • BMP6 increases TGF-β1 production by up-regulating furin expression in human granulosa-lutein cells
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2019-01-08
    Xin-Yue Zhang, Hsun-Ming Chang, Hua Zhu, Rui-Zhi Liu, Peter C.K. Leung

    Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) are key intraovarian regulators that play essential roles in regulating mammalian follicular function and promoting oocyte maturation. Furin, a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, promotes the activation of diverse functional proteins by cleaving protein precursors in the secretory pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and underlying molecular mechanisms by which BMP6 regulates the expression of furin to increase TGF-β1 production. Primary and immortalized (SVOG) human granulosa-lutein (hGL) cells were used as study models. Our results show that BMP6 significantly up-regulated the expression of furin and increased the production of TGF-β1 in hGL cells. Using dual inhibition approaches (kinase receptor inhibitors and small interfering RNA-targeted knockdown), we demonstrate that both activin receptor-like (ALK)2 and ALK3 are involved in the BMP6-induced up-regulation of furin. Additionally, knockdown of furin abolished BMP6-induced increases in TGF-β1 production. Moreover, knockdown of endogenous SMAD4 reversed the BMP6-induced increase in furin expression. These results indicate that the ALK2/3-mediated canonical SMAD signaling pathway is required for the stimulatory effect of BMP6 on furin expression, which in turn increases the production of TGF-β1 in hGL cells. Our findings provide insights into the molecular interactions and mechanisms of two intrafollicular growth factors in hGL cells.

    更新日期:2019-01-08
  • Liver parenchymal cells lacking Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) are prone to endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Erawan Borkham-Kamphorst, Eddy Van de Leur, Ute Haas, Ralf Weiskirchen

    Unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive mechanism allowing the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to react to an accumulation of unfolded proteins in its lumen, also known as ER stress. The UPR is interconnected with inflammation through several pathways such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production resulting from the protein folding or alternatively, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) via IRE1, or induction of acute phase response (APR). Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is one of the APR proteins induced under inflammatory conditions and up-regulated during ER stress. Upon incubation of Lcn2−/− and wild type (wt) primary hepatocytes with tunicamycin (TM) or thapsigargin (TG) we found the Lcn2−/− hepatocytes to react with strong UPR to the ER stress, as evidenced by significantly increased levels of Grp94, Bip and Chop mRNA and protein compared to the wt. TM and TG-treated hepatocytes activated p65 NF-κB and JNK, the pathways that respond to stress stimuli and playing a central role in inflammation and apoptosis, respectively. ER stress further activated and cleaved full-length CREBH/CREB3L3, the hepatocyte specific transcription factor to induce systemic inflammatory responses. Upregulation of the C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) was very prominent in Lcn2−/− hepatocytes and sustained until 48 h, resulting in hepatocyte apoptosis as evidenced by increased cleaved caspase 3. We also explored the UPR of the Lcn2 null mouse livers in acute intoxication and inflammation stages with a single application of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The Lcn2 null mice clearly developed stronger UPR in LPS- and CCl4-induced ER stress compared to the wt. Our findings indicate that the upregulation of LCN2 during ER stress-induced inflammatory responses protects hepatocytes from being overwhelmed by UPR upon liver injury.

    更新日期:2019-01-06
  • Cellular signaling in pseudoxanthoma elasticum: an update
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    M. Van Gils, L. Nollet, Ewout Verly, N. Deianova, O.M. Vanakker

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum is an autosomal recessive genodermatosis with variable expression, due to mutations in the ABCC6 or ENPP1 gene. It is characterized by elastic fiber mineralization and fragmentation, resulting in skin, eye and cardiovascular symptoms. Significant advances have been made in the last 20 years with respect to the phenotypic characterization and pathophysiological mechanisms leading to elastic fiber mineralization. Nonetheless, the substrates of the ABCC6 transporter - the main cause of PXE - remain currently unknown. Though the precise mechanisms linking the ABCC6 transporter to mineralization of the extracellular matrix are unclear, several studies have looked into the cellular consequences of ABCC6 deficiency in PXE patients and/or animal models. In this paper, we compile the evidence on cellular signaling in PXE, which seems to revolve mainly around TGF-βs, BMPs and inorganic pyrophosphate signaling cascades. Where conflicting results or fragmented data are present, we address these with novel signaling data. This way, we aim to better understand the up- and down-stream signaling of TGF-βs and BMPs in PXE and we demonstrate that ANKH deficiency can be an additional mechanisms contributing to decreased serum PPi levels in PXE patients.

    更新日期:2019-01-04
  • Tmub1 negatively regulates liver regeneration via inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2019-01-02
    Hangwei Fu, Rui Dong, Yida Zhang, Jianhua Xu, Menggang Liu, Ping Chen

    Tmub1 (transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain-containing 1) plays negative roles in rat hepatocyte proliferation, but its underlying molecular mechanisms in liver regeneration regulation have yet to be revealed. Here, we show that in vivo transfection of Tmub1 overexpression vectors impaired mouse liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx). Loss- and gain-of-function analyses in human hepatocyte Lo2 cells indicated that Tmub1 inhibits the phosphorylation of STAT3 and the activation of STAT3 signaling. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of Tmub1 overexpression on hepatocyte proliferation can be reversed by the STAT3 activator OSM, while the promotive effect of Tmub1 knockdown can be abolished by the STAT3 inhibitor stattic. Coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed interaction between Tmub1 and STAT3. Finally, we present data from chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter gene assays and report that STAT3 binds to and activates the promoter of Tmub1, suggesting a putative negative feedback loop between Tmub1 and STAT3 signaling. Taken together, the results of our study suggest that Tmub1 is an important negative regulator of hepatocyte proliferation in liver regeneration through STAT3 signaling. These findings provide a potential strategy for the management of liver regeneration.

    更新日期:2019-01-03
  • IER family proteins are regulators of protein phosphatase PP2A and modulate the phosphorylation status of CDC25A
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-12-30
    Takumi Ueda, Yuri Kohama, Hiroshi Sakurai

    Proteins encoded by immediate-early response (IER) family genes, IER2, IER5, and IER5L, share homology at their N-terminal regions. IER5 binds to protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and enhances dephosphorylation of PP2A target proteins such as heat shock factor HSF1. Here, we show the expression of IER family genes and the target protein-specific function of IER proteins. The IER homology regions of IER2 and IER5L are required for the interaction with PP2A. Expression of IER2 and IER5L in cells leads to reduced phosphorylation of HSF1 and derepression of its transcriptional activity. Although IER5 and IER5L enhance dephosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase, IER2 fails to do so. IER2, IER5, and IER5L all bind to the cell cycle regulator CDC25A and convert it to the hypophosphorylated form, which causes dissociation from 14 to 3-3 regulatory protein. IER5 differentially regulates CDC25A levels in cells under normal and thermal stress conditions. These results suggest that IER proteins are target protein-specific regulators of PP2A activity and modulate cell proliferation through CDC25A activity.

    更新日期:2019-01-01
  • MicroRNA-26b-5p enhances T cell responses by targeting PIM-2 in hepatocellular carcinoma
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-12-27
    Wenjie Han, Ning Li, Jun Liu, Yongchen Sun, Xi Yang, Yu Wang

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common tumor malignancy threatening a significant number of people worldwide. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play essential role in tumorigenesis, little is known about their role in T cells functions during HCC progression. Methods The abundances of miR-26b-5p were detected in HCC tissues or cells, T cells and H22 cells by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Regulation effect of miR-26b-5p on proviral integrations of moloney virus 2 (PIM2) was investigated by qRT-PCR, western blot (WB) and immunohistochemical analysis. The effect of miR-26b-5p and PIM-2 on cytokines secretion in CD4+ and CD8+ cells was evaluated by commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) kit. The interaction between miR-26b-5p and PIM-2 was probed by luciferase activity and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP). H22 subcutaneous model was established to investigate the interaction of miR-26b-5p with HCC and immune competence. Results The abundance of miR-26b-5p was decreased in HCC and associated with poor survival. Addition of miR-26b-5p contributed to secretion of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-2 in CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Interestingly, PIM-2 was negatively regulated by miR-26b-5p and PIM-2 knockdown reversed anti-miR-26b-5p-mediated immunosuppression. Moreover, inhibitory effect of miR-26b-5p on HCC tumorigenesis was dependent on immune competence. Conclusions miR-26b-5p enhanced T cells responses by targeting PIM-2 in HCC, uncovering a promising therapeutic opportunity of HCC through reactivating immune system.

