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  • Enzymatic Activity of HPGD in Treg Cells Suppresses Tconv Cells to Maintain Adipose Tissue Homeostasis and Prevent Metabolic Dysfunction
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-23
    Lisa Schmidleithner, Yasser Thabet, Eva Schönfeld, Maren Köhne, Daniel Sommer, Zeinab Abdullah, Timothy Sadlon, Collins Osei-Sarpong, Kotha Subbaramaiah, Francesca Copperi, Kristian Haendler, Tamas Varga, Oliver Schanz, Svenja Bourry, Kevin Bassler, Wolfgang Krebs, Annika E. Peters, Ann-Kathrin Baumgart, Marc Beyer
    更新日期:2019-04-24
  • Mechanical Skin Injury Promotes Food Anaphylaxis by Driving Intestinal Mast Cell Expansion
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-23
    Juan-Manuel Leyva-Castillo, Claire Galand, Christy Kam, Oliver Burton, Michael Gurish, Melissa A. Musser, Jeffrey D. Goldsmith, Elizabeth Hait, Samuel Nurko, Frank Brombacher, Chen Dong, Fred D. Finkelman, Richard T. Lee, Steven Ziegler, Isaac Chiu, K. Frank Austen, Raif S. Geha
    更新日期:2019-04-24
  • Activation of Mast-Cell-Expressed Mas-Related G-Protein-Coupled Receptors Drives Non-histaminergic Itch
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-23
    James Meixiong, Michael Anderson, Nathachit Limjunyawong, Mark F. Sabbagh, Eric Hu, Madison R. Mack, Landon K. Oetjen, Fang Wang, Brian S. Kim, Xinzhong Dong
    更新日期:2019-04-24
  • Natural Genetic Variation Reveals Key Features of Epigenetic and Transcriptional Memory in Virus-Specific CD8 T Cells
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-23
    Joris van der Veeken, Yi Zhong, Roshan Sharma, Linas Mazutis, Phuong Dao, Dana Pe’er, Christina S. Leslie, Alexander Y. Rudensky
    更新日期:2019-04-24
  • The Next Quarter Century
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-16

    Immunity celebrates its 25th anniversary at an exciting time in immunology, marked by the advent of new, door-opening approaches and a deeper understanding of the centrality of the immune system to both health and disease. We asked 25 investigators to look forward and share a vision of the next quarter century of immunology research.

    更新日期:2019-04-17
  • Interleukin-1 and Related Cytokines in the Regulation of Inflammation and Immunity
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Alberto Mantovani, Charles A. Dinarello, Martina Molgora, Cecilia Garlanda

    Forty years after its naming, interleukin-1 (IL-1) is experiencing a renaissance brought on by the growing understanding of its context-dependent roles and advances in the clinic. Recent studies have identified important roles for members of the IL-1 family—IL-18, IL-33, IL-36, IL-37, and IL-38—in inflammation and immunity. Here, we review the complex functions of IL-1 family members in the orchestration of innate and adaptive immune responses and their diversity and plasticity. We discuss the varied roles of IL-1 family members in immune homeostasis and their contribution to pathologies, including autoimmunity and auto-inflammation, dysmetabolism, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer. The trans-disease therapeutic activity of anti-IL-1 strategies argues for immunity and inflammation as a metanarrative of modern medicine.

    更新日期:2019-04-17
  • GM-CSF, IL-3, and IL-5 Family of Cytokines: Regulators of Inflammation
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Michael Dougan, Glenn Dranoff, Stephanie K. Dougan

    The β common chain cytokines GM-CSF, IL-3, and IL-5 regulate varied inflammatory responses that promote the rapid clearance of pathogens but also contribute to pathology in chronic inflammation. Therapeutic interventions manipulating these cytokines are approved for use in some cancers as well as allergic and autoimmune disease, and others show promising early clinical activity. These approaches are based on our understanding of the inflammatory roles of these cytokines; however, GM-CSF also participates in the resolution of inflammation, and IL-3 and IL-5 may also have such properties. Here, we review the functions of the β common cytokines in health and disease. We discuss preclinical and clinical data, highlighting the potential inherent in targeting these cytokine pathways, the limitations, and the important gaps in understanding of the basic biology of this cytokine family.

