Bioelectrochemical biosensor for water toxicity detection: generation of dual signals for electrochemical assay confirmation Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-09-30 Yuan Yang, Yan-Zhai Wang, Zhen Fang, Yang-Yang Yu, Yang-Chun Yong
Toxicity assessment of water is of great important to the safety of human health and to social security because of more and more toxic compounds that are spilled into the aquatic environment. Therefore, the development of fast and reliable toxicity assessment methods is of great interest and attracts much attention. In this study, by using the electrochemical activity of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells as the toxicity indicator, 3,5-dichlorophenol (DCP) as the model toxic compound, a new biosensor for water toxicity assessment was developed. Strikingly, the presence of DCP in the water significantly inhibited the maximum current output of the S. oneidensis MR-1 in a three-electrode system and also retarded the current evolution by the cells. Under the optimized conditions, the maximum current output of the biosensor was proportional to the concentration of DCP up to 30 mg/L. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of DCP determined by this biosensor is about 14.5 mg/L. Furthermore, simultaneous monitoring of the retarded time (Δt) for current generation allowed the identification of another biosensor signal in response to DCP which could be employed to verify the electrochemical result by dual confirmation. Thus, the present study has provided a reliable and promising approach for water quality assessment and risk warning of water toxicity.
Print to detect: a rapid and ultrasensitive phage-based dipstick assay for foodborne pathogens Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date :
Abstract Foodborne pathogens are a burden to the economy and a constant threat to public health. The ability to rapidly detect the presence of foodborne pathogens is a vital component of any strategy towards establishing a safe and secure food supply chain. Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses capable of infecting and replicating within bacteria in a strain-specific manner. The ubiquitous and selective nature of phages makes them ideal for the detection and biocontrol of bacteria. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop and test a phage-based paper dipstick biosensor for the detection of various foodborne pathogens in food matrices. The first step was to identify the best method for immobilizing phages on paper such that their biological activity (infectivity) was preserved. It was found that piezoelectric inkjet printing resulted in lower loss of phage infectivity when compared with other printing methods (namely gravure and blade coating) and that ColorLok paper was ideally suited to create functional sensors. The phage-based bioactive papers developed with use of piezoelectric inkjet printing actively lysed their target bacteria and retained this antibacterial activity for up to 1 week when stored at room temperature and 80% relative humidity. These bioactive paper strips in combination with quantitative real-time PCR were used for quantitative determination of target bacteria in broth and food matrices. A phage dipstick was used to capture and infect Escherichia coli O157:H7, E. coli O45:H2, and Salmonella Newport in spinach, ground beef and chicken homogenates, respectively, and quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the progeny phages. A detection limit of 10–50 colony-forming units per millilitre was demonstrated with a total assay time of 8 h, which was the duration of a typical work shift in an industrial setting. This detection method is rapid and cost-effective, and may potentially be applied to a broad range of bacterial foodborne pathogens. Graphical abstract ᅟ
Optical microalgal biosensors for aqueous contaminants using organically doped silica as cellular hosts Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-06-02 Nada Ben Ahmed, Sylvie Masse, Guillaume Laurent, Jean-Yves Piquemal, Claude Yéprémian, Roberta Brayner, Thibaud Coradin
Optical biosensors for the detection of toxic species in aqueous media were developed via the encapsulation of microalgae in sol–gel matrices. In a first step, the effect of cadmium(II), lead(II), and anthracene on the chlorophyll a fluorescence intensity of Anabaena flos-aquae, Chlorella vulgaris, and Euglena gracilis microalgae in suspension was studied. Complementary ATP-metry measurements demonstrated a direct relationship between optical response and pollutant toxicity, in a cell- and dose-dependent manner. In a second step, microalgae were successfully encapsulated in silicate–colloidal silica nanocomposite matrices. However, a complete loss of cell response to pollutant addition was observed, despite the preservation of cell viability. Introduction of a low amount (5 mol%) of amine- or ethyl-bearing silanes in the matrix formulation allowed the recovery of the sensing capacity of the immobilized microalgae, without impacting on the response time (30 s). Porosimetry and 29Si solid-state NMR spectroscopy showed that the organic moieties are fully integrated into the inorganic network, tuning the ability of the target pollutant to diffuse and reach the encapsulated algae. This versatile strategy could be useful for the easy and fast assessment of contamination levels in polluted waters.
A novel bioluminescent NanoLuc yeast-estrogen screen biosensor (nanoYES) with a compact wireless camera for effect-based detection of endocrine-disrupting chemicals Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-09-30 Luca Cevenini, Antonia Lopreside, Maria Maddalena Calabretta, Marcello D’Elia, Patrizia Simoni, Elisa Michelini, Aldo Roda
The presence of chemicals with estrogenic activity in surface, groundwater, and drinking water poses serious concerns for potential threats to human health and aquatic life. At present, no sensitive portable devices are available for the rapid monitoring of such contamination. Here, we propose a cell-based mobile platform that exploits a newly developed bioluminescent yeast-estrogen screen (nanoYES) and a low-cost compact camera as light detector. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were genetically engineered with a yeast codon-optimized variant of NanoLuc luciferase (yNLucP) under the regulation of human estrogen receptor α activation. Ready-to-use 3D-printed cartridges with immobilized cells were prepared by optimizing a new procedure that enables to produce alginate slices with good reproducibility. A portable device was obtained exploiting a compact camera and wireless connectivity enabling a rapid and quantitative evaluation (1-h incubation at room temperature) of total estrogenic activity in small sample volumes (50 μL) with a LOD of 0.08 nM for 17β-estradiol. The developed portable analytical platform was applied for the evaluation of water samples spiked with different chemicals known to have estrogen-like activity. Thanks to the high sensitivity of the newly developed yeast biosensor and the possibility to wireless connect the camera with any smartphone model, the developed configuration is more versatile than previously reported smartphone-based devices, and could find application for on-site analysis of endocrine disruptors.
Synthetic biology for microbial heavy metal biosensors Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-11-28 Hyun Ju Kim, Haeyoung Jeong, Sang Jun Lee
Using recombinant DNA technology, various whole-cell biosensors have been developed for detection of environmental pollutants, including heavy metal ions. Whole-cell biosensors have several advantages: easy and inexpensive cultivation, multiple assays, and no requirement of any special techniques for analysis. In the era of synthetic biology, cutting-edge DNA sequencing and gene synthesis technologies have accelerated the development of cell-based biosensors. Here, we summarize current technological advances in whole-cell heavy metal biosensors, including the synthetic biological components (bioparts), sensing and reporter modules, genetic circuits, and chassis cells. We discuss several opportunities for improvement of synthetic cell-based biosensors. First, new functional modules must be discovered in genome databases, and this knowledge must be used to upgrade specific bioparts through molecular engineering. Second, modules must be assembled into functional biosystems in chassis cells. Third, heterogeneity of individual cells in the microbial population must be eliminated. In the perspectives, the development of whole-cell biosensors is also discussed in the aspects of cultivation methods and synthetic cells.
Nuclear magnetic resonance and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques for the characterization of bioactive compounds from Humulus lupulus L. (hop) Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-19 Davide Bertelli, Virginia Brighenti, Lucia Marchetti, Anna Reik, Federica Pellati
Humulus lupulus L. (hop) represents one of the most cultivated crops, it being a key ingredient in the brewing process. Many health-related properties have been described for hop extracts, making this plant gain more interest in the field of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical research. Among the analytical tools available for the phytochemical characterization of plant extracts, quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) represents a new and powerful technique. In this ambit, the present study was aimed at the development of a new, simple, and efficient qNMR method for the metabolite fingerprinting of bioactive compounds in hop cones, taking advantage of the novel ERETIC 2 tool. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply this method to complex matrices of natural origin, such as hop extracts. The qNMR method set up in this study was applied to the quantification of both prenylflavonoids and bitter acids in eight hop cultivars. The performance of this analytical method was compared with that of HPLC-UV/DAD, which represents the most frequently used technique in the field of natural product analysis. The quantitative data obtained for hop samples by means of the two aforementioned techniques highlighted that the amount of bioactive compounds was slightly higher when qNMR was applied, although the order of magnitude of the values was the same. The accuracy of qNMR was comparable to that of the chromatographic method, thus proving to be a reliable tool for the analysis of these secondary metabolites in hop extracts.
Analysis of phenolic compounds in different parts of pomegranate ( Punica granatum ) fruit by HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS and evaluation of their antioxidant activity: application to different Italian varieties Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-19 Marina Russo, Chiara Fanali, Giusy Tripodo, Paola Dugo, Rosario Muleo, Laura Dugo, Laura De Gara, Luigi Mondello
The analysis of pomegranate phenolic compounds belonging to different classes in different fruit parts was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection. Two different separation methods were optimized for the analysis of anthocyanins and hydrolyzable tannins along with phenolic acids and flavonoids. Two C18 columns, core–shell and fully porous particle stationary phases, were used. The parameters for separation of phenolic compounds were optimized considering chromatographic resolution and analysis time. Thirty-five phenolic compounds were found, and 28 of them were tentatively identified as belonging to four different phenolic compound classes; namely, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and flavonoids. Quantitative analysis was performed with a mixture of nine phenolic compounds belonging to phenolic compound classes representative of pomegranate. The method was then fully validated in terms of retention time precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and linearity range. Phenolic compounds were analyzed directly in pomegranate juice, and after solvent extraction with a mixture of water and methanol with a small percentage of acid in peel and pulp samples. The accuracy of the extraction method was also assessed, and satisfactory values were obtained. Finally, the method was used to study identified analytes in pomegranate juice, peel, and pulp of six different Italian varieties and one international variety. Differences in phenolic compound profiles among the different pomegranate parts were observed. Pomegranate peel samples showed a high concentration of phenolic compounds, ellagitannins being the most abundant ones, with respect to pulp and juice samples for each variety. With the same samples, total phenols and antioxidant activity were evaluated through colorimetric assays, and the results were correlated among them.