    更新日期:2018-12-28
  • Insulin induces Thr484 phosphorylation and stabilization of SIK2 in adipocytes
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-12-23
    Johanna Säll, Florentina Negoita, Björn Hansson, Franziska Kopietz, Wilhelm Linder, Annie M.L. Pettersson, Mikael Ekelund, Jurga Laurencikiene, Eva Degerman, Karin G. Stenkula, Olga Göransson

    Aims/hypothesis Salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) is downregulated in adipose tissue from obese or insulin-resistant individuals and inhibition of SIK isoforms results in reduced glucose uptake and insulin signalling in adipocytes. However, the regulation of SIK2 itself in response to insulin in adipocytes has not been studied in detail. The aim of our work was to investigate effects of insulin on various aspects of SIK2 function in adipocytes. Methods Primary adipocytes were isolated from human subcutaneous and rat epididymal adipose tissue. Insulin-induced phosphorylation of SIK2 and HDAC4 was analyzed using phosphospecific antibodies and changes in the catalytic activity of SIK2 with in vitro kinase assay. SIK2 protein levels were analyzed in primary adipocytes treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Results We have identified a novel regulatory pathway of SIK2 in adipocytes, which involves insulin-induced phosphorylation at Thr484. This phosphorylation is impaired in individuals with a reduced insulin action. Insulin stimulation does not affect SIK2 catalytic activity or cellular activity towards HDAC4, but is associated with increased SIK2 protein levels in adipocytes. Conclusion/interpretation Our data suggest that downregulation of SIK2 in the adipose tissue of insulin-resistant individuals can partially be caused by impaired insulin signalling, which might result in defects in SIK2 expression and function.

    更新日期:2018-12-25
  • Mechanical exposure and diacerein treatment modulates integrin-FAK-MAPKs mechanotransduction in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-12-21
    Birgit Lohberger, Heike Kaltenegger, Lukas Weigl, Anda Mann, Werner Kullich, Nicole Stuendl, Andreas Leithner, Bibiane Steinecker-Frohnwieser

    Background Progression of osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by an excessive production of matrix degrading enzymes and insufficient matrix repair. Despite of active research in this area, it is still unclear how the combination of mechanical exposure and drug therapy works. This study was done to explore the impact of the disease modifying OA drug (DMOAD) diacerein and moderate tensile strain on the anabolic metabolism and the integrin-FAK-MAPKs signal transduction cascade of OA and non-OA chondrocytes. Methods Cyclic tensile strain was applied in terms of three different intensities by the Flexcell tension system. Influence on catabolic parameters such as MMPs, ADAMTS, and IL-6 were assessed by qPCR. Changes in phosphorylation of FAK, STAT3 as well as MAP kinases were verified by western blot analysis. Intracellular calcium was measured fluorimetrically using fura-2. Results Tensile strain at moderate intensity (SM/SA profile) proved to be most efficient in terms of reducing production of matrix degrading enzyme and IL-6 expression. Treatment with diacerein by itself and diacerein in combination with SM/SA stimulation reduced phosphorylation of FAK and STAT3, which is more pronounced in OA cells. Pretreatment with diacerein for 7 days resulted in an increase in the sensitivity to Yoda1, the agonist for the mechanically activated ion channel Piezo1. However, in OA chondrocytes a significant reduction in Piezo1 expression was observed following treatment with diacerein. Conclusion Our results demonstrated for the first time that diacerein intensively intervenes in the regulation of FAK and STAT3 and influences components considered relevant for the progression of OA, even in the presence of mechanical stimulation.

    更新日期:2018-12-22
  • Cadmium results in accumulation of autophagosomes-dependent apoptosis through activating Akt-impaired autophagic flux in neuronal cells
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-12-19
    Hai Zhang, Xiaoqing Dong, Rui Zhao, Ruijie Zhang, Chong Xu, Xiaoxue Wang, Chunxiao Liu, Xiaoyu Hu, Shile Huang, Long Chen

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) links to neurodegenerative disorders. Autophagy plays an important role in controlling cell survival/death. However, how autophagy contributes to Cd's neurotoxicity remains enigmatic. Here, we show that Cd induced significant increases in autophagosomes with a concomitant elevation of LC3-II and p62 in PC12 cells and primary neurons. Using autophagy inhibitor 3-MA, we demonstrated that Cd-increased autophagosomes contributed to neuronal apoptosis. Impairment of Cd on autophagic flux was evidenced by co-localization of mCherry and GFP tandem-tagged LC3 puncta in the cells. This is further supported by the findings that administration of chloroquine (CQ) potentiated the basic and Cd-elevated LC3-II and p62 levels, autophagosome accumulation and cell apoptosis, whereas rapamycin relieved the effects in the cells in response to Cd. Subsequently, we noticed that Cd evoked the phosphorylation of Akt and BECN1. Silencing BECN1 and especially expression of mutant BECN1 (Ser295A) attenuated Cd-increased autophagosomes and cell death. Of note, inhibition of Akt with Akt inhibitor X, or ectopic expression of dominant negative Akt (dn-Akt), in the presence or absence of 3-MA, significantly alleviated Cd-triggered phosphorylation of Akt and BECN1, autophagosomes, and apoptosis. Importantly, we found that Cd activation of Akt functioned in impairing autophagic flux. Collectively, these results indicate that Cd results in accumulation of autophagosomes-dependent apoptosis through activating Akt-impaired autophagic flux in neuronal cells. Our findings underscore that inhibition of Akt to improve autophagic flux is a promising strategy against Cd-induced neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration.

    更新日期:2018-12-20
  • Differential effects of protein kinase C-eta on apoptosis versus senescence
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-12-15
    Alakananda Basu, Deepanwita Pal, Rachel Blaydes

    Protein kinase C-eta (PKCη) is considered an anti-apoptotic kinase, which promotes cell survival and chemoresistance in several cancers, including breast cancer. We have recently shown that PKCη positively regulates the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 in breast cancer cells, and depletion of PKCη induced proteasomal degradation of Mcl-1. We therefore examined if depletion of PKCη would enhance cellular sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. Silencing of PKCη by siRNA attenuated apoptosis induced by doxorubicin and paclitaxel in both MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells. While silencing of Mcl-1 caused a substantial increase in apoptosis induced by doxorubicin, the combined knockdown of PKCη and Mcl-1 was less effective. Depletion of PKCη also caused an increase in the abundance of the cell cycle inhibitor p27 and a decrease in the clonogenic survival of MCF-7 and T47D cells. PKCη knockdown was associated with an increase in senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity but this increase was attenuated by knockdown of p27. The suppression of doxorubicin-induced apoptosis by PKCη knockdown was partially relieved when p27 was depleted. Since loss of proliferative capacity during senescence could cause resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, our results suggest that PKCη knockdown inhibits apoptosis by inducing p27-mediated senescence.

    更新日期:2018-12-17
  • TCF7L2 and EGR1 synergistic activation of transcription of LCN2 via an ERK1/2-dependent pathway in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-12-14
    Yan Zhao, Qiaoxi Xia, Yan Liu, Wenjing Bai, Yubin Yao, Jiyu Ding, Ling Lin, Zhennan Xu, Zhixiong Cai, Shaohong Wang, Enmin Li, Haixiong Xu, Bingli Wu, Liyan Xu, Zepeng Du

    High level expression of lipocalin 2 (LCN2) usually indicates poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and many other cancers. Our previous study showed LCN2 promotes migration and invasion of ESCC cells through a novel positive feedback loop. However, the key transcription activation protein (KTAP) in the loop had not yet been identified. In this study, we first predicted the most probable KTAPs by bioinformatic analysis. We then assessed the transcription regulatory regions in the human LCN2 gene by fusing deletions of its 5′-flanking region to a dual-luciferase reporter. We found that the region −720/−200 containing transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) (−273/−209) and early growth response 1 (EGR1) (−710/−616) binding sites is crucial for LCN2 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments demonstrated that TCF7L2 and EGR1 bound directly to their binding sites within the LCN2 promoter as KTAPs. Mechanistically, overexpression of TCF7L2 and EGR1 increased endogenous LCN2 expression via the ERK signaling pathway. Treatment with recombinant human LCN2 protein enhanced activation of the ERK pathway to facilitate endogenous LCN2 expression, as well as increase the expression level of TCF7L2 and EGR1. Treatment with the MEK inhibitor U0126 inhibited the activation by TCF7L2 or EGR1 overexpression. Moreover, overexpression of TCF7L2 or EGR1 accelerated the migration and invasion of ESCC cells. A synergistic effect was observed between TCF7L2 and EGR1 in amplifying the induction of LCN2 and enhancing migration and invasion. Taken together, our study indicates that TCF7L2 and EGR1 are the KTAPs of LCN2, within a positive “LCN2 → MEK/ERK → LCN2” path, to promote the migration and invasion of ESCC cells. Based on their clinicopathological significance, LCN2 and its two expression regulators TCF7L2 and ERG1 might be therapeutic targets for ESCC.

