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  • Farm to Consumer: Factors Affecting the Organoleptic Characteristics of Coffee. II: Postharvest Processing Factors
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-07-18
    Ahsan Hameed; Syed Ammar Hussain; Muhammad Umair Ijaz; Samee Ullah; Imran Pasha; Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    The production and consumption of coffee are increasing despite the roadblocks to its agriculture and global trade. The unique, refreshing, and stimulating final cupping quality of coffee is the only reason for this rising production and consumption. Coffee quality is a multifaceted trait and is inevitably influenced by the way it is successively processed after harvesting. Reportedly, 60% of the quality attributes of coffee are governed by postharvest processing. The current review elaborates and establishes for the first time the relationship between different methods of postharvest processing of coffee and its varying organoleptic and sensory quality attributes. In view of the proven significance of each processing step, this review has been subdivided into three sections, secondary processing, primary processing, and postprocessing variables. Secondary processing addresses the immediate processing steps on the farm after harvest and storage before roasting. The primary processing section adheres specifically to roasting, grinding and brewing/extraction, topics which have been technically addressed more than any others in the literature and by industry. The postprocessing attribute section deals generally with interaction of the consumer with products of different visual appearance. Finally, there are still some bottlenecks which need to be addressed, not only to completely understand the relationship of varying postharvest processing methods with varying in‐cup quality attributes, but also to devise the next generation of coffee processing technologies.

  • Shrinkage of Food Materials During Drying: Current Status and Challenges
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-07-18
    Md Mahiuddin; Md. Imran H. Khan; C. Kumar; M. M. Rahman; M. A. Karim

    The structural heterogeneities of fruits and vegetables intensify the complexity to comprehend the interrelated physicochemical changes that occur during drying. Shrinkage of food materials during drying is a common physical phenomenon which affects the textural quality and taste of the dried product. The shrinkage of food material depends on many factors including material characteristics, microstructure, mechanical properties, and process conditions. Understanding the effect of these influencing factors on deformation of fruits and vegetables during drying is crucial to obtain better‐quality product. The majority of the previous studies regarding shrinkage are either experimental or empirical; however, such studies cannot provide a realistic understanding of the physical phenomena behind the material shrinkage. In contrast, theoretical modeling can provide better insights into the shrinkage that accompanies simultaneous heat and mass transfer during drying. However, limited studies have been conducted on the theoretical modeling of shrinkage of fruits and vegetables. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to critically review the existing theoretical shrinkage models and present a framework for a theoretical model for the shrinkage mechanism. This paper also describes the effect of different drying conditions on material shrinkage. Discussions on how the diverse characteristics of fruits and vegetables affect shrinkage propagation is presented. Moreover, a comprehensive review of formulation techniques of shrinking models and their results are also presented. Finally, the challenges in developing a physics‐based shrinkage model are discussed.

  • The Bioavailability, Transport, and Bioactivity of Dietary Flavonoids: A Review from a Historical Perspective
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 10 July 20
    Gary Williamson; Colin D. Kay; Alan Crozier

    Flavonoids are plant‐derived dietary components with a substantial impact on human health. Research has expanded massively since it began in the 1930s, and the complex pathways involved in bioavailability of flavonoids in the human body are now well understood. In recent years, it has been appreciated that the gut microbiome plays a major role in flavonoid action, but much progress still needs to be made in this area. Since the first publications on the health effects of flavonoids, their action is understood to protect against various stresses, but the mechanism of action has evolved from the now debunked simple direct antioxidant hypothesis into an understanding of the complex effects on molecular targets and enzymes in specific cell types. This review traces the development of the field over the past 8 decades, and indicates the current state of the art, and how it was reached. Future recommendations based on this historical analysis are (a) to focus on key areas of flavonoid action, (b) to perform human intervention studies focusing on bioavailability and protective effects, and (c) to carry out cellular in vitro experiments using appropriate cells together with the chemical form of the flavonoid found at the site of action; this could be the native form of compounds found in the food for studies on digestion and the intestine, the conjugated metabolites found in the blood after absorption in the small intestine for studies on cells, or the chemical forms found in the blood and tissues after catabolism by the gut microbiota.

  • Design Elements of Listeria Environmental Monitoring Programs in Food Processing Facilities: A Scoping Review of Research and Guidance Materials
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-07-06
    Claire Zoellner; Kristina Ceres; Kate Ghezzi‐Kopel; Martin Wiedmann; Renata Ivanek

    Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), the causative agent of listeriosis, in food processing facilities presents considerable challenges to food producers and food safety authorities. Design of an effective, risk‐based environmental monitoring (EM) program is essential for finding and eliminating Lm from the processing environment to prevent product contamination. A scoping review was conducted to collate and synthesize available research and guidance materials on Listeria EM in food processing facilities. An exhaustive search was performed to identify all available research, industry and regulatory documents, and search results were screened for relevance based on eligibility criteria. After screening, 198 references were subjected to an in‐depth review and categorized according to objectives for conducting Listeria sampling in food processing facilities and food sector. Mapping of the literature revealed research and guidance gaps by food sector, as fresh produce was the focus in only 10 references, compared to 72 on meat, 52 on fish and seafood, and 50 on dairy. Review of reported practices and guidance highlighted key design elements of EM, including the number, location, timing and frequency of sampling, as well as methods of detection and confirmation, and record‐keeping. While utilization of molecular subtyping methods is a trend that will continue to advance understanding of Listeria contamination risks, improved study design and reporting standards by researchers will be essential to assist the food industry optimize their EM design and decision‐making. The comprehensive collection of documents identified and synthesized in this review aids continued efforts to minimize the risk of Lm contaminated foods.

  • Mycotoxin Biomarkers of Exposure: A Comprehensive Review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-07-06
    Arnau Vidal; Marcel Mengelers; Shupeng Yang; Sarah De Saeger; Marthe De Boevre

    To date, the use of biomarkers has become generally accepted. Biomarker‐driven research has been proposed as a successful method to assess the exposure to xenobiotics by using concentrations of the parent compounds and/or metabolites in biological matrices such as urine or blood. However, the identification and validation of biomarkers of exposure remain a challenge. Recent advances in high‐resolution mass spectrometry along with new analytical (post‐acquisition data‐mining) techniques will improve the quality and output of the biomarker identification process. Chronic or even acute exposure to mycotoxins remains a daily fact, and therefore it is crucial that the mycotoxins’ metabolism is unravelled so more knowledge on biomarkers in humans and animals is acquired. This review aims to provide the scientific community with a comprehensive overview of reported in vitro and in vivo mycotoxin metabolism studies in relation to biomarkers of exposure for deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fusarenon‐X, T‐2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, ochratoxin A, citrinin, fumonisins, zearalenone, aflatoxins, and sterigmatocystin.

  • Natural Products for the Prevention and Management of Helicobacter pylori Infection
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Qing Liu; Xiao Meng; Ya Li; Cai‐Ning Zhao; Guo‐Yi Tang; Sha Li; Ren‐You Gan; Hua‐Bin Li

    Helicobacter pylori is the main pathogen that induces chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, atrophic gastritis, and other gastric disorders, and it is classified as a group I carcinogen. To eradicate H. pylori infection, triple therapy consisting of two antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor is the most widely recommended first‐line therapeutic strategy. Antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics contained in triple therapy could lead to therapeutic regimen failures. Recent studies showed that many natural products, including fruits, vegetables, spices, and medicinal plants, possess inhibitory effects on H. pylori, indicating their potential to be alternatives to prevent and manage H. pylori infection. This review summarizes the effects of natural products on H. pylori infection and highlights the mechanisms of action.

