The impact of non-isothermal soil moisture transport on evaporation fluxes in a maize cropland J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-12 Wei Shao, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, Jasmeet Judge, Yijian Zeng, Ye Su
The process of evaporation interacts with the soil, which has various comprehensive mechanisms. Multiphase flow models solve air, vapour, water, and heat transport equations to simulate non-isothermal soil moisture transport of both liquid water and vapor flow, but are only applied in non-vegetated soils. For (sparsely) vegetated soils often energy balance models are used, however these lack the detailed information on non-isothermal soil moisture transport. In this study we coupled a multiphase flow model with a two-layer energy balance model to study the impact of non-isothermal soil moisture transport on evaporation fluxes (i.e., interception, transpiration, and soil evaporation) for vegetated soils. The proposed model was implemented at an experimental agricultural site in Florida, US, covering an entire maize-growing season (67 days). As the crops grew, transpiration and interception became gradually dominated, while the fraction of soil evaporation dropped from 100% to less than 20%. The mechanisms of soil evaporation vary depending on the soil moisture content. After precipitation the soil mosture content increased, exfiltration of the liquid water flow could transport sufficient water to sustain evaporation from soil, and the soil vapor transport was not significant. However, after a sufficient dry-down period, the soil moisture content significantly reduced, and the soil vapour flow significantly contributed to the upward moisture transport in topmost soil. A sensitivity analysis found that the simulations of moisture content and temperature at the soil surface varied substantially when including the advective (i.e., advection and mechanical dispersion) vapour transport in simulation, including the mechanism of advective vapour transport decreased soil evaporation rate under wet condition, while vice versa under dry condition. The results showed that the formulation of advective soil vapor transport in a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer continuum can affect the simulated evaporation fluxes, especially under dry condition.
Estimating retention potential of headwater catchment using Tritium time series J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-12 Harald Hofmann, Ian Cartwright, Uwe Morgenstern
Headwater catchments provide substantial streamflow to rivers even during long periods of drought. Documenting the mean transit times (MTT) of stream water in headwater catchments and therefore the retention capacities of these catchments is crucial for water management. This study uses time series of 3H activities in combination with major ion concentrations, stable isotope ratios and radon activities (222Rn) in the Lyrebird Creek catchment in Victoria, Australia to provide a unique insight into the mean transit time distributions and flow systems of this small temperate headwater catchment. At all streamflows, the stream has 3H activities (< < 2.4 TU) that are significantly below those of rainfall (∼ ∼ 3.2 TU), implying that most of the water in the stream is derived from stores with long transit times. If the water in the catchment can be represented by a single store with a continuum of ages, mean transit times of the stream water range from ∼ ∼ 6 up to 40 years, which indicates the large retention potential for this catchment. Alternatively, variations of 3H activities, stable isotopes and major ions can be explained by mixing between of young recent recharge and older water stored in the catchment. While surface runoff is negligible, the variation in stable isotope ratios, major ion concentrations and radon activities during most of the year is minimal (± ± 12%) and only occurs during major storm events. This suggests that different subsurface water stores are activated during the storm events and that these cease to provide water to the stream within a few days or weeks after storm events. The stores comprise micro and macropore flow in the soils and saprolite as well as the boundary between the saprolite and the fractured bed rock. Hydrograph separations from three major storm events using Tritium, electrical conductivity and selected major ions as well a δ18 δ 18 O suggest a minimum of 50% baseflow at most flow conditions. We demonstrate that headwater catchments can have a significant storage capacity and that the relationship between long-water stores and fast storm event subsurface flow is complex. The study also illustrates that using 3H to determine mean transit times is probably only valid for baseflow conditions where the catchment can be represented as a single store. The results of this study reinforce the need to protect headwater catchments from contamination and extreme land use changes.
Infiltration on sloping terrain and its role on runoff generation and slope stability J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-10 Hugo A. Loáiciga, J. Michael Johnson
A modified Green-and-Ampt model is formulated to quantify infiltration on sloping terrain underlain by homogeneous soil wetted by surficial water application. This paper’s theory for quantifying infiltration relies on the mathematical statement of the coupled partial differential equations (pdes) governing infiltration and runoff. These pdes are solved by employing an explicit finite-difference numerical method that yields the infiltration, the infiltration rate, the depth to the wetting front, the rate of runoff, and the depth of runoff everywhere on the slope during external wetting. Data inputs consist of a water application rate or the rainfall hyetograph of a storm of arbitrary duration, soil hydraulic characteristics and antecedent moisture, and the slope’s hydraulic and geometric characteristics. The presented theory predicts the effect an advancing wetting front has on slope stability with respect to translational sliding. This paper’s theory also develops the 1D pde governing suspended sediment transport and slope degradation caused by runoff influenced by infiltration. Three examples illustrate the application of the developed theory to calculate infiltration and runoff on a slope and their role on the stability of cohesive and cohesionless soils forming sloping terrain.
Perturbations in the Initial Soil Moisture Conditions: Impacts on Hydrologic Simulation in a Large River Basin J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-10 Sundar Niroula, Subhadeep Halder, Subimal Ghosh
Real time hydrologic forecasting requires near accurate initial condition of soil moisture; however, continuous monitoring of soil moisture is not operational in many regions, such as, in Ganga basin, extended in Nepal, India and Bangladesh. Here, we examine the impacts of perturbation/ error in the initial soil moisture conditions on simulated soil moisture and streamflow in Ganga basin and its propagation, during the summer monsoon season (June to September). This provides information regarding the required minimum duration of model simulation for attaining the model stability. We use the Variable Infiltration Capacity model for hydrological simulations after validation. Multiple hydrologic simulations are performed, each of 21 days, initialized on every 5th day of the monsoon season for deficit, surplus and normal monsoon years. Each of these simulations is performed with the initial soil moisture condition obtained from long term runs along with positive and negative perturbations. The time required for the convergence of initial errors is obtained for all the cases. We find a quick convergence for the year with high rainfall as well as for the wet spells within a season. We further find high spatial variations in the time required for convergence; the region with high precipitation such as Lower Ganga basin attains convergence at a faster rate. Furthermore, deeper soil layers need more time for convergence. Our analysis is the first attempt on understanding the sensitivity of hydrological simulations of Ganga basin on initial soil moisture conditions. The results obtained here may be useful in understanding the spin-up requirements for operational hydrologic forecasts.
Characteristics of Sediment Resuspension in Lake Taihu, China: A Wave Flume Study J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-10 Yanqing Ding, Limin Sun, Boqiang Qin, Tingfeng Wu, Xia Shen, Yongping Wang
Lake Taihu is a typical shallow lake which frequently happens sediment resuspension induced by wind-induced waves. The experiments are carried on to simulate the wave disturbance processes in wave flume by setting a series of wave periods (1.2s, 1.5s, 1.8s) and wave heights (2cm, 10cm). It aims to analyze the characteristics of sediment resuspension and the mechanisms of nutrients release and to evaluate the effects of sediment dredging on sediment resuspension and nutrients release in Lake Taihu. The results show that wave shear stress during 2 cm and 10 cm wave height processes ranges 0.018 - 0.023 N/m2 and 0.221 - 0.307 N/m2, respectively. Wave shear stress has no significant differences between wave periods. Wave height has much more effects on sediment resuspension. Wave height of 2cm could induce total suspended solids (TSS) reaching up to 5.21 g/m2 and resuspension flux (M) 1.74 g/m2. TSS sharply increases to 30.33 - 52.41 g/m2 and M reached up to 48.94 g/m2 when wave height reaches to 10 cm. The disturbance depth under different sediment bulk weights ranges from 0.091 to 0.161 mm. Variation of suspended solids in 3 layers (1cm, 5cm, 20cm above sediment interface) has no significant differences. Organic matter, TN and TP have positive relationship with SS. Organic matter is only accounted for 5.7% - 7.3% of SS. The experiments under different sediment bulk densities (1.34g/cm3, 1.47g/cm3 and 1.59g/cm3) find that TSS and M fall by 44.2% and 39.8% with sediment bulk density increasing, respectively. Total TN, DTN, TP and DTP decrease by 24.3% - 33.6%. It indicates that sediment dredging could effectively reduce SS concentration and nutrient levels in water column. The researches provide a theoretical basis for sediment dredging to control the shore zone of Lake Taihu for lake management.
Evaluation of SEBS, SEBAL, and METRIC models in estimation of the evaporation from the freshwater lakes (Case study: Amirkabir dam, Iran) J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-10 Saeideh Zamani Losgedaragh, Majid Rahimzadegan
Evapotranspiration (ET) estimation is of great importance due to its key role in water resource management. Surface energy modeling tools such as Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), Mapping Evapotranspiration with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), and the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) can estimate the amount of evapotranspiration for every pixel of the satellite images. The main objective of this research is evaporation investigation from the freshwater bodies using SEBAL, METRIC, and SEBS. For this purpose, the Amirkabir dam reservoir and its nearby agricultural lands in a semi-arid climate were selected and studied from 2011 to 2017 as the study area. The implementations of this study were accomplished on 16 satellite images of Landsat TM5 and OLI. Then, SEBAL, METRIC, and SEBS were implemented on the selected images. Moreover, the corresponding pan evaporate measurements on the reservoir bank were considered as the ground truth data. Regarding to the results, SEBAL is not a reliable method to evaluate freshwater evaporation with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.36 and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 5.1 mm. On the other hand, METRIC with RMSE and R2 of 0.57 and 2.02 mm and SEBS with RMSE and R2 of 0.93 and 0.62 demonstrated a relatively good performance.
Evaluating the complimentary relationship of evapotranspiration in an arid shrublands J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-09 Zhongbo Yu, Shiqin Xu, Xibin Ji, Edward A. Sudicky
Accurate estimates of evapotranspiration and its components are essential for quantifying the water and energy fluxes and water resources management in arid regions. To this end, daily actual evapotranspiration (ETa), pan evaporation, and concurrent microclimate from an arid shrublands were measured over two growing seasons (2014-2015) to determine water budgets and to test the validity of the complementary relationship (CR) at this temporal scale. The average ETa is 229.32 ±45.86 mm during two growing seasons, while canopy transpiration, soil evaporation, and interception accounted for 68.1 ±16.5%, 29.1 ±2.5% and 2.8 ±0.6%, respectively. Actual evapotranspiration and Penman potential evapotranspiration, or pan evaporation exhibit complementary behavior, where the complementary relationship is asymmetric. Daily ETa rates are significantly overestimated by the symmetric Advection-Aridity (AA) model. Employing the modified AA model, where parameters are calibrated locally and wet environment evapotranspiration is evaluated at wet environment air temperature as opposed to the measured air temperature, the prediction accuracy of ETa is dramatically improved. With calibrated parameters, the E601B sunken pan can satisfactorily describe the dynamics of daily ETa, while the D20 aboveground pan underestimates it to some extent. Moreover, the modified AA model is able to capture the dynamics of groundwater usage by vegetation during drying summer. These findings gain our new knowledge on the capability of CR theory to resolve special issue occurred in phreatophytic shrublands, and can also provide beneficial reference to water resource and eco-environment management in arid regions.