A new approach for the extraction of tetracyclines from soil matrices: application of the microwave-extraction technique Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-19 Paulina Łukaszewicz, Anna Białk-Bielińska, Joanna Dołżonek, Jolanta Kumirska, Magda Caban, Piotr Stepnowski
The widespread use of tetracyclines (TCs) in animal husbandry is associated with their constant penetration into the environment and the threat they might pose to living organisms. While the literature data on the analysis of these substances in such matrices as food, tissues, or wastewater are quite extensive, there are still only a few methods presented for the determination of these compounds in soil samples. Moreover, among the literature methods for the extraction of TCs from soil samples, microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MAE) was used only once and in combination with liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection (LC-UV). However, according to the EU Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, the use of LC-UV for the determination of compounds, including pharmaceuticals, in environmental samples is not sufficient. Therefore, the development and application of a sensitive and selective method using the MAE-SPE-LC-MS/MS(MRM) technique for the isolation and identification of a mixture of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), and chlortetracycline (CTC) in soils is presented in our study. The credibility of this method has been confirmed with good parameters of validation. The optimal extraction conditions of three TCs using MAE techniques were to conduct double extraction for 10 min each, at 60 °C, using a mixture of ACN:McIlvaine buffer:0.1 M EDTA (2:1:1, v/v/v) and an additional cleaning of the extracts by SPE. The effectiveness of the extraction of these compounds was assessed based on two different ways (absolute recovery from 46 to 65.1% and relative recovery from 101.1 to 109.5%). Finally, the validated MAE-SPE-LC-MS/MS(MRM) method was used for the analysis of six samples from agricultural areas of northern Poland. OTC and TC, at concentrations of 11.7 and 14.5 μg kg−1 were determined in two different samples. An assessment of risk quotients was also performed. The presented method was proven to be a useful tool in the analysis of residues of selected TCs in the soil ecosystem. Obtained data on the presence of these drugs in Polish soils is the first report for this country.
New frontiers and cutting edge applications in ultra high performance liquid chromatography through latest generation superficially porous particles with particular emphasis to the field of chiral separations Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-16 Martina Catani, Simona Felletti, Omar H. Ismail, Francesco Gasparrini, Luisa Pasti, Nicola Marchetti, Chiara De Luca, Valentina Costa, Alberto Cavazzini
About ten years after their introduction to the market (happened in 2006), the so-called second generation superficially porous particles (SPPs) have undoubtedly become the benchmark as well as, very often, the preferred choice for many applications in liquid chromatography (LC), when high efficiency and fast separations are required. This trend has interested practically all kinds of separations, with the only exception of chiral chromatography (at least so far). The technology of production of base SPPs is advanced, relatively simple and widely available. The deep investigation of mass transfer mechanisms under reversed-phase (RP) and normal-phase (NP) conditions for achiral separations has shown the advantages in the use of these particles over their fully porous counterparts. In addition, it has been demonstrated that SPPs are extremely suitable for the preparation of efficient packed beds through slurry packing techniques. However, the research in this field is in continual evolution. In this article, some of the most advanced concepts and modern applications based on the use of SPPs, embracing in particular ultrafast chiral chromatography and the design of SPPs with engineered pore structures or very reduced particle diameter, are revised. We describe modern trends in these fields and focus on those aspect where further innovation and research will be required.
Magnetofluorescent nanocomposites and quantum dots used for optimal application in magnetic fluorescence-linked immunoassay Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-15 H. Y. Tsai, S. Y. Li, C. Bor Fuh
Magnetofluorescent nanocomposites with optimal magnetic and fluorescent properties were prepared and characterized by combining magnetic nanoparticles (iron oxide@polymethyl methacrylate) with fluorescent nanoparticles (rhodamine 6G@mSiO2). Experimental parameters were optimized to produce nanocomposites with high magnetic susceptibility and fluorescence intensity. The detection of a model biomarker (alpha-fetoprotein) was used to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the magnetofluorescent nanocomposites combined with quantum dots and using magnetic fluorescence-linked immunoassay. The magnetofluorescent nanocomposites enable efficient mixing, fast re-concentration, and nanoparticle quantization for optimal reactions. Biofunctional quantum dots were used to confirm the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) content in sandwich immunoassay after mixing and washing. The analysis time was only one third that required in ELISA. The detection limit was 0.2 pg mL−1, and the linear range was 0.68 pg mL−1–6.8 ng mL−1. This detection limit is lower, and the linear range is wider than those of ELISA and other methods. The measurements made using the proposed method differed by less than 13% from those obtained using ELISA for four AFP concentrations (0.03, 0.15, 0.75, and 3.75 ng mL−1). The proposed method has a considerable potential for biomarker detection in various analytical and biomedical applications.
Wastewater-based tracing of doping use by the general population and amateur athletes Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-15 Ana Causanilles, Vera Nordmann, Dennis Vughs, Erik Emke, Olivier de Hon, Félix Hernández, Pim de Voogt
The present study investigates the applicability of the chemical analysis of wastewater to assess the use of doping substances by the general population and amateur athletes. To this end, an analytical methodology that can identify and quantify a list of 15 substances from the groups of anabolic steroids, weight loss products, and masking agents in wastewater has been developed. The method uses solid phase extraction to increase the detection sensitivity of the target analytes, expected to be present at very low concentrations (ng L−1 range), and decrease possible matrix interferences. Instrumental analysis is performed by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry, allowing data acquisition in both full scan and tandem MS mode. The method has been successfully validated at two concentration levels (50 and 200 ng L−1) with limits of quantification ranging between 0.7 and 60 ng L−1, intra- and inter-day precision expressed as relative standard deviation below 15%, procedural recoveries between 60 and 160% and matrix effects ranging from 45 to 121%. The stability of the analytes in wastewater was evaluated at different storage temperatures illustrating the importance of freezing the samples immediately after collection. The application of the method to 24-h composite wastewater samples collected at the entrance of three wastewater treatment plants and one pumping station while different sport events were taking place revealed the presence in wastewater, and hence the use, of the weight loss substances ephedrine, norephedrine, methylhexanamine, and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The use of these stimulants was visible just prior and during the event days and in greater amounts than anabolic steroids or masking agents.
Magnetic covalent triazine-based frameworks as magnetic solid-phase extraction adsorbents for sensitive determination of perfluorinated compounds in environmental water samples Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-12 Ji-Yun Ren, Xiao-Li Wang, Xiao-Li Li, Ming-Lin Wang, Ru-Song Zhao, Jin-Ming Lin
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs), which are a new type of carbonaceous polymeric material, have attracted great interest because of their large surface area and high chemical and thermal stability. However, to the best of our knowledge, no work has reported the use of magnetic COFs as adsorbents for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) to enrich and determine environmental pollutants. This work aims to investigate the feasibility of using covalent triazine-based framework (CTF)/Fe2O3 composites as MSPE adsorbents to enrich and analyze perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) at trace levels in water samples. Under the optimal conditions, the method developed exhibited low limits of detection (0.62–1.39 ng·L-1), a wide linear range (5–4000 ng L-1), good repeatability (1.12–9.71%), and good reproducibility (2.45–7.74%). The new method was successfully used to determine PFCs in actual environmental water samples. MSPE based on CTF/Fe2O3 composites exhibits potential for analysis of PFCs at trace levels in environmental water samples.
Simultaneous pre-concentration and separation on simple paper-based analytical device for protein analysis Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Ji-Cheng Niu, Ting Zhou, Li-Li Niu, Zhen-Sheng Xie, Fang Fang, Fu-Quan Yang, Zhi-Yong Wu
In this work, fast isoelectric focusing (IEF) was successfully implemented on an open paper fluidic channel for simultaneous concentration and separation of proteins from complex matrix. With this simple device, IEF can be finished in 10 min with a resolution of 0.03 pH units and concentration factor of 10, as estimated by color model proteins by smartphone-based colorimetric detection. Fast detection of albumin from human serum and glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c) from blood cell was demonstrated. In addition, off-line identification of the model proteins from the IEF fractions with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was also shown. This PAD IEF is potentially useful either for point of care test (POCT) or biomarker analysis as a cost-effective sample pretreatment method.
Storage stability study of porcine hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 isoenzymes by use of a newly developed and fully validated highly sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Wim Schelstraete, Mathias Devreese, Siska Croubels
Microsomes are an ideal medium to investigate cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme-mediated drug metabolism. However, before microsomes are prepared, tissues can be stored for a long time. Studies about the stability of these enzymes in porcine hepatic and intestinal tissues upon storage are lacking. To be able to investigate CYP450 stability in microsomes prepared from these tissues, a highly sensitive and rapid HPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of six CYP450 metabolites in incubation medium was developed and validated. The metabolites, paracetamol (CYP1A), 7-hydroxy-coumarin (CYP2A), 1-hydroxy-midazolam (CYP3A), 4-hydroxy-tolbutamide (CYP2C), dextrorphan (CYP2D), and 6-hydroxy-chlorzoxazone (CYP2E) were extracted with ethyl acetate at pH 1.0, followed by evaporation and separation on an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column. The method was fully validated in a GLP-compliant laboratory according to European guidelines and was highly sensitive (LOQ = 0.25–2.5 ng/mL), selective, had good precision (RSD-within, 1.0–9.1%; RSD-between, 1.0–18.4%) and accuracy (within-run, 83.3–102%; between-run, 78.5–102%), and showed no relative signal suppression and enhancement. Consequently, this method was applied to study the stability of porcine hepatic and intestinal CYP450 isoenzymes when tissues were stored at − 80 °C. The results indicate that porcine CYP450 isoenzymes are stable in tissues at least up to 4 months when snap frozen and stored at − 80 °C. Moreover, the results indicate differences in porcine CYP450 stability compared to rat, rabbit, and fish CYP450, as observed by other research groups, hence stressing the importance to investigate the CYP450 stability of a specific species.
Bioanalytical verification of V-type nerve agent exposure: simultaneous detection of phosphonylated tyrosines and cysteine-containing disulfide-adducts derived from human albumin Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 Andreas Kranawetvogl, Jim Küppers, Markus Siegert, Michael Gütschow, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Paul W. Elsinghorst, Harald John
Nerve agents still represent a serious threat to civilian and military personnel as demonstrated by the violent conflict in the Middle East. For verification of poisoning, covalent adducts with endogenous proteins (e.g., human serum albumin, HSA) are valuable long-term biomarkers. Accordingly, we developed a microbore liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/high-resolution mass spectrometry (μLC-ESI MS/HR MS) method for simultaneous detection of HSA-adducts with the V-type nerve agents VX, Chinese VX (CVX), and Russian VX (RVX). Following Pronase-catalyzed proteolysis, novel disulfide-adducts were detected in addition to phosphonylated tyrosine residues. Dipeptide disulfide-adducts were formed between the thiol-containing leaving group of the V-type nerve agents (2-(diisopropylamino)ethanethiol, DPAET, for VX and 2-(diethylamino)ethanethiol, DEAET, for CVX and RVX) and the free thiol group of Cys34 in HSA (DPAET-CysPro, DEAET-CysPro). We also identified tripeptide disulfide-adducts containing Cys448 (MetProCys-DPAET, MetProCys-DEAET) and to a lesser extent Cys514 (AspIleCys-DPAET, AspIleCys-DEAET). Synthetic tripeptide references were used for confirmation of the postulated structures by μLC-ESI MS/HR MS. Lower limits of detection were determined in human plasma, being nearly identical for the three V-type nerve agents, and corresponded to 1–6 μM nerve agent for tyrosine-adducts, 1–3 μM nerve agent for CysPro-adducts, and 6 μM nerve agent for MetProCys-adducts, thus covering concentrations of toxicological relevance. Characterization of proteolysis kinetics revealed stable plateaus for all adducts being reached between 60 and 90 min at 37 °C. Adduct formation kinetics were characterized by simultaneously monitoring the V-type nerve agent, its leaving group, and the corresponding disulfide dimer. Furthermore, adduct formation patterns were investigated as a function of the molar ratio of HSA to V-type nerve agent.