  • Phenolic Substances in Beer: Structural Diversity, Reactive Potential and Relevance for Brewing Process and Beer Quality
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Julia Wannenmacher; Martina Gastl; Thomas Becker

    For the past 100 years, polyphenol research has played a central role in brewing science. The class of phenolic substances comprises simple compounds built of 1 phenolic group as well as monomeric and oligomeric flavonoid compounds. As potential anti‐ or prooxidants, flavor precursors, flavoring agents and as interaction partners with other beer constituents, they influence important beer quality characteristics: flavor, color, colloidal, and flavor stability. The reactive potential of polyphenols is defined by their basic chemical structure, hydroxylation and substitution patterns and degree of polymerization. The quantitative and qualitative profile of phenolic substances in beer is determined by raw material choice. During the malting and brewing process, phenolic compounds undergo changes as they are extracted or enzymatically released, are subjected to heat‐induced chemical reactions or are precipitated with or adsorbed to hot and cold trub, yeast cells and stabilization agents. This review presents the current state of knowledge of the composition of phenolic compounds in beer and brewing raw materials with a special focus on their fate from raw materials throughout the malting and brewing process to the final beer. Due to high‐performance analytical techniques, new insights have been gained on the structure and function of phenolic substance groups, which have hitherto received little attention. This paper presents important information and current studies on the potential of phenolics to interact with other beer constituents and thus influence quality parameters. The structural features which determine the reactive potential of phenolic substances are discussed.

  • Do Dairy Minerals Have a Positive Effect on Bone Health?
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Keegan Burrow; Wayne Young; Michelle McConnell; Alan Carne; Alaa El‐Din Bekhit

    This review aims to examine the relationship between the consumption of dairy products, mineral absorption, and bone health, and critically evaluates the methods that have been used to investigate this relationship. As people live longer and have lives that are more active in modern societies, bone health is of concern due to the possibility for the increasing incidence of bone disorders, such as osteoporosis. It has been suggested that dairy products can play a key role in bone health due to their high levels of minerals. Whether the positive effect of dairy consumption on bone health is due solely to the concentration of minerals, the action of vitamins, proteins, and lipids present in dairy products, and complex interactions between different milk components remains to be determined. Assessment of how dairy products affect bone health is complex, with apparent contradictory conclusions being reported in the literature. To gain a better understanding of the effects that dairy products have on bone health, this review presents an evaluation of a combination of data obtained using a variety of methods. From those data, we surmise that the preferable approach to investigate the effects of milk on bone health is to obtain data from human, animal, and cell line testing. A combined approach will enable various aspects to be identified, including mechanisms and the assessment of holistic effects, which will enable the effects in the human situation to be ascertained.

  • The Impact of Cooling Rate on the Safety of Food Products as Affected by Food Containers
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Ranil Coorey; Denise Sze Hu Ng; Vijith S. Jayamanne; Elna M. Buys; Steve Munyard; Carl J. Mousley; Patrick M. K. Njage; Gary A. Dykes

    In recent decades, the demand for ready‐to‐eat (RTE) food items prepared by the food catering sector has increased together with the value of cook‐serve, cook‐chill, and cook‐freeze food products. The technologies by which foods are cooked, chilled, refrigerated for storage, and reheated before serving are of prime importance to maintain safety. Packaging materials and food containers play an important role in influencing the cooling rate of RTE foods. Food items that are prepared using improper technologies and inappropriate packaging materials may be contaminated with foodborne pathogens. Numerous research studies have shown the impact of deficient cooling technologies on the survival and growth of foodborne pathogens, which may subsequently pose a threat to public health. The operating temperatures and cooling rates of the cooling techniques applied must be appropriate to inhibit the growth of pathogens. Food items must be stored outside the temperature danger zone, which is between 5 and 60 °C, in order to inhibit the growth of these pathogens. The cooling techniques used to prepare potentially hazardous foods, such as cooked meat, rice, and pasta, must be properly applied and controlled to ensure food safety. This paper critically reviews the effects of cooling and its relationship to food containers on the safety of RTE foods produced and sold through the food service industry.

  • Resveratrol and Related Stilbenoids, Nutraceutical/Dietary Complements with Health‐Promoting Actions: Industrial Production, Safety, and the Search for Mode of Action
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Gemma Navarro; Eva Martínez ‐Pinilla; Raquel Ortiz; Véronique Noé; Carlos J. Ciudad; Rafael Franco

    This paper reviews the potential of stilbenoids as nutraceuticals. Stilbenoid compounds in wine are considered key factors in health‐promoting benefits. Resveratrol and resveratrol‐related compounds are found in a large diversity of vegetal products. The stilbene composition varies from wine to wine and from one season to another. Therefore, the article also reviews how food science and technology and wine industry may help in providing wines and/or food supplements with efficacious concentrations of stilbenes. The review also presents results from clinical trials and those derived from genomic/transcriptomic studies. The most studied stilbenoid, resveratrol, is a very safe compound. On the other hand, the potential benefits of stilbene intake are multiple and are apparently due to downregulation more than upregulation of gene expression. The field may take advantage from identifying the mechanism of action(s) and from providing useful data to show evidence for specific health benefits in a given tissue or for combating a given disease.

  • Peripheral Blood Cells, a Transcriptomic Tool in Nutrigenomic and Obesity Studies: Current State of the Art
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Bàrbara Reynés; Teresa Priego; Margalida Cifre; Paula Oliver; Andreu Palou

    Gene expression profile of peripheral blood cells (PBC) is able to reflect useful aspects of the whole body metabolic status. Therefore, and favored by the huge development of “omic” technologies, blood cells and, particularly, the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) fraction, are emerging as a potent source of transcriptomic biomarkers of health and disease. In this review we describe and discuss the available information concerning the use of the PBC and the PBMC fraction as a crucial tool for nutrigenomic studies. Results of these studies reveal, as these cells are good indicators of metabolic adaptations to diet and, moreover, as they allow us to monitor from early stages on, the metabolic alterations associated with dietary imbalances. In this way, blood cells present the capacity of reflecting higher risks of suffering from diet‐related pathologies, such as obesity and its medical complications. What is more, different studies also show how PBMC are able to evidence the metabolic recovery associated with weight loss or dietary interventions. Besides, recent research points to the utility of ex vivo systems of blood cells to test the efficacy of food bioactives. All in all, PBC constitutes an easily obtainable source of predictive biomarkers of metabolic imbalance and disease related to diet and obesity, and also of metabolic recovery, which appears as highly relevant for developing nutritional preventive strategies in dietetics. Moreover, they could serve to perform relatively simple and economic in vitro tests to assess food bioactive compounds, promoting in this way functional food research and related industry developments.

  • Extraction from Food and Natural Products by Moderate Electric Field: Mechanisms, Benefits, and Potential Industrial Applications
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-05-22
    Mohsen Gavahian; Yan‐Hwa Chu; Sudhir Sastry

    Several extraction techniques have been proposed recently as the food industry is seeking alternatives to tedious classical methods. Moderate electric field (MEF) extraction at low and high temperatures offers several advantages such as enhancing product quantity and quality as well as saving time and energy. This method has gained interest as a preferred extraction technique among researchers. This review is devoted to introducing the principles, mechanisms, and recent progress in the MEF extraction technique. The parameters influencing MEF treatment are also discussed and performances are compared to conventional extraction methods. Considerations for industrial development of MEF as well as its drawbacks are also discussed. MEF extraction is applicable to a wide range of food materials and offers several benefits such as reducing extraction time and energy and also enhancing the extract's quality and yield. Optimizing process parameters, such as treatment time and temperature, electric field intensity, and frequency, along with raw material selection and preparation can boost the performance of a MEF system. Further investigations on safety and sustainability of this novel technique are required prior to commercial applications.

