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  • Biotechnological Applications of Proteases in Food Technology
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 5.974) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Olga Luisa Tavano, Angel Berenguer-Murcia, Francesco Secundo, Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente

    Abstract This review presents some of the hottest topics in biotechnological applications: proteases in biocatalysis. Obviously, one of the most relevant areas of application is in the hydrolysis of proteins in food technology, and that has led to a massive use on proteomics. The aim is to identify via peptide maps the different proteins obtained after a specific protease hydrolysis. However, concepts like degradomics are also taking on a more relevant importance in the use and study of proteases and will also be discussed. Other protease applications, as seem in cleaning (detergent development), the pharmaceutical industry, and in fine chemistry, will be analyzed. This review progresses from basic areas such as protease classification to a discussion of the preparation of protease-immobilized biocatalysts, considering the different problems raised by the use of immobilized proteases due to the peculiar features of the substrates, usually large macromolecules. Production of bioactive peptides via limited hydrolysis of proteins will occupy an important place in this review.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Fresh-Cut Onion: A Review on Processing, Health Benefits, and Shelf-Life
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 5.974) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Maryam Bahram-Parvar, Loong-Tak Lim

    Abstract The ready-to-eat produce market has grown rapidly because of the health benefits and convenience associated with these products. Onion is widely used as an ingredient in an extensive range of recipes from breakfast to dinner and in nearly every ethnic cuisine. However, cutting/chopping of onion is a nuisance to many consumers due to the lachrymatory properties of the volatiles generated that bring tears to eyes and leave a distinct odor on hands. As a result, there is now an increasing demand for fresh-cut, value-added, and ready-to-eat onion in households, as well as large-scale uses in retail, food service, and various food industries, mainly due to the end-use convenience. Despite these benefits, fresh-cut onion products present considerable challenges due to tissue damage, resulting in chemical and physiological reactions that limit product shelf-life. Intensive discoloration, microbial growth, softening, and off-odor are the typical deteriorations that need to be controlled through the application of suitable preservation methods. This article reviews the literature related to the fresh-cut onion, focusing on its constituents, nutritional and health benefits, production methods, quality changes throughout storage, and technologies available to increase product shelf-life.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Emerging Spectroscopic and Spectral Imaging Techniques for the Rapid Detection of Microorganisms: An Overview
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 5.974) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Kaiqiang Wang, Hongbin Pu, Da-Wen Sun

    AbstractMicroorganism contamination and foodborne disease outbreaks are of public concern worldwide. As such, the food industry requires rapid and nondestructive methods to detect microorganisms and to control food quality. However, conventional methods such as culture and colony counting, polymerase chain reaction, and immunoassay approaches are laborious, time-consuming and require trained personnel. Therefore, the emergence of rapid analytical methods is essential. This review introduces 6 spectroscopic and spectral imaging techniques that apply infrared spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, hyperspectral imaging, and multispectral imaging for microorganism detection. Recent advances of these technologies from 2011 to 2017 are outlined. Challenges in the application of these technologies for microorganism detection in food matrices are addressed. These emerging spectroscopic and spectral imaging techniques have the potential to provide rapid and nondestructive detection of microorganisms. They should also provide complementary information to enhance the performance of conventional methods to prevent disease outbreaks and food safety problems.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • New Trends in the Microencapsulation of Functional Fatty Acid-Rich Oils Using Transglutaminase Catalyzed Crosslinking
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 5.974) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Seyed Mohammad Taghi Gharibzahedi, Saji George, Ralf Greiner, Berta N. Estevinho, María José Frutos Fernández, David Julian McClements, Shahin Roohinejad

    AbstractPreparing stable protein-based microcapsules containing functional fatty acids and oils for food applications has been a big challenge. However, recent advances with transglutaminase (TGase) enzyme as an effective protein cross-linker could provide workable solutions for the encapsulation of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids without compromising their targeted release and their biological and physicochemical characteristics. The recent and available literature related to the microencapsulation techniques, physical and oxidative properties, and core retention and release mechanisms of TGase-crosslinked microcapsules entrapping edible oils were reviewed. The effects of factors involved in microencapsulation processes, on the efficiency and quality of the produced innovative microcapsules were also discussed and highlighted. A brief focus has been finally addressed to new insights and additional knowledge on micro- and nanoencapsulation of lipophilic food-grade ingredients by TGase-induced gelation. Two dominant microencapsulation methods for fish, vegetable, and essential oils by TGase-crosslinking are complex coacervation and emulsion-based spray drying. The developed spherical particles (<100 μm) with some wrinkles and smooth surfaces showed an excellent encapsulation efficiency and yield. A negligible release rate and a substantial retention level can result for different lipid-based cores covered by TGase-crosslinked proteins during the oral digestion and storage. A significant structural, thermal and oxidative stability for edible oils-loaded microcapsules in the presence of TGase can be also obtained.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • The Hydration of Grains: A Critical Review from Description of Phenomena to Process Improvements
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 5.974) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Alberto Claudio Miano, Pedro Esteves Duarte Augusto

