Improving Crystallization and Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells Using a Low-Temperature Treated A-Site Cation Solution in the Sequential Deposition
The two-step sequential deposition is a commonly used method by researchers for fabricating perovskite solar cells (PSCs) due to its reproducibility and tolerant preparation conditions. However, the less-than-favorable diffusive processes in the preparation process often result in subpar crystalline quality in the perovskite films. In this study, we employed a simple strategy to regulate the crystallization process by lowering the temperature of the organic-cation precursor solutions. By doing so, we minimized interdiffusion processes between the organic cations and pre-deposited lead iodide (PbI2) film under poor crystallization conditions. This allowed for a homogenous perovskite film with improved crystalline orientation when transferred to appropriate environmental conditions for annealing. As a result, a boosted power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved in PSCs tested for 0.1 cm2 and 1 cm2, with the former exhibiting a PCE of 24.10% and the latter of 21.56%, compared to control PSCs, which showed a PCE of 22.65% and 20.69%, respectively. Additionally, the strategy increased device stability, with the cells holding 95.8% and 89.4% of the initial efficiency even after 7000 h of aging under nitrogen or 20–30% relative humidity and 25 °C. This study highlights a promising low-temperature-treated (LT-treated) strategy compatible with other PSCs fabrication techniques, adding a new possibility for temperature regulation during crystallization.