  • Protein‐Based Delivery Systems for the Nanoencapsulation of Food Ingredients
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-05-22
    Milad Fathi; Francesco Donsi; David Julian McClements

    Many proteins possess functional attributes that make them suitable for the encapsulation of bioactive agents, such as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. This article reviews the state of the art of protein‐based nanoencapsulation approaches. The physicochemical principles underlying the major techniques for the fabrication of nanoparticles, nanogels, and nanofibers from animal, botanical, and recombinant proteins are described. Protein modification approaches that can be used to extend their functionality in these nanocarrier systems are also described, including chemical, physical, and enzymatic treatments. The encapsulation, retention, protection, and release of bioactive agents in different protein‐based nanocarriers are discussed. Finally, some of the major challenges in the design and fabrication of protein‐based delivery systems are highlighted.

  • Food Packaging: A Comprehensive Review and Future Trends
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-05-15
    Jia‐Wei Han; Luis Ruiz‐Garcia; Jian‐Ping Qian; Xin‐Ting Yang

    Innovations in food packaging systems will help meet the evolving needs of the market, such as consumer preference for “healthy” and high‐quality food products and reduction of the negative environmental impacts of food packaging. Emerging concepts of active and intelligent packaging technologies provide numerous innovative solutions for prolonging shelf‐life and improving the quality and safety of food products. There are also new approaches to improving the passive characteristics of food packaging, such as mechanical strength, barrier performance, and thermal stability. The development of sustainable or green packaging has the potential to reduce the environmental impacts of food packaging through the use of edible or biodegradable materials, plant extracts, and nanomaterials. Active, intelligent, and green packaging technologies can work synergistically to yield a multipurpose food‐packaging system with no negative interactions between components, and this aim can be seen as the ultimate future goal for food packaging technology. This article reviews the principles of food packaging and recent developments in different types of food packaging technologies. Global patents and future research trends are also discussed.

  • Applied and Emerging Methods for Meat Tenderization: A Comparative Perspective
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-05-15
    Zuhaib F. Bhat; James D. Morton; Susan L. Mason; Alaa El‐Din A. Bekhit

    The tenderization process, which can be influenced by both pre‐ and post‐slaughter interventions, begins immediately after an animal's death and is followed with the disruption of the muscle structure by endogenous proteolytic systems. The post‐slaughter technological interventions like electrical stimulation, suspension methods, blade tenderization, tumbling, use of exogenous enzymes, and traditional aging are some of the methods currently employed by the meat industry for improving tenderness. Over the time, technological advancement resulted in development of several novel methods, for maximizing the tenderness, which are being projected as quick, economical, nonthermal, green, and energy‐efficient technologies. Comparison of these advanced technological methods with the current applied industrial methods is necessary to understand the feasibility and benefits of the novel technology. This review discusses the benefits and advantages of different emerging tenderization techniques such as hydrodynamic‐pressure processing, high‐pressure processing, pulsed electric field, ultrasound, SmartStretch™, Pi‐Vac Elasto‐Pack® system, and some of the current applied methods used in the meat industry.

  • Nonthermal Processes for Shelf‐Life Extension of Seafoods: A Revisit
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
    Oladipupo Odunayo Olatunde; Soottawat Benjakul

    For the past two decades, consumer demand for minimally processed seafoods with good sensory acceptability and nutritive properties has been increasing. Nonthermal food processing and preservation technologies have drawn the attention of food scientists and manufacturers because nutritional and sensory properties of such treated foods are minimally affected. More importantly, shelf‐life is extended as nonthermal treatments are capable of inhibiting or killing both spoilage and pathogenic organisms. They are also considered to be more energy‐efficient and to yield better quality when compared with conventional thermal processes. This review provides insight into the nonthermal processing technologies currently used for shelf‐life extension of seafoods. Both pretreatments such as acidic electrolyte water and ozonification and processing technologies, including high hydrostatic pressurization, ionizing radiation, cold plasma, ultraviolet light, and pulsed electric fields, as well as packaging technology, particularly modified atmosphere packaging, have been implemented to lower the microbial load in seafood. Thus, those technologies may be the ideal approach for the seafood industry, in which prime quality is maintained and safety is assured for consumers.

  • Tarin, a Potential Immunomodulator and COX‐Inhibitor Lectin Found in Taro (Colocasia esculenta)
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
    Patricia Ribeiro Pereira; Anna Carolina Nitzsche Teixeira Fernandes Corrêa; Mauricio Afonso Vericimo; Vânia Margaret Flosi Paschoalin

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) corm is a rustic staple food, rich in small starch granules, fibers, and bioactive phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, tannins, phytates, micronutrients, and proteins, including tarin, a GNA‐related lectin. Tarin exhibits recognized biocide activities against viruses and insects, has antitumoral properties and is an immunomodulator molecule candidate. It has been isolated in highly purified form (>90%) from taro corms through low‐cost and single‐step affinity chromatography. It comprises 2‐domain 27 to 28 kDa protomer, posttranslational cleaved into 2 nonidentical monomers, 11.9 and 12.6 kDa, held by noncovalent binding. At least 10 tarin isoforms sharing over 70% similarity have been described. The monomers assume the β‐prism II fold, consisting of 3 antiparallel β‐sheets formed by 4 β‐strands each. Tarin exhibits an expanded‐binding site for complex and high‐mannose N‐glycan chains 49, 212, 213, 358, 465, and 477 found on cell surface antigens of viruses, insects, cancer, and hematopoietic cells, explaining its broad biological activities. Tarin may stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses, enabling hosts to recover from infections or immunosuppressed status inherent to several pathological conditions. In a murine model, tarin stimulates the in vitro and in vivo proliferation of total spleen and bone marrow cells, especially B lymphocytes. Granulocyte repopulation has also been demonstrated in long‐term mice bone marrow cell cultures. As a potential immunomodulator, tarin, administered to immunosuppressed mice, attenuated cyclophosphamide‐induced leukopenia. We propose a molecular model that unites the potential prophylactic and therapeutic action of tarin on hematopoietic and cancer cells, as a potential immunomodulator.

  • Glycyrrhetic Acid 3‐O‐Mono‐β‐d‐glucuronide (GAMG): An Innovative High‐Potency Sweetener with Improved Biological Activities
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
    Lichun Guo; Wendy Katiyo; Liushen Lu; Xuan Zhang; Mingming Wang; Jiai Yan; Xiaoyun Ma; Ruijin Yang; Long Zou; Wei Zhao

    Glycyrrhetic acid 3‐O‐mono‐β‐d‐glucuronide (GAMG) is an important derivative of glycyrrhizin (GL) and has attracted considerable attention, especially in the food and pharmaceutical industries, due to its natural high sweetness and strong biological activities. The biotransformation process is becoming an efficient route for GAMG production with the advantages of mild reaction conditions, environmentally friendly process, and high production efficiency. Recent studies showed that several β‐glucuronidases (β‐GUS) are key GAMG‐producing enzymes, displaying a high potential to convert GL directly into the more valuable GAMG and providing new insights into the generation of high‐value compounds. This review provides details of the structural properties, health benefits, and potential applications of GAMG. The progress in the development of the biotransformation processes and fermentation strategies to improve the yield of GAMG is also discussed. This work further summarizes recent advances in the enzymatic synthesis of GAMG using β‐GUS with emphasis on the physicochemical and biological properties, molecular modifications, and enzymatic strategies to improve β‐GUS biocatalytic efficiencies. This information contributes to a better framework to explore production and application of bioactive GAMG.