    更新日期:2018-12-15
  • A potential regulatory network among WDR86-AS1, miR-10b-3p, and LITAF is possibly involved in preeclampsia pathogenesis
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-12-12
    Ruizhen Li, Nan Wang, Min Xue, Wenxin Long, Chunxia Cheng, Chunmei Mi, Zhou Gao

    Preeclampsia (PE), a pregnancy-specific disorder, is a leading cause of perinatal maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Impaired migration and invasion of trophoblastic cells and an imbalanced systemic maternal inflammatory response have been proposed as possible causes of pathogenesis of PE. Comparative analysis of PE-affected placentas and healthy placentas has uncovered differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs, microRNAs, and mRNAs. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a regulatory network among these RNAs on PE pathogenesis. Long noncoding RNA WDR86-AS1, microRNA miR-10b-3p, and mRNA of protein LITAF were identified by screening of genes in existing databases with aberrant expression in PE-affected placentas and potential mutual interactions as revealed by TargetScan, miRanda, and PicTar analyses. This study identified their expression in PE-affected and healthy placentas by RT-PCR. An in vitro experiment was performed on human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells cultured under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. MiR-10b-3p targets were identified in luciferase reporter assays and RNA pull-down assays. The mouse model of PE was set up using a soluble form of FLT-1 for in vivo testing. Lower levels of miR-10b-3p but higher expression of WDR86-AS1 and LITAF were observed in PE-affected placentas and trophoblast cells under hypoxia. WDR86-AS1 and LITAF mRNA were confirmed as targets of miR-10b-3p. WDR86-AS1 downregulated miR-10b-3p but promoted LITAF expression. Microarray analyses revealed that LITAF controlled the inflammatory responses and migration and proliferation of HTR-8/SVneo cells under hypoxia. Indeed, knockdown of WDR86-AS1 and LITAF or overexpression of miR-10b-3p attenuated the hypoxia-induced inhibition of cellular viability, migration, and invasion. Moreover, miR-10b-3p overexpression attenuated the pathological symptoms caused by soluble FLT-1 in vivo. In summary, the WDR86-AS1/miR-10b-3p/LITAF network is probably involved in PE pathogenesis.

    更新日期:2018-12-13
  • The RNA helicase DHX33 is required for cancer cell proliferation in human glioblastoma and confers resistance to PI3K/mTOR inhibition
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-12-12
    Hongzhong Wang, Junyan Yu, Xingshun Wang, Yandong Zhang

    Human Glioblastoma is one deadly disease; the median survival time is reported to be 13.9 months after treatment. In the present study, we discovered that DHX33 is highly expressed in 84% of all Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Knockdown of DHX33 led to significant reduced proliferation and migration in glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, DHX33 regulated a set of critical genes involved in cell cycle and cell migration to promote glioblastoma development. Additionally, DHX33 was found to be induced by inhibitors of PI3K and mTOR whose activation has been detected in 50% of glioblastoma. Overexpression of wild type DHX33 protein, but not the helicase dead mutant, confers resistance to mTOR inhibitors in glioblastoma cells. DHX33 probably functions as a critical regulator to promote GBM development. Our results highlight its therapeutic potential in treating GBM.

    更新日期:2018-12-13
  • miRNA networks modulate human endothelial cell adaptation to cyclic hypoxia
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-12-12
    Kinga Kochan-Jamrozy, Jarosław Króliczewski, Adrianna Moszyńska, James F. Collawn, Rafal Bartoszewski

    Solid tumor microenvironments are often subjected to various levels of hypoxia. Although regulation of gene expression has been examined extensively, most studies have focused on prolonged hypoxia. The tumor microenvironment, however, experiences waves of hypoxia and reoxygenation that stimulate the expression of pro-angiogenic factors that promote blood vessel formation. In this study, we examined human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) under waves of intermittent (cyclic) hypoxia to determine how this process compares to prolonged hypoxia, and more importantly, how this influences the microRNA profiles that potentially affect the posttranscriptional regulation of angiogenic genes. The rationale for these studies is that cancer cells subjected to cyclic hypoxia appear to have increased metastatic potential and endothelial cells exhibit a higher radiation resistance and greater migration potential. This indicates that gene regulatory networks in cyclic hypoxia may be different from prolonged hypoxia. Here we examined the consequences of cyclic hypoxia on miRNA gene expression and how these changes in miRNA expression influence angiogenesis. Using Next Generation Sequencing, our results demonstrate that cyclic hypoxia has very different effects on the miRNA networks compared to prolonged hypoxia, and that the in silico predicted effects on the certain mRNA target genes are more similar than might be expected. More importantly, these studies indicate that identifying potential miRNAs (including hsa-miR-19a-5p) as therapeutic targets for inhibiting angiogenesis and tumor progression will require this type of physiologically relevant analysis.

    更新日期:2018-12-12
  • Novel aspects of PCSK9 and lipoprotein receptors in renal disease-related dyslipidemia
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-12-12
    Pragyi Shrestha, Bart van de Sluis, Robin P.F. Dullaart, Jacob van den Born

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem with a profound impact on quality of life. Cardiovascular disease is established as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. Dyslipidemia is frequently observed in CKD patients, suggesting a causal relation between dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease in CKD patients. Currently, lipid-lowering drugs such as statins, are the primary choice for lipid lowering therapy in high-risk populations. Despite many studies showing CVD risk reduction with statins, CVD still remains the leading cause of the death in CKD.This underscores the need for new therapeutic approaches to reduce cardiovascular risk in CKD patients. Reduced lipoprotein lipase activity, increased very low-density lipoprotein production, increased proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) expression and loss of hepatic heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) syndecan-1 have been associated with CKD-related dyslipidemia. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) and syndecan-1, are the most important hepatic receptors for lipoprotein clearance. However, their contributions to the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease in CKD remain unclear. Interestingly, in CKD, increased plasma lipid levels are associated with elevated levels of PCSK9. This promotes the proteolysis of LDLR, suggesting a role for PCSK9 in CKD-associated dyslipidemia. Fully humanized monoclonal antibodies targeting PCSK9 have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency as lipid lowering treatment for patients with hypercholesterolemia. In CKD sub-group analysis, ODYSSEY COMBO I and ODYSSEY COMBO II studies demonstrated strong reduction in LDL-C by alirocumab compared to placebo and ezetimibe and when added to statins. However, their efficacy in reducing plasma TG is controversial. Therefore, further research work is need for a detailed analysis on efficacy and safety of PCSK9 antibodies in CKD groups. Interestingly, novel findings on PCSK9 interaction with HSPG might shed new insight on altered lipid metabolism in CKD. In this review, we discuss various aspects of lipoprotein metabolism and hepatic lipoprotein receptor signaling pathways along with the concept of renal disease-related dyslipidemia. Furthermore, this review highlights the drawbacks of current lipid-lowering therapies and proposes novel approaches for lipid management in CKD.

    更新日期:2018-12-12
  • The effects of IKK-beta inhibition on early NF-kappa-B activation and transcription of downstream genes
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-12-10
    Meghan J. Bloom, Sachit D. Saksena, George P. Swain, Marcelo S. Behar, Thomas E. Yankeelov, Anna G. Sorace

    Small molecule approaches targeting the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) pathway, a regulator of inflammation, have thus far proven unsuccessful in the clinic in part due to the complex pleiotropic nature of this network. Downstream effects depend on multiple factors including stimulus-specific temporal patterns of NF-kB activity. Despite considerable advances, genome-level impact of changes in temporal NF-kB activity caused by inhibitors and their stimulus dependency remains unexplored. This study evaluates the effects of pathway inhibitors on early NF-κB activity and downstream gene transcription. 3T3 fibroblasts were treated with SC-514, an inhibitor targeted to the NF-kB pathway, prior to stimulation with interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Stimulus induced NF-κB activation was quantified using immunofluorescence imaging over 90-minutes and gene expression tracked over 6-hours using mRNA TagSeq. When stimulated with IL-1β or TNF-α, significant differences (P < 0.05, two-way ANOVA), were observed in the temporal profiles of NF-κB activation between treated and untreated cells. Increasing numbers of differentially expressed genes (P < 0.01) were observed at higher inhibitor concentrations. Individual gene expression profiles varied in an inhibitor concentration and stimulus-dependent manner. The results in this study demonstrate small molecule inhibitors acting on pleiotropic pathway components can alter signal dynamics in a stimulus-dependent manner and affect gene response in complex ways.