Remote sensing, hydrological modeling and in situ observations in snow cover research: a review J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-09 Chunyu Dong
Snow is an important component of the hydrological cycle. As a major part of the cryosphere, snow cover also represents a valuable terrestrial water resource. In the context of climate change, the dynamics of snow cover play a crucial role in rebalancing the global energy and water budgets. Remote sensing, hydrological modeling and in situ observations are three techniques frequently utilized for snowpack investigations. However, the uncertainties caused by systematic errors, scale gaps, and complicated snow physics, among other factors, limit the usability of these three approaches in snow studies. In this paper, an overview of the advantages, limitations and recent progress of the three methods is presented, and more effective ways to estimate snow cover properties are evaluated. The possibility of improving remotely sensed snow information using ground-based observations is discussed. As a rapidly growing source of volunteered geographic information (VGI), web-based geotagged photos have great potential to provide ground truth data for remotely sensed products and hydrological models and thus contribute to procedures for cloud removal, correction, validation, forcing and assimilation. Finally, this review proposes a synergistic framework for the future of snow cover research. This framework highlights the cross-scale integration of in situ and remotely sensed snow measurements and the assimilation of improved remote sensing data into hydrological models.
Forms of trace arsenic, cesium, cadmium, and lead transported into river water for the irrigation of Japanese paddy rice fields J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-07 Shinji Nakaya, Hai Chi, Kengo Muroda, Harue Masuda
In this study, we focus on the behavior of geogenic, toxic trace elements, particularly As, Cs, Cd, and Pb, during their transportation in two rivers for irrigation commonly used in monsoon Asia; one river originates from an active volcano, Mt. Asama, and the other originates from a currently inactive volcano, Yatsugatake Mountains in Nagano, Japan. These rivers were investigated to understand the role of river water as a pollutant of rice and other aquatic plants (via irrigation) and aquatic animals. The results indicated that the behavior of toxic trace elements in river water are likely controlled by their interactions with particulate Fe, Al, and Ti compounds. The majority of Pb and Cd is transported as particulate matter with Fe, Al, and Ti, while the majority of As is transported in the dissolved form, predominantly as arsenate, with low abundance of particulate matter. Cs is transported either as the dissolved form or as particulate matter in both rivers. The investigated elements are transported in the rivers as particulate and dissolved forms, and the ratio of these forms is controlled by the pH and presence of particulate Fe, Al, and Ti phases in the river water. With respect to Cs in both rivers, the parameter governing the concentration and transportation of Cs, in the bimodal form (i.e., particulate and dissolved forms), through the river possibly shifts from sorption to pH by particulate Fe–Al–Ti, according to the abrupt increase in the concentration of Cs in the river. The chemical attraction of particulate Fe–Al–Ti for Cs is weaker than that for Pb and Cd, indicating that the lower electronegativity of Cs weakens the chemical attraction on a colloid for the competitive sorption with the other trace elements. The different relationships between As and Fe in the river and in the irrigation water and soil water, as well as those in paddy rice, suggested that As in paddy rice is not directly derived from As in the irrigation water from the river under flooding.
The impact of urbanization on subsurface flow paths – a paired-catchment isotopic study J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-07 Jeremie Bonneau, Matthew J. Burns, Tim D. Fletcher, Roman Witt, Russell N. Drysdale, Justin F. Costelloe
Urbanization disturbs groundwater flow through the sealing of native soils with impervious surfaces and through modifications to the subsoil by constructed drainage and other infrastructure (trenches and excavations, e.g. water supply). The impact of these disturbances on groundwater contributions to urban streams (i.e. baseflow) is poorly understood. While high flows caused by impervious runoff to streams are a common focus of urban studies, the route taken by groundwater to become streamflow in urban landscapes is not generally considered. To assess the impact of urbanization on groundwater sources to streams, both rainfall and baseflow were sampled weekly for stable isotopes of water in two nearby streams—one draining a peri-urban catchment and the other draining a forested, natural catchment. In addition, to study the rate of groundwater discharge to the stream, monthly baseflow recession behavior was investigated. We found that baseflow in the forested catchment was constant in stable isotope values (δ18O = -5.73 ‰ ± 0.14 ‰) throughout the year. Monthly baseflow recession constants were close to 1 and had little variation (ranging 0.951-0.992), indicating a well-mixed groundwater store and long residence times. In contrast, the urban baseflow isotopic composition featured distinct seasonal variations (δ18O = -3.35 ‰ ± 1.20 ‰ from October to March and δ18O = -4.54 ‰ ± 0.43 ‰ from April to September) and high week-to-week variability in summer, reflecting a contribution of recent rainfall to baseflow. Recession constants were lower (ranging 0.727-0.955) with pronounced seasonal variations, suggesting shorter residence times and the likely presence of a variety of stores and pathways. These results provide evidence that the urban catchment has diversified groundwater pathways, and its groundwater storage is drained faster than that of the forested catchment. It highlights some of the subsurface hydrological consequences of urbanization. Restoring low-flow aspects of the flow regime through nature-mimicking stormwater management requires careful consideration of how the behavior of natural groundwater pathways can be restored or replicated using innovative stormwater control measures.
Performance of the air2stream model that relates air and stream water temperatures depends on the calibration method J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-06 Adam P. Piotrowski, Jaroslaw J. Napiorkowski
A number of physical or data-driven models have been proposed to evaluate stream water temperatures based on hydrological and meteorological observations. However, physical models require a large amount of information that is frequently unavailable, while data-based models ignore the physical processes. Recently the air2stream model has been proposed as an intermediate alternative that is based on physical heat budget processes, but it is so simplified that the model may be applied like data-driven ones. However, the price for simplicity is the need to calibrate eight parameters that, although have some physical meaning, cannot be measured or evaluated a-priori. As a result, applicability and performance of the air2stream model for a particular stream relies on the efficiency of the calibration method. The original air2stream model uses an inefficient 20-year old approach called Particle Swarm Optimization with inertia weight. This study aims at finding an effective and robust calibration method for the air2stream model. Twelve different optimization algorithms are examined on six different streams from northern USA (states of Washington, Oregon and New York), Poland and Switzerland, located in both high mountains, hilly and lowland areas. It is found that the performance of the air2stream model depends significantly on the calibration method. Two algorithms lead to the best results for each considered stream. The air2stream model, calibrated with the chosen optimization methods, performs favorably against classical streamwater temperature models. The MATLAB code of the air2stream model and the chosen calibration procedure (CoBiDE) are available as Supplementary Material on the Journal of Hydrology web page.
Review of Analytical Models to Stream Depletion Induced by Pumping: Guide to Model Selection J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-06 Ching-Sheng Huang, Tao Yang, Hund-Der Yeh
Stream depletion due to groundwater extraction by wells may cause impact on aquatic ecosystem in streams, conflict over water rights, and contamination of water from irrigation wells near polluted streams. A variety of studies have been devoted to addressing the issue of stream depletion, but a fundamental framework for analytical modeling developed from aquifer viewpoint has not yet been found. This review shows key differences in existing models regarding the stream depletion problem and provides some guidelines for choosing a proper analytical model in solving the problem of concern. We introduce commonly used models composed of flow equations, boundary conditions, well representations and stream treatments for confined, unconfined, and leaky aquifers. They are briefly evaluated and classified according to six categories of aquifer type, flow dimension, aquifer domain, stream representation, stream channel geometry, and well type. Finally, we recommend promising analytical approaches that can solve stream depletion problem in reality with aquifer heterogeneity and irregular geometry of stream channel. Several unsolved stream depletion problems are also recommended.
Analysis of Metal-laden Water via Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-05 Delaina Pearson, David C. Weindorf, Somsubhra Chakraborty, Bin Li, Jaco Koch, Piet Van Deventer, Jandre de Wet, Nana Yaw Kusi
A rapid method for in-situ elemental composition analysis of metal-laden water would be indispensable for studying polluted water. Current analytical lab methods to determine water quality include flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (EAAS), and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy. However only two field methods, colorimetry and absorptiometry, exist for elemental analysis of water. Portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry is an effective method for elemental analysis of soil, sediment, and other matrices. However, the accuracy of PXRF is known to be affected while scanning moisture-laden soil samples. This study sought to statistically establish PXRF’s predictive ability for various elements in water at different concentrations relative to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). A total of 390 metal-laden water samples collected from leaching columns of mine tailings in South Africa were analyzed via PXRF and ICP-AES. The PXRF showed differential effectiveness in elemental quantification. For the collected water samples, the best relationships between ICP and PXRF elemental data were obtained for K and Cu (R2=0.92). However, when scanning ICP calibration solutions with elements in isolation, PXRF results indicated near perfect agreement; Ca, K, Fe, Cu and Pb produced an R2 of 0.99 while Zn and Mn produced an R2 of 1.00. The utilization of multiple PXRF (stacked) beams produced stronger correlation to ICP relative to the use of a single beam in isolation. The results of this study demonstrated the PXRF's ability to satisfactorily predict the composition of metal-laden water as reported by ICP for several elements. Additionally this study indicated the need for a “Water Mode” calibration for the PXRF and demonstrates the potential of PXRF for future study of polluted or contaminated waters.
Dealing with Equality and Benefit for Water Allocation in A Lake Watershed: A Gini-Coefficient Based Stochastic Optimization Approach J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-05 C. Dai, X.S. Qin, Y. Chen, H.C. Guo
A Gini-coefficient based stochastic optimization (GBSO) model was developed by integrating the hydrological model, water balance model, Gini coefficient and chance-constrained programming (CCP) into a general multi-objective optimization modeling framework for supporting water resources allocation at a watershed scale. The framework was advantageous in reflecting the conflicting equity and benefit objectives for water allocation, maintaining the water balance of watershed, and dealing with system uncertainties. GBSO was solved by the non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithms-II (NSGA-II), after the parameter uncertainties of the hydrological model have been quantified into the probability distribution of runoff as the inputs of CCP model, and the chance constraints were converted to the corresponding deterministic versions. The proposed model was applied to identify the Pareto optimal water allocation schemes in the Lake Dianchi watershed, China. The optimal Pareto-front results reflected the tradeoff between system benefit (αSB α SB ) and Gini coefficient (αG α G ) under different significance levels (i.e. q q ) and different drought scenarios, which reveals the conflicting nature of equity and efficiency in water allocation problems. A lower q q generally implies a lower risk of violating the system constraints and a worse drought intensity scenario corresponds to less available water resources, both of which would lead to a decreased system benefit and a less equitable water allocation scheme. Thus, the proposed modeling framework could help obtain the Pareto optimal schemes under complexity and ensure that the proposed water allocation solutions are effective for coping with drought conditions, with a proper tradeoff between system benefit and water allocation equity.
The Gaussian copula model for the joint deficit index for droughts J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-05 H. Van de Vyver, J. Van den Bergh
The characterization of droughts and their impacts is very dependent on the time scale that is involved. In order to obtain an overall drought assessment, the cumulative effects of water deficits over different times need to be examined together. For example, the recently developed joint deficit index (JDI) is based on multivariate probabilities of precipitation over various time scales from 1- to 12-months, and was constructed from empirical copulas. In this paper, we examine the Gaussian copula model for the JDI. We model the covariance across the temporal scales with a two-parameter function that is commonly used in the specific context of spatial statistics or geostatistics. The validity of the covariance models is demonstrated with long-term precipitation series. Bootstrap experiments indicate that the Gaussian copula model has advantages over the empirical copula method in the context of drought severity assessment: (i) it is able to quantify droughts outside the range of the empirical copula, (ii) provides adequate drought quantification, and (iii) provides a better understanding of the uncertainty in the estimation.