Capillary zone electrophoresis determination of fluoride in seawater using transient isotachophoresis Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Keiichi Fukushi, Yuki Fujita, Junpei Nonogaki, Jun-ichi Tsujimoto, Takanari Hattori, Hideyuki Inui, Vladimir P. Beškoski, Hiroki Hotta, Mitsuru Hayashi, Takeshi Nakano
We developed capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with indirect UV detection for the determination of fluoride (F−) in seawater using transient isotachophoresis (tITP) as an on-line concentration procedure. A method of correcting sample salinity effects was also proposed so that F− concentrations were obtained using a calibration graph. The proposed method is simple: it requires no sample pretreatment aside from dilution. The following optimum conditions were established: background electrolyte (BGE), 5 mM 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDC) adjusted to pH 3.5 containing 0.03% m/v hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC); detection wavelength, 200 nm; vacuum (50 kPa) injection period of sample, 5 s (254 nL); and applied voltage, 23 kV with the sample inlet side as the cathode. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) and limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) for F− reached 0.024 and 0.070 mg/L, respectively. The respective values of the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the peak area, peak height, and migration time for F− were 2.5, 3.4, and 0.30%. The proposed method was applied for the determination of F− in seawater samples collected from coastal waters of western Japan during August 26–28, 2014. Both results obtained using standard addition method and a calibration graph agreed with those obtained using a conventional spectrophotometric method.
Preparation and application of a molecularly imprinted monolith for specific recognition of domoic acid Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Fan Yang, Ruirui Wang, Guangshui Na, Qilun Yan, Zhongsheng Lin, Zhifeng Zhang
In this work, a molecularly imprinted monolithic column was synthesized by a facile procedure and was applied for specific recognition of domoic acid, an amnesic shellfish poison. The poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) molecularly imprinted monolith was synthesized in a stainless steel column by in situ polymerization. Pentane-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid was used as a dummy imprinting template instead of the highly toxic and expensive target molecule. It is the first time that a molecularly imprinted monolith is introduced for separation and detection of domoic acid. After optimizing the preparation conditions, the prepared imprinted monolith was systematically characterized and exhibited excellent stability and permeability as a HPLC stationary phase. The results of chromatographic analysis demonstrated that the molecularly imprinted monolith exhibited specific retention and selective recognition toward domoic acid, with an imprinted factor up to 3.77. Furthermore, the molecularly imprinted monolith was successfully applied for selective enrichment of domoic acid from biological samples.
Development of an enrichment method for endogenous phosphopeptide characterization in human serum Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Giorgia La Barbera, Anna Laura Capriotti, Chiara Cavaliere, Francesca Ferraris, Michele Laus, Susy Piovesana, Katia Sparnacci, Aldo Laganà
The work describes the development of an enrichment method for the analysis of endogenous phosphopeptides in serum. Endogenous peptides can play significant biological roles, and some of them could be exploited as future biomarkers. In this context, blood is one of the most useful biofluids for screening, but a systematic investigation of the endogenous peptides, especially phosphorylated ones, is still lacking, mainly due to the lack of suitable analytical methods. Thus, in this paper, different phosphopeptide enrichment strategies were pursued, based either on metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC, in the form of commercial TiO2 spin columns or magnetic graphitized carbon black-TiO2 composite), or on immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC, in the form of Ti4+-IMAC magnetic material or commercial Fe3+-IMAC spin columns). While MOAC strategies proved completely unsuccessful, probably due to interfering phospholipids displacing phosphopeptides, the IMAC materials performed very well. Different sample preparation strategies were tested, comprising direct dilution with the loading buffer, organic solvent precipitation, and lipid removal from the matrix, as well as the addition of phosphatase inhibitors during sample handling for maximized endogenous phosphopeptide enrichment. All data were acquired by a shotgun peptidomics approach, in which peptide samples were separated by reversed-phase nanoHPLC hyphenated with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. The devised method allowed the identification of 176 endogenous phosphopeptides in fresh serum added with inhibitors by the direct dilution protocol and the Ti4+-IMAC magnetic material enrichment, but good results could also be obtained from the commercial Fe3+-IMAC spin column adapted to the batch enrichment protocol.
Evolution of potent odorants within the volatile metabolome of high-quality hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana L.): evaluation by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Marta Cialiè Rosso, Erica Liberto, Nicola Spigolon, Mauro Fontana, Marco Somenzi, Carlo Bicchi, Chiara Cordero
Within the pattern of volatiles released by food products (volatilome), potent odorants are bio-active compounds that trigger aroma perception by activating a complex array of odor receptors (ORs) in the regio olfactoria. Their informative role is fundamental to select optimal post-harvest and storage conditions and preserve food sensory quality. This study addresses the volatile metabolome from high-quality hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) from the Ordu region (Turkey) and Tonda Romana from Italy, and investigates its evolution throughout the production chain (post-harvest, industrial storage, roasting) to find functional correlations between technological strategies and product quality. The volatile metabolome is analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextration combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Dedicated pattern recognition, based on 2D data (targeted fingerprinting), is used to mine analytical outputs, while principal component analysis (PCA), Fisher ratio, hierarchical clustering, and analysis of variance are used to find decision makers among the most informative chemicals. Low-temperature drying (18–20 °C) has a decisive effect on quality; it correlates negatively with bacteria and mold metabolic activity, nut viability, and lipid oxidation products (2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 2-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, hexanal, octanal and (E)-2-heptanal). Protective atmosphere storage (99% N2–1% O2) effectively limits lipid oxidation for 9–12 months after nut harvest. The combination of optimal drying and storage preserves the aroma potential; after roasting at different shelf-lives, key odorants responsible for malty and buttery (2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-butanedione and 2,3-pentanedione), earthy (methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine and 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethyl pyrazine) and caramel-like and musty notes (2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone - furaneol and acetyl pyrrole) show no significant variation.
An immunocapture-LC-MS-based assay for serum SPINK1 allows simultaneous quantification and detection of SPINK1 variants Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Suvi Ravela, Leena Valmu, Mykola Domanskyy, Hannu Koistinen, Leena Kylänpää, Outi Lindström, Jakob Stenman, Esa Hämäläinen, Ulf-Håkan Stenman, Outi Itkonen
Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) is a 6420 Da peptide produced by the pancreas, but also by several other tissues and many tumors. Some mutations of the SPINK1 gene, like the one causing amino acid change N34S, have been shown to confer susceptibility to recurrent or chronic pancreatitis. Detection of such variants are therefore of clinical utility. So far SPINK1 variants have been determined by DNA techniques. We have developed and validated an immunocapture-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (IC-LC-MS) assay for the detection and quantification of serum SPINK1, N34S-SPINK1, and P55S-SPINK1. We compared this method with a time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TR-IFMA) for serum samples and primer extension analysis of DNA samples. We used serum and DNA samples from patients with acute pancreatitis, renal cell carcinoma, or benign urological conditions. With the help of a zygosity score calculated from the respective peak areas using the formula wild-type (wt) SPINK1/(variant SPINK1 + wt SPINK1), we were able to correctly characterize the heterozygotes and homozygotes from the samples with DNA information. The score was then used to characterize the apparent zygosity of the samples with no DNA characterization. The IC-LC-MS method for SPINK1 was linear over the concentration range 0.5–1000 μg/L. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.5 μg/L. The IC-LC-MS and the TR-IFMA assays showed good correlation. The median zygosity score was 1.00 (95% CI 0.98–1.01, n = 11), 0.55 (95% CI 0.43–0.61, n = 14), and 0.05 (range 0.04–0.07, n = 3) for individuals found to be wt, heterozygous, and homozygous, respectively, for the N34S-SPINK1 variant by DNA analysis. When DNA samples are not available, this assay facilitates identification of the N34S- and P55S-SPINK1 variants also in archival serum samples.
Comprehensive characterization of neurochemicals in three zebrafish chemical models of human acute organophosphorus poisoning using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Cristian Gómez-Canela, Daniel Tornero-Cañadas, Eva Prats, Benjamí Piña, Romà Tauler, Demetrio Raldúa
There is a growing interest in biological models to investigate the effect of neurotransmitter dysregulation on the structure and function of the central nervous system (CNS) at different stages of development. Zebrafish, a vertebrate model increasingly used in neurobiology and neurotoxicology, shares the common neurotransmitter systems with mammals, including glutamate, GABA, glycine, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, and histamine. In this study, we have evaluated the performance of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the multiresidue determination of neurotransmitters and related metabolites. In a first step, ionization conditions were tested in positive electrospray mode and optimum fragmentation patterns were determined to optimize two selected reaction monitoring (SRM) transitions. Chromatographic conditions were optimized considering the chemical structure and chromatographic behavior of the analyzed compounds. The best performance was obtained with a Synergy Polar-RP column, which allowed the separation of the 38 compounds in 30 min. In addition, the performance of LC-MS/MS was studied in terms of linearity, sensitivity, intra- and inter-day precision, and overall robustness. The developed analytical method was able to quantify 27 of these neurochemicals in zebrafish chemical models for mild (P1), moderate (P2), and severe (P3) acute organophosphorus poisoning (OPP). The results show a general depression of synaptic-related neurochemicals, including the excitatory and inhibitory amino acids, as well as altered phospholipid metabolism, with specific neurochemical profiles associated to the different grades of severity. These results confirmed that the developed analytical method is a new tool for neurotoxicology research using the zebrafish model.
Magnetic ionic liquids as versatile extraction phases for the rapid determination of estrogens in human urine by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-08 Josias Merib, Daniel A. Spudeit, Gabriela Corazza, Eduardo Carasek, Jared L. Anderson
In this study, a rapid and straightforward approach based on magnetic ionic liquids (MIL) as extraction phases and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was developed to analyze the hormones estriol, 17-β-estradiol, 17-α-ethynylestradiol, and estrone in human urine samples. This is the first report of an application of manganese-based MILs compatible with HPLC to extract compounds of biological interest from urine samples. The hydrophobic MILs trihexyltetradecylphosphonium tetrachloromanganate (II) ([P6,6,6,14+]2[MnCl42−]) and aliquat tetrachloromanganate (II) ([Aliquat+]2[MnCl42−]) were employed and the optimized extraction conditions were comprised of 5 mg of MIL ([P6,6,6,14+]2[MnCl42−]), 5 μL of methanol (MeOH) as disperser solvent, and an extraction time of 90 s at sample pH 6. The analytical parameters of merit were determined under optimized conditions and very satisfactory results were achieved, with LODs of 2 ng mL−1 for all analytes, determination coefficients (R2) ranging from 0.9949 for 17-β-estradiol to 0.9998 for estrone. In addition, good results of method precision were achieved with the intraday (n = 3) varying from 4.7% for 17-β-estradiol to 19.5% for estriol (both at 5 ng mL−1) and interday precision (evaluated at 100 ng mL−1) ranging from 11.4% for estrone to 17.7% for 17-α-ethynylestradiol and analyte relative recovery evaluated in three real samples ranged from 67.5 to 115.6%. The proposed DLLME/MIL-based approach allowed for a reliable, environmentally friendly and high-throughput methodology with no need for a centrifugation step.