  • Relating Food Engineering to Cooking and Gastronomy
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
    José Miguel Aguilera

    Modern consumers are increasingly eating meals away from home and are concerned about food quality, taste, and health aspects. Food engineering (FE) has traditionally been associated with the industrial processing of foods; however, most underlying phenomena related to FE also take place in the kitchen during meal preparation. Although chemists have positively interacted with acclaimed chefs and physicists have used foods as materials to demonstrate some of their theories, this has not been always the case with food engineers. This review addresses areas that may broaden the vision of FE by interfacing with cooking and gastronomy. Examples are presented where food materials science may shed light on otherwise empirical gastronomic formulations and cooking techniques. A review of contributions in modeling of food processing reveals that they can also be adapted to events going on in pots and ovens, and that results can be made available in simple terms to cooks. Industrial technologies, traditional and emerging, may be adapted to expand the collection of culinary transformations, while novel equipment, digital technologies, and laboratory instruments are equipping the 21st‐century kitchens. FE should become a part of food innovation and entrepreneurship now being led by chefs. Finally, it is suggested that food engineers become integrated into gastronomy's concerns about safety, sustainability, nutrition, and a better food use.

  • Impact of Preharvest Sprouting on Endogenous Hydrolases and Technological Quality of Wheat and Bread: A Review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-04-16
    Heleen Olaerts; Christophe M. Courtin

    The cereal‐based food industry faces the challenge to produce food of high and uniform quality to meet consumer demands. However, adverse weather conditions, including prolonged and repeated rainfall, before harvest time evoke germination of the kernels in the ear of the parent plant, which is known as preharvest sprouting (PHS). PHS results in the production of several hydrolytic enzymes in the kernel, which decreases the technological quality of wheat and causes problems during processing of the flour into cereal‐based products. Therefore, wheat that is severely sprouted in the field is less suitable for products for human consumption, and is often discounted to animal feed. Up till now, most knowledge on PHS is obtained by research on laboratory‐sprouted wheat as a proxy for field‐sprouted wheat. Knowledge on PHS in the field itself is more scarce. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the recent findings on PHS of wheat in the field, compared to knowledge on controlled sprouting. The physiological and functional changes occurring in wheat during PHS and their impact on wheat and bread quality are discussed. This review provides a useful background for further research concerning the potential of field‐sprouted wheat to be used as raw material in the food industry.

  • Systematic Review of Methods to Determine the Cost‐Effectiveness of Monitoring Plans for Chemical and Biological Hazards in the Life Sciences
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-04-16
    M. (Marlous) Focker; H.J. (Ine) van der Fels‐Klerx; A.G.J.M (Alfons) Oude Lansink

    This study reviews the methods used to determine the cost‐effectiveness of monitoring plans for hazards in animals (diseases), plants (pests), soil, water, food, and animal feed, and assesses their applicability to food safety hazards. The review describes the strengths and weaknesses of each method, provides examples of different applications, and concludes with comments about their applicability to food safety. A systematic literature search identified publications assessing the cost‐effectiveness of monitoring plans in the life sciences. Publications were classified into 4 groups depending on their subject: food safety, environmental hazards, animal diseases, or pests. Publications were reviewed according to the type of model and input data used, and the types of costs included. Three types of models were used: statistical models, simulation models, and optimization models. Input data were either experimental, historical, or simulated data. Publications differed according to the costs included. More than half the publications only included monitoring costs, whereas other publications included monitoring and management costs, or all costs and benefits. Only a few publications were found in the food safety category and all were relatively recent studies. This suggests that cost‐effectiveness analysis of monitoring strategies in food safety is just starting and more research is needed to improve the cost‐effectiveness of monitoring hazards in foods.

  • Polymers and Biopolymers with Antiviral Activity: Potential Applications for Improving Food Safety
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-04-16
    Walter Randazzo; María José Fabra; Irene Falcó; Amparo López‐Rubio; Gloria Sánchez

    Gastroenteritis and hepatitis, caused by human noroviruses (HuNoVs) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), respectively, are the most common illnesses resulting from the consumption of food contaminated with human enteric viruses. Food‐grade polymers can be tailor designed to improve food safety, either as novel food‐packaging materials imparting active antimicrobial properties, applied in food contact surfaces to avoid cross‐contamination, or as edible coatings to increase fresh produce's shelf life. The incorporation of antimicrobial agents into food‐grade polymers can be used to control the food microbiota and even target specific foodborne pathogens to improve microbiological food safety and to enhance food quality. Enteric viruses are responsible for one fifth of acute gastroenteritis cases worldwide and the development of food‐grade polymers and biopolymers with antiviral activity for food applications is a topic of increased interest, both for academia and the food industry, even though developments are still limited. This review compiles existing studies in this widely unexplored area and highlights the potential of these developments to improve viral food safety.

  • Continuous Versus Discontinuous Ultra‐High‐Pressure Systems for Food Sterilization with Focus on Ultra‐High‐Pressure Homogenization and High‐Pressure Thermal Sterilization: A Review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-04-16
    Robert Sevenich; Alexander Mathys

    High‐pressure thermal sterilization (HPTS) and ultra‐high‐pressure homogenization (UHPH) are two emerging sterilization techniques that have not been implemented in the food industry yet. The two technologies apply different acting principles as HPTS uses isostatic pressure in combination with heat whereas UHPH uses dynamic pressure in combination with shear stress, cavitation, impingement, and heat. Both technologies offer significant benefits in terms of spore inactivation in food production with reduced thermal intensity and minimized effects on sensory and nutritional profiles. These benefits have resulted in relevant research efforts on both technologies over the past few decades. This state of the art of the discontinuous HPTS‐based and the continuous UHPH‐based sterilization concepts are assessed within this review. Further, various basic principles and promising future preservation applications of HPTS and UHPH for food processing, that are also applicable in the pharmaceutical, biochemical, and biotechnological sectors, are summarized. In addition, the applications and limitations of these technologies in terms of optimizations needed to overcome the identified challenges are emphasized.

  • Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of (‐)‐Epigallocatechin‐3‐gallate (EGCG) and its Potential to Preserve the Quality and Safety of Foods
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-04-16
    Mehdi Nikoo; Joe M. Regenstein; Hassan Ahmadi Gavlighi

    Quality deterioration of fresh or processed foods is a major challenge for the food industry not only due to economic losses but also due to the risks associated with spoiled foods resulting, for example, from toxic compounds. On the other hand, there are increasing limitations on the application of synthetic preservatives such as antioxidants in foods because of their potential links to human health risks. With the new concept of functional ingredients and the development of the functional foods market, and the desire for a “clean” label, recent research has focused on finding safe additives with multifunctional effects to ensure food safety and quality. (‐)‐Epigallocatechin‐3‐gallate (EGCG), a biologically active compound in green tea, has received considerable attention in recent years and is considered a potential alternative to synthetic food additives. EGCG has been shown to prevent the growth of different Gram‐positive and Gram‐negative bacteria responsible for food spoilage while showing antioxidant activity in food systems. This review focuses on recent findings related to EGCG separation techniques, modification of its structure, mechanisms of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and applications in preserving the quality and safety of foods.