Contaminant transport from point source on water surface in open channel flow with bed absorption J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-05 Jinlan Guo, Xudong Wu, Weiquan Jiang, Guoqian Chen
Studying solute dispersion in channel flows is of significance for environmental and industrial applications. Two-dimensional concentration distribution for a most typical case of a point source release on the free water surface in a channel flow with bed absorption is presented by means of Chatwin’s long-time asymptotic technique. Five basic characteristics of Taylor dispersion and vertical mean concentration distribution with skewness and kurtosis modifications are also analyzed. The results reveal that bed absorption affects both the longitudinal and vertical concentration distributions and causes the contaminant cloud to concentrate in the upper layer. Additionally, the cross-sectional concentration distribution shows an asymptotic Gaussian distribution at large time which is unaffected by the bed absorption. The vertical concentration distribution is found to be nonuniform even at large time. The obtained results are essential for practical implements with strict environmental standards.
Conceptualization of flow and transport in a limestone aquifer by multiple dedicated hydraulic and tracer tests J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-05 Klaus Mosthaf, Bentje Brauns, Annika S. Fjordbøge, Magnus M. Rohde, Henriette Kerrn-Jespersen, Poul L. Bjerg, Philip J. Binning, Mette M. Broholm
Limestone aquifers are of great interest as a drinking water resource in many countries. They often have a complex crushed and fractured geology, which makes the analysis and description of flow and transport processes in such aquifers a challenging task. In this study, the solute transport behavior including fracture-matrix interaction in hydrogeological units of a limestone aquifer in eastern Denmark was characterized by designing, conducting and interpreting six depth-specific tracer tests involving natural- and forced-gradient conditions with multiple tracers representing different diffusion properties. To determine flow parameters, the tracer tests were complemented by a comprehensive set of depth-specific borehole and hydraulic tests. Based on the tests, a new and stronger conceptual understanding was developed for the different aquifer units. The investigated limestone aquifer is composed of a glacially crushed unit and two fractured units, with calcarenitic and bryozoan limestone of similar hydraulic properties. Hydraulic tests revealed, that the crushed unit has a lower hydraulic conductivity than the fractured limestone units, likely due to the crushed conditions with small limestone clusters and small-aperture fractures potentially filled with fine material. In the fractured limestone units, a distinct preferential flow and primary transport along major horizontal fractures was inferred from the tracer tests under forced-gradient conditions. The dominant horizontal fractures were identified on impeller flow logs and appear connected between wells, having an extent of up to several hundred meters. Connectivity between the aquifer units was investigated with a long-term pumping test and tracer tests, revealing restricted vertical flow and transport. A very pronounced hydraulic conductivity contrast between major fractures and matrix could also be inferred from the borehole and hydraulic tests, which is consistent with the findings from the tracer tests. However, the difference in the matrix diffusion behavior of the simultaneously injected tracers and a long tailing in the breakthrough curves revealed that matrix diffusion has a strong influence on the solute transport in the fractured limestone.
Surface – ground water interactions and hydrogeochemical evolution in a fluvio-deltaic setting: The case study of the Pinios River delta J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-04 Ioannis Matiatos, Vasiliki Paraskevopoulou, Konstantinos Lazogiannis, Fotini Botsou, Manos Dassenakis, George Ghionis, John D. Alexopoulos, Serafim E. Poulos
River deltas sustain important ecosystems with rich biodiversity and large biomass, as well as human populations via the availability of water and food sources. Anthropogenic activities, such as urbanization, tourism and agriculture, may pose threats to river deltas. The knowledge of the factors controlling the regional water quality regime in these areas is important for planning sustainable use and management of the water resources. Here, hydrochemical methods and multivariate statistical techniques were combined to investigate the shallow aquifer of the Pinios River (Thessaly) deltaic plain with respect to water quality, hydrogeochemical evolution and interactions between groundwater and surface water bodies. Water quality assessment indicated that most of the river and groundwater samples fully comply with the criteria set by the Drinking Water Directive (98/83/1EC). The river is recharged mainly from springs of the Tempi valley and the shallow aquifer, and to a lesser degree from precipitation, throughout the year. The hydrogeochemical characteristics indicated a cation (Ca, Mg, and Na) bicarbonate water type, which evolves to calcium-chloride, sodium-bicarbonate and sodium-chloride water type, in the northern part of the delta. Calcite and dolomite dissolution determined the major ion chemistry, but other processes, such as silicate weathering and cation exchange reactions, also contributed. In the northern part of the plain, the interaction with the deeper aquifer enriched the shallow aquifer with Na and Cl ions. Principal Component Analysis showed that five components (PCs) explain 77% of the total variance of water quality parameters; these are: (1) salinity; (2) water-silicate rocks interaction; (3) hardness due to calcite dissolution, and cation exchange processes; (4) nitrogen pollution; and (5) non-N-related artificial fertilizers. This study demonstrated that the variation of water hydrochemistry in the deltaic plain could be attributed to natural and anthropogenic processes. The interpretation of the PCA results dictated the parameters used for the development of a modified Water Quality Index (WQI), to provide a more comprehensive spatial representation of the water quality of the river delta.
3D mapping, hydrodynamics and modelling of the freshwater-brine mixing zone in salt flats similar to the Salar de Atacama (Chile) J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-04 M.A. Marazuela, E. Vázquez-Suñé, E. Custodio, T. Palma, A. García-Gil, C. Ayora
A Stacking Ensemble Learning Framework for Annual River Ice Breakup Dates J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-04 Wei Sun, Bernard Trevor
River ice break-up dates (BDs) are not merely a proxy indicator of climate variability and change, but directly related to the local ice-caused flooding management. A framework of stacking ensemble learning for annual river ice BDs was developed, which included two-level components: member and combining models. The member models described the relations between BD and their affecting indicators; the combining models linked the predicted BD by each member models with the observed BD. Especially, Bayesian regularization back-propagation artificial neural network (BRANN), and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) were employed as both member and combining models. The candidate combining models also included the simple average methods (SAM). The input variables for member models were selected by a hybrid filter and wrapper method. The performances of these models were examined using the leave-one-out cross validation. As the largest unregulated river in Alberta, Canada with ice jams frequently occurring in the vicinity of Fort McMurray, the Athabasca River at Fort McMurray was selected as the study area. The break-up dates and candidate affecting indicators in 1980-2015 were collected. The results showed that, the BRANN member models generally outperformed the ANFIS member models in terms of better performances and simpler structures. The difference between the R and MI ranks of inputs in the optimal member models may imply that the linearly correlation based filter method would be feasible to generate a range of candidate inputs for further screening through other wrapper or embedded IVS methods. The SAM and BRANN combining models generally outperformed all member models. The optimal SAM combining model combined two BRANN member models and improved upon them in terms of average squared errors by 14.6% and 18.1% respectively. In this study, for the first time, the stacking ensemble learning was applied to forecasting of river ice break-up dates, which appeared promising for other river ice forecasting problems.
Satellite Remote Sensing Estimation of River Discharge: Application to the Yukon River Alaska J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-04 David M. Bjerklie, Charon M. Birkett, John W. Jones, Claudia Carabajal, Jennifer A. Rover, John W. Fulton, Pierre-André Garambois
A methodology based on general hydraulic relations for rivers has been developed to estimate the discharge (flow rate) of rivers using satellite remote sensing observations. The estimates of discharge, flow depth, and flow velocity are derived from remotely observed water surface area, water surface slope, and water surface height, and demonstrated for two reaches of the Yukon River in Alaska, at Eagle (reach length 34.7 km) and near Stevens Village (reach length 38.3 km). The method is based on fundamental equations of hydraulic flow resistance in rivers, including the Manning equation and the Prandtl-von Karman universal velocity distribution equation. The method employs some new hydraulic relations to help define flow resistance and height of the zero flow boundary in the channel. Estimates are made both with and without calibration. The water surface area of the river reach is measured by using a provisional version of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat based product named Dynamic Surface Water Extent (DSWE). The water surface height and slope measurements require a self-consistent datum, and are derived from observations from the Jason-2 satellite altimeter mission. At both reach locations, the Jason-2 radar altimeter non-winter heights consistently tracked the stage recorded at USGS streamgages with a standard deviation of differences (error) during the non-winter periods of less than 7%. Part of the error may be due to differences in the gage and altimeter crossing locations with respect to the range of stage change and the response to changes in discharge at the upstream and downstream locations. For the non-winter periods, the radar derived slope estimates (mean=0.0003) were constant over the mission lifetime, and in agreement with previously measured USGS water surface slopes and slopes determined from USGS topographic maps. The accuracy of the mean of the uncalibrated daily estimates of discharge varied between reaches, ranging from 13% near Stevens Village (N=90) to -21% at Eagle (N = 246) based on the absolute error, and 5% to -6% based on the error of the log of the estimates. Calibrating to the mean of USGS daily discharge estimates from the streamflow rating for the same period of record at each streamgage resulted in mean absolute errors ranging from 1% to 2%, and log errors ranging from 1% or less. The error pattern of the estimates shows that without calibration, even though the mean is well simulated, the high and low end values over the range of estimates may have significant bias.
Evaluating the hydraulic and transport properties of peat soil using pore network modeling and X-Ray micro computed tomography J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-04 Behrad Gharedaghloo, Jonathan S. Price, Fereidoun Rezanezhad, William L. Quinton
Micro-scale properties of peat pore space and their influence on hydraulic and transport properties of peat soils have been given little attention so far. Characterizing the variation of these properties in a peat profile can increase our knowledge on the processes controlling contaminant transport through peatlands. As opposed to the common macro-scale (or bulk) representation of groundwater flow and transport processes, a pore network model (PNM) simulates flow and transport processes within individual pores. Here, a pore network modeling code capable of simulating advective and diffusive transport processes through a 3D unstructured pore network was developed; its predictive performance was evaluated by comparing its results to empirical values and to the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. This is the first time that peat pore networks have been extracted from X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) images of peat deposits and peat pore characteristics evaluated in a 3D approach. Water flow and solute transport were modeled in the unstructured pore networks mapped directly from µCT images. The modeling results were processed to determine the bulk properties of peat deposits. Results portray the commonly observed decrease in hydraulic conductivity with depth, which was attributed to the reduction of pore radius and increase in pore tortuosity. The increase in pore tortuosity with depth was associated with more decomposed peat soil and decreasing pore coordination number with depth, which extended the flow path of fluid particles. Results also revealed that hydraulic conductivity is isotropic locally, but becomes anisotropic after upscaling to core-scale; this suggests the anisotropy of peat hydraulic conductivity observed in core-scale and field-scale is due to the strong heterogeneity in the vertical dimension that is imposed by the layered structure of peat soils. Transport simulations revealed that for a given solute, the effective diffusion coefficient decreases with depth due to the corresponding increase of diffusional tortuosity. Longitudinal dispersivity of peat also was computed by analyzing advective-dominant transport simulations that showed peat dispersivity is similar to the empirical values reported in the same peat soil; it is not sensitive to soil depth and does not vary much along the soil profile.