    更新日期:2018-12-11
  • A non-canonical JAGGED1 signal to JAK2 mediates osteoblast commitment in cranial neural crest cells
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-12-08
    Archana Kamalakar, Melissa S. Oh, Yvonne C. Stephenson, Samir A. Ballestas-Naissir, Michael E. Davis, Nick J. Willett, Hicham M. Drissi, Steven L. Goudy

    During craniofacial development, cranial neural crest (CNC) cells migrate into the developing face and form bone through intramembranous ossification. Loss of JAGGED1 (JAG1) signaling in the CNC cells is associated with maxillary hypoplasia or maxillary bone deficiency (MBD) in mice and recapitulates the MBD seen in humans with Alagille syndrome. JAGGED1, a membrane-bound NOTCH ligand, is required for normal craniofacial development, and Jagged1 mutations in humans are known to cause Alagille Syndrome, which is associated with cardiac, biliary, and bone phenotypes and these children experience increased bony fractures. Previously, we demonstrated deficient maxillary osteogenesis in Wnt1-cre;Jagged1f/f (Jag1CKO) mice by conditional deletion of Jagged1 in maxillary CNC cells. In this study, we investigated the JAG1 signaling pathways in a CNC cell line. Treatment with JAG1 induced osteoblast differentiation and maturation markers, Runx2 and Ocn, respectively, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) production, as well as classic NOTCH1 targets, Hes1 and Hey1. While JAG1-induced Hes1 and Hey1 expression levels were predictably decreased after DAPT (NOTCH inhibitor) treatment, JAG1-induced Runx2 and Ocn levels were surprisingly constant in the presence of DAPT, indicating that JAG1 effects in the CNC cells are independent of the canonical NOTCH pathway. JAG1 treatment of CNC cells increased Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) phosphorylation, which was refractory to DAPT treatment, highlighting the importance of the non-canonical NOTCH pathway during CNC cells osteoblast commitment. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK2 phosphorylation, with and without DAPT treatment, upon JAG1 induction reduced ALP production and, Runx2 and Ocn gene expression. Collectively, these data suggest that JAK2 is an essential component downstream of a non-canonical JAG1-NOTCH1 pathway through which JAG1 stimulates expression of osteoblast-specific gene targets in CNC cells that contribute to osteoblast differentiation and bone mineralization.

    更新日期:2018-12-08
  • Cleavage of arrestin-3 by caspases attenuates cell death by precluding arrestin-dependent JNK activation
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-12-04
    Seunghyi Kook, Sergey A. Vishnivetskiy, Vsevolod V. Gurevich, Eugenia V. Gurevich

    The two non-visual subtypes, arrestin-2 and arrestin-3, are ubiquitously expressed and bind hundreds of G protein-coupled receptors. In addition, these arrestins also interact with dozens of non-receptor signaling proteins, including c-Src, ERK and JNK, that regulate cell death and survival. Arrestin-3 facilitates the activation of JNK family kinases, which are important players in the regulation of apoptosis. Here we show that arrestin-3 is specifically cleaved at Asp366, Asp405 and Asp406 by caspases during the apoptotic cell death. This results in the generation of one main cleavage product, arrestin-3-(1–366). The formation of this fragment occurs in a dose-dependent manner with the increase of fraction of apoptotic cells upon etoposide treatment. In contrast to a caspase-resistant mutant (D366/405/406E) the arrestin-3-(1–366) fragment reduces the apoptosis of etoposide-treated cells. We found that caspase cleavage did not affect the binding of the arrestin-3 to JNK3, but prevented facilitation of its activation, in contrast to the caspase-resistant mutant, which facilitated JNK activation similar to WT arrestin-3, likely due to decreased binding of the upstream kinases ASK1 and MKK4/7. The data suggest that caspase-generated arrestin-3-(1–366) prevents the signaling in the ASK1-MKK4/7-JNK1/2/3 cascade and protects cells, thereby suppressing apoptosis.

    更新日期:2018-12-05
  • Selective proteolysis by matrix metalloproteinases of photo-oxidised dermal extracellular matrix proteins
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-12-03
    Sarah A. Hibbert, Rachel E.B. Watson, Christopher E.M. Griffiths, Neil K. Gibbs, Michael J. Sherratt

    Photodamage in chronically sun-exposed skin manifests clinically as deep wrinkles and histologically as extensive remodelling of the dermal extracellular matrix (ECM) and in particular, the elastic fibre system. We have shown previously that loss of fibrillin microfibrils, a key elastic fibre component, is a hallmark of early photodamage and that these ECM assemblies are susceptible in vitro to physiologically attainable doses of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Here, we test the hypotheses that UVR-mediated photo-oxidation is the primary driver of fibrillin microfibril and fibronectin degradation and that prior UVR exposure will enhance the subsequent proteolytic activity of UVR-upregulated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We confirmed that UVB (280-315 nm) irradiation in vitro induced structural changes to both fibrillin microfibrils and fibronectin and these changes were largely reactive oxygen species (ROS)-driven, with increased ROS lifetime (D2O) enhancing protein damage and depleted O2 conditions abrogating it. Furthermore, we show that although exposure to UVR alone increased microfibril structural heterogeneity, exposure to purified MMPs (1, −3, −7 and − 9) alone had minimal effect on periodicity. However, microfibril suspensions exposed to UVR and then MMPs were more structurally homogenous but the susceptibly of fibronectin to proteases was unaffected by prior UVR exposure. These observations suggest that both direct photon absorption and indirect production of ROS are important mediators of ECM remodelling in photodamage. We also show that fibrillin microfibrils are relatively resistant to proteolysis by MMPs −1, −3, −7 and − 9 but that these MMPs may selectively remove damaged microfibril assemblies. These latter observations have implications for predicting the mechanisms of tissue remodelling and targeted repair.

    更新日期:2018-12-04
  • Thiamethoxam inhibits blastocyst expansion and hatching via reactive-oxygen species–induced G2 checkpoint activation in pigs
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-08-24
    Zheng-Wen Nie, Ying-Jie Niu, Wenjun Zhou, Yong-Han Kim, Kyung-Tae Shin, Xiang-Shun Cui

    Thiamethoxam (TMX) is a neonicotinoid insecticide. It has specific high toxicity to insects. Residues of TMX have been detected in various crops. Early embryo quality is vital for fertility. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can override embryonic antioxidant defenses, producing oxidative stress that triggers apoptosis, necrosis, and/or permanent DNA damage responses in the early embryo. Comparative studies have indicated that TMX hepatotoxicity is significant in mammals in acute tests, but little is known about accumulated chronic toxicity in early embryonic development. Porcine embryos were obtained here by the parthenogenetic activation of meiosis II oocytes and cultured in the PZM-5 medium with or without TMX. These embryos were evaluated by various methods. The expansion and hatching of blastocysts treated with TMX decreased by 21.73% and 16.71%, respectively, as compared with controls. In an analysis of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, the rate of cell proliferation was 44.33% lower as compared with expanded blastocysts of the control group. ROS and γH2AX levels were higher in the TMX group than in the control group. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that Sod1 expression increased and the expression of Mnsod, Gpx1, Igta5, and Cox2 decreased. A CDK1 kinase assay revealed that maturation-promoting factor (MPF) activity diminished by 31.41% in expanding blastocysts. In conclusion, these results suggest that TMX inhibits blastocyst expansion and hatching by ROS-induced DNA damage checkpoint activation, which inhibits the activation of MPF and cell cycle progression in porcine blastocysts.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Interplay between interferon-stimulated gene 15/ISGylation and interferon gamma signaling in breast cancer cells
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-27
    Angeles C. Tecalco-Cruz, Carlo César Cortés González, Eduardo Cruz-Ramos, Josué O. Ramírez Jarquín, Aline Kay Romero-Mandujano, Marcela Sosa-Garrocho

    Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is a ubiquitin-like protein that conjugates to its target proteins to modify them through ISGylation, but the relevance of ISG15 expression and its effects have been not completely defined. Herein, we examined the interplay between ISG15/ISGylation and the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) signaling pathway in mammary tumors and compared it with that in normal mammary tissues. Our results indicated that mammary tumors had higher levels of ISG15 mRNA and ISG15 protein than the adjacent normal mammary tissue. Furthermore, the expression of IFN-γ signaling components was altered in breast cancer. Interestingly, IFN-γ treatment induced morphological changes in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines due to cytoskeletal reorganization. This cellular process seems to be related to the increase in ISGylation of cytoplasmic IQ Motif Containing GTPase Activating Protein 1 (IQGAP1). Interactome analysis also indicated that IFN-γ signaling and the ISGylation system are associated with several proteins implicated in cytoskeletal remodeling, including IQGAP1. Thus, ISG15 may present a potential biomarker for breast cancer, and IFN-γ signaling and protein ISGylation may participate in the regulation of the cytoskeleton in breast cancer cells.