  • Interpolymeric Complexes Formed Between Whey Proteins and Biopolymers: Delivery Systems of Bioactive Ingredients
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-04-18
    Monique Barreto Santos; Naiara Rocha da Costa; Edwin Elard Garcia‐Rojas

    Whey proteins are obtained from dairy industry waste. Studies involving the analysis of the bioactive compounds in whey show health benefits, as it is an excellent source of indispensable amino acids. Milk whey contains principally β‐lactoglobulin, α‐lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin, and lactoferrin, proteins with innumerable functional and technological properties. One application of these proteins in food is the formation of interpolymer complexes, along with other proteins or anionic polysaccharides. The formation of complexes occurs mainly through electrostatic interactions between a negatively charged biopolymer and a positively charged biopolymer. This formation is influenced by factors such as pH, ionic strength, and biopolymer ratio. Because they do not use high temperatures and chemical reagents and have additional nutritional and functional value, these complexes have been used as encapsulating agents for bioactive ingredients. Recent studies on their training and applications are addressed in this review to boost new research and applications in the food industry, thus increasing opportunities for utilizing whey proteins.

  • Trends in Chemometrics: Food Authentication, Microbiology, and Effects of Processing
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-03-30
    Daniel Granato; Predrag Putnik; Danijela Bursać Kovačević; Jânio Sousa Santos; Verônica Calado; Ramon Silva Rocha; Adriano Gomes Da Cruz; Basil Jarvis; Oxana Ye Rodionova; Alexey Pomerantsev

    In the last decade, the use of multivariate statistical techniques developed for analytical chemistry has been adopted widely in food science and technology. Usually, chemometrics is applied when there is a large and complex dataset, in terms of sample numbers, types, and responses. The results are used for authentication of geographical origin, farming systems, or even to trace adulteration of high value‐added commodities. In this article, we provide an extensive practical and pragmatic overview on the use of the main chemometrics tools in food science studies, focusing on the effects of process variables on chemical composition and on the authentication of foods based on chemical markers. Pattern recognition methods, such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis, have been used to associate the level of bioactive components with in vitro functional properties, although supervised multivariate statistical methods have been used for authentication purposes. Overall, chemometrics is a useful aid when extensive, multiple, and complex real‐life problems need to be addressed in a multifactorial and holistic context. Undoubtedly, chemometrics should be used by governmental bodies and industries that need to monitor the quality of foods, raw materials, and processes when high‐dimensional data are available. We have focused on practical examples and listed the pros and cons of the most used chemometric tools to help the user choose the most appropriate statistical approach for analysis of complex and multivariate data.

  • Edible Films and Coatings as Carriers of Living Microorganisms: A New Strategy Towards Biopreservation and Healthier Foods
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-03-30
    Ana Guimarães; Luís Abrunhosa; Lorenzo M. Pastrana; Miguel A. Cerqueira

    Edible films and coatings have been extensively studied in recent years due to their unique properties and advantages over more traditional conservation techniques. Edible films and coatings improve shelf life and food quality, by providing a protective barrier against physical and mechanical damage, and by creating a controlled atmosphere and acting as a semipermeable barrier for gases, vapor, and water. Edible films and coatings are produced using naturally derived materials, such as polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids, or a mixture of these materials. These films and coatings also offer the possibility of incorporating different functional ingredients such as nutraceuticals, antioxidants, antimicrobials, flavoring, and coloring agents. Films and coatings are also able to incorporate living microorganisms. In the last decade, several works reported the incorporation of bacteria to confer probiotic or antimicrobial properties to these films and coatings. The incorporation of probiotic bacteria in films and coatings allows them to reach the consumers’ gut in adequate amounts to confer health benefits to the host, thus creating an added value to the food product. Also, other microorganisms, either bacteria or yeast, can be incorporated into edible films in a biocontrol approach to extend the shelf life of food products. The incorporation of yeasts in films and coatings has been suggested primarily for the control of the postharvest disease. This work provides a comprehensive review of the use of edible films and coatings for the incorporation of living microorganisms, aiming at the biopreservation and probiotic ability of food products.

  • Fruit and Vegetable Waste: Bioactive Compounds, Their Extraction, and Possible Utilization
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-03-25
    Narashans Alok Sagar; Sunil Pareek; Sunil Sharma; Elhadi M. Yahia; Maria Gloria Lobo

    Fruits and vegetables are the most utilized commodities among all horticultural crops. They are consumed raw, minimally processed, as well as processed, due to their nutrients and health‐promoting compounds. With the growing population and changing diet habits, the production and processing of horticultural crops, especially fruits and vegetables, have increased very significantly to fulfill the increasing demands. Significant losses and waste in the fresh and processing industries are becoming a serious nutritional, economical, and environmental problem. For example, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has estimated that losses and waste in fruits and vegetables are the highest among all types of foods, and may reach up to 60%. The processing operations of fruits and vegetables produce significant wastes of by‐products, which constitute about 25% to 30% of a whole commodity group. The waste is composed mainly of seed, skin, rind, and pomace, containing good sources of potentially valuable bioactive compounds, such as carotenoids, polyphenols, dietary fibers, vitamins, enzymes, and oils, among others. These phytochemicals can be utilized in different industries including the food industry, for the development of functional or enriched foods, the health industry for medicines and pharmaceuticals, and the textile industry, among others. The use of waste for the production of various crucial bioactive components is an important step toward sustainable development. This review describes the types and nature of the waste that originates from fruits and vegetables, the bioactive components in the waste, their extraction techniques, and the potential utilization of the obtained bioactive compounds.

  • Bioavailability of Quercetin in Humans with a Focus on Interindividual Variation
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-03-25
    A. Filipa Almeida; Grethe Iren A. Borge; Mariusz Piskula; Adriana Tudose; Liliana Tudoreanu; Kateřina Valentová; Gary Williamson; Cláudia N. Santos

    After consumption of plant‐derived foods or beverages, dietary polyphenols such as quercetin are absorbed in the small intestine and metabolized by the body, or they are subject to catabolism by the gut microbiota followed by absorption of the resulting products by the colon. The resulting compounds are bioavailable, circulate in the blood as conjugates with glucuronide, methyl, or sulfate groups attached, and they are eventually excreted in the urine. In this review, the various conjugates from different intervention studies are summarized and discussed. In addition, the substantial variation between different individuals in the measured quercetin bioavailability parameters is assessed in detail by examining published human intervention studies where sources of quercetin have been consumed in the form of food, beverages, or supplements. It is apparent that most reported studies have examined quercetin and/or metabolites in urine and plasma from a relatively small number of volunteers. Despite this limitation, it is evident that there is less interindividual variation in metabolites which are derived from absorption in the small intestine compared to catabolites derived from the action of microbiota in the colon. There is also some evidence that a high absorber of intact quercetin conjugates could be a low absorber of microbiota‐catalyzed phenolics, and vice versa. From the studies reported so far, the reasons or causes of the interindividual differences are not clear, but, based on the known metabolic pathways, it is predicted that dietary history, genetic polymorphisms, and variations in gut microbiota metabolism would play significant roles. In conclusion, quercetin bioavailability is subject to substantial variation between individuals, and further work is required to establish if this contributes to interindividual differences in biological responses.

  • Synthesis of Galactooligosaccharides in Milk and Whey: A Review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-03-14
    Christin Fischer; Thomas Kleinschmidt

    Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are synthesized by the enzyme β‐galactosidase during the hydrolysis of lactose. In this so‐called transgalactosylation reaction the galactosyl moiety is transferred to another sugar molecule instead of water resulting in oligosaccharides of different chain lengths and glycosidic linkages. Because their structures are similar to oligosaccharides present in human breast milk, they act as prebiotics, which has been shown for infants and adults to be alike. While so far most of the research to maximize GOS yield has been carried out using buffered lactose solution as a starting material, more and more work is now conducted with dairy by‐products such as whey and whey permeate, or even milk, for direct GOS synthesis in order to develop new GOS‐enriched dairy products. This review aims to summarize the results obtained with various dairy liquids, and it rates their suitabilities to act as raw material for GOS production. Most of the studies using whey or milk have been carried out with enzymes from Aspergillus oryzae, Kluyveromyces lactis, Bacillus circulans, Streptococcus thermophilus, and several Lactobacillus species. As the initial lactose concentration (ILC) is known to be a crucial factor for high GOS yield, most of the research has been done with concentrated or supplemented milk and whey. However, a clear dependency on ILC could only be observed for the A. oryzae lactase, indicating a strong influence of milk components like minerals and proteins on the transfer activities of most enzymes.