Runoff Sensitivity to Climate Change in the Nile River Basin J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-03 Emad Hasan, Aondover Tarhule, Pierre Kirstetter, Race Clark, Yang Hong
In data scarce basins, such as the Nile River Basin (NRB) in Africa, constraints related to data availability, quality, and access often complicate attempts to estimate runoff sensitivity using conventional methods. In this paper, we show that by integrating the concept of the aridity index (AI) (derived from the Budyko curve) and climate elasticity, we can obtain the first order response of the runoff sensitivity using minimal data input and modeling expertise or experience. The concept of runoff elasticity relies on the fact that the energy available for evapotranspiration plays a major role in determining whether the precipitation received within a drainage basin generates runoff. The approach does not account for human impacts on runoff modification and or diversions. By making use of freely available gauge-corrected satellite data for precipitation, temperature, runoff, and potential evapotranspiration, we derived the sensitivity indicator (β) ( β ) to determine the runoff responses to changes in precipitation and temperature for four climatic zones in the NRB, namely, tropical, subtropical, semiarid and arid zones. The proposed sensitivity indicator can be partitioned into different elasticity to: precipitation (εp ε p ), potential evapotranspiration (εETp ε ET p ), temperature (εT ε T ) and the total elasticity (εtot) ( ε tot ) . These elasticities allowing robust quantification of the runoff responses to the potential changes in the precipitation and temperature at a high degree of accuracy. Results indicate that the tropical zone is an energy-constrained with low sensitivity, (β<1.0), ( β < 1.0 ) , implying that input precipitation exceeds the amounts that can be evaporated given the available energy. The subtropical zone is subdivided into two distinct regions, the lowland (Machar and Sudd marshes), and the highland area (Blue Nile Basin), where each area has a unique sensitivity; the lowland area has very high sensitivity, (β>1.0) ( β > 1.0 ) . The subtropical-highland zone moves between energy-limited to water-limited conditions during periods of wet and dry spells with varied sensitivity. The semiarid and arid zones are water limited, with high sensitivity,(β>1.0) ( β > 1.0 ) . The calculated runoff elasticities show that a 10% decrease in precipitation leads to a decrease in runoff of between 19% in the tropical zone and 30% in the arid zones. On the other hand, a 10% precipitation increase leads to a runoff increase of 14% in the tropical zone and 22% in the arid zone. The estimated runoff changes are consistent with the result obtained using other methods. Thus, the elasticity approach combines data parsimony and analytical simplicity to produce results that are practically useful for most purposes while facilitating communication with stakeholders with different levels of scientific knowledge. More research is needed to extend the application of the method to incorporate the effects of human activities, and land use change.
Modeling sediment concentration of rill flow J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-03 Daming Yang, Peiling Gao, Yadong Zhao, Yuhang Zhang, Xiaoyuan Liu, Qingwen Zhang
Accurate estimation of sediment concentration is essential to establish physically-based erosion models. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of flow discharge (Q), slope gradient (S), flow velocity (V), shear stress (τ), stream power (ω) and unit stream power (U) on sediment concentration. Laboratory experiments were conducted using a 10×0.1 m rill flume under four flow discharges (2, 4, 8 and 16 L min-1), and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20° and 25°). The results showed that the measured sediment concentration varied from 87.08 to 620.80 kg m-3 with a mean value of 343.13 kg m-3. Sediment concentration increased as a power function with flow discharge and slope gradient, with R2=0.975 and NSE=0.945. The sediment concentration was more sensitive to slope gradient than to flow discharge. The sediment concentration was well predicted by unit stream power (R2=0.937, NSE=0.865), whereas less satisfactorily by flow velocity (R2=0.470, NSE=0.539) and stream power (R2=0.773, NSE=0.732). In addition, using the equations to simulate the measured sediment concentration of other studies, the result further indicated that slope gradient, flow discharge and unit stream power were good predictors of sediment concentration. In general, slope gradient, flow discharge and unit stream power seem to be the preferred predictors for estimating sediment concentration.
Hydrodynamic modelling of recreational water quality using Escherichia coli as an indicator of microbial contamination J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-03 Fasil Ejigu Eregno, Ingun Tryland, Torulv Tjomsland, Magdalena Kempa, Arve Heistad
Effects of forest structure on hydrological processes in China J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-03 Jiamei Sun, Xinxiao Yu, Henian Wang, Guodong Jia, Yang Zhao, Zhihua Tu, Wenping Deng, Jianbo Jia, Jungang Chen
There are serious concerns between forest and water quantity, Chinese extensive land area makes the relationship more complicated, thus, the effects of forest structure on hydrological processes in China were not fully comprehended. In this research, forest’s hydrological functions, including rainfall partitioning, litter interception, evapotranspiration (ET), were analyzed in China. The results showed that throughfall was the largest proportion of gross precipitation with fraction between 69.3 ± 8.8% and 84.4 ± 5.6%. Then was canopy interception which varied from 14.6 ± 1.4% to 29.1 ± 3.3%. Throughfall was correlated with gross precipitation, canopy thickness and canopy density. Canopy interception was correlated with gross precipitation, LAI, canopy density, biomass, mixed degree, uniform angle index, aggregation index. Stemflow accounted for only 1.2 ± 0.32% of gross precipitation, with the greatest fraction of 2.1 ± 0.2% in XBH site and the least fraction of 0.3 ± 0.1% in DB site. Gross precipitation was the main factor in determining stemflow. DB site had the greatest litter interception (7.7 ± 0.8mm) and HB site had the least (0.9 ± 0.3mm). Litter interception had closer correlation with undecomposed litter mass (0.66) than total litter mass (0.46). Path-coefficient analysis showed that stand density, Shannon-Wiener index, litter mass, size ratio had greater impact on litter interception than other factors. ET was mainly influenced by precipitation, and it also correlated with LAI, canopy density and biomass. In north China, ET percentage (the ratio of ET and precipitation) was 82.7% - 109.5%, while it decreased to 63.1% - 88.5% in south China, ET demand in XBS site was larger than precipitation. ET percentage increased with increasing latitude and elevation, decreased with increasing temperature.
Velocity of water flow along saturated loess slopes under erosion effects J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-03 Huang Yuhan, Chen Xiaoyan, Li Fahu, Zhang Jing, Lei Tingwu, Li Juan, Chen Ping, Wang Xuefeng
Rainfall or snow-melted water recharge easily saturates loose top soils with a less permeable underlayer, such as cultivated soil slope and partially thawed top soil layer, and thus, may influence the velocity of water flow. This study suggested a methodology and device system to supply water from the bottom soil layer at the different locations of slopes. Water seeps into and saturates the soil, when the water level is controlled at the same height of the soil surface. The structures and functions of the device, the components, and the operational principles are described in detail. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted under slope gradients of 5°, 10°, 15°, and 20° and flow rates of 2, 4, and 8 L min-1 to measure the water flow velocities over eroding and non-eroded loess soil slopes, under saturated conditions by using electrolyte tracing. Results showed that flow velocities on saturated slopes were 17% to 88% greater than those on non-saturated slopes. Flow velocity increased rapidly under high flow rates and slope gradients. Saturation conditions were suitable in maintaining smooth rill geomorphology and causing fast water flow. The saturated soil slope had a lubricant effect on the soil surface to reduce the frictional force, resulting in high flow velocity. The flow velocities of eroding rills under different slope gradients and flow rates were approximately 14% to 33% lower than those of non-eroded rills on saturated loess slopes. Compared with that on a saturated loess slope, the eroding rill on a non-saturated loess slope can produce head cuts to reduce the flow velocity. This study helps understand the hydrodynamics of soil erosion and sediment transportation of saturated soil slopes.
SSEM: A model for simulating runoff and erosion of saline-sodic soil slopes under coastal reclamation J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-04-03 Liu Dongdong, She Dongli
Current physically based erosion models do not carefully consider the dynamic variations of soil properties during rainfall and are unable to simulate saline-sodic soil slope erosion processes. The aim of this work was to build upon a complete model framework, SSEM, to simulate runoff and erosion processes for saline-sodic soils by coupling dynamic saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and soil erodibility Kτ. Sixty rainfall simulation rainfall experiments (2 soil textures × 5 sodicity levels × 2 slope gradients × 3 duplicates) provided data for model calibration and validation. SSEM worked very well for simulating the runoff and erosion processes of saline-sodic silty clay. The runoff and erosion processes of saline-sodic silt loam were more complex than those of non-saline soils or soils with higher clay contents; thus, SSEM did not perform very well for some validation events. We further examined the model performances of four concepts: Dynamic Ks and Kτ (Case 1, SSEM), Dynamic Ks and Constant Kτ (Case 2), Constant Ks and Dynamic Kτ (Case 3) and Constant Ks and Constant Kτ (Case 4). The results demonstrated that the model, which considers dynamic variations in soil saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil erodibility, can provide more reasonable runoff and erosion prediction results for saline-sodic soils.
Experimental study of the moisture distribution on the wetting front during drainage and imbibition in a 2D sand chamber J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-30 Yunbo Wei, Kouping Chen, Jichun Wu, Xiaobin Zhu
In the present study, the moisture distribution on the wetting front during drainage and imbibition in a 2D sand chamber is studied thoroughly. Based on the high-resolution data measured by light transmission method, the moisture distribution is observed and then analyzed quantitatively. During drainage and imbibition, different moisture distributions are observed: (a) during drainage, moisture contents fluctuate in a larger range and fingers can be seen on the wetting front; (b) while during imbibition, moisture contents fluctuate in a smaller range and the wetting front is more regular. The Hurst coefficients are successful in capturing different characteristics of the moisture distribution between drainage and imbibition. During imbibition, the Hurst coefficients are around 0.2 on the wetting front; while during drainage, the Hurst coefficients are around 0.5. As the porosity changes from 0.336 to 0.383, the moisture distribution in the sand chamber does not display obvious change. While as the imbibition rate increases from 5ml/min to 400ml/min, the moisture distribution on the wetting front becomes more uniform.
A Modification of the Regional Nutrient Management Model (ReNuMa) to Identify Long-term Changes in Riverine Nitrogen Sources J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-29 Minpeng Hu, Yanmei Liu, Jiahui Wang, Randy A. Dahlgren, Dingjiang Chen
Source apportionment is critical for guiding development of efficient watershed nitrogen (N) pollution control measures. The ReNuMa (Regional Nutrient Management) model, a semi-empirical, semi-process-oriented model with modest data requirements, has been widely used for riverine N source apportionment. However, the ReNuMa model contains limitations for addressing long-term N dynamics by ignoring temporal changes in atmospheric N deposition rates and N-leaching lag effects. This work modified the ReNuMa model by revising the source code to allow yearly changes in atmospheric N deposition and incorporation of N-leaching lag effects into N transport processes. The appropriate N-leaching lag time was determined from cross-correlation analysis between annual watershed individual N source inputs and riverine N export. Accuracy of the modified ReNuMa model was demonstrated through analysis of a 31-year water quality record (1980-2010) from the Yongan watershed in eastern China. The revisions considerably improved the accuracy (Nash-Sutcliff coefficient increased by ∼0.2) of the modified ReNuMa model for predicting riverine N loads. The modified model explicitly identified annual and seasonal changes in contributions of various N sources (i.e., point vs. nonpoint source, surface runoff vs. groundwater) to riverine N loads as well as the fate of watershed anthropogenic N inputs. Model results were consistent with previously modeled or observed lag time length as well as changes in riverine chloride and nitrate concentrations during the low-flow regime and available N levels in agricultural soils of this watershed. The modified ReNuMa model is applicable for addressing long-term changes in riverine N sources, providing decision-makers with critical information for guiding watershed N pollution control strategies.
