Effect of seasonal production on bacterial communities in Korean industrial kimchi fermentation Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-12 Moeun Lee, Jung Hee Song, Se Hee Lee, Min Young Jung, Ji Yoon Chang
Kimchi is prepared by fermenting salted vegetables with various ingredients and lactic acid bacteria, which are essential for the process. The aim of this study was to expiscate phylogenetic associations with the season and salinity of manufactured kimchi with respect to bacterial-community composition. We analyzed 66 Chinese cabbage kimchi samples obtained in the spring, autumn, or winter from commercial sources in six Korean provinces (Gangwon, Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, Gyeongsang, Jeolla, and Jeju) by Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The pH and salinity of the kimchi samples ranged from 5.02 to 6.13 and 1.40%–3.30%, respectively, and the salinity differed significantly by season and influenced bacterial-diversity indexes. Variations in operational taxonomic units and the Shannon index correlated significantly with salinity and seasonality. Moreover, microbial-community differences were strongly reflected in the seasonality of kimchi samples in non-metric multidimensional scaling plots and by analysis of similarity. Additionally, the distribution patterns of Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Weissella spp. were well predicted by seasonality, demonstrating the importance of comprehensive correlations in bacterial community on variable environmental factors. Understanding key processes that control microbial distributions during kimchi fermentation offer insight into the biological variations of this food and the relationship between various kimchi properties and its microbiota.
Concentration of Aflatoxin M1 and selected heavy metals in mother milk samples from Pakistan Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-12 Sarah Khan, Amir Ismail, Yun Yun Gong, Saeed Akhtar, Majid Hussain
Mother milk is the primary food source for neonates that if contaminated with certain toxic compounds may result in lifelong complications in the breastfeed infants. Present study was designed to evaluate the concentration of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and the four most toxic heavy metals i.e. lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in mother milk samples. AFM1 was found in the range of <0.001–0.044 μg/L and 6.4% mother milk samples were found above the EU permissible limit (0.025 μg/L). Pb and Cd concentrations were found above the normal ranges proposed by WHO while Hg was found slightly above the WHO proposed level.
Simultaneous determination of neurotoxic shellfish toxins (brevetoxins) in commercial shellfish by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-11 Choonshik Shin, Jeong-Yun Hwang, Jin-Hong Yoon, Sheen-Hee Kim, Gil-Jin Kang
An analytical method using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) toxins (brevetoxins) in shellfish. The tested parameters included extraction solvent, clean-up method, mobile phase and mass spectrometric detection parameters including multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) conditions. The toxins were extracted with 80% methanol in water and cleaned up using Strata-X SPE cartridges. Chromatographic separation of brevetoxins (PbTx-1, PbTx-2 and PbTx-3) was carried out on a C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) with gradient elution. The developed method was validated according to the requirements of SANTE 11945/2015. The average recoveries of the brevetoxins ranged from 75.9% to 105.8%, the intra-day precisions were in the range of 0.4–8.6%, the inter-day precisions were in the range of 0.7–6.3% and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 25 μg/kg for each toxin. The validated method was successfully applied to real shellfish samples, including mussel, oyster and blood cockle. Overall, the method has shown excellent sensitivity and reproducibility, and it could be used as a reference method for the monitoring of individual brevetoxins in shellfish samples.
AFLP markers for meat traceability of cattle in the Chinese market Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-10 Jie Zhao, Tingting Li, Zhenzhen Xu, Zhiying Wang, Shuming Yang, Ailiang Chen
Traceability can play an important role in preventing food fraud, reducing food risk, and increasing consumer’s confidence in food safety. In this study, an amplified fragment length polymorphism procedure was used to identify 89 individuals from the most representative cattle breeds present in the Chinese market. Eight pairs of combined primers were obtained, which were E04M06, E04M44, E04M49, E33M48, E33M49, E39M06, E39M44, and E39M49. These eight primers produced a total of 1095 polymorphic fragments, and each one of the primers could successfully distinguish all the test individuals and the six breeds assessed.
Probabilistic Health Risk Assessment for Dietary Exposure to Aflatoxin in Peanut and Peanut Products in Taiwan. Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-10 Xin Wang, Keng-Wen Lien, Min-Pei Ling
Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites naturally occurring in many foods such as peanuts, spices, rice, tree nuts, and maize. Aflatoxins are both genotoxic and carcinogenic substances and can cause severe adverse health effects. The purpose of this study is to estimate the probabilistic risk of consuming aflatoxin-contaminated peanuts and peanut products. Concentration data (1.84 ± 4.03 ppb) were gathered from the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) between 2005 and 2015, along with consumption rate data (from Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan) for five age groups, namely 1-2 years (babies), 3-9 years (toddlers), 10-17 years (teenagers), 18-65 years (adults), and above 65 (elderly), in two sub-populations (whole group and consumer only). These data are essential material for exposure analysis. According to the benchmark dose lower confidence limit 10% (BMDL10) (170 ng/kg bw/day) suggested by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the calculated margin of exposure (MOE) value cannot reach 10,000. Cancer potency data from Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) indicates that the estimated population risk ranges from 0.0007 to 0.2713 cancers/100,000 population/year. Although aflatoxin contamination does not seem to largely account for the occurrence of liver cancer in Taiwan, MOE calculations point out that it may cause potential health concerns.
Comparison between proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and near infrared spectroscopy for the authentication of Brazilian coffee: A preliminary chemometric study Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-10 Pablo Inocêncio Monteiro, Jânio Sousa Santos, Vitor Rafael Alvarenga Brizola, Carolina Turnes Pasini Deolindo, Alex Koot, Rita Boerrigter-Eenling, Saskia van Ruth, Konstantia Georgouli, Anastasios Koidis, Daniel Granato
In this study, proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were compared for the authentication of geographical and farming system origins of Brazilian coffees. For this purpose, n = 19 organic (ORG) and n = 26 conventional (CONV) coffees from distinct producing regions were analyzed. Overall, differences (p ≤ 0.05) in 44 and 71 ion intensities were observed between the main producing regions and farming systems, respectively. Principal component analysis was not effective in illustrating differences between the coffees according to the farming system or geographical origin using neither PTR-MS nor NIRS data. However, when the PLS-DA was applied, which produced the best performing models compared to several other chemometric techniques, the farming system was adroitly differentiated. The fact that the classification performance (>80%) was independent of the data acquisition method used gives NIRS an edge over PTR-MS in the differentiation of the farming system because of its rapid analysis and cost. Differentiating geographic location of coffee was rather complex. The PTR-MS calibration models showed slightly better PLS-DA classification rates compared to the NIRS models (69% vs. 61%, respectively), which is even more evident when the alternative classifier is used (LDA-kNN, 69% vs. 39%, respectively). Coffee samples from either Minas Gerais (MG) or Sao Paulo (SP) were differentiated from the other regions. In conclusion, our study provides information on alternative rapid analysis coupled with chemometric techniques to differentiate the farming system and trace the geographical provenance of Brazilian specialty coffee.
A concept of mould spoilage prevention and acrylamide reduction in wheat bread: application of lactobacilli in combination with a cranberry coating Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-10 Elena Bartkiene, Vadims Bartkevics, Vita Lele, Iveta Pugajeva, Paulina Zavistanaviciute, Ruta Mickiene, Daiva Zadeike, Grazina Juodeikiene
The current study evaluated the technological and antifungal properties of the newly isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (P. pentosaceus LUHS183, P. acidilactici LUHS29, Lactobacillus paracasei LUHS244, Lactobacillus brevis LUHS173, Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides LUHS242) and determined the influence of different LAB sourdoughs and their quantities (10, 15 and 20%) on wheat bread quality, including acrylamide content. In order to prolong the final products shelf life, LAB fermentation was combined with coating of the bread surface using cranberry preparations. All the tested LAB strains showed antifungal activities against Aspergillus nidulans, Penicillium funiculosum and Fusarium poae. L. brevis LUHS173 and Leu. mesenteroides LUHS242 strains showed weak antifungal activities, but good technological and acrylamide-lowering properties (the lowest acrylamide content (5.21 μg kg-1) in bread with 20% of LUHS173 sourdough was achieved). However, by increasing the sourdough content, the bread quality decreased (except Leu. mesenteroides LUHS242), therefore, additional experiments were undertaken, using a cranberries-based bread surface coating. This approach showed antifungal activities against Aspergillus fischeri, Penicillium oxalicum, P. funiculosum, F. poae, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium graminearum. Finally, selected LAB, in combination with an antimicrobial coating, leads to wheat bread with improved quality, safety and extended shelf life.
Chitosan-sodium alginate nanoparticle as a delivery system for ε-polylysine: preparation, characterization and antimicrobial activity Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-10 Jianhua Liu, Jie Xiao, Feng Li, Ying Shi, Dapeng Li, Qingrong Huang
ε-Polylysine-loaded chitosan-sodium alginate nanoparticles (ε-PL NPs) were synthesized and characterized in terms of particle size distribution, surface morphology, thermal properties and structure, respectively. Their antibacterial activity on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were studied. The ε-PL NPs were well dispersed as spherical particles within the range of 200-500 nm. In vitro release studies showed an initial burst release of ε-PL from the nanoparticles followed by a sustained release. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ε-PL NPs against four test bacteria were 7.81 μg/mL (E. coli), 31.25 μg/mL (B. subtilis), 15.63 μg/mL (S. aureus) and 38.67 μg/mL (M. luteus), respectively. The bacteriostatic activity of ε-PL NPs was three times higher (P < 0.05) than that of free ε-PL in terms of inhibition zone diameter, suggesting that ε-PL NPs has stronger antibacterial activity. These findings may provide some basis for the application of ε-PL NPs as a promising food preservative.