Poly A tail length analysis of in vitro transcribed mRNA by LC-MS Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-08 Michael Beverly, Caitlin Hagen, Olga Slack
The 3′-polyadenosine (poly A) tail of in vitro transcribed (IVT) mRNA was studied using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Poly A tails were cleaved from the mRNA using ribonuclease T1 followed by isolation with dT magnetic beads. Extracted tails were then analyzed by LC-MS which provided tail length information at single-nucleotide resolution. A 2100-nt mRNA with plasmid-encoded poly A tail lengths of either 27, 64, 100, or 117 nucleotides was used for these studies as enzymatically added poly A tails showed significant length heterogeneity. The number of As observed in the tails closely matched Sanger sequencing results of the DNA template, and even minor plasmid populations with sequence variations were detected. When the plasmid sequence contained a discreet number of poly As in the tail, analysis revealed a distribution that included tails longer than the encoded tail lengths. These observations were consistent with transcriptional slippage of T7 RNAP taking place within a poly A sequence. The type of RNAP did not alter the observed tail distribution, and comparison of T3, T7, and SP6 showed all three RNAPs produced equivalent tail length distributions. The addition of a sequence at the 3′ end of the poly A tail did, however, produce narrower tail length distributions which supports a previously described model of slippage where the 3′ end can be locked in place by having a G or C after the poly nucleotide region.
A simple and precise method to detect sterol esterification activity of lecithin/cholesterol acyltransferase by high-performance liquid chromatography Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-06 Yu Wang, Siming Wang, Lijiao Zhang, Jie Zeng, Ruiyue Yang, Hongxia Li, Yueming Tang, Wenxiang Chen, Jun Dong
The measurement of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT, EC 188.8.131.52) activity is important in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism study and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment. However, current methods suffer from complex design and preparation of exogenous substrate, low reproducibility, and interference of cofactors. In this study, we developed a simple and precise high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the measurement of LCAT activity. By using 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) and 1,2-didecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(10:0PC) as substrates, and an LCAT activating peptide (P642) as activator and emulsifier, the substrate reagent was easily made by vortex. The substrate reagent was mixed with serum samples (50:1, v/v) and incubated at 37 °C for 1 h. After incubation, the lipid was extracted with hexane and ethanol. With a conjugated double bond and ultraviolet absorption, 7-DHC and its esterification product could be separated and analyzed by a single HPLC run without calibration. LCAT activity was a linear function of the serum sample volume and the intra- and total assay coefficients of variation (CV) less than 2.5% were obtained under the standardized conditions. The substrate reagent was stable, and assay result accurately reflected LCAT activity. LCAT activities in 120 healthy subjects were positively correlated with triglyceride (P < 0.05), fractional esterification rate of HDL cholesterol (FERHDL) (P < 0.0001), and negatively correlated with apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) (P < 0.05) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001). These results suggest that this method is sensitive, reproducible, and not greatly influenced by serum components and added substances, and will be a useful tool in the lipid metabolism study and the risk assessment of CVD.
Sensitive mass spectrometric assay for determination of 15-deoxy-Δ 12,14 -prostaglandin J 2 and its application in human plasma samples of patients with diabetes Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-11-16 Jakob Morgenstern, Thomas Fleming, Ivelina Kadiyska, Sebastian Brings, Jan Benedikt Groener, Peter Nawroth, Markus Hecker, Maik Brune
The determination of individual prostaglandins (PG) in humans is mainly performed in urine samples. The quantification of PGs in human plasma could improve the understanding of particular PG species under various physiological and pathological conditions. 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is a dehydrated downstream product of PGD2 and is of high interest due to its recently discovered anti-inflammatory effects. Increasing availability of highly sensitive mass spectrometry allows the quantification of low abundant biomarkers like 15d-PGJ2 in human plasma samples. Herein, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of 15d-PGJ2 was established. The method was validated according to the guidance of the American Food and Drug Administration and tested in plasma samples from patients with poorly controlled diabetes, considered to be a pro-inflammatory condition. Extraction of 15d-PGJ2 was achieved with an easy-to-use liquid-liquid extraction by ethyl acetate following a methanol precipitation. The lower limit of quantification was 2.5 pg mL−1 and linearity (R2 = 0.998) was guaranteed between 2.5 and 500 pg mL−1 for 15d-PGJ2. Selectivity was assured by the use of two individual mass transitions (qualifier and quantifier). Precision and accuracy were validated in an inter- and intraday assay with a coefficient of variation below 11.8% (intraday) and 14.7% (interday). In diabetic patients with an HbA1C > 9%, increased plasma concentrations of 15d-PGJ2 compared to control plasma were measured. 15d-PGJ2 correlated negatively with the inflammation marker C-reactive protein. The developed LC-MS/MS method represents a new possibility to quantify 15d-PGJ2 with high specificity in human plasma samples. This may contribute to a better understanding of the potential anti-inflammatory effects of 15d-PGJ2 in severe long-term pro-inflammatory disorders like diabetes, cancer, or cardiovascular disease.
LC-MS/MS imaging with thermal film-based laser microdissection Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-11-28 Michiko Oya, Hiromi Suzuki, Andrea Roxanne J. Anas, Koichi Oishi, Kenji Ono, Shun Yamaguchi, Megumi Eguchi, Makoto Sawada
Mass spectrometry (MS) imaging is a useful tool for direct and simultaneous visualization of specific molecules. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is used to evaluate the abundance of molecules in tissues using sample homogenates. To date, however, LC-MS/MS has not been utilized as an imaging tool because spatial information is lost during sample preparation. Here we report a new approach for LC-MS/MS imaging using a thermal film-based laser microdissection (LMD) technique. To isolate tissue spots, our LMD system uses a 808-nm near infrared laser, the diameter of which can be freely changed from 2.7 to 500 μm; for imaging purposes in this study, the diameter was fixed at 40 μm, allowing acquisition of LC-MS/MS images at a 40-μm resolution. The isolated spots are arranged on a thermal film at 4.5-mm intervals, corresponding to the well spacing on a 384-well plate. Each tissue spot is handled on the film in such a manner as to maintain its spatial information, allowing it to be extracted separately in its individual well. Using analytical LC-MS/MS in combination with the spatial information of each sample, we can reconstruct LC-MS/MS images. With this imaging technique, we successfully obtained the distributions of pilocarpine, glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, acetylcholine, and choline in a cross-section of mouse hippocampus. The protocol we established in this study is applicable to revealing the neurochemistry of pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Our system has a wide range of uses in fields such as biology, pharmacology, pathology, and neuroscience.
Analysis of bronopol (2-bromo-2-nitropropan-1, 3-diol) residues in rice ( Oryza sativa L.) by SPE using Bond Elut Plexa and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-11-21 Shuang-shuang Chai, Mei-ling Qin, You-ning Ma, Huan-huan Gao, Qiao He, Han-tong Zhang
A novel method has been developed for the direct, sensitive, and rapid detection of bronopol in rice using a simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with electrospray ionization (ESI). Bronopol was stable under acidic conditions, and an acidic environment was thus needed before sample loading to ensure the stability of bronopol. Rice extracts containing bronopol were pretreated using a hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced (Bond Elut Plexa) cartridge to reduce the matrix effect. An XDB-C18 column (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) was used for chromatographic separations, with a mobile phase comprising methanol and aqueous ammonium formate (5 mM). The linearity of the method was satisfactory with regression coefficient (R2) = 0.9992. The limit of quantification was 3.3 μg kg−1. Three spiked levels (25, 125 and 625 μg kg−1) were used to determine the recovery of bronopol, which was found to be 73.3–96.7%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) in the range 1.2–7.9%. The RSD for intra-day precision (n = 7) was 7.6% and the RSD for inter-day precision (n = 15) was 8.3%. The newly developed analytical method was successfully used to quantify bronopol in rice samples.
β-Cyclodextrin molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction coatings for selective recognition of polychlorophenols in water samples Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-11-28 Yuanchen Liu, Yujian Liu, Zhimin Liu, Xianzhi Hu, Zhigang Xu
A series of β-cyclodextrin derivatives were designed and synthesized. The derivatives were investigated as functional monomers in molecularly imprinted polymeric solid-phase microextraction (MIP-SPME) fiber coatings. The coatings, with a layer thickness of 250 μm, were immobilized onto stainless steel using a capillary tube as a mold. This study employed a simple, easy, and reproducible method to prepare uniform coatings for polychlorophenols extraction. The combination of molecular inclusion effects and the molecular imprinting sites was expected to enhance the molecular recognition ability for polychlorophenols. Compared with non-imprinted polymer coatings and MIP coatings with methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, the β-cyclodextrin MIP-SPME coatings exhibited significantly higher extraction amounts and excellent selectivity to the template of triclosan. The MIP-SPME coatings exhibited a favorable synergistic extraction capacity resulting from the β-cyclodextrin cavity and molecularly imprinted binding sites. The method of β-cyclodextrin MIP-SPME coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for triclosan and polychlorophenols analysis in real water samples was developed. The limit of quantification was 1 μg/L for the three polychlorophenols. The recovery for three analytes ranged from 83.71% to 109.98%, with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.83% to 12.19%. The β-cyclodextrin MIP-SPME fiber coatings could be used for at least 100 cycles.
A fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test using a quantum dot-antibody probe for rapid and quantitative detection of 1-aminohydantoin in edible animal tissues Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-11-28 Tao Le, Zhihao Zhang, Juan Wu, Haixing Shi, Xudong Cao
A rapid, simple, and sensitive fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test (ICST) based on quantum dots (QDs) has been developed to detect 1-aminohydantoin (AHD), a major metabolite of nitrofurantoin in animal tissues. To achieve this, QD-labeled antibody conjugates, which consist of CdSe/ZnS QDs and monoclonal antibodies, were prepared by an activated ester method. Under optimal conditions, with the nitrophenyl derivative of AHD as the target, the ICST had a linear range from 0.1 to 100 ng/mL, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9656 and a 50% inhibitory concentration of 4.51 ng/mL. The limit of detection was 0.14 ng/g, which was below the minimum required performance limit of 1 μg/kg for AHD established by the European Commission. The recoveries for AHD ranged from 81.5% to 108.2%, with coefficients of variation below 13%, based on intraday and interday analysis. Furthermore, for AHD in real samples, the ICST showed high reliability and high correlation with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (correlation coefficient of 0.9916). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a novel and sensitive method based on a fluorescent ICST to detect AHD below the minimum required performance limit. The ICST demonstrated high reliability, and could be ideally suited for rapid, simple, and on-site screening of AHD contamination in animal tissues.