  • The Fate of Mycotoxins During the Processing of Wheat for Human Consumption
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-03-14
    Sara Schaarschmidt; Carsten Fauhl‐Hassek

    Mycotoxins are a potential health threat in cereals including wheat. In the European Union (EU), mycotoxin maximum levels are laid down for cereal raw materials and final food products. For wheat and wheat‐based products, the EU maximum levels apply to deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone, aflatoxins, and ochratoxin A. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the different mycotoxins and their legal limits and on how processing of wheat can affect such contaminants, from raw material to highly processed final products, based on relevant scientific studies published in the literature. The potential compliance with EU maximum levels is discussed. Of the four mycotoxins regulated in wheat‐based foods in the EU, most data are available for DON, whereas aflatoxins were rarely studied in the processing of wheat. Furthermore, available data on the effect of processing are outlined for mycotoxins not regulated by EU law—including modified and emerging mycotoxins—and which cover DON derivatives (DON‐3‐glucoside, mono‐acetyl‐DONs, norDONs, deepoxy‐DON), nivalenol, T‐2 and HT‐2 toxins, enniatins, beauvericin, moniliformin, and fumonisins. The processing steps addressed in this review cover primary processing (premilling and milling operations) and secondary processing procedures (such as fermentation and thermal treatments). A special focus is on the production of baked goods, and processing factors for DON in wheat bread production were estimated. For wheat milling products derived from the endosperm and for white bread, compliance with legal requirements seems to be mostly achievable when applying good practices. In the case of wholemeal products, bran‐enriched products, or high‐cereal low‐moisture bakery products, this appears to be challenging and improved technology and/or selection of high‐quality raw materials would be required.

  • Exposure, Occurrence, and Chemistry of Fumonisins and their Cryptic Derivatives
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-03-14
    Markus Santhosh Braun; Michael Wink

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins mainly produced by Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium verticillioides. Because of their wide distribution, the potential health hazard, and economic significance, they are considered one of the most important mycotoxin classes. Epidemiological evidence suggests a relationship between the Fusarium load in corn, exposure to fumonisins, and esophageal cancer. However, mechanisms of actions of fumonisins are not yet fully resolved and epidemiological studies suffer from various confounding factors. Correspondingly, the most relevant congener of the fumonisin family (fumonisin B1) has been classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans and maximum limits have been set for corn and corn‐based products. However, many non‐corn‐based products are also susceptible to fumonisin contamination. Indeed, some of them contain very high amounts of fumonisins, but enter the market legally. Furthermore, fumonisin exposure of consumers is probably consistently being underestimated because only a fraction of fumonisins can be detected by routine analysis. The bioavailability and toxicity of most nondetectable (cryptic) forms has not been resolved. In this work, we review the developments of cancer research into fumonisins since their discovery in 1988 until today and provide an overview of the contributions of various foodstuffs to fumonisin exposure, including those products that have been largely neglected in the past. In conclusion, (1) corn remains the principal source of fumonisin ingestion, but fumonisins in non‐corn‐based commodities require continuous monitoring; (2) cryptic fumonisins should be included in risk assessment studies; and (3) certain population groups (for example children) may suffer from enhanced exposure and could face increased health risks.

  • Application of High Pressure with Homogenization, Temperature, Carbon Dioxide, and Cold Plasma for the Inactivation of Bacterial Spores: A Review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-03-13
    Rita P. Lopes; Maria J. Mota; Ana M. Gomes; Ivonne Delgadillo; Jorge A. Saraiva

    Formation of highly resistant spores is a concern for the safety of low‐acid foods as they are a perfect vehicle for food spoilage and/or human infection. For spore inactivation, the strategy usually applied in the food industry is the intensification of traditional preservation methods to sterilization levels, which is often accompanied by decreases of nutritional and sensory properties. In order to overcome these unwanted side effects in food products, novel and emerging sterilization technologies are being developed, such as pressure‐assisted thermal sterilization, high‐pressure carbon dioxide, high‐pressure homogenization, and cold plasma. In this review, the application of these emergent technologies is discussed, in order to understand the effects on bacterial spores and their inactivation and thus ensure food safety of low‐acid foods. In general, the application of these novel technologies for inactivating spores is showing promising results. However, it is important to note that each technique has specific features that can be more suitable for a particular type of product. Thus, the most appropriate sterilization method for each product (and target microorganisms) should be assessed and carefully selected.

  • Integration of Emerging Biomedical Technologies in Meat Processing to Improve Meat Safety and Quality
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-02-24
    Joshua T. Ravensdale; Ranil Coorey; Gary A. Dykes

    Modern‐day processing of meat products involves a series of complex procedures designed to ensure the quality and safety of the meat for consumers. As the size of abattoirs increases, the logistical problems associated with large‐capacity animal processing can affect the sanitation of the facility and the meat products, potentially increasing transmission of infectious diseases. Additionally, spoilage of food from improper processing and storage increases the global economic and ecological burden of meat production. Advances in biomedical and materials science have allowed for the development of innovative new antibacterial technologies that have broad applications in the medical industry. Additionally, new approaches in tissue engineering and nondestructive cooling of biological specimens could significantly improve organ transplantation and tissue grafting. These same strategies may be even more effective in the preservation and protection of meat as animal carcasses are easier to manipulate and do not have the same stringent requirements of care as living patients. This review presents potential applications of emerging biomedical technologies in the food industry to improve meat safety and quality. Future research directions investigating these new technologies and their usefulness in the meat processing chain along with regulatory, logistical, and consumer perception issues will also be discussed.

  • Proteolysis and Its Control Using Protease Inhibitors in Fish and Fish Products: A Review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Avtar Singh, Soottawat Benjakul

    Abstract Texture is one of the food quality attributes affecting the consumer's acceptability and the market value. Fish and shellfish undergo weakening or softening of muscle, particularly during extended storage under inappropriate conditions. The phenomenon is governed by endogenous proteases, both digestive and muscle proteases. Proteases present in the gastrointestinal tract that leach out to muscle tissue can induce proteolysis of myofibrillar and collagenous proteins. Furthermore, the muscle proteins present in gels fabricated from fish or shellfish meat also encounter degradation during thermal processing. Endogenous heat-activated proteases strongly bind to muscle proteins and are activated during heating, thereby degrading myofibrillar proteins, which are abundant in muscle tissue. This deterioration of the proteins directly leads to a weakened gel with poor water-holding capacity. Both cysteine and serine proteases are responsible for the degradation of myofibrillar proteins in several aquatic animals. Effective pretreatment of fish and shellfish, as well as the use of food-grade protease inhibitors (PIs), have been implemented to inactivate endogenous muscle and digestive proteases. For this review, proteolysis of muscle proteins and its control by food-grade PIs are revisited. Improved and effective lowering of proteolysis should be gained, thereby maintaining the quality of fish and their products.

  • Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Chemical-Induced Liver Injuries
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-02-07
    Xiao Meng, Ya Li, Sha Li, Ren-You Gan, Hua-Bin Li

    Abstract Chemicals (such as alcohol, drugs, and pollutants) may cause liver injuries, which could consequently develop into fatty liver, hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver failure, or even cancers. Liver injuries have been a serious public health problem worldwide. Numerous natural products and their bioactive components have shown protective action for liver injuries, such as blueberry, cactus fruits, Pueraria lobate, betaine, and silymarin. The underlying mechanisms mainly include antioxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, anti-necrosis, repairing damaged DNA, regulating the metabolism of lipids, and modulating primary bile acid biosynthesis. This review summarizes the natural products and bioactive compounds with protective effects on liver injuries caused by chemicals, and special attention is paid to the mechanisms of action. This updated information can be helpful to prevent and treat liver-related diseases, especially chemical-induced liver injuries.

  • The Impact of Nonthermal Technologies on the Microbiological Quality of Juices: A Review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-02-01
    Ume Roobab, Rana Muhammad Aadil, Ghulam Muhammad Madni, Alaa El-Din Bekhit

    Abstract Fruit and vegetable juices are rich sources of nutrients that support microbiological growth and ultimately undergo rapid deterioration of safety and quality. The loss of nutritional quality of juices due to intensive thermal processing is a major problem encountered during the treatment of commercially preserved liquid foods. Conventional thermal processing technologies inactivate microorganisms and enzymes and extend the shelf life of foods but exert negative effects on nutritional and organoleptic properties of juices, for example, a loss of vitamins, of a desirable flavor, and of bioactive compounds and development of different sensory profiles as a result of heating. Nonthermal technologies including ultrasonication, a pulsed electric field, high-pressure processing, irradiation, and their combinations are suitable alternatives for achieving the same preservation effect without the adverse effects of heat on the quality of juices and meet consumer demand for clean-label, safe, and wholesome products without compromising their nutritional properties.

  • Detection of Volatile Compounds of Cheese and Their Contribution to the Flavor Profile of Surface-Ripened Cheese
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-01-27
    Andrea S. Bertuzzi, Paul L.H. McSweeney, Mary C. Rea, Kieran N. Kilcawley

    Abstract The volatiles responsible for the typical aroma of cheese are produced mainly by lipolytic and proteolytic pathways and by the metabolism of lactose, lactate, and citrate. The volatile profile of cheese is determined by gas chromatography (GC), which includes the extraction, separation, and detection of volatiles. A wide range of extraction techniques is available, and technological improvements have been developed in GC separation and detection that enhance our understanding of the role of individual key volatiles to cheese flavor. To date, for surface-ripened cheese, the main volatiles detected that contribute to flavor include acids, ketones, alcohols, and sulfur compounds. However, based on the limited number of studies undertaken and the approaches used, it appears that a significant degree of bias possibly exists that may have over- or underestimated the impact of specific chemical classes involved in the flavor of these types of cheese.

  • Lotus Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids: Health Promotion and Safe Consumption Dosages
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-01-23
    Jarukitt Limwachiranon, Hao Huang, Zhenghan Shi, Li Li, Zisheng Luo

    Abstract Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., also known as the sacred lotus, is extensively cultivated in Southeast Asia, primarily for food and as an herbal medicine. This article reviews studies published between 1995 and 2017, on flavonoid and phenolic acid profiles and contents of 154 different cultivars of lotus. So far, some 12 phenolic acids and 89 to 90 flavonoids (47 flavonols, 25 to 26 flavons, 8 flavan-3-ols, 4 flavanons, and 5 anthocyanins) have been isolated from different parts of the lotus plant, including its leaves (whole leaf, leaf pulp, leaf vein, and leaf stalk), seeds (seedpod, epicarp, coat, kernel, and embryo), and flowers (stamen, petal, pistil, and stalk), although not all of them have been quantified. Factors affecting flavonoids and phenolic acid profiles, including types of tissues and extracting factors, are discussed in this review, in order to maximize the application of the lotus and its polyphenols in the food industry. Health promotion activities, attributed to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic acids, are described along with toxicology studies, illustrating appropriate usage and safe consumption dosages of lotus extracts. This review also presents the controversies and discusses the research gaps that limit our ability to obtain a thorough understanding of the bioactivities of lotus extracts.

  • Biotechnological Applications of Proteases in Food Technology
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Olga Luisa Tavano, Angel Berenguer-Murcia, Francesco Secundo, Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente

    Abstract This review presents some of the hottest topics in biotechnological applications: proteases in biocatalysis. Obviously, one of the most relevant areas of application is in the hydrolysis of proteins in food technology, and that has led to a massive use on proteomics. The aim is to identify via peptide maps the different proteins obtained after a specific protease hydrolysis. However, concepts like degradomics are also taking on a more relevant importance in the use and study of proteases and will also be discussed. Other protease applications, as seem in cleaning (detergent development), the pharmaceutical industry, and in fine chemistry, will be analyzed. This review progresses from basic areas such as protease classification to a discussion of the preparation of protease-immobilized biocatalysts, considering the different problems raised by the use of immobilized proteases due to the peculiar features of the substrates, usually large macromolecules. Production of bioactive peptides via limited hydrolysis of proteins will occupy an important place in this review.

  • Fresh-Cut Onion: A Review on Processing, Health Benefits, and Shelf-Life
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Maryam Bahram-Parvar, Loong-Tak Lim

    Abstract The ready-to-eat produce market has grown rapidly because of the health benefits and convenience associated with these products. Onion is widely used as an ingredient in an extensive range of recipes from breakfast to dinner and in nearly every ethnic cuisine. However, cutting/chopping of onion is a nuisance to many consumers due to the lachrymatory properties of the volatiles generated that bring tears to eyes and leave a distinct odor on hands. As a result, there is now an increasing demand for fresh-cut, value-added, and ready-to-eat onion in households, as well as large-scale uses in retail, food service, and various food industries, mainly due to the end-use convenience. Despite these benefits, fresh-cut onion products present considerable challenges due to tissue damage, resulting in chemical and physiological reactions that limit product shelf-life. Intensive discoloration, microbial growth, softening, and off-odor are the typical deteriorations that need to be controlled through the application of suitable preservation methods. This article reviews the literature related to the fresh-cut onion, focusing on its constituents, nutritional and health benefits, production methods, quality changes throughout storage, and technologies available to increase product shelf-life.

  • Emerging Spectroscopic and Spectral Imaging Techniques for the Rapid Detection of Microorganisms: An Overview
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Kaiqiang Wang, Hongbin Pu, Da-Wen Sun

    Abstract Microorganism contamination and foodborne disease outbreaks are of public concern worldwide. As such, the food industry requires rapid and nondestructive methods to detect microorganisms and to control food quality. However, conventional methods such as culture and colony counting, polymerase chain reaction, and immunoassay approaches are laborious, time-consuming and require trained personnel. Therefore, the emergence of rapid analytical methods is essential. This review introduces 6 spectroscopic and spectral imaging techniques that apply infrared spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, hyperspectral imaging, and multispectral imaging for microorganism detection. Recent advances of these technologies from 2011 to 2017 are outlined. Challenges in the application of these technologies for microorganism detection in food matrices are addressed. These emerging spectroscopic and spectral imaging techniques have the potential to provide rapid and nondestructive detection of microorganisms. They should also provide complementary information to enhance the performance of conventional methods to prevent disease outbreaks and food safety problems.