Artifact-controlled quantification of folpet and phthalimide in food by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-09 Flavia Badoud, Marion Ernest, Yves-Alexis Hammel, José Fernando Huertas-Pérez
The European residue definition for the pesticide folpet has changed in 2016 to include its degradation product phthalimide. According to recent studies, phthalimide could also arise from other sources than folpet, including formation in the injector of gas chromatograph systems from the precursor phthalic acid or phthalic anhydride. A liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (MS) method was developed for the quantification of folpet and phthalimide. High resolution MS was deemed necessary to increase the selectivity via accurate mass, as phthalimide and folpet yielded poor fragmentation. Sample preparation by QuEChERS was optimized to ensure the stability of folpet and to prevent the contamination of phthalimide from external sources. The method was validated on four matrices from four commodity groups (i.e., high water content, high water and acid content, high starch content and dairy products). Linearity was assessed with r2 > 0.99 over the range 5–200 μg kg−1, repeatability ranged between 6.8% and 14.5%, intermediate precision between 10% and 23.8%, and trueness was within 78.6% and 124.2% with relative standard deviation from 3% to 20%. These performance parameters were all compliant with the analytical requirements stipulated in the SANTE/11813/2017 document. The method was verified on 12 additional matrices from the 4 commodity groups. The present method was suitable for the quantification of folpet and phthalimide in foods while controlling analytical artifact.
Authentication of honey based on a DNA method to differentiate Apis mellifera subspecies: Application to Sicilian honey bee (A. m. siciliana) and Iberian honey bee (A. m. iberiensis) honeys Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-09 Valerio Joe Utzeri, Anisa Ribani, Luca Fontanesi
Honey contains intrinsic markers that can be used to identify its origin. In this study, we used the honey as source of honey bee DNA and developed a test to detect the entomological origin of the honey by identifying the Apis mellifera subspecies using an informative mitochondrial DNA region. We then applied this method for the authentication of A. m. siciliana and A. m. iberiensis honeys. DNA was extracted from 60 honey samples produced in several Italian regions (including Sicily and close minor islands), Portugal, Spain and other countries. PCR primers were designed to amplify a fragment of 85 bp (A. mellifera C lineage; highly frequent in A. m. ligustica, the Italian honey bee that is frequently implicated in human introductions worldwide), or 138 bp (M lineage; characteristic of A. m. mellifera) or 152 bp (A lineage; of the honey bee subspecies of African origin). All sampled Sicilian honeys (that were from A. m. siciliana) showed only the fragment of 152 bp, confirming its expected origin. All honeys from A. m. iberiensis showed only the fragment of 152 bp or only the fragment of 138 bp or both, in agreement with the hybrid origin of Iberian honey bee populations. All other analysed honeys showed the fragments of 85 bp or 85 + 138 bp, suggesting that they were produced from other subspecies. This authentication system could be a useful tool to support conservation genetic programs that rely on marketing links between honey bee genetic resources and the honey they produce.
Fates of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside from wheat flour to Iranian traditional breads Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-09 Ensyeh Rahimi, Ehsan Sadeghi, Somayeh Bohlouli, Farahnaz Karami
The aims of the present study were to investigate the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) in wheat flour samples obtained from Kermanshah, west part of Iran; determine the contamination levels of DON and D3G through the bread making process of different types of bread, including Sangak, Lavash, Sokhari, Barbari and Taftoon manufactured with these flour samples; and estimate exposure to DON and D3G due to consumption of these products. All wheat flour samples contaminated with DON and D3G ranged 85.0-540.2 μg/kg and 10.72-20.1 μg/kg, respectively. DON and D3G concentrations in mixed and fermented dough were similar, but insignificantly higher than flour (P>0.05). DON and D3G levels were significantly lower in baked breads than in flour (P<0.05). The mean concentration range of DON and D3G in different types of bread was as follows: Sangak > Lavash > Sokhari > Taftoon > Barbari. The mean reduction rates of DON for Sangak, Lavash, Sokhari, Taftoon, and Barbari breads were 42.5%, 54.9%, 48.7%, 57.1% and 49.3%, respectively. Moreover, the average reduction rates of D3G for Sangak, Lavash, Sokhari, Taftoon, and Barbari breads were 54.57%, 44.88%, 51.36%, 44.20%, and 58.76%, respectively. Our data showed that the mean DON and D3G in Iranian breads was lower than the maximum levels determined by the European Commission, and levels of this mycotoxin in Iranian breads are not worried. However, more effort in needed to reduce DON and D3G, and prevent from cereal contamination with mycotoxins.
Role of food sanitising treatments in inducing the ‘viable but nonculturable’ state of microorganisms Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-09 Sergio Ferro, Tony Amorico, Permal Deo
By definition, foodborne outbreaks are illnesses affecting two or more people, correlated in terms of space and time, as a result of the ingestion of etiologic agents present in a common food. Ready-to-eat food products are normally subjected to treatments of sanitisation during processing that aims to miminise the microbial load. However, microorganisms have developed mechanisms to withstand adverse environmental conditions and fight for survival, including the ability to reduce their exposure to external attack through reversible modification of the morphology and physiology of their cell. This results in a significant change of their viability, which becomes undetectable through conventional culture techniques. Subsequent ‘resuscitation’ of these organisms in favourable food environment can represent a serious public health risk. This review aims to examine the existing experimental evidence on the role of different sanitising approaches in inducing ‘viable but nonculturable’ state in microorganism and discuss possible approaches to reduce its occurrence.
Emerging risks in the European seafood chain: Molecular identification of toxic Lagocephalus spp. in fresh and processed products Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-09 A. Giusti, E. Ricci, M. Guarducci, L. Gasperetti, N. Davidovich, A. Guidi, A. Armani
Pufferfish may be responsible for human intoxications due to the accumulation of a potentially lethal neurotoxin, called tetrodotoxin (TTX). While traditionally some species of Pufferfish are consumed in Japan, their marketing is banned in the EU. However, their illegal presence in mislabelled products has been reported. Moreover, some species of the genus Lagocephalus spread in the Mediterranean Sea during the last decades due to the Lessepsian migration phenomenon and they may represent a significant emerging risk within the European seafood chain. This study aimed at finding a suitable molecular marker for quickly identifying Lagocephalus species in fresh and processed products. All available sequences of COI and cytb mitochondrial genes were used to create different length datasets (long and short fragments) to be used to produce NJ trees depicting genetic relationships for Lagocephalus spp. On the basis of its higher variability, cytb gene was selected as the molecular target and 17 new complete sequences of 6 Lagocephalus species, deriving from reference samples, were produced and included in the datasets. Then, a primer pair for amplifying a 130bp cytb polymorphic fragment from all of the Lagocephalus spp. was designed for identifying sixteen mislabelled commercial products with degraded DNA containing pufferfish. Cytb dataset's phylogenetic analysis supported the most recent species classification of the Lagocephalus genus and highlighted the presence of toxic L. spadiceus in the products. The analysis of the proposed short fragment could represent a reliable tool to protect European consumers from the emerging risk associated to toxic Lagocephalus spp.
Authentication of edible fats and oils by non-targeted 13C INEPT NMR spectroscopy Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-07 Sophie Guyader, Freddy Thomas, Vincent Portaluri, Eric Jamin, Serge Akoka, Virginie Silvestre, Gérald Remaud
Further to recent food scandals, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the quality and integrity of the processed products they buy and eat. Edible oils contaminations or deliberate adulterations are recurring issues. Until now the lipidic composition of food has not been extensively studied by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy despite the fact that this analytical method can cover a wide range of matrices. The application of a refocused adiabatic 13C INEPT (Insensitive Nuclei Enhanced by Polarization Transfer) sequence has already proved the performance of NMR spectroscopy to discriminate the origins of olive oils. This sequence has been demonstrated to be faster than a classical 13C NMR sequence. In this work, the implementation of that 13C NMR sequence in a routine laboratory has allowed the analysis of 23 common origins of edible oils, as well as butters, margarines and animal fats. We have proven that butter origin could clearly be distinguished from plant oil origins considered in this work. With the example of the verification of palm oil presence in food products, we have demonstrated the applicability of the method to characterize fats origin in transformed products. This study has shown by means of chemometric tools the potential of 13C NMR spectroscopy to check the authenticity of various commercial finished products, using an untargeted approach applied to a spectral database of 294 spectra of raw animal and plant fats and oils. Thanks to spiking tests, the limit of detection of one origin of plant oil in another has been estimated as being around 5% and the limit of detection of animal oil in plant oils has been estimated as being around 2%. The same approach can be applied as a global method to verify the authenticity and integrity of fats and oils.
Assessment of milk fat content in fat blends by 13C-NMR spectroscopy analysis of butyrate Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-07 Raffaele Sacchi, Antonello Paduano, Nicola Caporaso, Gianluca Picariello, Raffaele Romano, Francesco Addeo
Butyric acid (butyrate) is a candidate marker of milk fat in complex fat blends, since it is exclusive of milk triacylglycerols (TAGs) from different ruminant species. In this work, we determined the amount of milk fat used for the preparation of fat blends by 13C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C-NMR) spectroscopy-based quantification of butyrate. When tested on fat samples spiked with known amounts of reference bovine milk fat (BCR-519 certified material), the relative composition of the mixtures was reliably assessed through the integration of the diagnostic 13C-NMR carbonyl (C1) or α-carbonyl methylene (C2) resonances of butyrate. NMR data exhibited strict correlation with high resolution-gas chromatography (GC) of fatty acid methyl esters (R2 = 0.99), which was used as an independent and well-established method for the determination of butyrate. Thus, 13C-NMR can be used for the direct assessment of milk fat content in fat mixtures, at a limit of detection lower than 5%, with clear advantages over the traditional GC methods in terms of speed, robustness and minimal sample handling. The natural variability of butyrate in milk has been taken into account to estimate the uncertainty associated with the milk fat content in unknown fat blends.