    AbstractHydration is a crucial step during grain processing. It is performed prior to many other processes, such as germination, cooking, extraction, malting and fermentation. The number of publications on this topic studying the description of the mechanisms involved and recent technologies for processing enhancement has increased recently. However, due to the complexity of the hydration process, there are still many aspects that are little understood. For that reason, this review provides not only an overview of recent developments in this field, but also a critical discussion of publications from the last 2 decades, as well as suggestions for future innovative studies. This review discusses the importance of hydration in the grain industries, the pathway for water entry into the various grains, the mass transfer and fluid flow mechanisms in the process, the behavior of the hydration kinetics, the mathematical modelling, the technologies used to accelerate the process and other necessary requirements that must be performed to complement and complete our knowledge of this process.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Traditionally Processed Beverages in Africa: A Review of the Mycotoxin Occurrence Patterns and Exposure Assessment
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 5.974) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Chibundu N. Ezekiel, Kolawole I. Ayeni, Jane M. Misihairabgwi, Yinka M. Somorin, Ihuoma E. Chibuzor-Onyema, Oluwawapelumi A. Oyedele, Wilfred A. Abia, Michael Sulyok, Gordon S. Shephard, Rudolf Krska

    AbstractAfrican traditional beverages are widely consumed food-grade liquids processed from single or mixed grains (mostly cereals) by simple food processing techniques, of which fermentation tops the list. These beverages are very diverse in composition and nutritional value and are specific to different cultures and countries. The grains from which home-processed traditional beverages are made across Africa are often heavily contaminated with multiple mycotoxins due to poor agricultural, handling, and storage practices that characterize the region. In the literature, there are many reports on the spectrum and quantities of mycotoxins in crops utilized in traditional beverage processing, however, few studies have analyzed mycotoxins in the beverages themselves. The available reports on mycotoxins in African traditional beverages are mainly centered on the finished products with little information on the process chain (raw material to final product), fate of the different mycotoxins during processing, and exposure estimates for consumers. Regulations targeting these local beverages are not in place despite the heavy occurrence of mycotoxins in their raw materials and the high consumption levels of the products in many homes. This paper therefore comprehensively discusses for the 1st time the available data on the wide variety of African traditional beverages, the mycotoxins that contaminate the beverages and their raw materials, exposure estimates, and possible consequent effects. Mycotoxin control options and future directions for mycotoxin research in beverage production are also highlighted.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Analysis of Isoflavones in Foods
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 5.974) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Myriam Bustamante-Rangel, María Milagros Delgado-Zamarreño, Lara Pérez-Martín, Encarnación Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Javier Domínguez-Álvarez

    AbstractIn recent years the nutritional and bioactive properties of foods are being intensively investigated with a view to control, in addition to food quality, their possible influence on human health. Because of this, there is a growing demand for rapid, selective, sensitive, and validated methods for analysis and quantification. Bioactive plant compounds include those with weak estrogenic activity (phytoestrogens), among which are the isoflavones. Some of the beneficial activities that have been attributed to isoflavones are anticarcinogenic activity, the prevention of cardiovascular disease, the improvement of bone health, and antioxidant activity. The objective of this work is to provide an updated review of the methods used in sample preparation and subsequent analysis for the determination of isoflavones in food samples, including both soybean and soy products, as well as other foods with low isoflavone contents. The review focuses on the most common sample preparation techniques used during the last 10 years, including both conventional solvent extraction and other more recent extraction techniques. Separation and detection methods, including current trends in liquid chromatography analysis, such as the use of monolithic columns or ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography, are also discussed.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Domestic Cooking of Muscle Foods: Impact on Composition of Nutrients and Contaminants
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 5.974) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    M Madalena C Sobral, Sara C Cunha, Miguel A Faria, Isabel MPLVO Ferreira

    AbstractMeat and fish are muscle foods rich in valuable nutrients, such as high-quality proteins, vitamins, and minerals, and, in the case of fish, also unsaturated fatty acids. The escalation of meat and fish production has increased the occurrence of pesticide and antibiotic residues, as result of pest control on feed crops, and antibiotics used to fight infections in animals. Meat and fish are usually cooked to enrich taste, soften texture, increase safety, and improve nutrient digestibility. However, the impact of cooking on nutritional properties and formation of deleterious compounds must be understood. This review summarizes studies, published in the last decade, that have focused on how domestic cooking affects: (i) composition of nutrients (protein, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals); (ii) antibiotic and pesticide residue contents; and (iii) the formation of cooking-induced contaminants (heterocyclic aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and thermal degradation products of antibiotics and pesticides). Cooking affects the nutritional composition of meat and fish; frying is the cooking method that causes the greatest impact. Cooking may reduce the pesticide and antibiotic residues present in contaminated raw meat and fish; however, it may result in the formation of degradation products of unknown identity and toxicity. Control of cooking time and temperature, use of antioxidant-rich marinades, and avoiding the dripping of fat during charcoal grilling can reduce the formation of cooking-induced contaminants.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Multispectral Imaging for Plant Food Quality Analysis and Visualization
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 5.974) Pub Date : 2018-01-02
    Wen-Hao Su, Da-Wen Sun

    AbstractThe multispectral imaging technique is considered a reformation of hyperspectral imaging. It can be employed to noninvasively and rapidly evaluate food quality. Even though several imaging or sensor-based techniques have been conducted for the quality assessment of various food products, the rise of multispectral imaging has been more promising. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the use of the multispectral sensor in the quality assessment of plant foods (such as cereals, legumes, tubers, fruits, and vegetables). Different quality parameters (such as physicochemical and microbiological aspects) of plant-based foods that were determined and visualized by the combination of modeling methods and feature wavelength selection approaches are summarized. Based on the literature, the most frequently used wavelength selection methods are the successive projection algorithm (SPA) and the regression coefficient (RC). The most effective models developed for analyzing plant food products are the partial least squares regression (PLSR), least square support vector machine (LS-SVM), support vector machine (SVM), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), and multiple linear regression (MLR). This article concludes with a discussion of challenges, potential uses, and future trends of this flourishing technique that is now also being applied to plant foods.

    更新日期:2018-01-02
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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