    更新日期:2019-04-17
  • Pleiotropy and Specificity: Insights from the Interleukin 6 Family of Cytokines
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Masaaki Murakami, Daisuke Kamimura, Toshio Hirano

    Since the molecular cloning of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in 1986, many other cytokines have been found to share the same signal transducer, gp130, in their receptor complexes. Thus, the IL-6 family of cytokines now consists of ten members. Although some of the family members’ functions are redundant as a result of the expression of gp130, there are also functional distinctions between members. The mechanisms that determine functional redundancies and distinctions are not completely understood. Yet, research has clarified the role of IL-6 family cytokines in autoimmune diseases and has led to effective therapies that target them. Here, we review the IL-6 family of cytokines in autoimmune diseases, with a particular focus on the prototypical member IL-6, from the viewpoints of their structure, signaling, and biological features and discuss possible mechanisms of their functional pleiotropy.

    更新日期:2019-04-17
  • The γc Family of Cytokines: Basic Biology to Therapeutic Ramifications
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Warren J. Leonard, Jian-Xin Lin, John J. O'Shea

    The common cytokine receptor γ chain, γc, is a component of the receptors for interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21. Mutation of the gene encoding γc results in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency in humans, and γc family cytokines collectively regulate development, proliferation, survival, and differentiation of immune cells. Here, we review the basic biology of these cytokines, highlighting mechanisms of signaling and gene regulation that have provided insights for immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, allergic diseases, and cancer. Moreover, we discuss how studies of this family stimulated the development of JAK3 inhibitors and present an overview of current strategies targeting these pathways in the clinic, including novel antibodies, antagonists, and partial agonists. The diverse roles of these cytokines on a range of immune cells have important therapeutic implications.

    更新日期:2019-04-17
  • The Immunobiology of the Interleukin-12 Family: Room for Discovery
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Elia D. Tait Wojno, Christopher A. Hunter, Jason S. Stumhofer

    The discovery of interleukin (IL)-6 and its receptor subunits provided a foundation to understand the biology of a group of related cytokines: IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27. These family members utilize shared receptors and cytokine subunits and influence the outcome of cancer, infection, and inflammatory diseases. Consequently, many facets of their biology are being therapeutically targeted. Here, we review the landmark discoveries in this field, the combinatorial biology inherent to this family, and how patient datasets have underscored the critical role of these pathways in human disease. We present significant knowledge gaps, including how similar signals from these cytokines can mediate distinct outcomes, and discuss how a better understanding of the biology of the IL-12 family provides new therapeutic opportunities.

    更新日期:2019-04-17
  • IL-10 Family Cytokines IL-10 and IL-22: from Basic Science to Clinical Translation
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Wenjun Ouyang, Anne O’Garra

    Cytokines are among the most important effector and messenger molecules in the immune system. They profoundly participate in immune responses during infection and inflammation, protecting against or contributing to diseases such as allergy, autoimmunity, and cancer. Manipulating cytokine pathways, therefore, is one of the most effective strategies to treat various diseases. IL-10 family cytokines exert essential functions to maintain tissue homeostasis during infection and inflammation through restriction of excessive inflammatory responses, upregulation of innate immunity, and promotion of tissue repairing mechanisms. Their important functions in diseases are supported by data from many preclinical models, human genetic studies, and clinical interventions. Despite significant efforts, however, there is still no clinically approved therapy through manipulating IL-10 family cytokines. Here, we summarize the recent progress in understanding the biology of this family of cytokines, suggesting more specific strategies to maneuver these cytokines for the effective treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancers.

    更新日期:2019-04-17
  • The IL-17 Family of Cytokines in Health and Disease
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Mandy J. McGeachy, Daniel J. Cua, Sarah L. Gaffen

    The interleukin 17 (IL-17) family of cytokines contains 6 structurally related cytokines, IL-17A through IL-17F. IL-17A, the prototypical member of this family, just passed the 25th anniversary of its discovery. Although less is known about IL-17B–F, IL-17A (commonly known as IL-17) has received much attention for its pro-inflammatory role in autoimmune disease. Over the past decade, however, it has become clear that the functions of IL-17 are far more nuanced than simply turning on inflammation. Accumulating evidence indicates that IL-17 has important context- and tissue-dependent roles in maintaining health during response to injury, physiological stress, and infection. Here, we discuss the functions of the IL-17 family, with a focus on the balance between the pathogenic and protective roles of IL-17 in cancer and autoimmune disease, including results of therapeutic blockade and novel aspects of IL-17 signal transduction regulation.