    更新日期:2018-11-28
  • Heparan sulfate proteoglycan – A common receptor for diverse cytokines
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-27
    Meng Xie, Jin-ping Li

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) are macromolecular glycol-conjugates expressed ubiquitously on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix where they interact with a wide range of ligands to regulate many aspects of cellular function. The capacity of the side glycosaminoglycan chain heparan sulfate (HS) being able to interact with diverse protein ligands relies on its complex structure that is generated by a controlled biosynthesis process, involving the actions of glycosyl-transferases, sulfotransferases and the glucuronyl C5-epimerase. It is believed that activities of the modification enzymes control the HS structures that are designed to serve the biological functions in a given cell or biological status. In this review, we briefly discuss recent understandings on the roles of HSPG in cytokine stimulated cellular signaling, focusing on FGF, TGF-β, Wnt, Hh, HGF and VEGF.

    更新日期:2018-11-28
  • Signaling transduction regulated by 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor and orexin receptor 2 heterodimers
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-24
    Qin-Qin Wang, Chun-Mei Wang, Bao-Hua Cheng, Chun-Qing Yang, Bo Bai, Jing Chen

    As G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor (5-HT1AR) and orexin receptor 2 (OX2R) regulate the levels of the cellular downstream molecules. The heterodimers of different GPCRs play important roles in various of neurological diseases. Moreover, 5-HT1AR and OX2R are involved in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases such as depression with deficiency of hippocampus plasticity. However, the direct interaction of the two receptors remains elusive. In the present study, we firstly demonstrated the heterodimer formation of 5-HT1AR and OX2R. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) cAMP bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) biosensor analysis revealed that the expression levels of cellular cAMP significantly increased in HEK293T cells transfected with the two receptors compared with the 5-HT1AR group. Additionally, the cellular level of calcium was upregulated robustly in HEK293T cells co-transfected with 5-HT1AR and OX2R group after agonist treatment. Furthermore, western blotting data showed that 5-HT1AR and OX2R heterodimer decreased the levels of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB). These results not only unraveled the formation of 5-HT1AR and OX2R heterodimer but also suggested that the heterodimer affected the downstream signaling pathway, which will provide new insights into the function of the two receptors in the brain.

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • The status of MAPK cascades contributes to the induction and activation of Gata4 and Nkx2.5 during the stepwise process of cardiac differentiation
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-22
    Tao Li, Zezhao He, Xia Zhang, Mei Tian, Kesheng Jiang, Guanchang Cheng, Yunlong Wang

    Cardiac differentiation in vitro is a complex, stepwise process that is rigidly governed by a subset of transcription factors and signaling cascades. In this study, we investigated the cooperation of cardiac-specific transcription factors Gata4 and Nkx2.5, as well as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. P19 embryonic carcinoma cells were induced into spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes utilizing a two-step protocol that comprised an early stage and a late stage of differentiation. During early-stage differentiation in suspension culture, P19 cells aggregated to form embryoid bodies (EBs), and the Gata4 and Nkx2.5 genes were induced. However, Gata4 expressed at the early stage of differentiation was incapable of activating downstream gene expression, as it was localized in the cytoplasm and prone to degradation. After EBs were plated for late-stage differentiation in adherent culture, the MAPK cascades were highly activated and contributed to the activation of Gata4 and Nkx2.5. Specifically, we revealed that p38 signaling participated in regulating the localization and stabilization of Gata4 and Nkx2.5. Additionally, the JNK cascade regulated late-stage cardiac differentiation; JNK kinase reduced Gata4 stabilization and conversely alleviated Nkx2.5 degradation by direct interaction and phosphorylation of Nkx2.5. Finally, we found that the C-terminal domain of Nkx2.5 was required for its stabilization under conditions of oxidative stress and JNK activation. Overall, our results indicated that the induction and activation of Gata4 and Nkx2.5 during early- and late-stage cardiac differentiation was closely associated with the function of the MAPK signaling cascades.

    更新日期:2018-11-24
  • NanoBRET ligand binding at a GPCR under endogenous promotion facilitated by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-22
    Carl W. White, Elizabeth K.M. Johnstone, Heng B. See, Kevin D.G. Pfleger

    Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is a versatile tool used to investigate membrane receptor signalling and function. We have recently developed a homogenous NanoBRET ligand binding assay to monitor interactions between G protein-coupled receptors and fluorescent ligands. However, this assay requires the exogenous expression of a receptor fused to the nanoluciferase (Nluc) and is thus not applicable to natively-expressed receptors. To overcome this limitation in HEK293 cells, we have utilised CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering to insert Nluc in-frame with the endogenous ADORA2B locus this resulted in HEK293 cells expressing adenosine A2B receptors under endogenous promotion tagged on their N-terminus with Nluc. As expected, we found relatively low levels of endogenous (gene-edited) Nluc/A2B receptor expression compared to cells transiently transfected with expression vectors coding for Nluc/A2B. However, in cells expressing gene-edited Nluc/A2B receptors we observed clear saturable ligand binding of a non-specific fluorescent adenosine receptor antagonist XAC-X-BY630 (Kd = 21.4 nM). Additionally, at gene-edited Nluc/A2B receptors we derived pharmacological parameters of ligand binding; Kd as well as Kon and Koff for binding of XAC-X-BY630 by NanoBRET association kinetic binding assays. Lastly, cells expressing gene-edited Nluc/A2B were used to determine the pKi of unlabelled adenosine receptor ligands in competition ligand binding assays. Utilising CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering here we show that NanoBRET ligand binding assays can be performed at gene-edited receptors under endogenous promotion in live cells, therefore overcoming a fundamental limitation of NanoBRET ligand assays.

    更新日期:2018-11-24
  • Regulation of the stability and activity of CDC25A and CDC25B by protein phosphatase PP2A and 14–3-3 binding
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-20
    Yuri Kohama, Megumi Saito, Mizue Yada, Hiroshi Sakurai

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-activating phosphatases, CDC25A and CDC25B, are labile proteins, and their levels vary in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Immediate-early response IER5 protein negatively regulates the cellular CDC25B levels, and stress-induced IER5 expression potentiates G2/M arrest. IER5 binds to protein phosphatase PP2A and regulates the PP2A substrate specificity. We show that IER5 binds to CDC25B and assists PP2A to convert CDC25B to hypophosphorylated forms. Hypophosphorylation at Ser323 results in the dissociation of CDC25B from 14 to 3-3 phospho-binding proteins. In IER5 expressing cells, CDC25B dissociated from 14 to 3-3 is unstable but slightly activated, because 14–3-3 inhibits CDC25B polyubiquitination and CDC25B binding to CDK1. The 14–3-3 binding to CDC25A also impedes CDC25A degradation and CDC25A-CDK2 interaction. We propose that 14–3-3 is an important regulator of CDC25A and CDC25B and that PP2A/IER5 controls the stability and activity of CDC25B through regulating the interaction of CDC25B and 14–3-3.

    更新日期:2018-11-21
  • Low expression of PDK1 inhibits renal cell carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition through inhibition of the PI3K-PDK1-Akt pathway
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-20
    Wei-Min Zhou, Gao-Liang Wu, Ji Huang, Jin-Gao Li, Chao Hao, Qiu-Ming He, Xiao-Dan Chen, Gong-Xian Wang, Xin-Hua Tu

    As the most commonly occurring form of primary renal tumor, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignancy accompanied by a high mortality rate. 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) has been established as a protein target and generated considerable interest in both the pharmaceutical and academia industry. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of si-PDK1 on the RCC cell apoptosis, proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in connection with the PI3K-PDK1-Akt pathway. Microarray analysis from the GEO database was adopted to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to RCC, after which the positive expression of the PDK1 protein in tissue was determined accordingly. The optimal silencing si-RNA was subsequently selected and RCC cell lines 786-O and A498 were selected and transfected with either a si-PDK1 or activator of the PI3K-PDK1-Akt pathway for grouping purposes. The mRNA and protein expressions of PDK1, the PI3K-PDK1-Akt pathway-, EMT- and apoptosis-related genes were then evaluated. The effect of si-PDK1 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration was then analyzed. Through microarray analysis of GSE6344, GSE53757, GSE14762 and GSE781, PDK1 was examined. PDK1 was determined to be highly expressed in RCC tissues. Si-PDK1 exhibited marked reductions in relation to the mRNA and protein expression of PDK1, PI3K, AKT as well as Vimentin while elevated mRNA and protein expressions of E-cadherin were detected, which ultimately suggested that cell migration, proliferation and invasion had been inhibited coupled with enhanced levels of cell apoptosis. While a notable observation was made highlighting that the PI3K-PDK1-Akt pathway antagonized the effect of PDK1 silencing. Taken together, the key observations of this study provide evidence suggesting that high expressions of PDK1 are found in RCC, while highlighting that silencing PDK1 could inhibit RCC cell proliferation, migration, invasion and EMT by repressing the PI3K-PDK1-Akt pathway.