Stability of Listeria monocytogenes in wheat flour during extended storage and isothermal treatment Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-06 Michael H. Taylor, Hsieh-Chin Tsai, Barbara Rasco, Juming Tang, Mei-Jun Zhu
Foodborne pathogens including Salmonella have been implicated in recent recalls of low-aw foods, such as peanut butter, almond flour, wheat flour and dry milk powder, and are primary concerns for microbiological safety of dry food products. Although there are increasing studies on Salmonella thermal resistance conducted in low moisture/water activity (aw) foods, little information is available on Listeria monocytogenes thermal resistance in low-aw foods. This study evaluated the survival of L. monocytogenes in wheat flour during long-term storage as well as its thermal resistance in wheat flour equilibrated to aw 0.30, 0.45, and 0.60. L. monocytogenes survived in wheat flour at both aw 0.31 and 0.56 during 6 months of storage at room temperature, with populations decreasing about 2.52 and 6.27 logs at aw 0.31 and 0.56, respectively. Equilibration in low aw flour enabled L. monocytogenes to become more resistant to thermal treatment. At treatment temperature between 70 and 80°C, D-values increased with decreasing aw. For aw 0.30. 0.45, and 0.60 (measured at room temperature), respectively, D-value (in min) ranges for 70-80°C were 37.10 - 7.08; 17.44 - 3.13; and 16.85 - 1.59. The z-values were 12.9, 14.2, and 9.9 °C for aw 0.30, 0.45, and 0.60, respectively. These data highlight the need for vigilance when processing dry foods, and provide valuable information for the industry to validate thermal processing for control of L. monocytogenes in low-moisture foods. This study also offers insight into the development of thermal inactivation strategies to control L. monocytogenes and other foodborne pathogens in foods with similar matrices.
A survey of ethanol content in virgin olive oil Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-06 Lourdes García-Vico, Angjelina Belaj, Lorenzo León, Raúldela Rosa, Carlos Sanz, Ana G. Pérez
Ethanol is a substrate for the chemical synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) during storage of virgin olive oil whose contents are officially regulated. Given the impact that the ethanol content might have on the olive oil commercialization, the level of this metabolite has been studied in an array of olive genotypes representing the diversity available in olive (Olea europaea L.). Substantial levels of ethanol have been found in the oils of all genotypes under study. Moreover, increasing levels of alcohol dehydrogenase activity have been found during olive fruit ripening in good correspondence with the accumulation of ethanol in advanced stages of fruit maturation. The results suggest that ethanol has a ubiquitous character in the fruits of Olea europaea and, therefore, in all the oils obtained from them. Besides, their concentration seems to depend on the cultivar, ripening stage and climatology, not discarding the influence of the growing conditions. Data suggest that the application of olive oil regulation for FAEE levels should consider the presence of basal levels of ethanol in the oils, which are quite high in many cultivars.
Toxic invasive pufferfish (Tetraodontidae family) along Italian coasts: Assessment of an emerging public health risk Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-05 Guardone Lisa, Gasperetti Laura, Maneschi Andrea, Ricci Enrica, Susini Francesca, Guidi Alessandra, Armani Andrea
Several pufferfish species belonging to the Tetraodontidae family are currently present in the Mediterranean Sea. Since 2013 Lagocephalus sceleratus is increasingly reported also along Italian coasts, where other two species of less concern, Lagocephalus lagocephalus and Sphoeroides pachygaster, also occur since a long time. This study represents one of the first attempts to describe the occurrence in the Mediterranean, and in particular along Italian coasts, of the three aforesaid species, in order to characterize an emerging public health hazard. Reports were searched in scientific articles and dedicated online databases. The following data were collected: number of specimens and type of record, geographical location and date of report, fish size, depth and type of seabed. Overall, at least 111079 individuals of the three species were found in the Mediterranean Sea, including 110237 specimens of L. sceleratus (since 2003), 126 of L. lagocephalus (1878–2017) and 716 of S. pachygaster (1979–2017). The evident differences confirm the invasive character of the toxic Lessepsian immigrant L. sceleratus, the species of main public health concern. Despite this species was recorded along Italian coasts in low numbers (0.08% of the total individuals of L. sceleratus) and its distribution is limited to southern regions, the picture could change rapidly. Moreover, the collected data show that most of L. sceleratus specimens have a large size and are mainly caught by commercial fishing gears. These factors may increase the risk of this species entering the seafood chain with serious consequences for consumers’ health. Results suggest that the presence of L. sceleratus should be strictly monitored. Institutional measures should be implemented to inform people as regards a new hazard that has the potential to affect the Italian seafood chain.
Suitability of feathers as control matrix for antimicrobial treatments detection compared to muscle and liver of broilers. Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-05 LucaMaria Chiesa, Maria Nobile, Sara Panseri, Francesco Arioli
Widespread antibiotic use and the antimicrobial resistance phenomenon demand new analytical methods and the use of non-conventional matrices increasingly necessary for safe food control. We present a method developed to detect six common antibiotics used in poultry breeding, in the unconventional matrix, feathers, compared to muscle and liver. The analysis for the presence of two β-lactams (penicillin V, amoxicillin), two fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin), one phenicol (thiamphenicol) and one macrolide (tylosin) was validated and achieved by HPLC–HRMS, with the ultimate aim to identify untargeted metabolites in broilers subjected to different therapeutic protocols. All the validated method parameters met the regulatory requirements. Muscle and liver were not effective matrices when the withdrawal periods were largely respected. Conversely, feathers proved a promising matrix for the detection of all the studied antibiotics, in the range of 8.72-1885.32 ng g-1, except penicillin V. Like other nonconventional matrices, such as teeth, the antibiotics detected in feathers existed in their unmetabolised form.
The effectiveness of closed-circulation gaseous chlorine dioxide or ozone treatment against bacterial pathogens on produce Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-04 DavidF. Bridges, Bhargavi Rane, VivianC.H. Wu
The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) or ozone (O3) treatment against Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), serovars of Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes on baby-cut carrots, lowbush blueberries, and beefsteak tomatoes using a scaled-up closed-circulation treatment system. Dry ClO2 precursors were combined in-chamber to make 0.03, 0.06, and 0.12 mg ClO2/g produce for a 2.5 h exposure and 0.04, 0.07, and 0.15 mg ClO2/g produce for a 5.0 h exposure time. Ozone was generated through corona-discharge of a dry oxygen feed and either 0.86 or 1.71 µg O3/g produce concentrations were used to treat two kilograms of produce for 2.5 and 5.0 h. Overall, ClO2 treatment resulted in maximum bacterial reductions of > 7 log observed on carrots and tomatoes and 3.7 log on blueberries. Exposure gaseous O3 resulted in observed reductions of 1.2, 1.8, and 1.6 log and simultaneously resulted in noticeable bleaching carrot and tomato tissue as well. These results reported here indicate that gaseous ClO2 can be a suitable treatment when implemented correctly to reduce bacterial pathogens in a storage setting.
Monitoring honey adulteration with sugar syrups using an automatic pulse voltammetric electronic tongue Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-03 Lara Sobrino-Gregorio, Román Bataller, Juan Soto, Isabel Escriche
The new tendency to detect adulterated honey is the development of affordable analytical equipment that is in-line and manageable, enabling rapid on site screening. Therefore, the aim of this work was to apply an electronic tongue based on potential multistep pulse voltammetry, in combination with multivariate statistical techniques to detect and quantify syrup in honey. Pure monofloral honey (heather, orange blossom and sunflower), syrup (rice, barley and corn), and samples simulating adulterated honey with different percentages of syrup (2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40) were evaluated. An automatic, electrochemical system for cleaning and polishing the electronic tongue sensors (Ir, Rh, Pt, Au) significantly improved the repeatability and accuracy of the measurements. PCA analysis showed that the proposed methodology is able to distinguish between types of pure honey and syrup, and their different levels of adulterants. A subsequent PLS analysis successfully predicted the level of the adulterants in each honey, achieving good correlations considering the adjusting parameters. The best results being for sunflower honey adulterated with corn syrup and heather honey with barley syrup (r2=0.997), and heather with corn (r2=0.994) whereas the weakest was found for heather honey adulterated with brown rice syrup (r2=0.763) and orange blossom honey with corn syrup (r2=0.879). The measurement system here proposed could be a very quick and effective option for the honey packaging sector with the finality of providing information about a characteristic as important as the adulteration of honey.
Antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 0612 on the adhesion of selected foodborne enteropathogens in various colonic environments Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-02 Li Ying Jessie Lau, Fook Yee Chye
The study aims to investigate the antagonistic ability of Lactobacillus plantarum 0612 against foodborne enteropathogens adhesion to the human intestinal Caco-2 cells by competition in a simulated colon model. L. plantarum 0612 has been subjected to the gastrointestinal transits simulation (GITS) prior to assess its competitive inhibition on the adhesion of selected pathogenic strains using intestinal epithelial cells with different colonic pH conditions. Results showed that the adhesion of E. coli and L. monocytogenes on Caco-2 cells was significantly inhibited by L. plantarum 0612 with 4.35 and 4.14 log reductions, respectively. Exclusion and competition mechanisms seemed to be more effective in preventing the colonization of pathogens, indicating L. plantarum 0612 is able to compete for receptors of the epithelial cell surfaces. The GITS tolerance L. plantarum 0612 exhibited stronger competitive inhibition (p<0.05) on the adhesion of tested pathogens to the Caco-2 cells at lower colonic pH. It was observed that the viable count of E. coli significantly reduced by 5.10 log CFU/ml after 8 hours of exposure at colonic pH 5.0. The antagonisms against the adhesion of all selected foodborne enteropathogens in the colonic conditions are probably due to the presence of surface adhesion proteins, which needs further investigation. However, the antagonistic effect of L. plantarum 0612 indicates it could be a promising therapeutic approach for the prevention and management of foodborne diseases.
Effects of chitosan coatings incorporating with free or nano-encapsulated Satureja plant essential oil on quality characteristics of lamb meat Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-02 Mahdieh Pabast, Nabi Shariatifar, Sara Beikzadeh, Gholamreza jahed
There is a growing demand for bio-based and active packaging as one of the preferred emerging technologies to improve food quality and extend shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to formulate a novel biodegradable coating embedded with nano-encapsulated Satureja khuzestanica essential oils (SKEO) and to compare effect of chitosan coatings containing free or nano-encapsulated SKEO on chemical, microbial, and sensory properties of lamb meat samples over a 20 day period at 4°C. Nanoliposomes with the average sizes of 93-96 nm were prepared using different concentrations of soy-lecithin ratios (60:0, 50:10, 40:20, and 30:30) by thin-film hydration-sonication method. Size distribution and encapsulation efficiency (EE) of nanoliposomes were calculated 0.83-0.88 and 46-69%, respectively. Nanoliposomes with the lower droplet size and maximum EE were selected for coating of meat samples. The results indicated that the coating treatments could effectively retard microbial growth and chemical spoilage, which reflected itself in lower pH and 2-thiobarbituric acid values (P<0.05). Encapsulation decelerated the release of SKEO and led to a prolonged antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and also improved sensory attributes. The study suggests that chitosan coating containing encapsulated SKEO can be a promising candidate for extending the shelf-life of lamb meat.
Improvement of the quality and the shelf life of reduced-nitrites turkey meat sausages incorporated with carotenoproteins from blue crabs shells Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-04-02 Marwa Hamdi, Rim Nasri, Nawel Dridi, Hafedh Moussa, Lotfi Ashour, Moncef Nasri
The present study investigated the biological properties of carotenoproteins extract (CPE) from blue crab shells as well as the influence of their addition on the quality of turkey meat sausages (TMSs) containing reduced amounts of nitrites. CPE exhibited antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner evaluated through different in vitro antioxidant assays, and interesting antimicrobial potential. Moreover, data revealed that CPE incorporated in TMSs in combination of reduced-nitrites levels effectively inhibited thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes formation, and thereby, the degree of lipid oxidation. The investigation of their antioxidant activity exhibited higher potential of CPE-treated TMSs based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Further, CPE was able of TMSs myoglobin oxidation inhibition, with a significant improvement in the transformation of the Heme iron and lower free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. A significant stability in the color parameters of the CPE-added TMSs was as well noticed. Interestingly, CPE exhibited distinguishable antimicrobial activities in the TMSs within a shelf life of 10 days, as revealed by the estimation of total mesophilic flora (TMF). These results demonstrate that CPE, endowing with high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, could be used as natural additive in functional foods.
Comparative transcriptome RNA-Seq analysis of Listeria monocytogenes with sodium lactate adaptation Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-29 Yujuan Suo, Shigang Gao, Gian Marco Baranzoni, Yanping Xie, Yanhong Liu
Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that can cause listeriosis with high mortality rates. Sodium lactate has been used as an antimicrobial in meat products to inhibit the growth of foodborne pathogens. However, the adaptation mechanism of L. monocytogenes to sodium lactate remains unclear. In this paper, the growth/survival of L. monocytogenes was determined in ready-to-eat (RTE) meats with 4% sodium lactate treatment. RNA-Seq was conducted to compare the transcriptional profiles between cells cultured in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) with and without 4% sodium lactate to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). DEGs (766) including 329 up-regulated and 437 down-regulated genes were identified from RNA-Seq analysis in response to sodium lactate treatment. RNA-Seq data were validated using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. The DEGs include genes involved in pathways including signal transduction, ABC transporter and PTS systems. Interestingly, the DEGs involved in bacterial chemotaxis and flagellar assembles were exclusively down-regulated, indicating that flagellar synthesis was inhibited by sodium lactate treatment. Most importantly, virulence-related genes were induced, suggesting that sodium lactate may increase the virulence potential of L. monocytogenes. Our study provides insight on the adaptation mechanism of L. monocytogenes with treatment of sodium lactate, and may aid searching for more strategies that will have a synergistic effect in combination with sodium lactate to inhibit L. monocytogenes in RTE meat.
Multiplex high resolution melt-curve real-time PCR assay for reliable detection of Salmonella Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-27 Yuejiao Liu, Prashant Singh, Azlin Mustapha
A highly specific multiplex high resolution melt-curve (HRM) real-time PCR assay was developed for the reliable detection of Salmonella serotypes in general. As compared to a conventional singleplex PCR, the use of HRM and three specific gene targets allowed for the detection of the majority of Salmonella serotypes while reducing the chances of generating false-negative or false-positive results from non-Salmonella strains. Primers for each of the three target genes, invA, stn and fimA, were specifically designed. This method was tested on 81 Salmonella strains and its applicability was tested on a wide range of food samples. HRM-PCR results showed three specific and well separated peaks for most Salmonella serotypes, which indicated specific amplification of all three target genes. Several Salmonella strains showed the absence of one peak, but gave positive results for the other two target genes. Twenty-nine non-Salmonella isolates yielded negative results for all three genes, while Citrobacter freundii was positive for the stn gene. After a 6-h enrichment, target genes could be detected in 25 g of most of the 24 different food samples inoculated with 103 CFU/g of Salmonella.
Authentication of the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) using amino acids carbon stable isotope fingerprinting Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-27 Xinda Zhao, Yu Liu, Ying Li, Xufeng Zhang, Haoran Qi
Authentication of seafood is critical for ensuring consistent food quality. In the present study, amino acids (AAs) carbon stable isotope fingerprinting was investigated for its potential to identify sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) from different geographical origins and different production methods. AA compositions and δ13CAA values of wild and cultured samples of A. japonicus from different sampling sites in China were determined by gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Data obtained was analyzed by multivariate statistics including principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. These results showed that the AA compositions were identified samples from different sea areas and different production methods. AAs carbon stable isotope fingerprinting improved the identification, it discriminated samples from the different sampling sub-regions. An overall correct classification rate of 100.0% and a cross-validation rate of 100.0% were obtained for the eight A. japonicus sampling sub-regions based on δ13CAA values and compared to 100.0% and 100.0% for the wild samples and cultured samples. Thus, compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of AAs represents a promising method for accurate identification of the geographic origins and production methods of A. japonicus in the coastal areas of China.
Potential of NIR spectroscopy to predict amygdalin content established by HPLC in intact almonds and classification based on almond bitterness Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-26 Victoria Cortés, Pau Talens, José Manuel Barat, María Jesús Lerma-García
In this study, 360 intact almonds, half sweet and half bitter, were assessed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to predict amygdalin content (established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)) and by applying partial least squares (PLS) to the spectral data. After optimising amygdalin extraction and chromatographic conditions, the amygdalin contents found by HPLC were not detected or below to 350 mg·kg-1 for sweet almonds, and between 14,700 and 50,400 mg·kg-1 for bitter almonds. The intact almond spectra resulted in good predictions of amygdalin content with R2p of 0.939 and RMSEP of 0.373. Almonds were correctly classified into sweet and bitter by linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) and PLS-DA, with sensitivity and specificity values higher than 0.94 for evaluation set samples. Based on these results, it can be concluded that NIR spectroscopy is a good non-destructive alternative to be used as an automatic in-line classification system by food industry.
A novel bacteriocin BMP11 and its antibacterial mechanism on cell envelope of Listeria monocytogenes and Cronobacter sakazakii Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-26 Lanhua Yi, Xin Li, Lingli Luo, Yingying Lu, Hong Yan, Zhu Qiao, Xin Lü
Listeria monocytogenes and Cronobacter sakazakii are notorious pathogens involved in numerous foodborne outbreaks after ingested contaminated food. Bacteriocins are natural food preservatives, some of which have antimicrobial activity comparable with antibiotics. In this study, a plasmid encoded novel bacteriocin BMP11 produced by Lactobacillus crustorum MN047 was innovatively identified by combining complete genome and LC-MS/MS. The BMP11 was found to have rich α-helix conformation after prediction. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of BMP11 was verified after its heterologous expression in E. coli with 1280 and 640 AU/mL against L. monocytogenes and C. sakazakii, respectively. After purification by anion-exchange chromatography and HPLC, BMP11 had MIC values of 0.3–38.4 μg/mL against tested foodborne pathogens. Further, it was found that BMP11 had bactericidal action mode with concomitant cell lysis to pathogens by growth curve and time-kill kinetics. The results of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicated that BMP11 destroyed the integrity of cell envelope of pathogens with cell wall perforation and cell membrane permeabilization. The destruction of cell envelope integrity was further verified by propidium iodide (PI) uptake and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release. BMP11 increased inner-membrane permeability of C. sakazakii in a concentration-dependent manner. Meanwhile, BMP11 exhibited antibiofilm formation activity. In addition, BMP11 inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes in milk. Therefore, BMP11 had promising potential as antimicrobial to control foodborne pathogens in dairy products.