Synthesis and application of imidazolium-based ionic liquids as extraction solvent for pretreatment of triazole fungicides in water samples Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Jiale Yang, Chen Fan, Dandan Kong, Gang Tang, Wenbing Zhang, Hongqiang Dong, You Liang, Deng Wang, Yongsong Cao
Five novel ionic liquids (ILs), 1,3-dibutylimidazolium bromide [BBMIm][Br], 1-pentyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide [BPMIm][Br], 1-hexyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide [BHMIm][Br], 1,1'-(butane-1,4-diyl)bis(3-butylimidazolium) bromide [C4(BMIm)2][Br2], and 1,1'-(butane-1,4-diyl)bis(3-methylimidazolium) bromide [C4(MIm)2][Br2], were prepared and used in situ to react with bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide lithium salt to extract the myclobutanil, tebuconazole, cyproconazole, and prothioconazole from water samples. The results showed that mono-cationic ILs had much better recovery than dicationic ILs, and mono-imidazolium IL bearing butyl groups at N-1 and N-3 sites had the best recovery. When the length of the alkyl substituent group was more than four carbons at N-3 site, the recovery decreased with increase of alkyl chain length of 1-butylimidazolium IL. The extraction efficiency order of triazoles from high to low was [BBMIm][Br], [BPMIm][Br], [BHMIm][Br], [BMIm][Br] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide), [C4(BMIm)2]Br2, [C4(MIm)2]Br2. An in situ ionic liquid dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with ultrasmall superparamagnetic Fe3O4 was established as a pretreatment method for enrichment of triazole fungicides in water samples by using the synthetic [BBMIm][Br] as the cationic IL and used to detect analytes followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method showed a good linearity within a range of 5–250 μg L−1, with the determination coefficient (r2) varying from 0.998 to 0.999. High mean enrichment factors were achieved ranging from 187 to 323, and the recoveries of the target analytes from real water samples at spiking levels of 10.0, 20.0, and 50.0 μg L−1 were between 70.1% and 115.0%. The limits of detection for the analytes were 0.74–1.44 μg L−1, and the intra-day relative standard deviations varied from 5.23% to 8.65%. The proposed method can be further applied to analyze and monitor pesticides in other related samples.
Rapid detection of unconjugated estriol in the serum via superparamagnetic lateral flow immunochromatographic assay Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-11-02 Ce Wang, Di Guan, Chen Chen, Shang He, Xiaoting Liu, Chengbin Wang, Huijuan Wu
Unconjugated estriol (uE3) is one of the main naturally occurring estrogens that plays an important role in growth and development of the fetus. Usually, the level of uE3 is very low in men and non-pregnant women, but in pregnant women, the level of estriol has been found to be quite high. Therefore, the combination of uE3, AFP, and hCG is now widely used for Down Syndrome screening as a triple marker. Here, we developed a superparamagnetic lateral flow immunochromatographic assay to quantitatively detect uE3. The detection limit of this assay was 0.86 nmol/L and the linear range for the determination of uE3 was from 1 to 100 nmol/L. The detection time was 15 min and the assay had very low cross-reactivity with estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and progesterone. The coefficient of variation (CV) of intra- and inter-assay ranged from 5% to 13%. The magnetic signals were stable under 37 °C within 7 d. Moreover, the concentrations of uE3 measured by lateral flow immunochromatographic assay in 230 serum samples collected from pregnant women at the Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital had a good correlation with those measured by time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (R = 0.946).
Universal fluorometric aptasensor platform based on water-soluble conjugated polymers/graphene oxide Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-11-28 Limin Guo, You Hu, Ziqi Zhang, Yanli Tang
We designed a universal and sensitive fluorometric aptasensor that uses a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism. In the aptasensor, water-soluble conjugated poly(9,9-bis(6′-N,N,N-trimethylammonium)hexyl)fluorine phenylene (PFP) is used as the energy donor and a carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-labeled aptamer is used as the energy acceptor. Graphene oxide (GO) used as a quencher can specifically adsorb the aptamer, leading to quenching of the FAM fluorescence. In the presence of targets, the aptamer can change its conformation to prevent adsorption by GO. Strong FRET was thus obtained owing to the electrostatic interactions between PFP and the aptamer. In contrast, in the absence of targets, the FRET was weak because of GO specifically adsorbing the aptamer and quenching the fluorescence. Bisphenol A (a pollutant molecule) and dopamine (a biomolecule) were used as models to successfully validate the feasibility, universality, and high selectivity and sensitivity of this aptasensor. This method can detect BPA at environmentally relevant concentrations (less than 1 ng/mL) with a limit of detection of 0.005 ng/mL. A low limit of detection (1.0 nmol/L) was also obtained for dopamine. In addition, this aptasensor is applicable in real samples and in diluted human plasma and human serum. Good recovery rates from 95% to 105% and from 95% to 107% were obtained for bisphenol A and dopamine, respectively. Furthermore, adenosine detection was successfully achieved by the same mechanism, proving the universality. It is expected that the aptasensor could be applied in detecting other contaminants, biomolecules, and heavy metal ions by a change in only the aptamer sequence.
Monitoring enzymatic degradation of emerging contaminants using a chip-based robotic nano-ESI-MS tool Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-11-17 Lara F. Stadlmair, Thomas Letzel, Johanna Graßmann
Up to now, knowledge of enzymes capable of degrading various contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) is limited, which is especially due to the lack of rapid screening methods. Thus, a miniaturized high-throughput setup using a chip-based robotic nanoelectrospray ionization system coupled to mass spectrometry has been developed to rapidly screen enzymatic reactions with environmentally relevant CECs. Three laccases, two tyrosinases, and two peroxidases were studied for their ability to transform ten pharmaceuticals and benzotriazole. Acetaminophen was most susceptible to enzymatic conversion by horseradish peroxidase (HRP), laccase from Trametes versicolor (LccTV), and a tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus (TyrAB). Diclofenac and mefenamic acid were converted by HRP and LccTV, whereas sotalol was solely amenable to HRP conversion. Benzotriazole, carbamazepine, gabapentin, metoprolol, primidone, sulfamethoxazole, and venlafaxine remained persistent in this study. The results obtained here emphasize that enzymes are highly selective catalysts and more effort is required in the use of fast monitoring technologies to find suitable enzyme systems. Despite the methodological limitations discussed in detail, the automated tool provides a routine on-line screening of various enzymatic reactions to identify potential enzymes that degrade CECs.
Pattern recognition of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in biological fluids Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-10-24 Raluca-Ioana Stefan-van Staden, Liliana-Roxana Balahura, Livia Alexandra Gugoasa, Jacobus F. van Staden, Hassan Y. Aboul-Enein, Marcela-Corina Rosu, Stela Maria Pruneanu
8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a product of oxidative DNA damage, which has been used as a sensitive and reliable marker of oxidative stress and carcinogenesis, is found in high levels in biological fluids of leukemia patients. A reliable screening method based on pattern recognition of 8-OHdG using stochastic sensors designed with graphene materials decorated with nanoparticles of TiO2Ag or TiO2Au was developed. 5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H porphyrin (P), 2,6-bis((E)-2-(furan-2-yl)vinyl)-4-(4,6,8-trimethylazulen-1-yl)pyridine (Py1), and 2,6-bis((E)-2-(thiophen-3-yl)vinyl)-4-(4,6,8-trimethylazulen-1-yl)pyridine (Py2) were used as modifiers of the graphene paste in the design of sensors. The screening method used for pattern recognition was developed for two pH values accordingly with the nature of the biological fluid to be screened: pH = 3.02 for urine samples and pH = 7.49 for whole blood samples. High sensitivities and low limits of determination for 8-OHdG obtained at both pH values favored the early detection of leukemia. Recoveries over 98.00% with RSD (%) values lower than 1.00% proved the reliability of the proposed screening method.
A new strategy for metal labeling of glycan structures in antibodies Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-11-09 Lena Ruhe, Stefanie Ickert, Sebastian Beck, Michael W. Linscheid
Quantitative analysis of complex proteins is a challenging task in modern bioanalytical chemistry. Commonly available isotope labels are still suffering from limitations and drawbacks, whereas new metal labels open numerous possibilities in mass spectrometric analyses. In this work, we have developed a new metal labeling strategy to tag glycan structures of proteins, more particularly antibodies. The oligosaccharide glycans were selectively trimmed to the last N-acetylglucosamine to which an artificial azide containing galactose residue was bound. This azide can be used for subsequent cycloaddition of an alkyne. Therefore, we developed a lanthanide-containing macrocyclic reagent to selectively connect to this azido galactose. In summary, the glycan structures of an antibody can be labeled with a metal functionality using this approach. Furthermore, the functionality of the antibodies can be fully maintained by labeling the Fc glycans instead of using labeling reagents that target amino or thiol groups. This approach enables the possibility of using elemental, besides molecular mass spectrometry, for quantitative analyses or imaging experiments of antibodies in complex biological samples.
Enhancing the immunofluorescent sensitivity for detection of Acidovorax citrulli using fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled antigen and antibody Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-10-30 Haijuan Zeng, Duoqiang Zhang, Xuzhao Zhai, Shujuan Wang, Qing Liu
A rapid lateral flow immunochromatographic strip (ICS) using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled antigen and antibody was developed for the detection of Acidovorax citrulli (Ac) in melons and vegetable samples. In the ICS, signal amplification was realized based on antigen Ac and anti-Ac monoclonal antibody (McAb) 4F conjugated with FITC, respectively, which were forming two probes. The control line and the test line were obtained by immobilizing the goat anti-mouse IgG antibody and anti-Ac McAb 6D on both sides of the nitrocellulose membrane. The visual detection limit of the strip was 105 CFU/mL, which was 10-fold sensitive compared to the strip of FITC only labeling antigen or antibody. Signal amplification ICS was successfully applied to the detection of Ac in melon and vegetable samples with less detection time and operation procedures compared to the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and PCR methods. This is the first report of using FITC labeled antigen and McAb as dual fluorescent probes to develop a direct-type immunofluorescence strip for the rapid and sensitive detection of Ac, which demonstrates a powerful tool for rapidly screening Ac in plant materials and other samples.