    更新日期:2019-04-17
  • Shared and Distinct Functions of Type I and Type III Interferons
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Helen M. Lazear, John W. Schoggins, Michael S. Diamond

    Type I interferons (IFNs) (IFN-α, IFN-β) and type III IFNs (IFN-λ) share many properties, including induction by viral infection, activation of shared signaling pathways, and transcriptional programs. However, recent discoveries have revealed context-specific functional differences. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of type I and type III IFN activities, highlighting shared and distinct features from molecular mechanisms through physiological responses. Beyond discussing canonical antiviral functions, we consider the adaptive immune priming, anti-tumor, and autoimmune functions of IFNs. We discuss a model wherein type III IFNs serve as a front-line defense that controls infection at epithelial barriers while minimizing damaging inflammatory responses, reserving the more potent type I IFN response for when local responses are insufficient. In this context, we discuss current therapeutic applications targeting these cytokine pathways and highlight gaps in understanding of the biology of type I and type III IFNs in health and disease.

    更新日期:2019-04-17
  • Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling in Immunity and Cancer
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Eduard Batlle, Joan Massagué

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a crucial enforcer of immune homeostasis and tolerance, inhibiting the expansion and function of many components of the immune system. Perturbations in TGF-β signaling underlie inflammatory diseases and promote tumor emergence. TGF-β is also central to immune suppression within the tumor microenvironment, and recent studies have revealed roles in tumor immune evasion and poor responses to cancer immunotherapy. Here, we present an overview of the complex biology of the TGF-β family and its context-dependent nature. Then, focusing on cancer, we discuss the roles of TGF-β signaling in distinct immune cell types and how this knowledge is being leveraged to unleash the immune system against the tumor.

    更新日期:2019-04-17
  • Immune Signaling in Neurodegeneration
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Timothy R. Hammond, Samuel E. Marsh, Beth Stevens

    Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system progressively rob patients of their memory, motor function, and ability to perform daily tasks. Advances in genetics and animal models are beginning to unearth an unexpected role of the immune system in disease onset and pathogenesis; however, the role of cytokines, growth factors, and other immune signaling pathways in disease pathogenesis is still being examined. Here we review recent genetic risk and genome-wide association studies and emerging mechanisms for three key immune pathways implicated in disease, the growth factor TGF-β, the complement cascade, and the extracellular receptor TREM2. These immune signaling pathways are important under both healthy and neurodegenerative conditions, and recent work has highlighted new functional aspects of their signaling. Finally, we assess future directions for immune-related research in neurodegeneration and potential avenues for immune-related therapies.

    更新日期:2019-04-17
  • Cytokine Circuits in Cardiovascular Disease
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Jesse W. Williams, Li-hao Huang, Gwendalyn J. Randolph

    Arterial inflammation is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, and appropriate management of this inflammation represents a major unmet therapeutic need for cardiovascular disease patients. Here, we review the diverse contributions of immune cells to atherosclerosis, the mechanisms of immune cell activation in this context, and the cytokine circuits that underlie disease progression. We discuss the recent application of these insights in the form of immunotherapy to treat cardiovascular disease and highlight how studies on the cardiovascular co-morbidity that arises in autoimmunity might reveal additional roles for cytokines in atherosclerosis. Currently, data point to interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and IL-17 as cytokines that, at least in some settings, are effective targets to reduce cardiovascular disease progression.

    更新日期:2019-04-17
  • The Cytokines of Asthma
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Bart N. Lambrecht, Hamida Hammad, John V. Fahy

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease associated with type 2 cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13, which promote airway eosinophilia, mucus overproduction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and immunogloubulin E (IgE) synthesis. However, only half of asthma patients exhibit signs of an exacerbated Type 2 response. “Type 2-low” asthma has different immune features: airway neutrophilia, obesity-related systemic inflammation, or in some cases, few signs of immune activation. Here, we review the cytokine networks driving asthma, placing these in cellular context and incorporating insights from cytokine-targeting therapies in the clinic. We discuss established and emerging paradigms in the context of the growing appreciation of disease heterogeneity and argue that the development of new and improved therapeutics will require understanding the diverse mechanisms underlying the spectrum of asthma pathologies.