Retardation of melanosis development and quality degradation of Litopenaeus vannamei with starving treatment during cold storage Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-26 Defeng Xu, Hongmei Xue, Lijun Sun, Yaling Wang
the melanosis development and quality deterioration of Litopenaeus vannamei treated with starvation prior to storage were monitored during cold storage at 4 oC for 8 days. Compared with the control group, the shrimps subjected to starving showed lower melanosis score and the significant retarding effect on melanosis development was observed in the shrimps with starvation for 2 days (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the changes in quality-related biochemical attributes such as pH, total volatile base (TVB), protease and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities revealed that starvation for 2 days could significantly inhibit the microbial proliferation and the activities of endogenous protease and PPO (P < 0.05), with highest scores for brightness and overall acceptability than others at the end of storage. Therefore, shrimps starved for 2 days before storage could be a promising method to inhibt melanosis and deterioration during refrigerated storage.
Effective pre-treatment technique based on immune-magnetic separation for rapid detection of trace levels of Salmonella in milk Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-26 Meihong Du, Jingwen Li, Ruixue Zhao, Yin Yang, Yanfei Wang, Kai Ma, Xiaoyan Cheng, Yuping Wan, Xiaosheng Wu
A rapid and effective pre-treatment method based on immune-magnetic separation (IMS) with enrichment culture was developed to rapidly detect trace levels of Salmonella. Immune-magnetic beads were prepared and their capture efficiency exceeded 90% with less than 106 CFU/mL of Salmonella. IMS was performed on 25-mL samples without pre-enrichment; instead, the trapped target pathogens were cultured in buffered peptone water for a short time. This pre-treatment was significantly shorter and simpler: the 5 h processing time included IMS for 1 h and enrichment for 4 h. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, loop-mediated isothermal amplification test, and fluorescence quantitative real-time PCR in combination with the pre-treatment method allowed detection of 10−1 CFU/mL of Salmonella (12.3 CFU in 25 mL of milk) in approximately 6.5–8 h. The pre-treatment method developed in this study was effective and can be applied to rapid screening of trace pathogens in liquid food samples.
Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed in China: occurrence, detection techniques, toxicological effects and advances in mitigation technologies Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-24 Haitao Shi, Shengli Li, Yueyu Bai, Luciana L. Prates, Yaogeng Lei, Peiqiang Yu
Globally, mycotoxins in food and feed are serious threats to the health of human and animals. Food safety in China has gained increasing attentions from consumers, producers, researchers and policymakers. Previous reviews on mycotoxin contamination in China mainly focused on the occurrence of aflatoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ochratoxins, while many recent surveys have also confirmed the prevalence of other mycotoxins such as emerging fusarium mycotoxins, type A trichothecenes, and alternaria toxins, etc. This review aims to present a wider and up-to-date overview of the mycotoxins occurrence in feed and food in China in the period 2006-2017. Furthermore, the popular methods for mycotoxin determination, the toxicological effects of the major mycotoxins, as well as recent advances in detoxification and decontamination strategies, were also highlighted.
Application of next generation semiconductor based sequencing for species identification and analysis of within-species mitotypes useful for authentication of meat derived products Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-24 Anisa Ribani, Giuseppina Schiavo, Valerio Joe Utzeri, Francesca Bertolini, Claudia Geraci, Samuele Bovo, Luca Fontanesi
In this study, we tested the Ion Torrent next generation semiconductor based sequencing technology for meat species identification in several highly processed and complex meat products and meat derived broths (a döner kebab, a beef/pork paté, a meat based filling of tortellini, one instantaneous granular preparation of broth stock made by meat and two ready to use meat broths from different producers). The detection protocol included the sequencing of targeted mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions amplified with universal primer pairs and a bioinformatic pipeline designed to interpret sequencing results. Six libraries were sequenced producing a total of 1,363,351 filtered reads. Data mining detected expected and unexpected meat species in the analysed products. Pork was identified in the kebab and Bubalus bubalis DNA was identified in the beef/pork paté. For products for which the precise meat species ingredient information was not available, it was possible to obtain it. Human contamination based on human detected reads could be useful to evaluate the hygienic level of highly processed products. Mitochondrial haplotypes (mitotypes) were identified for several mtDNA-species combinations providing another level of information useful for the authentication of meat derived products. This work defined a methodological framework to establish assays using this sequencing platform for routine species identification in complex and highly processed food.
Enumeration of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in VBNC State by PMA-combined Real-time Quantitative PCR Coupled with Confirmation of Respiratory Activity Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-24 Yufei Liu, Qingping Zhong, Juan Wang, Shuwen Lei
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a worldwide pathogen, has been proved to be capable of entering into viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state and survive under stressful conditions. In this study, a method of real-time quantitative PCR coupled with propidium monoazide (PMA-qPCR) was developed and evaluated for the reliable quantification of the VBNC cells of V. parahaemolyticus. The samples of different ratios of viable and dead cells were detected by PMA-qPCR and qPCR to assess this method. Then the method was used to monitor the VBNC induction process of V. parahaemolyticus and quantify the viable cells along with confirmation of cell integrity and respiratory activity by fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) observation, flow cytometry (FCM) analysis. In addition, the applicability of the method was verified to detect artificially contaminated seafood samples with different states of V. parahaemolyticus. The results showed that the optimal PMA treatment condition was 5 min-PMA incubation in dark followed by 15 min-light exposure. This method can significantly distinguish viable from dead cells and specifically enumerate viable cells. By PMA-qPCR method, the number change of cells during VBNC induction was monitored successfully. The cells incubated at 4°C in sterile 3% NaCl entered into VBNC state, and 106 cell/mL of VBNC cells (10 % of the original viable cells) were detected on the fifth day of induction, then the density of VBNC cells was 5.8×104 cell/mL on the 40th day when no culturable cells were observed. FCM analysis showed the viability of the VBNC cells which were also observed red revealing respiratory activity by CTC/DAPI staining under CLSM. For the detection of the spiked seafood samples (shrimp, pomfret and scallop) with different states of V. parahaemolyticus, it could detect as low as 1.2 ×102 cell/g of the viable or VBNC state of V. parahaemolyticus without any interference from food matrices and dead cells. In summary, the PMA-qPCR method developed in this study is rapid and reliable to quantify VBNC cells of V. parahaemolyticus.
Exploring consumer purchase intentions towards traceable minced beef and beef steak using the Theory of Planned Behavior Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-23 Michelle Spence, Violeta Stancu, Christopher T. Elliott, Moira Dean
Recently, traceability labels with a quick response (QR) code have been printed on product packaging to help consumers easily access traceability information through their smart phones. We analyzed consumer (n=616) attitudes and purchase intentions towards traceable minced beef/beef steak in England, and identified psychosocial determinants of their purchase using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Respondents held a general favorable attitude with positive behavioral beliefs and high trust towards the traceable product. In the TPB model, attitude was the main determinant of intention to purchase each traceable product, followed by subjective norm and perceived behavioral control (PBC). The predictive power of the TPB model increased marginally for each sub-group when it was extended with habits, trust, and frequency of purchase. In the TPB-extended minced beef model, PBC was no longer a significant driver, and trust replaced subjective norm as the second most important predictor. In the TPB-extended beef steak model, attitude, subjective norm and PBC were all still significant drivers of intention, however, in order of importance, production process habits and origin habits were more important than PBC. These findings have importance for those involved in the production and marketing of beef.
Impact of par-baking and packaging on the microbial quality of par-baked wheat and sourdough bread Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-23 Els Debonne, Filip Van Bockstaele, Manon Van Driessche, Ingrid De Leyn, Mia Eeckhout, Frank Devlieghere
The impact of processing conditions on the microbial quality of par-baked wheat and sourdough bread was investigated. Processing conditions included par-baking time (8 and 13 min), temperature (150 and 200 °C), amount of steam (200 and 600 mL), and packaging (air and modified atmosphere (MA)). Total anaerobic mesophilic plate counts, moulds and yeasts and spore-forming bacteria, together with pH and aw of the par-baked breads were evaluated. Data were used to make predictive models showing the impact of the main effects and their interactions. Sourdough addition could extend the time of acceptable bread quality based on the anaerobic counts from 8 to more than 13 days. Visual growth of moulds and yeasts (presence/absence of single spots) was most efficiently suppressed by the combination of MA-packaging and the highest baking temperature and time. Microbiological analysis of moulds and yeasts however, showed that again sourdough had the best preservation potential, followed by MA-packaging. This study showed that adjusting the par-baking conditions, bread composition and packaging can increase the shelf-life of par-baked bread in a natural way.
Food safety knowledge, practices and attitudes of fishery workers in Mar del Plata, Argentina Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Daniela Alejandra Agüeria, Claudia Terni, Víctor Manuel Baldovino, Diego Civit
In order to identify training needs in food handling, the present study evaluates the theoretical knowledge, practical knowledge and attitudes of 221 food handlers working in fishing industries in Mar del Plata, Argentina. A written questionnaire of 45 questions was designed to collect the data on the demographic characteristics of the respondents, food contamination and bacterial growth, high-risk foods, type of hazards, personal hygiene practices, cleaning and disinfection and attitudes towards training on food safety. The results show that the food handlers have acceptable level for theoretical knowledge, practical knowledge and attitudes, with average score of 6.08 ± 2.69 (from a range of 0–10), 16.05 ± 2.19 (from a range of 0–20) and 7.28 ± 2.31 (from a range of 0–10), respectively. However, some unawareness was observed regarding to the term cross-contamination, the range of temperature that favors bacterial growth, the recognition of biological hazards, the proper duration of hand-washing and the necessary supplies in a washbasin. The majority of the participants showed a positive attitude towards the importance of training in hygiene practices. The theoretical knowledge level of the respondents showed a significant association with the level of education, the amount of training in food handling and the attitudes. The results reinforce the importance of continuing the training of food handlers by the use of teaching methodologies adapted to their level of education.