A Geomorphic Approach to 100-Year Floodplain Mapping for the Conterminous United States J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-29 Keighobad Jafarzadegan, Venkatesh Merwade, Siddharth Saksena
Floodplain mapping using hydrodynamic models is difficult in data scarce regions. Additionally, using hydrodynamic models to map floodplain over large stream network can be computationally challenging. Some of these limitations of floodplain mapping using hydrodynamic modeling can be overcome by developing computationally efficient statistical methods to identify floodplains in large and ungauged watersheds using publicly available data. This paper proposes a geomorphic model to generate probabilistic 100-year floodplain maps for the Conterminous United States (CONUS). The proposed model first categorizes the watersheds in the CONUS into three classes based on the height of the water surface corresponding to the 100-year flood from the streambed. Next, the probability that any watershed in the CONUS belongs to one of these three classes is computed through supervised classification using watershed characteristics related to topography, hydrography, land use and climate. The result of this classification is then fed into a probabilistic threshold binary classifier (PTBC) to generate the probabilistic 100-year floodplain maps. The supervised classification algorithm is trained by using the 100-year Flood Insurance Rated Maps (FIRM) from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). FEMA FIRMs are also used to validate the performance of the proposed model in areas not included in the training. Additionally, HEC-RAS model generated flood inundation extents are used to validate the model performance at fifteen sites that lack FEMA maps. Validation results show that the probabilistic 100-year floodplain maps, generated by proposed model, match well with both FEMA and HEC-RAS generated maps. On average, the error of predicted flood extents is around 14% across the CONUS. The high accuracy of the validation results shows the reliability of the geomorphic model as an alternative approach for fast and cost effective delineation of 100-year floodplains for the CONUS.
Monitoring Induced Denitrification During Managed Aquifer Recharge in an Infiltration Pond J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-28 Alba Grau-Martínez, Albert Folch, Clara Torrentó, Cristina Valhondo, Carme Barba, Cristina Domènech, Albert Soler, Neus Otero
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a well-known technique for improving water quality and increasing groundwater resources. Denitrification (i.e. removal of nitrate) can be enhanced during MAR by coupling an artificial recharge pond with a permeable reactive layer (PRL). In this study, we examined the suitability of a multi-isotope approach for assessing the long-term effectiveness of enhancing denitrification in a PRL containing vegetal compost. Batch laboratory experiments confirmed that the PRL was still able to enhance denitrification two years after its installation in the infiltration pond. At the field scale, changes in redox indicators along a flow path and below the MAR-PRL system were monitored over 21 months during recharge and non-recharge periods. Results showed that the PRL was still releasing non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon five years after its installation. Nitrate concentration coupled with isotopic data collected from the piezometer network at the MAR system indicated that denitrification was occurring in the saturated zone immediately beneath the infiltration pond, where recharged water and native groundwater mix. Furthermore, longer operational periods of the MAR-PRL system increased denitrification extent. Multi-isotope analyses are therefore proved to be useful tools in identifying and quantifying denitrification in MAR-PRL systems.
A Novel Approach for Predicting Monthly Water Demand by Combining Singular Spectrum Analysis with Neural Networks J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-28 Salah L. Zubaidi, Jayne Dooley, Rafid M. Alkhaddar, Mawada Abdellatif, Hussein Al-Bugharbee, Sandra Ortega-Martorell
Valid and dependable water demand prediction is a major element of the effective and sustainable expansion of municipal water infrastructures. This study provides a novel approach to quantifying water demand through the assessment of climatic factors, using a combination of a pretreatment signal technique, a hybrid particle swarm optimisation algorithm and an artificial neural network (PSO-ANN). The Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) technique was adopted to decompose and reconstruct water consumption in relation to six weather variables, to create a seasonal and stochastic time series. The results revealed that SSA is a powerful technique, capable of decomposing the original time series into many independent components including trend, oscillatory behaviours and noise. In addition, the PSO-ANN algorithm was shown to be a reliable prediction model, outperforming the hybrid Backtracking Search Algorithm BSA-ANN in terms of fitness function (RMSE). The findings of this study also support the view that water demand is driven by climatological variables.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of the Late Pleistocene Lake Bonneville Flood J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-28 José M. Abril-Hernández, Raúl Periáñez, Jim E. O'Connor, Daniel Garcia-Castellanos
At approximately 18.0 ka, pluvial Lake Bonneville reached its maximum level. At its northeastern extent it was impounded by alluvium of the Marsh Creek Fan, which breached at some point north of Red Rock Pass (Idaho), leading to one of the largest floods on Earth. About 5320 km3 of water was discharged into the Snake River drainage and ultimately into the Columbia River. We use a 0D model and a 2D non-linear depth-averaged hydrodynamic model to aid understanding of outflow dynamics, specifically evaluating controls on the amount of water exiting the Lake Bonneville basin exerted by the Red Rock Pass outlet lithology and geometry as well as those imposed by the internal lake geometry of the Bonneville basin. These models are based on field evidence of prominent lake levels, hypsometry and terrain elevations corrected for post-flood isostatic deformation of the lake basin, as well as reconstructions of the topography at the outlet for both the initial and final stages of the flood. Internal flow dynamics in the northern Lake Bonneville basin during the flood were affected by the narrow passages separating the Cache Valley from the main body of Lake Bonneville. This constriction imposed a water-level drop of up to 2.7 m at the time of peak-flow conditions and likely reduced the peak discharge at the lake outlet by about 6%. The modeled peak outlet flow is 0.85 106 m3s-1. Energy balance calculations give an estimate for the erodibility coefficient for the alluvial Marsh Creek divide of ∼0.005 m y-1 Pa -1.5, at least two orders of magnitude greater than for the underlying bedrock at the outlet. Computing quasi steady-state water flows, water elevations, water currents and shear stresses as a function of the water-level drop in the lake and for the sequential stages of erosion in the outlet gives estimates of the incision rates and an estimate of the outflow hydrograph during the Bonneville Flood: About 18 days would have been required for the outflow to grow from 10% to 100% of its peak value. At the time of peak flow, about 10% of the lake volume would have already exited; eroding about 1 km3 of alluvium from the outlet, and the lake level would have dropped by about 10.6 m.
Hydrological network and classification of lakes on the Third Pole J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-28 Yang Gao, Weicai Wang, Tandong Yao, Ning Lu, Anxin Lu
The intensity and form of changes in closed lakes, upstream lakes and outflow lakes on the Third Pole (TP) differ based on their drainage mode. Researchers’ insufficient understanding of the hydrological networks associated with lakes hampers studies of the relationship between lakes and climate. In this study, we establish a comprehensive hydrological network for each lake (>1km2) on the TP using 106 Landsat images, 236 Chinese topographic maps, and SRTM DEM. Three-hundred-ninety-seven closed lakes, 488 upstream lakes and 317 outflow lakes totaling 3,5498.49 km2, 7,378.82km2, and 3,382.29 km2, respectively, were identified on the TP using 2010 data. Two-hundred-thirty-four closed lakes were found to not be linked to upstream lakes. The remaining 163 closed lakes were connected to and fed by the 488 upstream lakes. The object-oriented analyses within this study indicated that more rapid changes occurred in the surface extent of closed lakes than in upstream lakes or outflow lakes on the TP from 1970s to 2010. Furthermore, the water volume of the examined closed lakes was almost nine times greater than that of the upstream lakes from 2003 to 2009. All the examined closed lakes exhibited an obvious water volume change compared to the corresponding upstream lakes in the same basin. Furthermore, two case studies illustrate that the annual and seasonal dynamics associated with the changes in closed lakes may reflect climate change patterns, while the upstream lake dynamics may be more controlled by the lakeshore terrain and drainage characteristics. The lake inventory and hydrological network catalogued in this study provide a basis for developing a better understanding of lake response to climate change on the TP.
Modelling solute dispersion in periodic heterogeneous porous media: model benchmarking against intermediate scale experiments J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-28 Samer Majdalani, Vincent Guinot, Carole Delenne, Hicham Gebran
Governing urban water services in Europe: towards sustainable synchronous regimes J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-28 Yvan Renou, Thomas Bolognesi
Understanding the diversity of urban water regimes in Europe require dealing with governance instruments, actors strategies and institutional environment. To embrace it, we propose a typology of synchronous urban water regimes delineating four ideal forms. We highlight how actors strategies are embedded in institutional regimes and how sustainability perspectives depend on this urban configuration. It gives insights on sustainable transitions: their feasibility, constraints and opportunities.
Integrated Modelling of a Megacity Water System - The Application of a Transdisciplinary Approach to the Lima Metropolitan Area J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-28 Manfred Schütze, Jochen Seidel, Alejandro Chamorro, Christian León
The rapidly growing urban centres throughout the world are facing serious problems due to the fast-changing developments in all of their environmental spheres (nature, society, politics, culture and economics). Therefore, strategic planning becomes even more important in order to develop strategies that allow cities to adapt to new challenges and to prevent or to mitigate negative trends. This paper presents a transdisciplinary approach to water management, which combines adaptation and application of methods from hydrology, social sciences, water engineering and modelling; furthermore, this approach also involves stakeholders in this process. This methodology assists cities in addressing risks by elaborating solutions, which are characterised by ownership and acceptance of the stakeholders involved. The presented methodology proposed here has been applied to the water system of the desert megacity of Lima/Peru. As a city of almost 10 million inhabitants and with an annual rainfall of about 10 mm per year, Lima presents a unique case with particular challenges regarding water supply. in order to assess the changes in precipitation and temperature for the next decades, two global circulation models and three scenarios have been used. Changes in discharge was addressed using the conceptual rainfall-runoff model HBV applied in both the Atlantic and Pacific catchments relevant to the capital city Lima in terms of water supply. A scenario methodology, combining qualitative and quantitative elements, based on the Cross-Impact Balance Analysis, has been developed and applied. From the millions of theoretically possible combinations of future developments of “descriptors” (driving forces) of the water system, four have been identified as the (only) consistent potential developments of the future. Local stakeholders, stemming from a wide range of institutions have been actively involved in the definition of these driving forces and the set of scenarios. The evaluation of these scenarios and potential options to adapt the water system to future developments was carried out by modelling and simulation, using a purpose-built, yet general, simulator which represents the entire water and wastewater system and includes the important inherent feedback loops (e.g. water demand by irrigation, reuse of treated and untreated wastewaters). The setup of the simulator and the implemented models was done in a way that the simulator formed an integral element in the design of strategies and measures, derived by this innovative combination of qualitative scenario building, quantitative modelling and stakeholder participation. As a core result of this process, the Action Plan “Lima 2040” has been developed and adopted, in which the signatories (the main institutions and organisations responsible for the water sector of Lima) commit themselves to specific actions to be implemented over the years to come.