    更新日期:2019-04-17
  • Cytokine Networks in the Pathophysiology of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Matthias Friedrich, Mathilde Pohin, Fiona Powrie

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Cytokine-targeted therapies have transformed the treatment of IBD, providing control of symptoms and longer relapse-free periods. However, many patients fail to respond, highlighting the need for therapies tailored to the underlying cell and molecular disease drivers. Here we discuss the progression of IBD from the perspective of remodeling of cytokine networks. We place well-established and under-studied cytokine modules in the context of cellular interactions, their dynamic regulation in early and late stages of disease (i.e., fibrosis), and their current and potential use in the clinic. Examining how particular cytokine networks drive distinct features and phases of IBD will shed light on the etiology of IBD and provide a basis for more effective treatments.

    更新日期:2019-04-17
  • Targeting Interleukin-6 Signaling in Clinic
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Sujin Kang, Toshio Tanaka, Masashi Narazaki, Tadamitsu Kishimoto

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine with roles in immunity, tissue regeneration, and metabolism. Rapid production of IL-6 contributes to host defense during infection and tissue injury, but excessive synthesis of IL-6 and dysregulation of IL-6 receptor signaling is involved in disease pathology. Therapeutic agents targeting the IL-6 axis are effective in rheumatoid arthritis, and applications are being extended to other settings of acute and chronic inflammation. Recent studies reveal that selective blockade of different modes of IL-6 receptor signaling has different outcomes on disease pathology, suggesting novel strategies for therapeutic intervention. However, some inflammatory diseases do not seem to respond to IL-6 blockade. Here, we review the current state of IL-6-targeting approaches in the clinic and discuss how to apply the growing understanding of the immunobiology of IL-6 to clinical decisions.

    更新日期:2019-04-17
  • Thrombin: A Gas Pedal Driving Innate Immunity
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Tobias Petzold, Steffen Massberg

    Hemostasis and immunity were long considered entirely separate entities. In this issue of Immunity, Burzynski et al. (2019) find that thrombin, the key enzyme within the coagulation cascade, activates IL-1α, a central pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine, to promote wound healing and platelet production following ectoderm injury.

    更新日期:2019-04-17
  • An X-ray Vision for Phosphoantigen Recognition
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Michael L. Dustin, Emmanuel Scotet, Daniel Olive

    Invariant Vγ9Vδ2 T cells respond to “phosphoantigen” metabolites through binding to the B30.2 domain of butyrophilin BTN3A. Yang et al. (2019) use molecular dynamic simulations based on X-ray structures of distinct B30.2 domain dimers to identify the asymmetric dimer as most active, which has implications for the inside-out signaling mechanism.

    更新日期:2019-04-17
  • Becalming Type 17 Inflammation in Ulcerative Colitis
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Hannah H. Chen, Alison Simmons

    Genome-wide association studies in ulcerative colitis point to a role for FcγRIIA, a receptor for IgG. Castro-Dopico et al. (2019) find a profound induction of anti-commensal IgG in the colonic mucosa of UC patients and outline a pathway whereby FcγR activation by IgG triggers IL-1β production, type 17 immunity, and the exacerbation of inflammation.