    更新日期:2018-11-21
  • How do chemokines navigate neutrophils to the target site: Dissecting the structural mechanisms and signaling pathways
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-19
    Krishna Rajarathnam, Michael Schnoor, Ricardo M. Richardson, Sudarshan Rajagopal

    Chemokines play crucial roles in combating microbial infection and initiating tissue repair by recruiting neutrophils in a timely and coordinated matter. In humans, no less than seven chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL7, and CXCL8) and two receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2) mediate neutrophil functions but in a context dependent manner. Neutrophil-activating chemokines reversibly exist as monomers and dimers, and their receptor binding triggers conformational changes that are coupled to G-protein and β-arrestin signaling pathways. G-protein signaling activates a variety of effectors including Ca2+ channels and phospholipase C. β-arrestin serves as a multifunctional adaptor and is coupled to several signaling hubs including MAP kinase and tyrosine kinase pathways. Both G-protein and β-arrestin signaling pathways play important non-overlapping roles in neutrophil trafficking and activation. Functional studies have established many similarities but distinct differences for a given chemokine and between chemokines at the level of monomer vs. dimer, CXCR1 vs. CXCR2 activation, and G-protein vs. β-arrestin pathways. We propose that two forms of the ligand binding two receptors and activating two signaling pathways enables fine-tuned neutrophil function compared to a single form, a single receptor, or a single pathway. We summarize the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which chemokine monomers/dimers activate CXCR1/CXCR2 and how these interactions trigger G-protein/β-arrestin-coupled signaling pathways. We also discuss current challenges and knowledge gaps, and likely advances in the near future that will lead to a better understanding of the relationship between chemokine-CXCR1/CXCR2-G-protein/β-arrestin axis and neutrophil function.

    更新日期:2018-11-20
  • A novel Rhein derivative: Activation of Rac1/NADPH pathway enhances sensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells to radiotherapy
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-18
    Zhengying Su, Zhaoquan Li, Chunmiao Wang, Wei Tian, Fu Lan, Dandan Liang, Junying Li, Danrong Li, Huaxin Hou

    Radiation resistance and recurrent have become the major factors resulting in poor prognosis in the clinical treatment of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). New strategies to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy have been focused on the development of radiosensitizers and searching for directly targets that modulated tumor radiosensitivity. A novel potential radiosensitizer 1,8-Dihydroxy −3-(2′-(4″-methylpiperazin-1″-yl) ethyl-9,10-anthraquinone −3-carboxylate (RP-4) was designed and synthesized based on molecular docking technology, which was expected to regulate the radiosensitivity of tumor cells through targeting Rac1. In order to assess the radiosensitization activity of RP-4 on NPC cells, the highly differentiated CNE1 and poorly differentiated CNE2 cells NPC lines were employed. According to the results, RP-4 showed higher binding affinity toward the interaction with Rac1 than lead compounds. We found that RP-4 could inhibit cell viability and proliferation in CNE1 and CNE2 cells and significantly induced apoptosis after non-toxic concentration of RP-4 combined with 2Gy irradiation. RP-4 could effectively modulated the radiosensitivity both CNE1 cells and CNE2 cells through activating Rac1/NADPH signaling pathway and its downstream JNK/AP-1 pathway. What's more, Rac1/NADPH signaling pathway were significantly activated in Rac1-overexpressed CNE1 and CNE2 cells after treated with RP-4. Taken together, Rac1 and its downstream pathway may probably be the direct targets of RP-4 in regulating radiosensitivity of NPC cells, our finding provided a novel strategy for the development of therapeutic agents in response to tumorous radiation resistance.

    更新日期:2018-11-20
  • Upregulated BMP-Smad signaling activity in the glucuronyl C5-epimerase knock out MEF cells
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-17
    Tahira Batool, Jianping Fang, Viktor Jansson, Hongxing Zhao, Carolin Gallant, Aristidis Moustakas, Jin-Ping Li

    Glucuronyl C5-epimerase (Hsepi) catalyzes the conversion of glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in the process of heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Targeted interruption of the gene, Glce, in mice resulted in neonatal lethality with varied defects in organ development. To understand the molecular mechanisms of the phenotypes, we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) as a model to examine selected signaling pathways. Our earlier studies found reduced activities of FGF-2, GDNF, but increased activity of sonic hedgehog in the mutant cells. In this study, we focused on the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway. Western blotting detected substantially elevated endogenous Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation in the Hsepi mutant (KO) MEF cells, which is reverted by re-expression of the enzyme in the KO cells. The mutant cells displayed an enhanced proliferation and elevated alkaline phosphatase activity, marking higher differentiation, when cultured in osteogenic medium. The high level of Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation was also found in primary calvarial cells isolated from the KO mice. Analysis of the genes involved in the BMP signaling pathway revealed upregulation of a number of BMP ligands, but reduced expression of several Smads and BMP antagonist (Grem1) in the KO MEF cells. The results suggest that Hsepi expression modulates BMP signaling activity, which, at least partially, is associated with defected molecular structure of heparan sulfate expressed in the cells.

    更新日期:2018-11-20
  • Signal interaction between the tumour and inflammatory cells in patients with gastrointestinal cancer: Implications for treatment
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-17
    Kathryn A.F. Pennel, James H. Park, Donald C. McMillan, Antonia K. Roseweir, Joanne Edwards

    Over the last 15 years there has been a change in how we understand the impact of the interaction between the tumour and the host on cancer outcomes. From the simplistic view that the make-up of tumours cells largely determines their aggressiveness to a more complex view that the interaction between the products of tumour and host cell signal transduction pathways is crucial in determining whether the tumour cell is eliminated or survives in the host. Of the host cells, those with an immune/inflammatory function are most well documented to inhibit or promote tumour cell proliferation and dissemination. It is only in the last few years that there has been greater recognition of the impact of intracellular, cellular and systemic immune/inflammatory phenotypes on patient outcomes independent of current tumour staging and that these phenotypes are useful in informing oncological research and practice. In the present review we will examine the importance of inflammatory phenotypes at the intra-cellular, cellular and systemic levels on outcomes in patients with gastrointestinal cancer with focus on colorectal cancer. Based on these phenotypes we will examine and discuss the prospects for therapeutic intervention.

    更新日期:2018-11-17
  • miR-382-5p modulates the ATRA-induced differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia by targeting tumor suppressor PTEN
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-17
    Dongdong Liu, Liang Zhong, Zhen Yuan, Juanjuan Yao, Pengqiang Zhong, Junmei Liu, Shifei Yao, Yi Zhao, Lu Liu, Min Chen, Lianwen Li, Beizhong Liu

    In acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment induces granulocytic differentiation and maturation. MicroRNAs play pivotal roles in formation of the leukemic phenotype. Previously, microRNA-382-5p (miR-382-5p) was upregulated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(15;17). In the present study, we found that miR-382-5p expression was elevated with ATRA-induced differentiation of APL. To investigate the potential functional role of miR-382-5p in APL differentiation, an APL cell line was transfected with miR-382-5p mimics, inhibitors, or negative control (NC). The results showed in APL cell line NB4 that miR-382-5p downregulation upon ATRA treatment was a key event in the drug response. Mechanistic investigations revealed that miR-382-5p targeted the ATRA-regulated tumor suppressor gene PTEN through direct binding to its 3′ UTR. Enforced expression of miR-382-5p or specific PTEN inhibitors inhibited ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation via regulation of the cell cycle regulator cyclinD1. Conversely, PTEN overexpression promoted differentiation and enhanced sensitivity of NB4 cell line to physiological levels of ATRA. Finally, we found that PTEN overexpression restored PML nuclear bodies (NBs). Taken together, these results demonstrated that up-regulated miR-382-5p in NB4 cell line inhibited granulocytic differentiation through the miR-382-5p/PTEN axis, uncovering PTEN as a critical element in the granulocytic differentiation program induced by ATRA in APL.