Combining Raman and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy by double pulse lasing Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-11-08 Vasily N. Lednev, Sergey M. Pershin, Pavel A. Sdvizhenskii, Mikhail Ya. Grishin, Alexander N. Fedorov, Vladimir V. Bukin, Vadim B. Oshurko, Alexander N. Shchegolikhin
A new approach combining Raman spectrometry and laser induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) within a single laser event was suggested. A pulsed solid state Nd:YAG laser running in double pulse mode (two frequency-doubled sequential nanosecond laser pulses with dozens microseconds delay) was used to combine two spectrometry methods within a single instrument (Raman/LIBS spectrometer). First, a low-energy laser pulse (power density far below ablation threshold) was used for Raman measurements while a second powerful laser pulse created the plasma suitable for LIBS analysis. A short time delay between two successive pulses allows measuring LIBS and Raman spectra at different moments but within a single laser flash-lamp pumping. Principal advantages of the developed instrument include high quality Raman/LIBS spectra acquisition (due to optimal gating for Raman/LIBS independently) and absence of target thermal alteration during Raman measurements. A series of high quality Raman and LIBS spectra were acquired for inorganic salts (gypsum, anhydrite) as well as for pharmaceutical samples (acetylsalicylic acid). To the best of our knowledge, the quantitative analysis feasibility by combined Raman/LIBS instrument was demonstrated for the first time by calibration curves construction for acetylsalicylic acid (Raman) and copper (LIBS) in gypsum matrix. Combining ablation pulses and Raman measurements (LIBS/Raman measurements) within a single instrument makes it an efficient tool for identification of samples hidden by non-transparent covering or performing depth profiling analysis including remote sensing.
Pre-concentration and separation of bacteria by volume coupling electrophoresis on supercritical water-etched fused silica capillary with two segments of different internal diameters and inner surface roughnesses Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-10-23 Marie Horká, Pavel Karásek, Michal Roth, Filip Růžička
The transient isotachophoretic stacking and sweeping was used for the on-line large-volume sample pre-concentration of bacteria, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus cells (methicillin-susceptible or methicillin-resistant), in the initial stage of micellar electrokinetic chromatography using a non-ionogenic surfactant or of capillary electrophoresis, respectively. These procedures were employed in single-piece fused silica capillary etched with supercritical water with two different internal diameter segments featuring different inner surface roughness. Large volumes (maximum 2.8 μL) of the high conductivity sample matrices, physiological saline solution, urine or blood (with purification step), spiked with examined cells were injected into the wider end of a capillary with an inlet inner diameter 195 μm. This novel on-line combination of preconcentration strategies for cells produced an up to 680-fold increase in sensitivity for E. coli or S. aureus cells. The average calculated resolutions, R, for five selected methicillin-susceptible or methicillin-resistant strains were found to be 6.3 for the agar-cultivated and 14.9 for the blood-incubated cells. A low number of bacteria similar to those in clinical samples were also tested. The modified surface roughness step helped to significantly narrow the cell zones and to increase resolution. The migration velocities of E. coli agar-cultivated and blood-incubated cells were approximately the same as those of S. aureus, probably due to the minimal differences in their surface properties. This procedure, on-line pre-concentration and separation of bacteria, is rapid and provides good reproducibility and repeatability.
Reductive oxyamination: a method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of monosaccharides with a new aminooxy reagent using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-10-25 Manman Ding, Zhaobing Guan, Hongwei Cai, Yiyong Huang, Yawei Lin, Xiaosong Hu
Derivatization of carbohydrates with aminooxy agents to form oximes can be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of carbohydrates; however, the formation of isomeric products limits its application. A new reductive oxyamination procedure developed for the analysis of monosaccharides with a novel fluorescent O-substituted aminooxy reagent, 4-((aminooxy)methyl)-6-chloro-7-hydroxycoumarin (AOCC), is reported. In this procedure, monosaccharides undergo an oxime formation reaction with AOCC and are then readily reduced with 2-picoline–borane, followed by analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Good separation of five monosaccharide derivatives was achieved within 40 min with acetonitrile–water–tetrahydrofuran as the mobile phase. The detection limits were on the order of femtomoles. The linear range was 0.2–4000 nM, with a good correlation coefficient (R ≥ 0.9985). Furthermore, the method was applied for analysis of real samples, such as bovine milk powder, without complicated and tedious sample treatment. This reductive oxyamination method circumvents the problem caused by oxime isomers and can be used for the highly sensitive and selective analysis of monosaccharides with high accuracy, providing an effective and promising method for the analysis of carbonyls with aminooxy agents.
Short-chained oligo(ethylene oxide)-functionalized gold nanoparticles: realization of significant protein resistance Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-10-30 Kathryn R. Riley, Christopher M. Sims, Imani T. Wood, David J. Vanderah, Marlon L. Walker
Protein corona formed on nanomaterial surfaces play an important role in the bioavailability and cellular uptake of nanomaterials. Modification of surfaces with oligoethylene glycols (OEG) are a common way to improve the resistivity of nanomaterials to protein adsorption. Short-chain ethylene oxide (EO) oligomers have been shown to improve the protein resistance of planar Au surfaces. We describe the application of these EO oligomers for improved protein resistance of 30 nm spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Functionalized AuNPs were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential measurements. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used for separation and quantitation of AuNPs and AuNP-protein mixtures. Specifically, nonequilibrium capillary electrophoresis of equilibrium mixtures (NECEEM) was employed for the determination of equilibrium and rate constants for binding between citrate-stabilized AuNPs and two model proteins, lysozyme and fibrinogen. Semi-quantitative CE analysis was carried out for mixtures of EO-functionalized AuNPs and proteins, and results demonstrated a 2.5-fold to 10-fold increase in protein binding resistance to lysozyme depending on the AuNP surface functionalization and a 15-fold increase in protein binding resistance to fibrinogen for both EO oligomers examined in this study.
Inter-laboratory analysis of selected genetically modified plant reference materials with digital PCR Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-10-25 David Dobnik, Tina Demšar, Ingrid Huber, Lars Gerdes, Sylvia Broeders, Nancy Roosens, Frederic Debode, Gilbert Berben, Jana Žel
Digital PCR (dPCR), as a new technology in the field of genetically modified (GM) organism (GMO) testing, enables determination of absolute target copy numbers. The purpose of our study was to test the transferability of methods designed for quantitative PCR (qPCR) to dPCR and to carry out an inter-laboratory comparison of the performance of two different dPCR platforms when determining the absolute GM copy numbers and GM copy number ratio in reference materials certified for GM content in mass fraction. Overall results in terms of measured GM% were within acceptable variation limits for both tested dPCR systems. However, the determined absolute copy numbers for individual genes or events showed higher variability between laboratories in one third of the cases, most possibly due to variability in the technical work, droplet size variability, and analysis of the raw data. GMO quantification with dPCR and qPCR was comparable. As methods originally designed for qPCR performed well in dPCR systems, already validated qPCR assays can most generally be used for dPCR technology with the purpose of GMO detection.
Steroid hormone profiling in human breast adipose tissue using semi-automated purification and highly sensitive determination of estrogens by GC-APCI-MS/MS Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-11-16 Kristin Hennig, Jean Philippe Antignac, Emmanuelle Bichon, Marie-Line Morvan, Isabelle Miran, Suzette Delaloge, Jean Feunteun, Bruno Le Bizec
Body mass index is a known breast cancer risk factor due to, among other mechanisms, adipose-derived hormones. We developed a method for steroid hormone profiling in adipose tissue to evaluate healthy tissue around the tumor and define new biomarkers for cancer development. A semi-automated sample preparation method based on gel permeation chromatography and subsequent derivatization with trimethylsilyl (TMS) is presented. Progestagens and androgens were determined by GC-EI-MS/MS (LOQ 0.5 to 10 ng/g lipids). For estrogen measurement, a highly sensitive GC-APCI-MS/MS method was developed to reach the required lower limits of detection (0.05 to 0.1 ng/g lipids in matrix, 100–200 fg on column for pure standards). The combination of the two methods allows the screening of 27 androgens and progestagens and 4 estrogens from a single sample. Good accuracies and repeatabilities were achieved for each compound class at their respective limit of detection. The method was applied to determine steroid hormone profiles in adipose tissue of 51 patients, collected both at proximity and distant to the tumor. Out of the 31 tested steroid hormones, 14 compounds were detected in human samples. Pregnenolone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and androstendione accounted together for 80% of the observed steroid hormone profiles, whereas the estrogens accounted for only 1%. These profiles did not differ based on sampling location, except for ß-estradiol; steroid hormone conversions from androgens to estrogens that potentially take place in adipose or tumoral tissue might not be detectable due a factor 100 difference in concentration of for example DHEA and ß-estradiol.
Monitoring of post-mortem changes of saliva N-glycosylation by nano LC/MS Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-11-21 Bum Jin Kim, Chanyoung Han, Hantae Moon, Joseph Kwon, Ik-Soon Jang, Si-Keun Lim, Ki-Won Park, Jong-Soon Choi, Hyun Joo An
The estimation of post-mortem interval (PMI) is a crucial part for investigations of crime and untimely deaths in forensic science. However, standard methods of PMI estimation are easily confounded by extenuating circumstances and/or environmental factors. Therefore, a panel of PMI markers obtained from a more acceptable and accurate method is necessary to definitely determine time of death. Saliva, one of the vital fluids encountered at crime scenes, contains various glycoproteins that are highly affected by biochemical environment. Here, we investigated saliva N-glycans between live and dead rats to determine the alteration of N-glycans using an animal model system because of the limitation of saliva collection from recently deceased humans. Rat saliva samples were collected both before and after death. N-Glycans were enzymatically released by PNGase F without any glycoprotein extraction. Released native glycans were purified and enriched by PGC-SPE. About 100 N-glycans were identified, profiled, and structurally elucidated by nano LC/MS and tandem MS. Sialylated N-glycans were exclusively present in abundance in live rat saliva whereas non-sialylated N-glycans including LacdiNAc disaccharides were detected in high level following death. Through in-depth investigations using quantitative comparison and statistical analysis, 14 N-glycans that significantly changed after death were identified as the potential marker candidates for PMI estimation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to monitor the post-mortem changes of saliva glycosylation, with obvious forensic applications.
A sediment extraction and cleanup method for wide-scope multitarget screening by liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-11-03 Riccardo Massei, Harry Byers, Liza-Marie Beckers, Jens Prothmann, Werner Brack, Tobias Schulze, Martin Krauss
Previous studies on organic sediment contaminants focused mainly on a limited number of highly hydrophobic micropollutants accessible to gas chromatography using nonpolar, aprotic extraction solvents. The development of liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS) permits the spectrum of analysis to be expanded to a wider range of more polar and ionic compounds present in sediments and allows target, suspect, and nontarget screening to be conducted with high sensitivity and selectivity. In this study, we propose a comprehensive multitarget extraction and sample preparation method for characterization of sediment pollution covering a broad range of physicochemical properties that is suitable for LC–HRMS screening analysis. We optimized pressurized liquid extraction, cleanup, and sample dilution for a target list of 310 compounds. Finally, the method was tested on sediment samples from a small river and its tributaries. The results show that the combination of 100 °C for ethyl acetate–acetone (50:50, neutral extract) followed by 80 °C for acetone–formic acid (100:1, acidic extract) and methanol–10 mM sodium tetraborate in water (90:10, basic extract) offered the best extraction recoveries for 287 of 310 compounds. At a spiking level of 1 μg mL-1, we obtained satisfactory cleanup recoveries for the neutral extract—(93 ± 23)%—and for the combined acidic/basic extracts—(42 ± 16)%—after solvent exchange. Among the 69 compounds detected in environmental samples, we successfully quantified several pharmaceuticals and polar pesticides.