Adaptive surrogate model based multiobjective optimization for coastal aquifer management J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-27 Jian Song, Yun Yang, Jianfeng Wu, Jichun Wu, Xiaomin Sun, Jin Lin
In this study, a novel surrogate model assisted multiobjective memetic algorithm (SMOMA) is developed for optimal pumping strategies of large-scale coastal groundwater problems. The proposed SMOMA integrates an efficient data-driven surrogate model with an improved non-dominated sorted genetic algorithm-II (NSGAII) that employs a local search operator to accelerate its convergence in optimization. The surrogate model based on Kernel Extreme Learning Machine (KELM) is developed and evaluated as an approximate simulator to generate the patterns of regional groundwater flow and salinity levels in coastal aquifers for reducing huge computational burden. The KELM model is adaptively trained during evolutionary search to satisfy desired fidelity level of surrogate so that it inhibits error accumulation of forecasting and results in correctly converging to true Pareto-optimal front. The proposed methodology is then applied to a large-scale coastal aquifer management in Baldwin County, Alabama. Objectives of minimizing the saltwater mass increase and maximizing the total pumping rate in the coastal aquifers are considered. The optimal solutions achieved by the proposed adaptive surrogate model are compared against those solutions obtained from one-shot surrogate model and original simulation model. The adaptive surrogate model does not only improve the prediction accuracy of Pareto-optimal solutions compared with those by the one-shot surrogate model, but also maintains the equivalent quality of Pareto-optimal solutions compared with those by NSGAII coupled with original simulation model, while retaining the advantage of surrogate models in reducing computational burden up to 94% of time-saving. This study shows that the proposed methodology is a computationally efficient and promising tool for multiobjective optimizations of coastal aquifer managements.
Spatial prediction of near surface soil water retention functions using hydrogeophysics and empirical orthogonal functions J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-27 Justin Gibson, Trenton E. Franz
The hydrological community often turns to widely available spatial datasets such as the NRCS the Soil Survey Geographic database (SSURGO) to characterize the spatial variability of soil properties. When used to spatially characterize and parameterize watershed models, this has served as a reasonable first approximation when lacking localized or incomplete soil data. Within agriculture, soil data has been left relatively coarse when compared to numerous other data sources measured. This is because localized soil sampling is both expensive and time intense, thus a need exists in better connecting spatial datasets with ground observations. Given that hydrogeophysics is data-dense, rapid, non-invasive, and relatively easy to adopt, it is a promising technique to help dovetail localized soil sampling with spatially exhaustive datasets. In this work, we utilize two common near surface geophysical methods, cosmic-ray neutron probe and electromagnetic induction, to identify temporally stable spatial patterns of measured geophysical properties in three 65 ha agricultural fields in western Nebraska. This is achieved by repeat geophysical observations of the same study area across a range of wet to dry field conditions in order to evaluate with an empirical orthogonal function. Shallow cores were then extracted within each identified zone and water retention functions were generated in the laboratory. Using EOF patterns as a covariate, we quantify the predictive skill of estimating soil hydraulic properties in areas without measurement using a bootstrap validation analysis. Results indicate that sampling locations informed via repeat hydrogeophysical surveys, required only five cores to reduce the cross-validation root mean squared error by an average of 64% as compared to soil parameters predicted by a commonly used benchmark, SSURGO and ROSETTA. The reduction to five strategically located samples within the 65 ha fields reduces sampling efforts by up to ∼90% as compared to the common practice of soil grid sampling every 1 ha.
Monthly streamflow forecasting based on Hidden Markov Model and Gaussian Mixture Regression J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-26 Yongqi Liu, Lei Ye, Hui Qin, Xiaofeng Hong, Jiajun Ye, Xingli Yin
Reliable streamflow forecasts can be highly valuable for water resources planning and management. In this study, we combined a hidden Markov model (HMM) and Gaussian Mixture Regression (GMR) for probabilistic monthly streamflow forecasting. The HMM is initialized using a kernelized K-medoids clustering method, and the Baum–Welch algorithm is then executed to learn the model parameters. GMR derives a conditional probability distribution for the predictand given covariate information, including the antecedent flow at a local station and two surrounding stations. The performance of HMM–GMR was verified based on the mean square error and continuous ranked probability score skill scores. The reliability of the forecasts was assessed by examining the uniformity of the probability integral transform values. The results show that HMM–GMR obtained reasonably high skill scores and the uncertainty spread was appropriate. Different HMM states were assumed to be different climate conditions, which would lead to different types of observed values. We demonstrated that the HMM–GMR approach can handle multimodal and heteroscedastic data.
Evaporation from a temperate closed-basin lake and its impact on present, past, and future water level J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Ke Xiao, Timothy J. Griffis, John M. Baker, Paul V. Bolstad, Matt D. Erickson, Xuhui Lee, Jeffrey D. Wood, Cheng Hu, John L. Nieber
Lakes provide enormous economic, recreational, and aesthetic benefits to citizens. These ecosystem services may be adversely impacted by climate change. In the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota, USA, many lakes have been at historic low levels and water augmentation strategies have been proposed to alleviate the problem. White Bear Lake (WBL) is a notable example. Its water level declined 1.5 m during 2003–2013 for reasons that are not fully understood. This study examined current, past, and future lake evaporation to better understand how climate will impact the water balance of lakes within this region. Evaporation from WBL was measured from July 2014 to February 2017 using two eddy covariance (EC) systems to provide better constraints on the water budget and to investigate the impact of evaporation on lake level. The estimated annual evaporation losses for years 2014 through 2016 were 559±22 mm, 779±81 mm, and 766±11 mm, respectively. The higher evaporation in 2015 and 2016 was caused by the combined effects of larger average daily evaporation and a longer ice-free season. The EC measurements were used to tune the Community Land Model 4 – Lake, Ice, Snow and Sediment Simulator (CLM4-LISSS) to estimate lake evaporation over the period 1979–2016. Retrospective analyses indicate that WBL evaporation increased during this time by about 3.8 mm yr−1, which was driven by increased wind speed and lake-surface vapor pressure gradient. Using a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission scenario (RCP8.5), lake evaporation was modeled forward in time from 2017 to 2100. Annual evaporation is expected to increase by 1.4 mm yr−1 over this century, largely driven by lengthening ice-free periods. These changes in ice phenology and evaporation will have important implications for the regional water balance, and water management and water augmentation strategies that are being proposed for these Metropolitan lakes.
Modeling framework for representing long-term effectiveness of best management practices in addressing hydrology and water quality problems: framework development and demonstration using a Bayesian method J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Yaoze Liu, Bernard A. Engel, Dennis C. Flanagan, Margaret W. Gitau, Sara K. McMillan, Indrajeet Chaubey, Shweta Singh
Best management practices (BMPs) are popular approaches used to improve hydrology and water quality. Uncertainties in BMP effectiveness over time may result in overestimating long-term efficiency in watershed planning strategies. To represent varying long-term BMP effectiveness in hydrologic/water quality models, a high level and forward-looking modeling framework was developed. The components in the framework consist of establishment period efficiency, starting efficiency, efficiency for each storm event, efficiency between maintenance, and efficiency over the life cycle. Combined, they represent long-term efficiency for a specific type of practice and specific environmental concern (runoff/pollutant). An approach for possible implementation of the framework was discussed. The long-term impacts of grass buffer strips (agricultural BMP) and bioretention systems (urban BMP) in reducing total phosphorus were simulated to demonstrate the framework. Data gaps were captured in estimating the long-term performance of the BMPs. A Bayesian method was used to match the simulated distribution of long-term BMP efficiencies with the observed distribution with the assumption that the observed data represented long-term BMP efficiencies. The simulated distribution matched the observed distribution well with only small total predictive uncertainties. With additional data, the same method can be used to further improve the simulation results. The modeling framework and results of this study, which can be adopted in hydrologic/water quality models to better represent long-term BMP effectiveness, can help improve decision support systems for creating long-term stormwater management strategies for watershed management projects.
Simulating Streamflow in Ungauged Basins under a Changing Climate: The Importance of Landscape Characteristics J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Claudia Teutschbein, Thomas Grabs, Hjalmar Laudon, Reinert H. Karlsen, Kevin Bishop
In this paper we explored how landscape characteristics such as topography, geology, soils and land cover influence the way catchments respond to changing climate conditions. Based on an ensemble of 15 regional climate models bias-corrected with a distribution-mapping approach, present and future streamflow in 14 neighboring and rather similar catchments in Northern Sweden was simulated with the HBV model. We established functional relationships between a range of landscape characteristics and projected changes in streamflow signatures. These were then used to analyze hydrological consequences of physical perturbations in a hypothetically ungauged basin in a climate change context. Our analysis showed a strong connection between the forest cover extent and the sensitivity of different components of a catchment’s hydrological regime to changing climate conditions. This emphasizes the need to redefine forestry goals and practices in advance of climate change-related risks and uncertainties.
A Modified MOD16 Algorithm to Estimate Evapotranspiration over Alpine Meadow on the Tibetan Plateau, China J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Yaping Chang, Dahe Qin, Yongjian Ding, Qiudong Zhao, Shiqiang Zhang
The long-term change of evapotranspiration (ET) is crucial for managing water resources in areas with extreme climates, such as the Tibetan Plateau (TP). This study proposed a modified algorithm for estimating ET based on the MOD16 algorithm on a global scale over alpine meadow on the TP in China. Wind speed and vegetation height were integrated to estimate aerodynamic resistance, while the temperature and moisture constraints for stomatal conductance were revised based on the technique proposed by Fisher et al. (2008). Moreover, Fisher’s method for soil evaporation was adopted to reduce the uncertainty in soil evaporation estimation. Five representative alpine meadow sites on the TP were selected to investigate the performance of the modified algorithm. Comparisons were made between the ET observed using the Eddy Covariance (EC) and estimated using both the original and modified algorithms. The results revealed that the modified algorithm performed better than the original MOD16 algorithm with the coefficient of determination (R2) increasing from 0.26 to 0.68, and root mean square error (RMSE) decreasing from 1.56 to 0.78 mm d-1. The modified algorithm performed slightly better with a higher R2 (0.70) and lower RMSE (0.61 mm d-1) for after-precipitation days than for non-precipitation days at Suli site. Contrarily, better results were obtained for non-precipitation days than for after-precipitation days at Arou, Tanggula, and Hulugou sites, indicating that the modified algorithm may be more suitable for estimating ET for non-precipitation days with higher accuracy than for after-precipitation days, which had large observation errors. The comparisons between the modified algorithm and two mainstream methods suggested that the modified algorithm could produce high accuracy ET over the alpine meadow sites on the TP.
Evaluation of δ2H and δ18O of water in pores extracted by compression method –effects of closed pores and comparison to direct vapor equilibration and laser spectrometry method- J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Kotaro Nakata, Takuma Hasegawa, Takahiro Oyama, Kazuya Miyakawa
Stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) of water can help our understanding of origin, mixing and migration of groundwater. In the formation with low permeability, it provides information about migration mechanism of ion such as diffusion and/or advection. Thus it has been realized as very important information to understand the migration of water and ions in it. However, in formation with low permeability it is difficult to obtain the ground water sample as liquid and water in pores needs to be extracted to estimate it. Compressing rock is the most common and widely used method of extracting water in pores. However, changes in δ2H and δ18O may take place during compression because changes in ion concentration have been reported in previous studies. In this study, two natural rocks were compressed, and the changes in the δ2H and δ18O with compression pressure were investigated. Mechanisms for the changes in water isotopes observed during the compression were then discussed. In addition, δ2H and δ18O of water in pores were also evaluated by direct vapor equilibration and laser spectrometry (DVE-LS) and δ2H and δ18O were compared with those obtained by compression. δ2H was found to change during the compression and a part of this change was found to be explained by the effect of water from closed pores extracted by compression. In addition, water isotopes in both open and closed pores were estimated by combining the results of 2 kinds of compression experiments. Water isotopes evaluated by compression that not be affected by water from closed pores showed good agreements with those obtained by DVE-LS indicating compression could show the mixed information of water from open and closed pores, while DVE-LS could show the information only for open pores. Thus, the comparison of water isotopes obtained by compression and DVE-LS could provide the information about water isotopes in closed and open pores.