    更新日期:2019-04-17
  • Immunization with Components of the Viral Fusion Apparatus Elicits Antibodies That Neutralize Epstein-Barr Virus in B Cells and Epithelial Cells
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-09
    Wei Bu, M. Gordon Joyce, Hanh Nguyen, Dalton V. Banh, Fiona Aguilar, Zeshan Tariq, Moh Lan Yap, Yusuke Tsujimura, Rebecca A. Gillespie, Yaroslav Tsybovsky, Sarah F. Andrews, Sandeep R. Narpala, Adrian B. McDermott, Michael G. Rossmann, Yasuhiro Yasutomi, Gary J. Nabel, Masaru Kanekiyo, Jeffrey I. Cohen
    更新日期:2019-04-10
  • Single-Cell Transcriptomics of Human and Mouse Lung Cancers Reveals Conserved Myeloid Populations across Individuals and Species
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-09
    Rapolas Zilionis, Camilla Engblom, Christina Pfirschke, Virginia Savova, David Zemmour, Hatice D. Saatcioglu, Indira Krishnan, Giorgia Maroni, Claire V. Meyerovitz, Clara M. Kerwin, Sun Choi, William G. Richards, Assunta De Rienzo, Daniel G. Tenen, Raphael Bueno, Elena Levantini, Mikael J. Pittet, Allon M. Klein
    更新日期:2019-04-10
  • Loss of Neurological Disease HSAN-I-Associated Gene SPTLC2 Impairs CD8+ T Cell Responses to Infection by Inhibiting T Cell Metabolic Fitness
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-02
    Jingxia Wu, Sicong Ma, Roger Sandhoff, Yanan Ming, Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt, Vincent Timmerman, Nathalie Bonello-Palot, Beate Schlotter-Weigel, Michaela Auer-Grumbach, Pavel Seeman, Wolfgang N. Löscher, Markus Reindl, Florian Weiss, Eric Mah, Nina Weisshaar, Alaa Madi, Kerstin Mohr, Tilo Schlimbach, Guoliang Cui
    更新日期:2019-04-03
  • Keratinocyte-Mediated Activation of the Cytokine TGF-β Maintains Skin Recirculating Memory CD8+ T Cells
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-04-02
    Toshiro Hirai, Yukari Zenke, Yi Yang, Laurent Bartholin, Lalit K. Beura, David Masopust, Daniel H. Kaplan
    更新日期:2019-04-03
  • A Subset of Type I Conventional Dendritic Cells Controls Cutaneous Bacterial Infections through VEGFα-Mediated Recruitment of Neutrophils
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-03-27
    Baptiste Janela, Amit A. Patel, Mai Chan Lau, Chi Ching Goh, Rasha Msallam, Wan Ting Kong, Michael Fehlings, Sandra Hubert, Josephine Lum, Yannick Simoni, Benoit Malleret, Francesca Zolezzi, Jinmiao Chen, Michael Poidinger, Ansuman T. Satpathy, Carlos Briseno, Christian Wohn, Bernard Malissen, Florent Ginhoux
    更新日期:2019-03-27
  • Negative Co-stimulation Constrains T Cell Differentiation by Imposing Boundaries on Possible Cell States
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-03-26
    Spencer C. Wei, Roshan Sharma, Nana-Ama A.S. Anang, Jacob H. Levine, Yang Zhao, James J. Mancuso, Manu Setty, Padmanee Sharma, Jing Wang, Dana Pe’er, James P. Allison
    更新日期:2019-03-26
  • The Coagulation and Immune Systems Are Directly Linked through the Activation of Interleukin-1α by Thrombin
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-03-26
    Laura C. Burzynski, Melanie Humphry, Katerina Pyrillou, Kimberley A. Wiggins, Julie N.E. Chan, Nichola Figg, Lauren L. Kitt, Charlotte Summers, Kate C. Tatham, Paul B. Martin, Martin R. Bennett, Murray C.H. Clarke
    更新日期:2019-03-26
  • An Id2RFP-Reporter Mouse Redefines Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor Potentials
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-03-26
    Wei Xu, Dylan E. Cherrier, Sylvestre Chea, Christian Vosshenrich, Nicolas Serafini, Maxime Petit, Pentao Liu, Rachel Golub, James P. Di Santo

    Innate lymphoid cell (ILC) development proposes that ILC precursors (ILCPs) segregate along natural killer (NK) cell versus helper cell (ILC1, ILC2, ILC3) pathways, the latter depending on expression of Id2, Zbtb16, and Gata3. We have developed an Id2-reporter strain expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the context of normal Id2 expression to re-examine ILCP phenotype and function. We show that bone-marrow ILCPs were heterogeneous and harbored extensive NK-cell potential in vivo and in vitro. By multiplexing Id2RFP with Zbtb16CreGFP and Bcl11btdTomato strains, we made a single-cell dissection of the ILCP compartment. In contrast with the current model, we have demonstrated that Id2+Zbtb16+ ILCPs included multi-potent ILCPs that retained NK-cell potential. Late-stage ILC2P and ILC3P compartments could be defined by differential Zbtb16 and Bcl11b expression. We suggest a revised model for ILC differentiation that redefines the cell-fate potential of helper-ILC-restricted Zbtb16+ ILCPs.