    更新日期:2018-11-17
  • Phosphorylation and inhibition of ceramide kinase by protein kinase C-β: Their changes by serine residue mutations
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Hiromasa Takahashi, Hitomi Ashikawa, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Toshihiko Murayama

    Ceramide kinase (CerK) phosphorylates ceramide to ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P), and various roles for the CerK/C1P pathway in the regulation of cellular/biological functions have been demonstrated. CerK is constitutively phosphorylated at several serine (Ser, S) residues, however, the roles of Ser residues, including their phosphorylation, in CerK activity, have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we conducted the present study to investigate this issue. In A549 cells expressing wild-type CerK, a treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) decreased the formation of C1P in a protein kinase C (PKC)-βI/II-mediated manner. In the Phos-tag SDS-PAGE analysis, CerK existed in its phosphorylated form and was further phosphorylated by the PMA treatment in a PKC-βI/II-mediated manner. We examined the effects of the displacement of Ser residues (72/300/340/403/408/427) in CerK by alanine (Ala, A) on its activity and phosphorylation. Triple mutations (S340/408/427A), but not a single or double mutations (S340/408A), in CerK significantly decreased the formation of C1P. PMA-induced phosphorylation levels in S340/408A- and S340/408/427A-CerK were significantly and maximally reduced, respectively, but were similar in CerK with a single mutation and wild-type CerK. Ser residue mutations tested, including six mutations, did not affect PMA-induced decreases in C1P formation more than expected. Treatments with the protein phosphatase inhibitors, okadaic acid and cyclosporine A, decreased the formation of C1P. These results demonstrated that the activity of CerK was regulated in a phosphorylation-dependent manner in cells.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • ACTL6A interacts with p53 in acute promyelocytic leukemia cell lines to affect differentiation via the Sox2/Notch1 signaling pathway
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Peng-Qiang Zhong, Liang Zhong, Juan-Juan Yao, Dong-Dong Liu, Zhen Yuan, Jun-Mei Liu, Min Chen, Shi-Fei Yao, Yi Zhao, Lu Liu, Lian-Wen Li, Bei-Zhong Liu

    Actin-like 6A (ACTL6A), a component of BAF chromatin remodeling complexes, is important for cell differentiation. Nevertheless, its role and mechanism in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has not been reported. To identify the genes that may participate in the development of APL, we analyzed data from an APL cDNA microarray (GSE12662) in the NCBI database, and found that ACTL6A was up-regulated in APL patients. Subsequently, we investigated the function and mechanisms of ACTL6A in myeloid cell development. The expression of ACTL6A was gradually decreased during granulocytic differentiation in all-trans retinoic acid-treated NB4 and HL-60 cells, and phorbol myristate acetate-treated HL-60 cells. We also found that knockdown of ACTL6A promoted differentiation in NB4 and HL-60 cells, and decreased the levels of Sox2 and Notch1. Mechanistically, ACTL6A interacted with and was co-localized with Sox2 and p53. Meanwhile, CBL0137, an activator of p53, decreased the expression of ACTL6A and promoted differentiation in NB4 and HL-60 cells. These findings suggest that the inhibition of ACTL6A promotes differentiation via the Sox2 and Notch1 signaling pathways. Furthermore, the differentiation promoted by inhibiting ACTL6A could be regulated by p53 via its physical interaction with ACTL6A.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Bevacizumab induces inflammation in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line and in a mouse model
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-14
    Layal EL-Hajjar, Nour Jalaleddine, Abdullah Shaito, Kazem Zibara, Jalal Kazan, Jamal El-Saghir, Marwan El-Sabban

    Background Bevacizumab or Avastin® (Av) is an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agent. It does not improve survival of breast cancer patients due to development of refractoriness. Av treatment was shown to increase inflammation in a diabetic mouse model, and also to induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of non-transformed breast epithelia. This study aimed to understand if the Av-induced inflammatory microenvironment could be a mechanism of Av refractoriness. Expression profiles of inflammatory mediators, in vitro in MDA-MB-231 cells, in vivo in a mouse model xenografted with MDA-MB-231 cells and from archived cases of human breast carcinoma tissues were evaluated. Gap junctions are also crucial for angiogenesis and tumor cell extravasation. The effect of connexin 43 (Cx43) overexpression on the expression of inflammatory markers in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with Av was assessed. Methods MDA-MB-231 cells, control or overexpressing Cx43, were used in this study. Proliferation and invasion assays were performed. Quantitative PCR, ELISA and western blotting were performed to assess the regulation of inflammatory mediators and other factors upon Av treatment. Immunofluorescence was performed to document the translocation of Nuclear Factor-kappa B p65. Results Breast cancer tissues had elevated transcriptional levels of inflammatory mediators. Av treatment increased expression levels of inflammatory mediators and metastatic factors in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, overexpressing Cx43 in MDA-MB-231 cells alleviated the inflammatory effects induced by Av treatment. Conclusion This study attributes Av refractoriness to the Av therapy-induced inflammatory microenvironment.

    更新日期:2018-11-14
  • Neuroprotective effects of overexpressed microRNA-200a on activation of glaucoma-related retinal glial cells and apoptosis of ganglion cells via downregulating FGF7-mediated MAPK signaling pathway
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-12
    Hui Peng, Ya-Bin Sun, Ji-Long Hao, Cheng-Wei Lu, Ming-Chao Bi, E. Song

    Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy and is one of the leading causes of blindness in the industrialized countries. The involvement of microRNAs (miRs) has been implicated in regulating the complex biological responses to changes in intraocular pressure. However, the therapeutic role of miR-200a on glaucoma has not been well studied yet. In this study, we confirmed the role of miR-200a in glaucoma progression and identified the related mechanism. Microarray expression profiles were used to screen the glaucoma-related genes. The relationship between miR-200a and FGF7 was validated by bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. Glaucoma-related parameters including the expression of CD11b and iNOS, activation of Muller cells, and apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the mouse model were measured by immunohistochemistry, MTT assay and TUNEL assay, respectively. miR-200a was reduced in glaucoma, whereas FGF7 was robustly induced. Thereby, we speculated that FGF7 was negatively regulated by miR-200a. Downregulated miR-200a could activate the MAPK signaling pathway following elevations in ERK, JNK, p38 and Bax expression and reduction in Bcl-2 expression. In the mouse model, downregulated miR-200a increased the expression of CD11b and iNOS and the apoptosis of RGCs, but stimulated the inactivation of Muller cells. However, the above-mentioned alternations induced by downregulated miR-200a were reversed after FGF7 repression. miR-200a can inhibit the FGF7-mediated MAPK signaling pathway and play a protective role on improving the glaucoma-induced optical nerve injury.

    更新日期:2018-11-12
  • Individual Smad2 linker region phosphorylation sites determine the expression of proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan synthesizing genes
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-10
    Danielle Kamato, Micah Burch, Zhou Yang, Raafat Mohamed, Jennifer L. Stow, Narin Osman, Peter J. Little

    Growth factors such as thrombin and transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β facilitate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain hyperelongation on proteoglycans, a phenomenon that increases lipoprotein binding in the vessel wall and the development of atherosclerosis. TGF -β signals via canonical carboxy terminal phosphorylation of R-Smads and also non-canonical linker region phosphorylation of R-Smads. The G protein coupled receptor agonist, thrombin, can transactivate the TGF-β receptor leading to both canonical and non-canonical Smad signalling. Linker region phosphorylation drives the expression of genes for the synthesis of the proteoglycan, biglycan. Proteoglycan synthesis involves core protein synthesis, the initiation of GAG chains and the subsequent elongation of GAG chains. We have explored the relationship between the thrombin stimulated phosphorylation of individual serine and threonine sites in the linker region of Smad2 and the expression of GAG initiation xylosyltransferase-1 (XT-1) and GAG elongation chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase-1(C4ST-1) and chondroitin synthase-1 (CHSY-1) genes. Thrombin stimulated the phosphorylation of all four target residues (Thr220, Ser245, Ser250 and Ser255 residues) with a similar temporal pattern – phosphorylation was maximal at 15 min (the earliest time point studied) and the level of the phospho-proteins declined thereafter over the following 4 h. Jnk, p38 and PI3K, selectively mediated the phosphorylation of the Thr220 residue whereas the serine residues were variously phosphorylated by multiple kinases. Thrombin stimulated the expression of all three genes – XT-1, C4ST-1 and CHSY-1. The three pathways mediating Thr220 phosphorylation were also involved in the expression of XT-1. The target pathways (excluding Jnk) were involved in the expression of the GAG elongation genes (C4ST-1 and CHSY-1). These findings support the contention that individual Smad linker region phosphorylation sites are linked to the expression of genes for the initiation and elongation of GAG chains on proteoglycans. The context of this work is that a specific inhibitor of GAG elongation represents a potential therapeutic agent for preventing GAG elongation and lipid binding and the results indicate that the specificity of the pathways is such that it might be therapeutically feasible to specifically target GAG elongation without interfering with other physiological processes with which proteoglycans are involved.