Uncertainties in Historical Pollution Data from Sedimentary Records from an Australian Urban Floodplain Lake J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 A. Lintern, P. Leahy, A. Deletic, H. Heijnis, A. Zawadzki, P. Gadd, D. McCarthy
Sediment cores from aquatic environments can provide valuable information about historical pollution levels and sources. However, there is little understanding of the uncertainties associated with these findings. The aim of this study is to fill this knowledge gap by proposing a framework for quantifying the uncertainties in historical heavy metal pollution records reconstructed from sediment cores. This uncertainty framework consists of six sources of uncertainty: uncertainties in (1) metals analysis methods, (2) spatial variability of sediment core heavy metal profiles, (3) sub-sampling intervals, (4) the sediment chronology, (5) the assumption that metal levels in bed sediments reflect the magnitude of metal inputs into the aquatic system, and (6) post-depositional transformation of metals. We apply this uncertainty framework to an urban floodplain lake in South-East Australia (Willsmere Billabong). We find that for this site, uncertainties in historical dated heavy metal profiles can be up to 176%, largely due to uncertainties in the sediment chronology, and in the assumption that the settled heavy metal mass is equivalent to the heavy metal mass entering the aquatic system. As such, we recommend that future studies reconstructing historical pollution records using sediment cores from aquatic systems undertake an investigation of the uncertainties in the reconstructed pollution record, using the uncertainty framework provided in this study. We envisage that quantifying and understanding the uncertainties associated with the reconstructed pollution records will facilitate the practical application of sediment core heavy metal profiles in environmental management projects.
Semianalytical solutions for contaminant transport under variable velocity field in a coastal aquifer J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Behshad Koohbor, Marwan Fahs, Behzad Ataie-Ashtiani, Craig T. Simmons, Anis Younes
Existing closed-form solutions of contaminant transport problems are limited by the mathematically convenient assumption of uniform flow. These solutions cannot be used to investigate contaminant transport in coastal aquifers where seawater intrusion induces a variable velocity field. An adaptation of the Fourier-Galerkin method is introduced to obtain semi-analytical solutions for contaminant transport in a confined coastal aquifer in which the saltwater wedge is in equilibrium with a freshwater discharge flow. Two scenarios dealing with contaminant leakage from the aquifer top surface and contaminant migration from a source at the landward boundary are considered. Robust implementation of the Fourier-Galerkin method is developed to efficiently solve the coupled flow, salt and contaminant transport equations. Various illustrative examples are generated and the semi-analytical solutions are compared against an in-house numerical code. The Fourier series are used to evaluate relevant metrics characterizing contaminant transport such as the discharge flux to the sea, amount of contaminant persisting in the groundwater and solute flux from the source. These metrics represent quantitative data for numerical code validation and are relevant to understand the effect of seawater intrusion on contaminant transport. It is observed that, for the surface contamination scenario, seawater intrusion limits the spread of the contaminant but intensifies the contaminant discharge to the sea. For the landward contamination scenario, moderate seawater intrusion affects only the spatial distribution of the contaminant plume while extreme seawater intrusion can increase the contaminant discharge to the sea. The developed semi-analytical solution presents an efficient tool for the verification of numerical models. It provides a clear interpretation of the contaminant transport processes in coastal aquifers subject to seawater intrusion. For practical usage in further studies, the full open source semi-analytical codes are made available at the website https://lhyges.unistra.fr/FAHS-Marwan.
Advances in water resources research in the Upper Blue Nile basin and the way forward: A review J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Yihun Taddele Dile, Sirak Tekleab, Essayas A. Kaba, Solomon G. Gebrehiwot, Abeyou W. Worqlul, Haimanote K. Bayabil, Yohannes T. Yimam, Seifu A. Tilahun, Prasad Daggupati, Louise Karlberg, Raghavan Srinivasan
The Upper Blue Nile basin is considered as the lifeline for ∼250 million people and contributes ∼50 Gm3/year of water to the Nile River. Poor land management practices in the Ethiopian highlands have caused a significant amount of soil erosion, thereby threatening the productivity of the Ethiopian agricultural system, degrading the health of the aquatic ecosystem, and shortening the life of downstream reservoirs. The Upper Blue Nile basin, because of limited research and availability of data, has been considered as the “great unknown.” In the recent past, however, more research has been published. Nonetheless, there is no state-of-the-art review that presents research achievements, gaps and future directions. Hence, this paper aims to bridge this gap by reviewing the advances in water resources research in the basin while highlighting research needs and future directions. We report that there have been several research projects that try to understand the biogeochemical processes by collecting information on runoff, groundwater recharge, sediment transport, and tracers. Different types of hydrological models have been applied. Most of the earlier research used simple conceptual and statistical approaches for trend analysis and water balance estimations, mainly using rainfall and evapotranspiration data. More recent research has been using advanced semi-physically/physically based distributed hydrological models using high-resolution temporal and spatial data for diverse applications. We identified several research gaps and provided recommendations to address them. While we have witnessed advances in water resources research in the basin, we also foresee opportunities for further advancement. Incorporating the research findings into policy and practice will significantly benefit the development and transformation agenda of the Ethiopian government.
14C age reassessment of groundwater from the discharge zone due to cross-flow mixing in the deep confined aquifer J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Xumei Mao, Hua Wang, Liang Feng
In a groundwater flow system, the age of groundwater should gradually increase from the recharge zone to the discharge zone within the same streamline. However, it is occasionally observed that the groundwater age becomes younger in the discharge zone in the piedmont alluvial plain, and the oldest age often appears in the middle of the plain. A new set of groundwater chemistry and isotopes was employed to reassess the groundwater 14C ages from the discharge zone in the North China Plain (NCP). Carbonate precipitation, organic matter oxidation and cross-flow mixing in the groundwater from the recharge zone to the discharge zone are recognized according to the corresponding changes of HCO3- (or DIC) and δ13C in the same streamline of the third aquifer of the NCP. The effects of carbonate precipitation and organic matter oxidation are calibrated with a 13C mixing model and DIC correction, but these corrected 14C ages seem unreasonable because they grow younger from the middle plain to the discharge zone in the NCP. The relationship of Cl- content and the recharge distance is used to estimate the expected Cl- content in the discharge zone, and ln(a14C)/Cl is proposed to correct the a14C in groundwater for the effect of cross-flow mixing. The 14C ages were reassessed with the corrected a14C due to the cross-flow mixing varying from 1.25 to 30.58 ka, and the groundwater becomes older gradually from the recharge zone to the discharge zone. The results suggest that the reassessed 14C ages are more reasonable for the groundwater from the discharge zone due to cross-flow mixing.
Vertical variability of arsenic concentrations under the control of iron-sulfur-arsenic interactions in reducing aquifer systems J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Kunfu Pi, Yanxin Wang, Dieke Postma, Teng Ma, Chunli Su, Xianjun Xie
High spatial variability of arsenic (As) concentration in geogenic As-contaminated groundwater has been commonly observed worldwide, but the underlying reasons remain not well understood. Selecting a sulfate-containing, As-affected aquifer at the Datong Basin, northern China as the study area and combining hydrogeochemical investigation and sediment extraction with reactive transport modeling, this work elucidated the roles of Fe-S-As interactions in regulating the vertical variation of As concentration in the groundwater. Dissolved As concentration varied between 0.05 and 18 μmol/L, but generally increased in the depth of 20 – 25 m and then decreased in 25 – 30 m. The high-As groundwater contained low Fe(II) (< 0.007 mmol/L) and up to 15 μmol/L sulfide, in contrary to the S/SE Asian deltas/floodplains where high Fe(II) and As jointly occur in the groundwater devoid of sulfate reduction. The reductive dissolution of As-bearing Fe(III) oxides coupled to the degradation of organic matter with an estimated maximum rate of 0.22 mmol C/L/yr, mainly accounted for the depth-dependent increase of As concentration in the upper part of the shallow aquifer (< 25 m deep). However, the decreasing reactivity of Fe(III) oxides together with the increase of pH over depth rendered the majority of electrons being transferred to sulfate reduction. The Fe(II) sulfides formed as a consequence not only helped to restrict the build-up of Fe(II) in the groundwater but also probably co-precipitated As to prompt As decrease in the depth of 25 – 30 m. Arsenite adsorbed on remaining Fe(III) oxides and newly-formed Fe(II) sulfides is another important pool of As in the aquifer, which varies in response to the extents of Fe(III)-oxide and sulfate reduction and consequently alters As distribution coefficient between the solid and the aqueous phases. This study highlights the importance of coupled geochemical cycling of Fe, S and As for As mobilization and reveals how it regulates As partitioning between groundwater and sediments.
A Lagrangian analysis of the moisture budget over the Fertile Crescent during two intense drought episodes J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Zeinab Salah, Raquel Nieto, Anita Drumond, Luis Gimeno, Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano
The Fertile Crescent (FC) region comprises the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The FC suffered two severe drought episodes separated by a 7-year period, in 1998 – 2000 and 2007 – 2009, which are considered the most severe episodes to hit the region in the last 50 years. A Lagrangian model (FLEXPART) and ERA-Interim data (with a 1°x1° lat-long resolution) were used to identify for the first time the climatological sources of moisture for the FC and their characteristics. Variability and the source-receptor relationships, concerning their contribution to the precipitation, and the implications regarding the transport of moisture changes over the FC, during the wet season (October-May) from 1980 – 2014 were analysed. The main climatological moisture sources during this period were determined to be the FC itself, the eastern Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Arabian Sea, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the central and western parts of the Mediterranean Sea. The analysis showed higher anomalous conditions in the moisture transport from some moisture sources during the two outstanding drought episodes. The key feature of the wet seasons during these episodes was a deficit in the moisture losses over the studied area related to the FC itself, the Red and Arabian Seas sources, followed and to a lesser extent by the eastern Mediterranean Sea over the northern part of the FC region. Nevertheless, the moisture supply deficit from the sources was much greater during the 2007 – 2009 drought event. The SPEI index at large scales (24 months) showed that the 2007 – 2009 episode was part of longer-term drought conditions that had been developing over the previous months, reinforcing the drought severity given recycling processes attributed to the FC. During the two extreme drought episodes, the mountainous terrain over the northern and eastern FC suffered the highest precipitation deficits, and these areas are, precisely, the most influenced by two of the major moisture sources, namely, the FC and eastern Mediterranean Sea. The decreased moisture contribution from these main sources led to more intense droughts over the region. As a result, both regions should be considered as hotspots to signal severe or extreme droughts in the region.