    更新日期:2019-03-26
  • The Miami Monkey: A Sunny Alternative to the Berlin Patient
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-03-19
    Rachel A. Liberatore, David D. Ho

    Curing HIV infection has been impossible, with the exception of the “Berlin Patient.” Martinez-Navio et al. (2019) in Miami herein present a rare monkey whose virus was controlled for >3 years after a single genetic intervention that led to persistent production of HIV-neutralizing antibodies in vivo.

    更新日期:2019-03-20
  • Defining Barriers that Impede Choices
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-03-19
    Tonya J. Webb, Amy S. Weinmann

    Committing to a differentiation pathway means leaving alternative pathways behind. Adoue et al. (2019) report that the H3K9-methyltrasferase Setdb1 plays a role in inhibiting the Th1 program in committed Th2 cells, and mechanistically, its role might relate to the selective targeting of endogenous retroviruses adjacent to Th1 enhancers.

    更新日期:2019-03-20
  • Sugar Fix Keeps RIPK3 at Bay
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-03-19
    Cristina Giogha, Kate E. Lawlor

    Immunometabolism is emerging as an important modulator of immune responses. In this issue of Immunity, Li et al. (2019) examine the link between lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced glucose metabolism and innate immune signaling and identify how β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of the RIPK3 RHIM domain limits inflammation and necroptosis.

    更新日期:2019-03-20
  • Visualizing the Heterogeneity of Retinal Microglia
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-03-19
    Jonathan B. Lin, Rajendra S. Apte

    In this issue of Immunity, O’Koren et al. (2019) report that murine retinal microglia are long lived and are divided into two spatially and functionally distinct niches in the retina. In models of retinal neurodegeneration, retinal microglia migrate to the subretinal space, an inducible disease-associated niche, where they are neuroprotective.

    更新日期:2019-03-20
  • Exosomes Exercise Inhibition of Anti-Tumor Immunity during Chemotherapy
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-03-19
    Valerie S. LeBleu, Raghu Kalluri

    Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles that contain DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. Exosomes likely participate in facilitating intercellular communication and tumor growth. In this issue of Immunity, Zhang et al. (2019) report on the metabolic activity of B cell-derived exosomes in facilitating the suppression of cytotoxic T cells.

    更新日期:2019-03-20
  • Choreographing Immunity in the Skin Epithelial Barrier
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-03-19
    Tetsuro Kobayashi, Shruti Naik, Keisuke Nagao

    The skin interfaces with the external environment and is home to a myriad of immune cells that patrol the barrier to ward off harmful agents and aid in tissue repair. The formation of the cutaneous immune arsenal begins before birth and evolves throughout our lifetime, incorporating exogenous cues from microbes and inflammatory encounters, to achieve optimal fitness and function. Here, we discuss the context-specific signals that drive productive immune responses in the skin epithelium, highlighting key modulators of these reactions, including hair follicles, neurons, and commensal microbes. We thus also discuss the causal and mechanistic underpinning of inflammatory skin diseases that have been revealed in recent years. Finally, we discuss the non-canonical functions of cutaneous immune cells including their burgeoning role in epithelial regeneration and repair. The rapidly growing field of cutaneous immunity is revealing immune mechanisms and functions that can be harnessed to boost skin health and treat disease.

    更新日期:2019-03-20
  • Recasting the Tissue-Resident Lymphocyte in Celiac Disease
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-03-19
    Hisako Kayama, Kiyoshi Takeda

    In a recent issue of Cell, Mayassi et al. (2019) show that chronic inflammation in celiac disease (CeD) patients changes the repertoire and functional phenotype of intestinal TCR γδ+ intraepithelial lymphocytes. These changes are not reversed by gluten-free dietary regimens, suggesting that they might underlie the long-term sensitivity of CeD patients to gluten.