    更新日期:2018-11-12
  • Distinct phosphorylation sites/clusters in the carboxyl terminus regulate α1D-adrenergic receptor subcellular localization and signaling
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-09
    Gabriel Carmona-Rosas, David A. Hernández-Espinosa, Rocío Alcántara-Hernández, Marco A. Alfonzo-Méndez, J. Adolfo García-Sainz

    The human α1D-adrenergic receptor is a seven transmembrane-domain protein that mediates many of the physiological actions of adrenaline and noradrenaline and participates in the development of hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia. We recently reported that different phosphorylation patterns control α1D-adrenergic receptor desensitization. However, to our knowledge, there is no data regarding the role(s) of this receptor's specific phosphorylation residues in its subcellular localization and signaling. In order to address this issue, we mutated the identified phosphorylated residues located on the third intracellular loop and carboxyl tail. In this way, we experimentally confirmed α1D-AR phosphorylation sites and identified, in the carboxyl tail, two groups of residues in close proximity to each other, as well as two individual residues in the proximal (T442) and distal (S543) regions. Our results indicate that phosphorylation of the distal cluster (T507, S515, S516 and S518) favors α1D-AR localization at the plasma membrane, i. e., substitution of these residues for non-phosphorylatable amino acids results in the intracellular localization of the receptors, whereas phospho-mimetic substitution allows plasma membrane localization. Moreover, we found that T442 phosphorylation is necessary for agonist- and phorbol ester-induced receptor colocalization with β-arrestins. Additionally, we observed that substitution of intracellular loop 3 phosphorylation sites for non-phosphorylatable amino acids resulted in sustained ERK1/2 activation; additional mutations in the phosphorylated residues in the carboxyl tail did not alter this pattern. In contrast, mobilization of intracellular calcium and receptor internalization appear to be controlled by the phosphorylation of both third-intracellular-loop and carboxyl terminus-domain residues. In summary, our data indicate that a) both the phosphorylation sites present in the third intracellular loop and in the carboxyl terminus participate in triggering calcium signaling and in turning-off α1D-AR-induced ERK activation; b) phosphorylation of the distal cluster appears to play a role in receptor's plasma membrane localization; and c) T442 appears to play a critical role in receptor phosphorylation and receptor-β-arrestin colocalization.

    更新日期:2018-11-09
  • Nitric oxide mediated redox regulation of protein homeostasis
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-05
    Irmgard Tegeder

    Nitric oxide is a versatile diffusible signaling molecule, whose biosynthesis by three NO synthases (NOS) is tightly regulated at transcriptional and posttranslational levels, availability of co-factors, and calcium binding. Above normal levels of NO have beneficial protective effects for example in the cardiovascular system, but also contribute to the pathophysiology in the context of inflammatory diseases, and to aging and neurodegeneration in the nervous system. The effect specificity relies on the functional and spatial specificity of the NOS isoenzymes, and on the duality of two major signaling mechanisms (i) activation of soluble guanylycylase (sGC)-dependent cGMP production and (ii) direct S-nitrosylation of redox sensitive cysteines of susceptible proteins. The present review summarizes the functional implications of S-nitrosylation in the context of proteostasis, and focuses on two NO target proteins, heat shock cognate of 70 kDa (Hsc70/HSPA8) and the ubiquitin 2 ligase (UBE2D), because both are modified on functionally critical cysteines and are key regulators of chaperone mediated and assisted autophagy and proteasomal protein degradation. SNO modifications of these candidates are associated with protein accumulations and adoption of a senescent phenotype of neuronal cells suggesting that S-nitrosylations of protein homeostatic machineries contribute to aging phenomena.

    更新日期:2018-11-06
  • Co-activation of WT1 and AP-1 proteins on WT1 gene promoter to induce WT1 gene expression in K562 cells
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-03
    Songyot Anuchapreeda, Methee Rungrojsakul, Singkome Tima, Sawitree Chiampanichayakul, Sheryl R. Krig
    更新日期:2018-11-05
  • Role of SMURF1 ubiquitin ligase in BMP receptor trafficking and signaling
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-11-03
    Koko Murakami, Joseph D. Etlinger

    Heterozygous germline mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor gene (BMPRII) are associated with hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH). Missense mutations, both in the extracellular ligand-binding and cytoplasmic kinase domains, mostly involve substitution of conserved Cys residues. Singular substitution at any of those Cys residues causes cytoplasmic, perinuclear localization of BMPR with reduced cell surface expression and BMP signaling. The present study examined the effect of Cys residue substitution on BMPR endocytic trafficking and lysosome degradation. We demonstrate that endocytosis/lysosomal degradation of BMPR occurs by two distinct pathways: SMURF1 and Ser/Thr kinase-associated. SMURF1 ubiquitin ligase induces lysosomal degradation of BMPR, while ligase-inactive SMURF1 maintains BMPR protein level and cell surface expression. Substitution of BMPR Cys residues increases lysosomal degradation which is blocked by ligase-inactive SMURF1, elevating protein levels of Cys-substituted BMPRs. Expression of Cys-substituted BMPR suppresses basal BMP signaling activity which is also up-regulated by ligase-inactive SMURF1. Cys-residue substitution thus appears to cause BMPR endocytosis to lysosomes in a SMURF1 ubiquitin ligase-associated pathway. In contrast, kinase-activated BMPR undergoes endocytic/lysosomal degradation by a pathway which is independent of SMURF1 and characterized with unique properties. Therefore, our results may describe a novel mechanism that SMURF1 ubiquitin ligase regulates constitutive endocytosis of BMPR which may be mediated by its conserved Cys residues.

    更新日期:2018-11-05
  • 更新日期:2018-10-31
  • The role of STAT3/mTOR-regulated autophagy in angiotensin II-induced senescence of human glomerular mesangial cells
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-10-30
    Shuang Yang, Dan Sun, Lining Wang, Xiuying Wang, Mai Shi, Xue Jiang, Xinran Gao

    The kidney is one of the fastest-aging organs, and renal senescence has become a major disease affecting human health. Renal cellular senescence is regulated by the joint action of multiple signal transduction pathways. The previous study by our research group found that the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway was involved in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced senescence of human glomerular mesangial cells. However, the unique role of STAT3 activation in Ang II-induced senescence of human glomerular mesangial cells and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study revealed that Ang II induced premature senescence, promoted autophagy and activated oxidative stress responses in human glomerular mesangial cells. Autophagy mediates the senescence-inducing effect of Ang II on human glomerular mesangial cells. Inhibition of oxidative stress with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or interference with STAT3/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity with S3I-201 or STAT3-siRNA suppressed autophagy to a certain extent, which was conducive to delaying the senescence of glomerular mesangial cells. The antioxidant probucol reduced autophagy in human glomerular mesangial cells and alleviated the aging process of these cells by regulating STAT3/mTOR. These findings identify a role of STAT3/mTOR-regulated autophagy in Ang II-induced senescence of human glomerular mesangial cells and may provide a theoretical basis for anti-senescence treatment in clinical practice.

    更新日期:2018-10-31
  • Effects of long non-coding RNA LINC00667 on renal tubular epithelial cell proliferation, apoptosis and renal fibrosis via the miR-19b-3p/LINC00667/CTGF signaling pathway in chronic renal failure
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-10-26
    Wen Chen, Zhong-Qi Zhou, Yue-Qin Ren, Lei Zhang, Li-Na Sun, Yu-Lin Man, Zhi-Kui Wang

    The global prevalence of chronic renal failure (CRF) has significantly elevated with various reports indicating there to be a 10% worldwide rate. The functions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and their deeper association with CRF at present remain poorly understood. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the altered expressions of lncRNA LINC00667 in CRF and its associated effects on renal tubular epithelial cell proliferation, apoptosis and renal fibrosis through the microRNA-19b-3p (miR-19b-3p)/LINC00667/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) signaling pathway. Initially, verification of the targeting relationship between LINC00667, CTGF and miR-19b-3p was performed, after which evidence was obtained indicating that miR-19b-3p could negatively regulate LINC00667 and CTGF. The expressions of CTGF in both the CRF and normal renal tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry means, with LINC00667 and CTGF determined to be highly expressed, while poor expression levels of miR-19b-3p were detected among the CRF tissues. The expressions of LINC00667, miR-19b-3p, fibrosis- and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes were also examined. The successfully established CRF rat models were treated with varying mimics, inhibitors, and siRNA. ELISA was applied to determine the renal function-related factors. Besides, the renal cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis were detected. In response to LINC00667 silencing, the renal tubular epithelial cells displayed increased proliferation and migration accompanied by reduced apoptosis based on upregulated miR-19b-3p, along with inhibited renal fibrosis and EMT detected. Taken together, the key findings of our study demonstrated that decreased lncRNA LINC00667 could promote renal tubular epithelial cell proliferation and ameliorate renal fibrosis in CRF via the miR-19b-3p/LINC00667/CTGF signaling pathway.

    更新日期:2018-10-27
  • 更新日期:2018-10-27
  • Autophagy induction impairs Wnt/β-catenin signalling through β-catenin relocalisation in glioblastoma cells
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.487) Pub Date : 2018-10-26
    Barbara Colella, Fiorella Faienza, Marianna Carinci, Giuseppina D'Alessandro, Myriam Catalano, Antonio Santoro, Francesco Cecconi, Cristina Limatola, Sabrina Di Bartolomeo
    更新日期:2018-10-26
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
导出
化学 • 材料 期刊列表