Mapping the spatial distribution of chloride deposition across Australia J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 P.J. Davies, R.S. Crosbie
The high solubility and conservative behaviour of chloride make it ideal for use as an environmental tracer of water and salt movement through the hydrologic cycle. For such use the spatial distribution of chloride deposition in rainfall at a suitable scale must be known. A number of authors have used point data acquired from field studies of chloride deposition around Australia to construct relationships to characterise chloride deposition as a function of distance from the coast; these relationships have allowed chloride deposition to be interpolated in different regions around Australia. In this paper we took this a step further and developed a chloride deposition map for all of Australia which includes a quantification of uncertainty. A previously developed four parameter model of chloride deposition as a function of distance from the coast for Australia was used as the basis for producing a continental scale chloride deposition map. Each of the four model parameters were made spatially variable by creating parameter surfaces that were interpolated using a pilot point regularisation approach within a parameter estimation software. The observations of chloride deposition were drawn from a literature review that identified 291 point measurements of chloride deposition over a period of 80 years spread unevenly across all Australian States and Territories. A best estimate chloride deposition map was developed from the resulting surfaces on a 0.05 degree grid. The uncertainty in the chloride deposition map was quantified as the 5th and 95th percentile of 1000 calibrated models produced via Null Space Monte Carlo analysis and the spatial variability of chloride deposition across the continent was consistent with landscape morphology. The temporal variability in chloride deposition on a decadal scale was investigated in the Murray-Darling Basin, this highlighted the need for long-term monitoring of chloride deposition if the uncertainty of the continental scale map is to be reduced. Use of the derived chloride deposition map was demonstrated for a probabilistic estimation of groundwater recharge for the southeast of South Australia using the chloride mass balance method.
Effect of biotic and abiotic factors on inter and intra-event variability in stemflow rates in oak and pine stands in a Mediterranean mountain area J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 C. Cayuela, P. Llorens, E. Sánchez-Costa, D.F. Levia, J. Latron
Stemflow, despite being a small proportion of gross rainfall, is an important and understudied flux of water in forested areas. Recent studies have highlighted its complexity and relative importance for understanding soil and groundwater recharge. Stemflow dynamics offer an insight into how rain water is stored and released from the stems of trees to the soil. Past attempts have been made to understand the variability of stemflow under different types of vegetation, but rather few studies have focused on the combined influence of biotic and abiotic factors on inter and intra-storm stemflow variability, and none in Mediterranean climates. This study presents stemflow data collected at high temporal resolution for two species with contrasting canopies and bark characteristics: Quercus pubescens Willd. (downy oak) and Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) in the Vallcebre research catchments (NE of Spain, 42° 12’N, 1° 49’E). The main objective was to understand how the interaction of biotic and abiotic factors affected stemflow dynamics. Mean stemflow production was low for both species (∼1% of incident rainfall) and increased with rainfall amount. However, the magnitude of the response depended on the combination of multiple biotic and abiotic factors. Both species produced similar stemflow volumes and the largest differences were found among trees of the same species. The combined analysis of biotic and abiotic factors showed that funneling ratios and stemflow dynamics were highly influenced by the interaction of rainfall intensity and tree size.
Using Environmental Tracers to Determine the Relative Importance of Travel Times in the Unsaturated and Saturated Zones for the Delay of Nitrate Reduction Measures J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Christoph Gerber, Roland Purtschert, Daniel Hunkeler, Rainer Hug, Jürgen Sültenfuss
Groundwater quality in many regions with intense agriculture has deteriorated due to the leaching of nitrate and other agricultural pollutants. Modified agricultural practices can reduce the input of nitrate to groundwater bodies, but it is crucial to determine the time span over which these measures become effective at reducing nitrate levels in pumping wells. Such estimates can be obtained from hydrogeological modeling or lumped-parameter models (LPM) in combination with environmental tracer data. Two challenges in such tracer-based estimates are (i) accounting for the different modes of transport in the unsaturated zone (USZ), and (ii) assessing uncertainties. Here we extend a recently published Bayesian inference scheme for simple LPMs to include an explicit USZ model and apply it to the Dünnerngäu aquifer, Switzerland. Compared to a previous estimate of travel times in the aquifer based on a 2D hydrogeological model, our approach provides a more accurate assessment of the dynamics of nitrate concentrations in the aquifer. We find that including tracer measurements (3H/3He, 85Kr, 39Ar, 4He) reduces uncertainty in nitrate predictions if nitrate time series at wells are not available or short, but does not necessarily lead to better predictions if long nitrate time series are available. Finally, the combination of tracer data with nitrate time series allows for a separation of the travel times in the unsaturated and saturated zone.
Sensitivity of peak flow to the change of rainfall temporal pattern due to warmer climate J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Sherien Fadhel, Miguel Angel Rico–Ramirez, Dawei Han
The widely used design storms in urban drainage networks has different drawbacks. One of them is that the shape of the rainfall temporal pattern is fixed regardless of climate change. However, previous studies have shown that the temporal pattern may scale with temperature due to climate change, which consequently affects peak flow. Thus, in addition to the scaling of the rainfall volume, the scaling relationship for the rainfall temporal pattern with temperature needs to be investigated by deriving the scaling values for each fraction within storm events, which is lacking in many parts of the world including the UK. Therefore, this study analysed rainfall data from 28 gauges close to the study area with a 15-min resolution as well as the daily temperature data. It was found that, at warmer temperatures, the rainfall temporal pattern becomes less uniform, with more intensive peak rainfall during higher intensive times and weaker rainfall during less intensive times. This is the case for storms with and without seasonal separations. In addition, the scaling values for both the rainfall volume and the rainfall fractions (i.e. each segment of rainfall temporal pattern) for the summer season were found to be higher than the corresponding results for the winter season. Applying the derived scaling values for the temporal pattern of the summer season in a hydrodynamic sewer network model produced high percentage change of peak flow between the current and future climate. This study on the scaling of rainfall fractions is the first in the UK, and its findings are of importance to modellers and designers of sewer systems because it can provide more robust scenarios for flooding mitigation in urban areas.
Unstructured mesh adaptivity for urban flooding modelling J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 R. Hu, F. Fang, P. Salinas, C.C. Pain
Over the past few decades, urban floods have been gaining more attention due to their increase in frequency. To provide reliable flooding predictions in urban areas, various numerical models have been developed to perform high-resolution flood simulations. However, the use of high-resolution meshes across the whole computational domain causes a high computational burden. In this paper, a 2D control-volume and finite-element flood model using adaptive unstructured mesh technology has been developed. This adaptive unstructured mesh technique enables meshes to be adapted optimally in time and space in response to the evolving flow features, thus providing sufficient mesh resolution where and when it is required. It has the advantage of capturing the details of local flows and wetting and drying front while reducing the computational cost. Complex topographic features are represented accurately during the flooding process. For example, the high-resolution meshes around the buildings and steep regions are placed when the flooding water reaches these regions. In this work a flooding event that happened in 2002 in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom has been simulated to demonstrate the capability of the adaptive unstructured mesh flooding model. The simulations have been performed using both fixed and adaptive unstructured meshes, and then results have been compared with those published 2D and 3D results. The presented method shows that the 2D adaptive mesh model provides accurate results while having a low computational cost.
“A Framework Model for Water-Sharing among Co-Basin States of a River Basin” J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 N.K. Garg, Shambhu Azad
A new framework model is presented in this study for sharing of water in a river basin using certain governing variables, in an effort to enhance the objectivity for a reasonable and equitable allocation of water among co-basin states. The governing variables were normalised to reduce the governing variables of different co-basin states of a river basin on same scale. In the absence of objective methods for evaluating the weights to be assigned to co-basin states for water allocation, a framework was conceptualised and formulated to determine the normalised weighting factors of different co-basin states as a function of the governing variables. The water allocation to any co-basin state had been assumed to be proportional to its struggle for equity, which in turn was assumed to be a function of the normalised discontent, satisfaction, and weighting factors of each co-basin state. System dynamics was used effectively to represent and solve the proposed model formulation. The proposed model was successfully applied to the Vamsadhara river basin located in the South–Eastern part of India, and a sensitivity analysis of the proposed model parameters was carried out to prove its robustness in terms of the proposed model convergence and validity over the broad spectrum values of the proposed model parameters. The solution converged quickly to a final allocation of 1444 million cubic metre (MCM) in the case of the Odisha co-basin state, and to 1067 MCM for the Andhra Pradesh co-basin state. The sensitivity analysis showed that the proposed model’s allocation varied from 1584 MCM to 1336 MCM for Odisha state and from 927 to 1175 MCM for Andhra, depending upon the importance weights given to the governing variables for the calculation of the weighting factors. Thus, the proposed model was found to be very flexible to explore various policy options to arrive at a decision in a water sharing problem. It can therefore be effectively applied to any trans-boundary problem where there is conflict about water-sharing among co-basin states.
Impacts of correcting the inter-variable correlation of climate model outputs on hydrological modeling J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Jie Chen, Chao Li, François P. Brissette, Hua Chen, Mingna Wang, Gilles R.C. Essou
Bias correction is usually implemented prior to using climate model outputs for impact studies. However, bias correction methods that are commonly used treat climate variables independently and often ignore inter-variable dependencies. The effects of ignoring such dependencies on impact studies need to be investigated. This study aims to assess the impacts of correcting the inter-variable correlation of climate model outputs on hydrological modeling. To this end, a joint bias correction (JBC) method which corrects the joint distribution of two variables as a whole is compared with an independent bias correction (IBC) method; this is considered in terms of correcting simulations of precipitation and temperature from 26 climate models for hydrological modeling over 12 watersheds located in various climate regimes. The results show that the simulated precipitation and temperature are considerably biased not only in the individual distributions, but also in their correlations, which in turn result in biased hydrological simulations. In addition to reducing the biases of the individual characteristics of precipitation and temperature, the JBC method can also reduce the bias in precipitation-temperature (P-T) correlations. In terms of hydrological modeling, the JBC method performs significantly better than the IBC method for 11 out of the 12 watersheds over the calibration period. For the validation period, the advantages of the JBC method are greatly reduced as the performance become dependent on the watershed, GCM and hydrological metric considered. For arid/tropical and snowfall-rainfall-mixed watersheds, JBC performs better than IBC. For snowfall- or rainfall-dominated watersheds, however, the two methods behave similarly, with IBC performing somewhat better than JBC. Overall, the results emphasize the advantages of correcting the P-T correlation when using climate model-simulated precipitation and temperature to assess the impact of climate change on watershed hydrology. However, a thorough validation and a comparison with other methods are recommended before using the JBC method, since it may perform worse than the IBC method for some cases due to bias nonstationarity of climate model outputs.
Assessing the seasonality and uncertainty in evapotranspiration partitioning using a tracer-aided model J. Hydrol. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 A.A. Smith, C. Welch, T.A. Stadnyk
Evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning is a growing field of research in hydrology due to the significant fraction of watershed water loss it represents. The use of tracer-aided models has improved understanding of watershed processes, and has significant potential for identifying time-variable partitioning of evaporation (E) from ET. A tracer-aided model was used to establish a time-series of E/ET using differences in riverine δ18O and δ2H in four northern Canadian watersheds (lower Nelson River, Manitoba, Canada). On average E/ET follows a parabolic trend ranging from 0.7 in the spring and autumn to 0.15 (three watersheds) and 0.5 (fourth watershed) during the summer growing season. In the fourth watershed wetlands and shrubs dominate land cover. During the summer, E/ET ratios are highest for wetlands for three watersheds (10% higher than unsaturated soil storage), while lowest for the fourth watershed (20% lower than unsaturated soil storage). Uncertainty of the ET partition parameters is strongly influenced by storage volumes, with large storage volumes increasing partition uncertainty. In addition, higher simulated soil moisture increases estimated E/ET. Although unsaturated soil storage accounts for larger surface areas in these watersheds than wetlands, riverine isotopic composition is more strongly affected by E from wetlands. Comparisons of E/ET to measurement-intensive studies in similar ecoregions indicate that the methodology proposed here adequately partitions ET.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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