    更新日期:2019-03-20
  • Viral DNA Binding to NLRC3, an Inhibitory Nucleic Acid Sensor, Unleashes STING, a Cyclic Dinucleotide Receptor that Activates Type I Interferon
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-03-19
    Xin Li, Meng Deng, Alex S. Petrucelli, Cheng Zhu, Jinyao Mo, Lu Zhang, Jason W. Tam, Pablo Ariel, Baoyu Zhao, Song Zhang, Hengming Ke, Pingwei Li, Nikolay V. Dokholyan, Joseph A. Duncan, Jenny P.-Y. Ting
    更新日期:2019-03-20
  • Treg-Cell Control of a CXCL5-IL-17 Inflammatory Axis Promotes Hair-Follicle-Stem-Cell Differentiation During Skin-Barrier Repair
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-03-19
    Anubhav N. Mathur, Bahar Zirak, Ian C. Boothby, Madge Tan, Jarish N. Cohen, Thea M. Mauro, Pooja Mehta, Margaret M. Lowe, Abul K. Abbas, Niwa Ali, Michael D. Rosenblum
    更新日期:2019-03-20
  • A Structural Change in Butyrophilin upon Phosphoantigen Binding Underlies Phosphoantigen-Mediated Vγ9Vδ2 T Cell Activation
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-03-19
    Yunyun Yang, Liping Li, Linjie Yuan, Xiaoying Zhou, Jianxin Duan, Hongying Xiao, Ningning Cai, Shuai Han, Xianqiang Ma, Weidong Liu, Chun-Chi Chen, Lingle Wang, Xin Li, Jiahuan Chen, Ning Kang, Jing Chen, Zhixun Shen, Satish R. Malwal, Yonghui Zhang
    更新日期:2019-03-20
  • A Weaning Reaction to Microbiota Is Required for Resistance to Immunopathologies in the Adult
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-03-19
    Ziad Al Nabhani, Sophie Dulauroy, Rute Marques, Clara Cousu, Shahed Al Bounny, François Déjardin, Tim Sparwasser, Marion Bérard, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan, Gérard Eberl
    更新日期:2019-03-19
  • Leukocyte Trafficking: Time to Take Time Seriously
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-02-19
    Natalia Reglero-Real, Loïc Rolas, Sussan Nourshargh
    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • Butyrate Makes Macrophages “Go Nuclear” against Bacterial Pathogens
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-02-19
    Lior Lobel, Wendy S. Garrett
    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • A Dual Role for TNF-Producing T Cells in the Fetal Intestine
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-02-19
    Moritz Leppkes, Markus F. Neurath
    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • Playing Chess with HIV
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-02-19
    Andrew B. Ward
    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • Live or Let Die: T Cell Survival in Cancer Immunotherapy
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-02-19
    Janne Ruotsalainen, Thomas Tüting
    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • The Secret Life of IgE-Producing Cells
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-02-19
    Carlos J. Aranda, Maria A. Curotto de Lafaille
    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • Emerging Principles in Myelopoiesis at Homeostasis and during Infection and Inflammation
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-02-19
    Joachim L. Schultze, Elvira Mass, Andreas Schlitzer
    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • Human FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cell Heterogeneity and Function in Autoimmunity and Cancer
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-02-19
    James B. Wing, Atsushi Tanaka, Shimon Sakaguchi
    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • Cell-Type-Specific Interleukin 1 Receptor 1 Signaling in the Brain Regulates Distinct Neuroimmune Activities
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-01-22
    Xiaoyu Liu, Daniel P. Nemeth, Daniel B. McKim, Ling Zhu, Damon J. DiSabato, Olimpia Berdysz, Gowthami Gorantla, Braedan Oliver, Kristina G. Witcher, Yufen Wang, Christina E. Negray, Rekha S. Vegesna, John F. Sheridan, Jonathan P. Godbout, Matthew J. Robson, Randy D. Blakely, Phillip G. Popovich, Staci D. Bilbo, Ning Quan
    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • The Lupus Susceptibility Locus Sgp3 Encodes the Suppressor of Endogenous Retrovirus Expression SNERV
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-01-29
    Rebecca S. Treger, Scott D. Pope, Yong Kong, Maria Tokuyama, Manabu Taura, Akiko Iwasaki