A multiplex immunochromatographic test using gold nanoparticles for the rapid and simultaneous detection of four nitrofuran metabolites in fish samples Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-10-30 Quan Wang, Yingchun Liu, Mingyan Wang, Yongjun Chen, Wei Jiang
There is an urgent need for the rapid and simultaneous detection of multiple analytes present in a sample matrix. Here, a multiplex immunochromatographic test (multi-ICT) was developed that successfully allowed for the rapid and simultaneous detection of four major nitrofuran metabolites, i.e., 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), semicarbazide (SEM), 3-amino-5-methylmorpholino-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ), and 1-aminohydantoin (AHD), in fish samples. Four different antigens were separately immobilized in four test lines on a nitrocellulose membrane. Goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (IgG) was used as a control. Sensitive and specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize the corresponding antigens were selected for the assay, and no cross-reactivity between the antibodies in the detection assay was observed. The free analytes in samples or standards were pre-incubated with freeze-dried mAb–gold conjugates to improve the sensitivity of the detection assay. The multi-ICT detection was accomplished in less than 15 min by the naked eye. The cutoff values for the strip test were 0.5 ng/mL for AOZ and 0.75 ng/mL for AHD, SEM, and AMOZ, which were all below the maximum residue levels set by the European Union and China. A high degree of consistency was observed between the multi-ICT method and commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits using spiked, incurred, and “blind” fish samples, indicating the accuracy, reproducibility, and reliability of the novel test strip. This newly developed multi-ICT strip assay is suitable for the rapid and high-throughput screening of four nitrofuran metabolites in fish samples on-site, with no treatment or devices required.
FT-MIR and NIR spectral data fusion: a synergetic strategy for the geographical traceability of Panax notoginseng Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-11-16 Yun Li, Jin-Yu Zhang, Yuan-Zhong Wang
Three data fusion strategies (low-llevel, mid-llevel, and high-llevel) combined with a multivariate classification algorithm (random forest, RF) were applied to authenticate the geographical origins of Panax notoginseng collected from five regions of Yunnan province in China. In low-level fusion, the original data from two spectra (Fourier transform mid-IR spectrum and near-IR spectrum) were directly concatenated into a new matrix, which then was applied for the classification. Mid-level fusion was the strategy that inputted variables extracted from the spectral data into an RF classification model. The extracted variables were processed by iterate variable selection of the RF model and principal component analysis. The use of high-level fusion combined the decision making of each spectroscopic technique and resulted in an ensemble decision. The results showed that the mid-level and high-level data fusion take advantage of the information synergy from two spectroscopic techniques and had better classification performance than that of independent decision making. High-level data fusion is the most effective strategy since the classification results are better than those of the other fusion strategies: accuracy rates ranged between 93% and 96% for the low-level data fusion, between 95% and 98% for the mid-level data fusion, and between 98% and 100% for the high-level data fusion. In conclusion, the high-level data fusion strategy for Fourier transform mid-IR and near-IR spectra can be used as a reliable tool for correct geographical identification of P. notoginseng.
Correction to: Exploring the peptide retention mechanism in molecularly imprinted polymers Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-12-29 Cecilia Rossetti, Odd Gøran Ore, Börje Sellergren, Trine Grønhaug Halvorsen, Léon Reubsaet
Abstract The authors would like to call the reader’s attention to the fact that unfortunately due to the file formatting during the exporting of the data matrix from the program Unscrambler (used for the development of the statistical model) to the Word office file.
Analysis of ibuprofen and its main metabolites in roots, shoots, and seeds of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry: uptake, metabolism, and translocation Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-12-29 Yolanda Picó, Rodrigo Alvarez-Ruiz, Leonard Wijaya, Ahmed Alfarhan, Mohammed Alyemeni, Damià Barceló
A liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC–QqTOF-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of ibuprofen (IBU), 1- and 2-hydroxyibuprofen (1-OH IBU and 2-OH IBU), and carboxyibuprofen (CBX IBU) while preserving the ability of the instrument to get precursor and product ion mass spectra of non-target compounds. The trigger was the precursor ions reaching 100 cps intensity. Sample preparation was carried out by ultrasound solid-liquid extraction with methanol as extraction solvent at pH < 2 followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up using STRATA-X cartridges and methanol as an eluent. Linearity was obtained in the range 50–10,000 ng mL−1 for IBU, each OH IBU and CBX IBU (r ≥ 0.99). The proposed method was satisfactorily validated showing absolute recoveries of > 70% for all target analytes at low and high concentration levels. The lowest limit of quantification was < 50 ng g−1 in plant. This method was applied to investigate IBP behavior in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) treated at high IBU concentrations and its presence in vegetables irrigated with treated water. Up to 46 metabolites, mostly hydroxylated metabolites and conjugates with hexosides and amino acids, were identified. The most abundant metabolites were also identified in an eggplant sample.
Use of phenyl/tetrazolyl-functionalized magnetic microspheres and stable isotope labeled internal standards for significant reduction of matrix effect in determination of nine fluoroquinolones by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-12-29 Fei Xu, Feng Liu, Chaozhan Wang, Yinmao Wei
In this study, the strategy of unique adsorbent combined with isotope labeled internal standards was used to significantly reduce the matrix effect for the enrichment and analysis of nine fluoroquinolones in a complex sample by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqQLIT-MS/MS). The adsorbent was prepared conveniently by functionalizing Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres with phenyl and tetrazolyl groups, which could adsorb fluoroquinolones selectively via hydrophobic, electrostatic, and π–π interactions. The established magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) method as well as using stable isotope labeled internal standards in the next MS/MS detection was able to reduce the matrix effect significantly. In the process of LC-QqQLIT-MS/MS analysis, the precursor and product ions of the analytes were monitored quantitatively and qualitatively on a QTrap system equipped simultaneously with the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and enhanced product ion (EPI) scan. Subsequently, the enrichment method combined with LC-QqQLIT-MS/MS demonstrated good analytical features in terms of linearity (7.5–100.0 ng mL-1, r > 0.9960), satisfactory recoveries (88.6%–118.3%) with RSDs < 12.0%, LODs = 0.5 μg kg-1 and LOQs = 1.5 μg kg-1 for all tested analytes. Finally, the developed MSPE-LC-QqQLIT-MS/MS method had been successfully applied to real pork samples for food-safety risk monitoring in Ningxia Province, China.
Designation of fingerprint glycopeptides for targeted glycoproteomic analysis of serum haptoglobin: insights into gastric cancer biomarker discovery Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-12-29 Jua Lee, Serenus Hua, Sung Hyeon Lee, Myung Jin Oh, Jaekyung Yun, Jin Young Kim, Jae-Han Kim, Jung Hoe Kim, Hyun Joo An
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide, largely because of difficulties in early diagnosis. Despite accumulating evidence indicating that aberrant glycosylation is associated with GC, site-specific localization of the glycosylation to increase specificity and sensitivity for clinical use is still an analytical challenge. Here, we created an analytical platform with a targeted glycoproteomic approach for GC biomarker discovery. Unlike the conventional glycomic approach with untargeted mass spectrometric profiling of released glycan, our platform is characterized by three key features: it is a target-protein-specific, glycosylation-site-specific, and structure-specific platform with a one-shot enzyme reaction. Serum haptoglobin enriched by immunoaffinity chromatography was subjected to multispecific proteolysis to generate site-specific glycopeptides and to investigate the macroheterogeneity and microheterogeneity. Glycopeptides were identified and quantified by nano liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and nano liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Ninety-six glycopeptides, each corresponding to a unique glycan/glycosite pairing, were tracked across all cancer and control samples. Differences in abundance between the two groups were marked by particularly high magnitudes. Three glycopeptides exhibited exceptionally high control-to-cancer fold changes along with receiver operating characteristic curve areas of 1.0, indicating perfect discrimination between the two groups. From the results taken together, our platform, which provides biological information as well as high sensitivity and reproducibility, may be useful for GC biomarker discovery.
Confirmatory surface analysis of equivocal documents with pigment-based gel inks via laser desorption laser postionization mass spectrometry imaging Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Rong Liu, Zhibin Yin, Xiaoling Cheng, Yifan Meng, Wei Hang, Benli Huang
Laser desorption laser postionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (L2MS) was applied for unambiguous discrimination of pigment-based inks in blue, black, and red gel pens and molecular imaging of equivocal documents in a quasi-non-destructive way. In comparison to laser desorption mass spectrometry (LD-MS), additional discriminatory information on ink components is acquired uniquely, facilitating the distinct differentiation of various pigmented gel inks. More importantly, diversified images of additional characteristic ions achieved using L2MS offer reliable support to discriminate forged documents and decipher important hidden contents. Apart from minimized matrix effect and maximized ionization yield, direct and confirmatory identification of forged documents is achieved successfully without solvent or matrix involved, not only eliminating unwanted damage and contamination to the samples but significantly shortening the overall analysis time. In addition, L2MS is a minimally destructive approach with tiny analyte consumption. With these appealing qualities, L2MS imaging is poised to be a powerful tool for confirmatory surface analysis of complex pigment-based samples.
Metabolism of a sea lamprey pesticide by fish liver enzymes part A: identification and synthesis of TFM metabolites Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Ugo Bussy, Yu-Wen Chung-Davidson, Tyler Buchinger, Ke Li, Scott A. Smith, A. Daniel Jones, Weiming Li
The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a destructive invasive species in the Great Lakes that contributed to the collapse of native fish populations in the mid-1900s. 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is a selective pesticide that has been applied to sea lamprey infested tributaries of the Great Lakes to kill larvae since the 1960s and has reduced the populations by as much as 90%. However, the metabolism of TFM by sea lamprey and non-target species is not fully illuminated. Elucidation of TFM metabolism is critical for understanding its mode of action and possible environmental impact. Here, we describe the screening, identification, synthesis and structural characterization of TFM metabolites in livers from sea lamprey and three non-target species that differ in their ability to survive TFM exposure. We identified glucuronidation, sulfation, N-acetylation, glutathione conjugation, and aromatic nitro group reduction as potential detoxification mechanisms. Seven metabolites were synthesized for use as markers of TFM metabolism in fish. Quantitative 1H NMR was used to assay synthesized metabolite stock solutions that were then used as standard material to develop a quantitative LC-MS/MS method for TFM metabolites.