Microbial Contamination in Bulk Ready-to-eat Meat Products of China in 2016 Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Shuran Yang, Xiaoyan Pei, Dajin Yang, Huaning Zhang, Qiuxia Chen, Huixia Chui, Xin Qiao, Yulan Huang, Qiyong Liu
In 2016, special surveillance was conducted on bulk ready-to-eat meat products across China. Aerobic plate count (APC), coliforms and three food-borne pathogens were detected. It is the first time that APC and coliforms were detected and all the Salmonella spp. isolated were serologically analyzed. 29.68% (1,017/3,427) of samples had APC above 105 CFU/g. 33.17% (1,139/3,434) of samples were contaminated by coliforms over 100 CFU/g. The prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were 2.18% (75/3,440) and 0.75% (26/3,444), respectively. 1.14% (39/3,417) of samples had Staphylococcus aureus of more than 100 CFU/g. The food hygiene status in rural areas was significantly worse than that in the urban areas. APC and coliforms of samples collected in the third season were the highest. The hygiene status in bulk ready-to-eat meat products was serious. This study revealed a potential public health problem of bulk ready-to-eat meat products.
A new online-method for the characterization of detached particles while cleaning starch fouling layers Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Tobias Sauk, Henning Föste, Wolfgang Augustin, Stephan Scholl
This work presents a new method for an online measurement of particles detached from a starch fouling layer during a cleaning process. This was achieved by designing the Automated Particle Analyser for Cleaning (APAC) by combining a flow channel with a laser diffraction particle size analyser. A method for the online measurement of particle size for different sets of parameters (flow velocity, temperature and addition of Sodium Hydroxide) was developed, monitoring cleaning progress and behaviour. The influence of the variation of the parameters on the progress of cleaning as well as their balance could be shown. Low temperature or velocity cause increasing cleaning time and vice versa. Overall detachment of small particles indicating cohesive failure could be observed as characteristic for starch based fouling layers. A narrow particle size distribution (PSD) of small particles indicates a cohesive failure and a steady disintegration of the fouling layer from top to bottom. On the contrary a PSD of larger size and broader shape prevails for adhesive failure and detachment of large patches of the fouling layer.
Public health risk assessment from drinking water from vending machines in Seri Kembangan (Malaysia) Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Sarva Mangala Praveena, Nurul Fatihah Kamal Huyok, Claire de Burbure
This study investigated the public health risk linked with microbial quality of drinking water from vending machines in Seri Kembangan city (Malaysia) using epidemiological and Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) approaches. This study was also conducted to understand associations between reported health symptoms and daily water intake information. Following WHO guidelines on water safety, QMRA were performed was to estimate burden of disease from E. coli from water vending machines. Triplicate drinking water samples from water vending machines were collected from six sampling areas around the city, analysed for E. coli, information of health symptoms and daily water intake was obtained from 121 respondents by questionnaires. The results indicated the highest numbers of E. coli levels were found in Seri Serdang (45 – 68 CFU/ 100 mL) and Taman Pinggiran Putra (45 – 62 CFU/ 100 mL). Escherichia coli levels in drinking water samples from water vending machines obtained from Seri Serdang, Taman Pinggiran Putra, Taman Equine, Balakong and Serdang Jaya exceeded both Malaysian Drinking Water Quality and WHO Drinking Water Quality guidelines. Reported health symptoms were only significantly linked to brand which likely to be associated with regular maintenance of water vending machine. All the drinking water samples from water vending machines except from Lestari Perdana have exceeded the health based target outcomes by QMRA. Combination of epidemiology and quantitative microbial risk assessment have provided a clear understanding of public health risks and gateway for a better management of water vending machines.
Animal Contact in Public Settings-Risk Awareness of Enteric Pathogens and Hand Hygiene Behaviors Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Wenqing Xu, Melissa Cater, Rebecca Gravois, Christine Navarre, Diana Coulon, Dorra Djebbi-Simmons, Austin Wong
Contact with animals in public settings can provide education and entertainment opportunities for both adults and children. However, outbreaks have been associated with human-animal interactions at state, region or county fairs, petting zoos, educational farms, etc. Those outbreaks not only raised a public health concern, but also had substantial medical, legal, and economic impacts. In this study, we assessed the risk awareness of enteric pathogens associated with animal contact in public settings. Participants were asked whether they recognize the risk of spreading enteric pathogens through specific animal contact behaviors such as petting animals with hands or eating around farm animals. The results showed that the self-reported risk awareness was 4.0±1.2 out of a total score of 6, which indicated a poor risk awareness. We also assessed the hand hygiene behaviors including hand washing and hand sanitizer application. Most participants (n=177, 78.0%) reported that they wash their hands immediately after contact with animals. Logistic regression results showed that risk awareness associated with animal contact was a reliable predictor of hand washing behaviors. Findings from this study serve as a needs assessment for future education to reduce risk of spreading enteric pathogens during animal contact in public settings.
Use of spectroscopic methods in combination with linear discriminant analysis for authentication of food products (Spectroscopy–linear discriminant analysis for authenticating food products) Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 M. Esteki, Z. Shahsavari, J. Simal-Gandara
Spectroscopic methods are efficient tools for food authentication due to the advantages of high sensitivity, rapidness, simplicity and their convenience. The combined used of spectroscopic methods and linear discriminant analysis has provided powerful tools for detecting food fraud. This review discusses their operational details, advantages and disadvantages.
Interspecies variation in biofilm-forming capacity of psychrotrophic bacterial isolates from Chinese raw milk Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Lei Yuan, Mette Burmølle, Faizan A. Sadiq, Ni Wang, Guoqing He
Biofilms on the surface of dairy processing equipment act as potential reservoirs of microbial contamination, which may affect product quality and cause substantial risks for consumer health. Biofilm-forming capacity of a high number of psychrotrophic bacterial species of dairy origin at low temperatures has been poorly reported. This work aimed to explore the biofilm-forming potential of bacterial strains (previously identified from Chinese raw milk) belonging to 72 RAPD based genetic groups (representing 11 predominant genera and 61 species) at 7 °C. Results showed that biofilm formation is a strain-dependent trait, and 25, 10, 19 RAPD groups were weak, moderate and high biofilm formers, respectively, based on results of the crystal violet staining. Isolates of Pseudomonas showed the high tendency to form biofilms. The cell numbers recovered on tryptic soy broth agar plates from surface biofilms ranged from 1.15 to 6.63 log CFU/cm2, and the maximum number was detected for Pseudomonas azotoformans (a) (6.63 log CFU/cm2) followed by Serratia quinivorans (6.39 log CFU/cm2) and Pseudomonas libanensis (6.34 log CFU/cm2). In the presence of skim milk, cell numbers decreased to a range from 1.04 to 6.1 log CFU/cm2, and high cell number was observed in case of P. azotoformans (a) (6.1 log CFU/cm2), P. libanensis (6.07 log CFU/cm2) and S. quinivorans (5.84 log CFU/cm2). A marked variation in biofilm-forming capacity was observed within the strains belonging to the same species. A moderate correlation (r = 0.42) between the crystal violet assay of polystyrene and methods based on cell enumeration on coupons was observed. Meanwhile, the cell number of Aeromonas hydrophila recovered from stainless steel increased in co-culture with Pseudomonas fluorescens (a). The results expand the knowledge of biofilm-forming capacity of psychrotrophic bacteria of dairy origin.
Plastid trnH-psbA Intergenic Spacer Serves as a PCR-based Marker to Detect Common Grain Adulterants of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Ali Tevfik UNCU, Ayse Ozgur UNCU
The present work describes the utilization of interspecific length polymorphisms within the chloroplastic trnH-psbA intergenic spacer to standardize a DNA-based method that identifies adulteration in Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.). Adulteration of coffee with roasted cereal grains and soybean is a common fraudulent practice, yet, research to design sensitive DNA-based tests in order to establish traceability in coffee is extremely limited. In the the present study, PCR-CE (PCR-capillary electrophoresis) analysis of the trnH-psbA intergenic spacer proved successful to discriminate Arabica coffee and its common adulterants, namely corn, soybean, rice, wheat and barley. When the barcode PCR-CE assay was tested on admixtures, adulteration as low as 1% was successfully detected simply through barcode amplification and capillary electrophoresis separation. Moreover, it is important to note that the proposed barcode assay not only detects adulteration but also reveals the identity of the adulterant species based on barcode amplification profiles obtained from reference sets of anticipated adulterants.
Milk process authentication by vitamin B6 as a novel time temperature integrator Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 A. Schmidt, H.K. Mayer
As raw cow´s milk possesses a limited shelf-life and can also pose a threat to the consumer’s health, thermal preservation techniques are customary nowadays. A range of compounds can be used for the assessment of successfulness of such treatments, so-called time temperature integrators (TTIs). Although most water-soluble vitamins are known to be depleted during heat exposure in milk, their application as TTI hasn’t been investigated yet. Especially vitamin B6 with its various possible vitamers (chemical different forms that exhibit vitamin activity) might be a suitable system for a new vitamin-based TTI. Therefore, the applicability of B6 vitamers in cow´s milk as a TTI system was to be evaluated in this study.