    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • Survival of Single Positive Thymocytes Depends upon Developmental Control of RIPK1 Kinase Signaling by the IKK Complex Independent of NF-κB
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-02-05
    Louise V. Webb, Alessandro Barbarulo, Jelle Huysentruyt, Tom Vanden Berghe, Nozomi Takahashi, Steven Ley, Peter Vandenabeele, Benedict Seddon
    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • A Mutation in the Transcription Factor Foxp3 Drives T Helper 2 Effector Function in Regulatory T Cells
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-01-29
    Frédéric Van Gool, Michelle L.T. Nguyen, Maxwell R. Mumbach, Ansuman T. Satpathy, Wendy L. Rosenthal, Simone Giacometti, Duy T. Le, Weihong Liu, Todd M. Brusko, Mark S. Anderson, Alexander Y. Rudensky, Alexander Marson, Howard Y. Chang, Jeffrey A. Bluestone
    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • Chemokine Receptor Redundancy and Specificity Are Context Dependent
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-02-19
    Douglas P. Dyer, Laura Medina-Ruiz, Robin Bartolini, Fabian Schuette, Catherine E. Hughes, Kenneth Pallas, Francesca Vidler, Megan K.L. Macleod, Christopher J. Kelly, Kit Ming Lee, Christopher A.H. Hansell, Gerard J. Graham
    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • A Neutrophil Timer Coordinates Immune Defense and Vascular Protection
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-01-29
    José M. Adrover, Carlos del Fresno, Georgiana Crainiciuc, Maria Isabel Cuartero, María Casanova-Acebes, Linnea A. Weiss, Hector Huerga-Encabo, Carlos Silvestre-Roig, Jan Rossaint, Itziar Cossío, Ana V. Lechuga-Vieco, Jaime García-Prieto, Mónica Gómez-Parrizas, Juan A. Quintana, Ivan Ballesteros, Sandra Martin-Salamanca, Alejandra Aroca-Crevillen, Shu Zhen Chong, Andrés Hidalgo
    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • Liver-Resident NK Cells Control Antiviral Activity of Hepatic T Cells via the PD-1-PD-L1 Axis
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-01-29
    Jing Zhou, Hui Peng, Kun Li, Kun Qu, Baohui Wang, Yuzhang Wu, Lilin Ye, Zhongjun Dong, Haiming Wei, Rui Sun, Zhigang Tian
    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • The ATP-Binding Cassette Gene ABCF1 Functions as an E2 Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Controlling Macrophage Polarization to Dampen Lethal Septic Shock
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-02-12
    Hitesh Arora, Sara Morgan Wilcox, Laura Alexandra Johnson, Lonna Munro, Brett Alexander Eyford, Cheryl Gurine Pfeifer, Ian Welch, Wilfred Arthur Jefferies
    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • The Short Chain Fatty Acid Butyrate Imprints an Antimicrobial Program in Macrophages
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-01-23
    Julie Schulthess, Sumeet Pandey, Melania Capitani, Kevin C. Rue-Albrecht, Isabelle Arnold, Fanny Franchini, Agnieszka Chomka, Nicholas E. Ilott, Daniel G.W. Johnston, Elisabete Pires, James McCullagh, Stephen N. Sansom, Carolina V. Arancibia-Cárcamo, Holm H. Uhlig, Fiona Powrie
    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • Microbiota Sensing by Mincle-Syk Axis in Dendritic Cells Regulates Interleukin-17 and -22 Production and Promotes Intestinal Barrier Integrity
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-01-29
    María Martínez-López, Salvador Iborra, Ruth Conde-Garrosa, Annalaura Mastrangelo, Camille Danne, Elizabeth R. Mann, Delyth M. Reid, Valérie Gaboriau-Routhiau, Maria Chaparro, María P. Lorenzo, Lara Minnerup, Paula Saz-Leal, Emma Slack, Benjamin Kemp, Javier P. Gisbert, Andrzej Dzionek, Matthew J. Robinson, Francisco J. Rupérez, David Sancho
    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • Human Fetal TNF-α-Cytokine-Producing CD4+ Effector Memory T Cells Promote Intestinal Development and Mediate Inflammation Early in Life
    Immunity (IF 19.734) Pub Date : 2019-02-12
    Renée R.C.E. Schreurs, Martin E. Baumdick, Adrian F. Sagebiel, Max Kaufmann, Michal Mokry, Paul L. Klarenbeek, Nicola Schaltenberg, Fenja L. Steinert, Jorik M. van Rijn, Agata Drewniak, Sarah-May M.L. The, Roel Bakx, Joep P.M. Derikx, Niek de Vries, Willemijn E. Corpeleijn, Steven T. Pals, Nicola Gagliani, Manuel A. Friese, Madeleine J. Bunders
    更新日期:2019-03-15
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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