Boronate affinity solid-phase extraction of cis -diol compounds by a one-step electrochemically synthesized selective polymer sorbent Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-12-27 Xu Ling, Zilin Chen
A rational-designed conductive sorbent, poly(thiophene-3-boronic acid) electrochemically deposited on a carbon fiber bundle, was applied for boronate affinity extraction. The coated carbon fiber bundle packed into a poly(ether ether ketone) tube was then successfully used for online solid-phase microextraction–high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of cis-diol compounds. Three kinds of catecholamines (namely, adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine) were used as the test analytes. Good extraction efficiency (more than 600-fold), low limits of detection (0.2 ng·mL-1 for adrenaline, 0.1 ng·mL-1 for noradrenaline and dopamine), and wide linear ranges were obtained. The method was demonstrated to be efficient for analysis of catecholamines in spiked plasma samples, with good recoveries in the range of 92.5–95.71%. This work exhibited several significant advantages, including ease of use, high specificity, and high extraction efficiency. It has been demonstrated that such an electrochemically synthesized sorbent has great potential for research involving cis-diol compounds.
Quantitative proteomic analysis of murine white adipose tissue for peritoneal cancer metastasis Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-12-27 Peter E. Feist, Elizabeth A. Loughran, M. Sharon Stack, Amanda B. Hummon
Cancer metastasis risk increases in older individuals, but the mechanisms for this risk increase are unclear. Many peritoneal cancers, including ovarian cancer, preferentially metastasize to peritoneal fat depots. However, there is a dearth of studies exploring aged peritoneal adipose tissue in the context of cancer. Because adipose tissue produces signals which influence several diseases including cancer, proteomics of adipose tissue in aged and young mice may provide insight into metastatic mechanisms. We analyzed mesenteric, omental, and uterine adipose tissue groups from the peritoneal cavities of young and aged C57BL/6J mouse cohorts with a low-fraction SDS-PAGE gelLC-MS/MS method. We identified 2308 protein groups and quantified 2167 groups, among which several protein groups showed twofold or greater abundance differences between the aged and young cohorts. Cancer-related gene products previously identified as significant in another age-related study were found altered in this study. Several gene products known to suppress proliferation and cellular invasion were found downregulated in the aged cohort, including R-Ras, Arid1a, and heat shock protein β1. In addition, multiple protein groups were identified within single cohorts, including the proteins Cd11a, Stat3, and Ptk2b. These data suggest that adipose tissue is a strong candidate for analysis to identify possible contributors to cancer metastasis in older subjects. The results of this study, the first of its kind using uterine adipose tissue, contribute to the understanding of the role of adipose tissue in age-related alteration of oncogenic pathways, which may help elucidate the mechanisms of increased metastatic tumor burden in the aged.
Counting the number of enzymes immobilized onto a nanoparticle-coated electrode Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-12-27 Jenny Bergman, Yuanmo Wang, Joakim Wigström, Ann-Sofie Cans
To immobilize enzymes at the surface of a nanoparticle-based electrochemical sensor is a common method to construct biosensors for non-electroactive analytes. Studying the interactions between the enzymes and nanoparticle support is of great importance in optimizing the conditions for biosensor design. This can be achieved by using a combination of analytical methods to carefully characterize the enzyme nanoparticle coating at the sensor surface while studying the optimal conditions for enzyme immobilization. From this analytical approach, it was found that controlling the enzyme coverage to a monolayer was a key factor to significantly improve the temporal resolution of biosensors. However, these characterization methods involve both tedious methodologies and working with toxic cyanide solutions. Here we introduce a new analytical method that allows direct quantification of the number of immobilized enzymes (glucose oxidase) at the surface of a gold nanoparticle coated glassy carbon electrode. This was achieved by exploiting an electrochemical stripping method for the direct quantification of the density and size of gold nanoparticles coating the electrode surface and combining this information with quantification of fluorophore-labeled enzymes bound to the sensor surface after stripping off their nanoparticle support. This method is both significantly much faster compared to previously reported methods and with the advantage that this method presented is non-toxic.
Electron spin resonance spectroscopy for immunoassay using iron oxide nanoparticles as probe Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Jia Jiang, Sizhu Tian, Kun Wang, Yang Wang, Shuang Zang, Aimin Yu, Ziwei Zhang
With the help of iron oxide nanoparticles, electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) was applied to immunoassay. Iron oxide nanoparticles were used as the ESR probe in order to achieve an amplification of the signal resulting from the large amount of Fe3+ ion enclosed in each nanoparticle. Rabbit IgG was used as antigen to test this method. Polyclonal antibody of rabbit IgG was used as antibody to detect the antigen. Iron oxide nanoparticle with a diameter of either 10 or 30 nm was labeled to the antibody, and Fe3+ in the nanoparticle was probed for ESR signal. The sepharose beads were used as solid phase to which rabbit IgG was conjugated. The nanoparticle-labeled antibody was first added in the sample containing antigen, and the antigen-conjugated sepharose beads were then added into the sample. The nanoparticle-labeled antibody bound to the antigen on sepharose beads was separated from the sample by centrifugation and measured. We found that the detection ranges of the antigen obtained with nanoparticles of different sizes were different because the amount of antibody on nanoparticles of 10 nm was about one order of magnitude higher than that on nanoparticles of 30 nm. When 10 nm nanoparticle was used as probe, the upper limit of detection was 40.00 μg mL−1, and the analytical sensitivity was 1.81 μg mL−1. When 30 nm nanoparticle was used, the upper limit of detection was 3.00 μg mL−1, and the sensitivity was 0.014 and 0.13 μg mL−1 depending on the ratio of nanoparticle to antibody.
Demonstration of hydrazide tagging for O-glycans and a central composite design of experiments optimization using the INLIGHT™ reagent Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Samuel R. King, Elizabeth S. Hecht, David C. Muddiman
The INLIGHT™ strategy for N-linked glycan derivatization has been shown to overcome many of the challenges associated with glycan analysis. The hydrazide tag reacts efficiently with the glycans, increasing their non-polar surface area, allowing for reversed-phase separations and increased ionization efficiency. We have taken the INLIGHT™ strategy and adopted it for use with O-linked glycans. A central composite design was utilized to find optimized tagging conditions (45% acetic acid, 0.1 μg/μL tag concentration, 37 C, 1.75 h). Derivatization at optimized conditions was much quicker than any hydrazide derivatization strategy used previously. Human immunoglobulin A (IgA) and bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) were then deglycosylated through hydrazinolysis and the removed glycans were tagged under optimum conditions. XIC of tagged glycans and MS2 data show successful hydrazide tagging of O-linked glycans for the first time.
An ion quencher operated lamp for multiplexed fluorescent bioassays Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Taiping Qing, Huanhuan Sun, Xiaoxiao He, Xiaoqin Huang, Dinggeng He, Hongchang Bu, Zhenzhen Qiao, Kemin Wang
A novel and adjustable lamp based on competitive interaction among dsDNA-SYBR Green I (SGI), ion quencher, and analyte was designed for bioanalysis. The “filament” and switch of the lamp could be customized by employing different dsDNA and ion quencher. The poly(AT/TA) dsDNA was successfully screened as the most effective filament of the lamp. Two common ions, Hg2+ and Fe3+, were selected as the model switch, and the corresponding ligand molecules cysteine (Cys) and pyrophosphate ions (PPi) were selected as the targets. When the fluorescence-quenched dsDNA/SGI–ion complex was introduced into a target-containing system, ions could be bound by competitive molecules and separate from the complex, thereby lighting the lamp. However, no light was observed if the biomolecule could not snatch the metal ions from the complex. Under the optimal conditions, sensitive and selective detection of Cys and PPi was achieved by the lamp, with practical applications in fetal bovine serum and human urine. This ion quencher regulated lamp for fluorescent bioassays is simple in design, fast in operation, and is more convenient than other methods. Significantly, as many molecules could form stable complexes with metal ions selectively, this ion quencher operated lamp has potential for the detection of a wide spectrum of analytes.
Label-free screening of foodborne Salmonella using surface plasmon resonance imaging Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Jing Chen, Bosoon Park
It is estimated that 95% of the foodborne infections are caused by 15 major pathogens. Therefore, rapid and effective multiplex screening techniques for these pathogens with improved efficiencies could benefit public health at lower costs. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) provides a label-free, multiplex analytical platform for pathogen screening. In this study, we have developed a singleplex immunoassay for Salmonella to evaluate the potential of SPRi in pathogen detection. Anti-Salmonella and control ligands were arrayed onto the SPRi sensor chip in a microarray format. The influences of ligand immobilization pH and concentration were optimized, and a pause flow protocol was adopted to improve assay rapidity and sensitivity. The method shows good specificity against 6 non-Salmonella species and was able to detect 5 of 6 Salmonella serotypes, including 3 serotypes most frequently associated with outbreaks. Limits of detection were found to be 2.1 × 106 CFU/mL in phosphate-buffered saline and 7.6 × 106 CFU/mL in the presence of chicken rinse matrix with 8.9 × 107 CFU/mL of indigenous microflora. The condition of antibody array regeneration was optimized for sequential sample injections. Finally, the SPRi immunoassay was used to detect Salmonella directly from artificially spiked chicken carcass rinse samples. As low as 6.8 CFU/mL of Salmonella could be detected after overnight enrichment in buffered peptone water, demonstrating the potential in streamlined pathogen screening with minimal sample preparation and without detection labels.
A strategy of utilizing Zn(II) as metallic pivot in room temperature ionic liquid to prepare molecularly imprinted polymers for compound with intramolecular hydrogen bonds Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (IF 3.431) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Ya Kun Sun, Man Jia, Jian Yang, Yan-Ping Huang, Zhao-Sheng Liu, Haji Akber Aisa
A method of preparing molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with Zn(II) as a metallic pivot was adopted to solve the problem of imprinting compound with intramolecular hydrogen bonds by forming stronger coordination binding interaction among the template–functional monomer-Zn2+ complex. A ternary porogenic system including dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate was employed to fabricate imprinted monolith with high porosity and good flow-through properties, in which chicoric acid (CA), zinc acetate, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP), and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) was the template, metallic ion, functional monomer, as well as crosslinker, respectively. The influence of polymerization factors including the 4-VP-CA ratio, monomer-crosslinker ratio, template-Zn2+ ratio on imprinting factors was systematically investigated. When the ratio of 4-VP to CA was 24:1, the greatest IF value (24.81) was achieved on the CA-MIP prepared with zinc acetate. In addition, off-line SPE with the optimal MIPs monolith led to high purity of CA (98.0% ± 0.5%) from extraction of Cichorium intybus L. roots with the recovery of 77.5% ± 2.5% (n = 6). As a conclusion, the strategy of introducing metal ions as metal pivot to prepare MIPs was a powerful method for the MIPs synthesis to the template molecules with intramolecular hydrogen bonds.
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