Antibacterial mechanism of ε-Poly-lysine against Listeria monocytogenes and its application on cheese Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Lin Lin, Yulei Gu, Changzhu Li, Saritporn Vittayapadung, Haiying Cui
ε-Poly-lysine (ε-PL) is widely recognized as a natural antibacterial agent because of its broad spectrum antimicrobial property. However, the mechanism of ε-PL against pathogens at the molecular level has not been yet thoroughly described. This work aimed at investigating the antibacterial activity and mechanism of ε-PL at the molecular level against Listeria monocytogenes. ε-PL exhibited antibacterial activities against L. monocytogenes at a low dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. After ε-PL treatment, the marked change on the morphology of bacterial cells was observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The characterization of cell membrane surfaces through electrical conductivity, cell membrane permeability and surface zeta potential was also well documented. The intracellular materials (ATP, DNA and proteins) and intracellular enzymes (AKP, ATPase and β-Galactosidase) were analyzed, which revealed the destructive effect of ε-PL on bacterial cells. SDS-PAGE investigation of bacterial proteins demonstrated that the loss of soluble proteins was obvious as well. Results of respiration metabolism manifested that ε-PL inhibited the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway and the three key enzymes in this pathway. Nevertheless, the ε-PL has no inhibition effects on Topo I/II. Finally, ε-PL was applied to preserve cheese and showed outstanding antibiotic activity during 15-days storage period at 4 ˚C and 25 ˚C.
Multiplex MPN-PCR for the enumeration of three major Vibrios in raw fishes in Malaysia Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Sharmin Quazi Bonny, M.A. Motalib Hossain, Thong Kwai Lin, Md Eaqub Ali
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus are the most notorious fish borne-pathogens responsible for several deadly diseases in human. However, the prevalence of these three pathogenic vibrios in Malaysian fishes has not been thoroughly investigated, leaving a study gap for the tracing of possible Vibrio outbreak through carrier fish consumption. The most-probable-number-PCR (MPN-PCR) assays are highly sensitive for the identification of a single bacterial pathogen but they have not been applied for the discrimination of major vibrios in a multiplex platform. This study coupled MPN method with Multiplex PCR to differentiate three major vibrios in a one test platform. A total of 120 fish samples were analyzed and the prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, and V. vulnificus was 48.33%, 27%, and 32.50%, respectively. When simplex MPN-PCR was applied similar results were obtained at P < 0.05, validating the accuracy of multiplex MPN-PCR. The microbial loads of V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, and V. vulnificus in the tested samples were 0–2.43 × 106, 0–2.16 × 106, and 0–4.93 × 105 MPN g−1, respectively. Primers based on housekeeping pntA gene amplified V. parahaemolyticus (409 bp) and V. cholerae (338 bp) but virulent vvhA gene detected V. vulnificus (205 bp). Thus the 27–48% prevalence of targeted vibrios in consumable fishes indicated there is considerable risk of Vibrio outbreak in Malaysia due to the consumption of undercooked or raw fish products.
Rethinking inspection in slaughterhouses: Opportunities and challenges arising from a shared risk management system in poultry slaughterhouses Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Morgane Salines, Virginie Allain, Catherine Magras, Sophie Le Bouquin
Health surveillance systems are increasingly managed in a cooperative way, involving several stakeholders sharing tasks. In France, specially-trained poultry slaughterhouse staff are allowed to participate in the tasks of official auxiliaries under the supervision and responsibility of Official Veterinary Services (OVS), on the basis of a risk analysis. To properly organise interactions between stakeholders in this multi-stakeholder risk management, the current control system is based on alerts from Food Business Operators (FBOs) to OVS. A field study was conducted in order to describe the ways alerts are raised in practice, to identify the impact of this method on work organisation and communication, and highlight the opportunities it may offer. Thirty poultry slaughterhouses were surveyed through semi-directive interviews held separately with the official veterinarian/auxiliary and/or the quality manager/assistant. The interviews were qualitatively analysed. A wide range of modus operandi — both for control task division and communication tools — was observed in the field depending on slaughterhouse organisation, the alert's severity or the quality of the relationships between stakeholders. Internal alert-raising procedures were implemented in all cases. This surveillance system was considered efficient as long as the work organisation was clearly described, i.e. the organisation of positions, definition of missions and roles, and implementation of specific procedures for information exchange and training programmes. The pivotal challenges entailed limiting the administrative burden and building trusting relationships. In conclusion, this innovative system appears relevant due to tailored alert criteria, pre-implementation preparations and system formalisation, and cooperation between stakeholders. It also offers the OVS an opportunity to reaffirm their central position in risk-based meat inspection.
Development of a new qPCR method for specific detection and quantification of genetically modified maize MON863 Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Patrick Guertler, Sven Pecoraro, Heike Naumann, Ulrich Busch
Analysis of non-transgenic seed samples for the presence of genetically modified maize MON863 revealed unexpected amplification signals using an official qPCR method. These amplification signals only occured when using other master mix products as in the original validation process. DNA sequence data from an unspecific amplicon could be mapped to mitochondrial maize DNA reference sequence. Sequence analysis revealed that forward primer and probe both can hybridize to the mitochondrial maize DNA. Therefore, we designed and validated a new qPCR method for event MON863 with a LOD of 5 copies per reaction. The method shows high specificity, as no unspecific amplification signal was detected after analysis of reference material for different genetically modified crops and conventional maize samples. Robustness tests were performed in two different laboratories and no effects on method performance could be observed when using different master mixes and qPCR devices, as well as with variation in oligonucleotide concentrations.
Impact of previous active dipping in Fucus spiralis extract on the quality enhancement of chilled lean fish Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 José M. Miranda, Mónica Carrera, Jorge Barros-Velázquez, Santiago P. Aubourg
The first goal of this work was to enhance the quality of chilled fish by applying a preliminary dipping treatment containing a bioactive extract from the alga Fucus spiralis. Megrim (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis) specimens were dipped in aqueous solutions containing two different concentrations of the alga extract (0.50% and 0.10% alga/dipping solution, w/v; HAC and LAC batches, respectively). In addition, two control batches were considered (water dipping control and no dipping control). Microbial, chemical and sensory qualities were assessed in fish specimens after 0, 2, 6, 9 and 13 days of chilled storage. An antimicrobial effect at advanced stages of storage (9-13-day period) was observed as determined by the comparative evolution of aerobes, psychrotrophs and Enterobacteriaceae counts in megrim muscle. Likewise, a protective effect against specific lipolytic and proteolytic spoilage bacteria was also achieved at that storage period, as well as a decrease of free fatty acids formation. However, alga extract in the dipping medium had no effect (p>0.05) on the increase of lipid oxidation in fish muscle throughout chilled storage. Interestingly, average scores revealed improved sensory quality in megrim corresponding to the HAC batch for the 9–13-day chilled period. Consequently, the proposed novel dipping treatment can be considered of interest for both on-board and in-land fish storage, due to the simple methodology employed and the resulting protective effects on fish quality.
In vitrosingleand combined mycotoxinsdegradation by Ery4 laccase from Pleurotus eryngiiand redox mediators Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Martina Loi, Francesca Fanelli, Maria Teresa Cimmarusti, Valentina Mirabelli, Miriam Haidukowski, Antonio Logrieco, Rocco Caliandro, Giuseppina Mule
Abstract:Mycotoxin contamination of staple food commodities is a relevant health and economic issue worldwide. The development of green and effective reduction strategies to counteract the contamination by multiple mycotoxins has become an urgent need. The aim of this work was to evaluate the capability of a laccase (LC) from Pleurotus eryngii and a laccase-mediator systems (LMSs) to degrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), Zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 toxin inin vitro assays. In addition, the simultaneous mycotoxin degradation capability with selected LMSs was evaluated with combinations of AFB1 and ZEN, and FB1andT-2 toxin. Redox mediators were found to drastically increasethe degradation efficiencies of the enzyme. AFB1, FB1, OTA, ZEN and T-2 toxin degradation by the best performing LMS were 73%, 74%, 27%, 100% and 40%, respectively. No degradation was registered for DON. Notably, AFB1 and ZEN were simultaneously degraded by 86% and 100%, while FB1 and T-2 by 25% and 100%, respectively. LMS proved to be a promising approach to enhance degradation properties of LC enzymes and for the potential development of a multi-mycotoxin reducing method.
Carbendazim residues in vegetables in China between 2014 and 2016 and a chronic carbendazim exposure risk assessment Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Xiaomin Xu, Jiyun Chen, Bangrui Li, Lijuan Tang
Carbendazim is a possible human carcinogen. It is persistent and very toxic, and has been banned in Australia, the USA, and most European Union countries. Various carbendazim formulations are still allowed to be produced and used in China. The results of analyses of carbendazim residues in vegetables in 31 Chinese provinces performed between 2014 and 2016 are presented here. A dietary risk assessment for carbendazim residues in vegetables is also presented. More than 20496 samples of more than 24 types of vegetable were collected between 2014 and 2016 from throughout China, and the carbendazim residues in the samples were determined. Carbendazim was detected in 1674 samples. The carbendazim concentrations were lower than the US and Japanese limit of 0.01 mg/kg in >18000 samples (91.9% of the samples analyzed). Carbendazim was not detected in 91.7% of the samples. The vegetables carbendazim was most commonly detected in were cowpeas, celery, beans with pods, lettuces, cucumbers, and leeks. For the samples in which carbendazim was detected, there were no differences in the carbendazim concentrations in vegetables from different locations. The mean carbendazim concentration was higher in lettuces than other vegetables. The dietary risk assessment indicated that long-term exposure to carbendazim in ingested vegetables does not pose risks to human health. The hazard quotients were higher for cowpeas, celery, leeks, and lettuces than the other vegetables but did not indicate that consuming these vegetables poses risks to human health.