  • New Trends in the Microencapsulation of Functional Fatty Acid-Rich Oils Using Transglutaminase Catalyzed Crosslinking
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Seyed Mohammad Taghi Gharibzahedi, Saji George, Ralf Greiner, Berta N. Estevinho, María José Frutos Fernández, David Julian McClements, Shahin Roohinejad

    Abstract Preparing stable protein-based microcapsules containing functional fatty acids and oils for food applications has been a big challenge. However, recent advances with transglutaminase (TGase) enzyme as an effective protein cross-linker could provide workable solutions for the encapsulation of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids without compromising their targeted release and their biological and physicochemical characteristics. The recent and available literature related to the microencapsulation techniques, physical and oxidative properties, and core retention and release mechanisms of TGase-crosslinked microcapsules entrapping edible oils were reviewed. The effects of factors involved in microencapsulation processes, on the efficiency and quality of the produced innovative microcapsules were also discussed and highlighted. A brief focus has been finally addressed to new insights and additional knowledge on micro- and nanoencapsulation of lipophilic food-grade ingredients by TGase-induced gelation. Two dominant microencapsulation methods for fish, vegetable, and essential oils by TGase-crosslinking are complex coacervation and emulsion-based spray drying. The developed spherical particles (<100 μm) with some wrinkles and smooth surfaces showed an excellent encapsulation efficiency and yield. A negligible release rate and a substantial retention level can result for different lipid-based cores covered by TGase-crosslinked proteins during the oral digestion and storage. A significant structural, thermal and oxidative stability for edible oils-loaded microcapsules in the presence of TGase can be also obtained.

  • The Hydration of Grains: A Critical Review from Description of Phenomena to Process Improvements
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Alberto Claudio Miano, Pedro Esteves Duarte Augusto

    Abstract Hydration is a crucial step during grain processing. It is performed prior to many other processes, such as germination, cooking, extraction, malting and fermentation. The number of publications on this topic studying the description of the mechanisms involved and recent technologies for processing enhancement has increased recently. However, due to the complexity of the hydration process, there are still many aspects that are little understood. For that reason, this review provides not only an overview of recent developments in this field, but also a critical discussion of publications from the last 2 decades, as well as suggestions for future innovative studies. This review discusses the importance of hydration in the grain industries, the pathway for water entry into the various grains, the mass transfer and fluid flow mechanisms in the process, the behavior of the hydration kinetics, the mathematical modelling, the technologies used to accelerate the process and other necessary requirements that must be performed to complement and complete our knowledge of this process.

  • Traditionally Processed Beverages in Africa: A Review of the Mycotoxin Occurrence Patterns and Exposure Assessment
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Chibundu N. Ezekiel, Kolawole I. Ayeni, Jane M. Misihairabgwi, Yinka M. Somorin, Ihuoma E. Chibuzor-Onyema, Oluwawapelumi A. Oyedele, Wilfred A. Abia, Michael Sulyok, Gordon S. Shephard, Rudolf Krska

    Abstract African traditional beverages are widely consumed food-grade liquids processed from single or mixed grains (mostly cereals) by simple food processing techniques, of which fermentation tops the list. These beverages are very diverse in composition and nutritional value and are specific to different cultures and countries. The grains from which home-processed traditional beverages are made across Africa are often heavily contaminated with multiple mycotoxins due to poor agricultural, handling, and storage practices that characterize the region. In the literature, there are many reports on the spectrum and quantities of mycotoxins in crops utilized in traditional beverage processing, however, few studies have analyzed mycotoxins in the beverages themselves. The available reports on mycotoxins in African traditional beverages are mainly centered on the finished products with little information on the process chain (raw material to final product), fate of the different mycotoxins during processing, and exposure estimates for consumers. Regulations targeting these local beverages are not in place despite the heavy occurrence of mycotoxins in their raw materials and the high consumption levels of the products in many homes. This paper therefore comprehensively discusses for the 1st time the available data on the wide variety of African traditional beverages, the mycotoxins that contaminate the beverages and their raw materials, exposure estimates, and possible consequent effects. Mycotoxin control options and future directions for mycotoxin research in beverage production are also highlighted.

  • Analysis of Isoflavones in Foods
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Myriam Bustamante-Rangel, María Milagros Delgado-Zamarreño, Lara Pérez-Martín, Encarnación Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Javier Domínguez-Álvarez

    Abstract In recent years the nutritional and bioactive properties of foods are being intensively investigated with a view to control, in addition to food quality, their possible influence on human health. Because of this, there is a growing demand for rapid, selective, sensitive, and validated methods for analysis and quantification. Bioactive plant compounds include those with weak estrogenic activity (phytoestrogens), among which are the isoflavones. Some of the beneficial activities that have been attributed to isoflavones are anticarcinogenic activity, the prevention of cardiovascular disease, the improvement of bone health, and antioxidant activity. The objective of this work is to provide an updated review of the methods used in sample preparation and subsequent analysis for the determination of isoflavones in food samples, including both soybean and soy products, as well as other foods with low isoflavone contents. The review focuses on the most common sample preparation techniques used during the last 10 years, including both conventional solvent extraction and other more recent extraction techniques. Separation and detection methods, including current trends in liquid chromatography analysis, such as the use of monolithic columns or ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography, are also discussed.

  • Domestic Cooking of Muscle Foods: Impact on Composition of Nutrients and Contaminants
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    M Madalena C Sobral, Sara C Cunha, Miguel A Faria, Isabel MPLVO Ferreira

    Abstract Meat and fish are muscle foods rich in valuable nutrients, such as high-quality proteins, vitamins, and minerals, and, in the case of fish, also unsaturated fatty acids. The escalation of meat and fish production has increased the occurrence of pesticide and antibiotic residues, as result of pest control on feed crops, and antibiotics used to fight infections in animals. Meat and fish are usually cooked to enrich taste, soften texture, increase safety, and improve nutrient digestibility. However, the impact of cooking on nutritional properties and formation of deleterious compounds must be understood. This review summarizes studies, published in the last decade, that have focused on how domestic cooking affects: (i) composition of nutrients (protein, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals); (ii) antibiotic and pesticide residue contents; and (iii) the formation of cooking-induced contaminants (heterocyclic aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and thermal degradation products of antibiotics and pesticides). Cooking affects the nutritional composition of meat and fish; frying is the cooking method that causes the greatest impact. Cooking may reduce the pesticide and antibiotic residues present in contaminated raw meat and fish; however, it may result in the formation of degradation products of unknown identity and toxicity. Control of cooking time and temperature, use of antioxidant-rich marinades, and avoiding the dripping of fat during charcoal grilling can reduce the formation of cooking-induced contaminants.

  • Multispectral Imaging for Plant Food Quality Analysis and Visualization
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 7.028) Pub Date : 2018-01-02
    Wen-Hao Su, Da-Wen Sun

    Abstract The multispectral imaging technique is considered a reformation of hyperspectral imaging. It can be employed to noninvasively and rapidly evaluate food quality. Even though several imaging or sensor-based techniques have been conducted for the quality assessment of various food products, the rise of multispectral imaging has been more promising. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the use of the multispectral sensor in the quality assessment of plant foods (such as cereals, legumes, tubers, fruits, and vegetables). Different quality parameters (such as physicochemical and microbiological aspects) of plant-based foods that were determined and visualized by the combination of modeling methods and feature wavelength selection approaches are summarized. Based on the literature, the most frequently used wavelength selection methods are the successive projection algorithm (SPA) and the regression coefficient (RC). The most effective models developed for analyzing plant food products are the partial least squares regression (PLSR), least square support vector machine (LS-SVM), support vector machine (SVM), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), and multiple linear regression (MLR). This article concludes with a discussion of challenges, potential uses, and future trends of this flourishing technique that is now also being applied to plant foods.

Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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