Mycotoxins contamination in maize alarms food safety in sub-Sahara Africa Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Armachius James, Vumilia Lwoga Zikankuba
Maize is a major staple food in sub-Sahara Africa. Maize grains are susceptible to mycotoxin contamination during production and storage. Tropical weather, poor agricultural practices, poor storage conditions and little knowledge on mycotoxins exposes sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) community at high risk of mycotoxin. Studies in SSA demonstrated that, maize grains are infested by toxigenic fungi and contaminated with mycotoxins to varying degree. Mycotoxins frequent occurring in maize include; aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, ochratoxins and zearalenone. Their effect can be acute and/or chronic leading to health problems such as; liver cancer, immunosuppression, irritation, and respiratory problem among others. Local practices, maize seems to be less contaminated are used for human consumption while those unfit for human are used as feeds exposing human health at high risk of mycotoxins toxicity. It is important for sub-Sahara Africa countries to invest in infrastructures and enforce practices which leads to prevention and control of mycotoxins in maize before they become real risks. Also, interventions on public awareness on the effect of mycotoxins to human health should be promoted to guarantee safe maize and maize products. In this review, mycotoxins occurrence, incidences, prevention, control, decontamination and inactivation in maize are scrutinized and presented.
Leuconostoc mesenteroides in the brewing process: A controversial role Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Patricia Ruiz, Lucía Celada, Susana Seseña, María Llanos Palop
The aim of this study was to characterize 29 Leuconostoc mesenteroides isolates isolated during a brewing process in order to determine their potential contributions to the process and the product. In order to achieve this aim different enzymatic activities, the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, the antagonistic activity, the beer spoilage ability and the production of lactic acid and diacetyl in beer, were assessed. Ln. mesenteroides isolates showed weak acidifying activity, and only 28% of them produced decreases in pH higher than 0.5 units after a 24 h period of incubation. The isolates were also scarcely proteolytic and did not produce EPS. Results from enzymatic activity assay showed that some of the isolates produced β-galactosidase and α- and β-glucosidases while none produced β-glucuronidase. All the isolates inhibited the growth of both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, although none of them inhibited Pediococcus acidilactici. When Lactobacillus brevis was used as an indicator, 44.8% of the isolates showed antagonistic activity. The beer-spoilage ability assay showed that only 5 of the 29 isolates were able to grow in beer but none of them harboured horA or horC genes. However, the growth of these isolates in beer did not produce an excess of D-lactic acid or diacetyl. These findings show that the presence of any of the characterized isolates during the brewing process or in the bottled beer would not have a negative impact. On the contrary, the findings reveal interesting and potentially beneficial effects.
Label free-based proteomic analysis of proteins in Bacillus cereus spores regulated by high pressure processing and slightly acidic electrolyzed water treatment Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Liping Wang, Qiang Xia, Yunfei Li
To investigate the mechanism of high pressure processing (HPP, 200 MPa/20 min + 500 MPa/20 min) and slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW, 44 mg/L available chlorine concentration (ACC)) on B. cereus spore inactivation, a label-free quantitative proteomics approach based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) data was used. Quantification of 2810 proteins was obtained with high confidence. A total of 93 and 83 proteins showed significant differential abundance after HPP-SAEW and HPP treatments, respectively, and 21 proteins changed significantly when both treatments were compared. The results indicated that the spore cortex-lytic enzyme was upregulated 3.15 fold after HPP treatment, and the germination was influenced by ATP generation. The metabolic, degradation, signaling, and biosynthesis pathways were involved in HPP-SAEW mediated spore inactivation. Amino acid-biosynthetic and quorum sensing were the main KEGG pathways mediated by SAEW under HPP conditions. Specifically, our results showed that the phosphorylation of the Spo0A transcription factor was mediated by the downregulation of the ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, which was associated with inactivation of spores.
Effects of long-term feeding with genetically modified Bt rice on the growth and reproductive performance in highly inbred Wuzhishan pigs Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Qiang Liu, Shuaishuai Wu, Mingjie Li, Weigang Yang, Yingzheng Wang, Yi Wu, Hui Gao, Ying Han, Shutang Feng, Shenming Zeng
This study aimed to evaluate the safety of GM rice containing Cry1Ab protein (1.64mg/kg) as the main ingredient in the diet after 360 days of feeding in the highly inbred Wuzhishan pigs (WZSP). A total of 28 pigs aged 3 months were divided into two groups and fed with either non-GM (MH86 group, female n=7, male n=7) or GM rice (Bt group, female n=7, male n=7). The total dosage of Cry1Ab protein for female and male pigs was 0.972 and 0.963 mg/kg body weight by the end of final weighing date (D 75), respectively. The results showed that there were no differences in the average daily gain, average daily food intake, body weight, feed conversion ratio, oestrus cycle duration, oestrus period, litter size, serum steroids, or the birth and weaning weight of offspring between Bt and MH86 groups. All pigs (n=28) were sacrificed to collect tissues and blood samples for the analysis of relative organ weights, blood physiological and biochemical parameters and histopathological examinations. No significant differences existed in the tested indicators except that total protein was significantly higher in the MH86 compared to the Bt group (P < 0.05). In addition, the total bilirubin in the MH86 group was higher than the Bt group for females (P < 0.05), but no difference existed in males (P > 0.05). No pathologic abnormal changes were found from histopathological examinations of the main tissues. On the basis of these results, feeding with Bt rice for 360 days did not affect the growth, reproductive performance, hematology, or organ morphology in WZSP.
Developing official control in slaughterhouses through internal audits Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Jenni Luukkanen, Mari Nevas, Maria Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Janne Lundén
In the European Union, competent authorities are obligated to arrange audits to ensure that the official control (comprising meat and food safety inspections) in slaughterhouses is performed according to legislation. Previous information on the functionality of these audits and on non-conformities observed in the official control of slaughterhouses is limited. In this study, non-conformities of the official control of slaughterhouses and their correction were analysed from the internal audit reports of the Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira. To further assess the benefits and needs for improvement of the audits, we conducted interviews with the chief official veterinarians (OVs) responsible for the controls in slaughterhouses and the auditors of Evira. According to our results, non-conformities, especially in the inspection of intestines of bovines and swine, were common. Regarding food safety inspections, OVs should develop their documentation, perform the follow-up of the correction of non-compliances more systematically, and improve the enforcement, especially in smaller red meat slaughterhouses. Based on our results, internal audits appeared to be beneficial, as non-conformities in the official control were noticed, most non-conformities were corrected or corrective measures had been taken, and the audits were assessed as necessary by both the auditors and auditees. Our results can be utilized in improving the official control and audit procedures in slaughterhouses. In the future, the uniformity of meat inspection could be improved by auditing also differences in the rejections and their reasons between official auxiliaries in post-mortem inspection.
Inhibition of Salmonella Enteritidis growth and storage stability in chicken meat treated with basil and rosemary essential oils alone or in combination Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Zorica Stojanović-Radić, Milica Pejčić, Nataša Joković, Marija Jokanović, Maja Ivić, Branislav Šojić, Snežana Škaljac, Predrag Stojanović, Tatjana Mihajilov-Krstev
Pathogens from the genus Salmonella belong to the group of the most common food poisoning causative agents. The present paper investigated the effect of the basil and rosemary essential oils as well as their combination on the growth of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) in chicken meat, together with their spoilage protective potential at the two storage temperatures. Food model experiments included investigation of their effect to accompanying microbial flora on fresh meat, while anti-salmonella activity was evaluated on artificially inoculated raw and thermally processed meat. The tests were performed in two storage conditions, +4 °C (usual meat storage temperature) and +18 °C (room temperature, which favors the spoilage of investigated meat samples and development of food pathogens). Beside evaluation of microbiological status, physico chemical tests relevant as meat quality indicators (pH, color, texture, thiobarbituric acid, cooking loss), as well as sensory evaluation of the studied meat samples were performed. Changes in normal flora pointed to significant effect of both oils against microbial meat spoilage, where various groups were affected by different treatments. In addition, all the treatments reduced the number of salmonella cells in comparison to the control samples. Obtained results on the physico-chemical parameters highlight their applicative value since they showed either beneficial effect either did not caused any notable meat quality changes.
Occurrence and health risk assessment of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in Sürk, a Turkish dairy food, as studied by HPLC Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Fatih Sakin, İbrahim Ozan Tekeli, Mustafa Yipel, Cemil Kürekci
The concentration of aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in Sürk cheese samples was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) system, for which the analytical method was validated according to the guidelines issued by European Commission (EC). Additionally, cancer related health risk via dietary intake of Sürk was assessed by calculating estimated daily intake (EDI) and hazard index (HI) for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), and Margin of Exposure (MoE) for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for OTA. OTA was the most frequently detected toxin that was presented in 28 samples with concentration ranging from 0.058 to 5.04 μg kg-1. 53.3% of samples contained AFM1 at levels >LOQ of 0.07 μg kg-1, of which none exceeded the permissible maximum limits (0.5 μg kg-1) established by Turkish legislation. Sürk samples were found to contain AFB1 at mean concentration of 0.610 μg kg-1. The range of concentrations of AFs and OTA in Sürk observed in the current study was found to be below the official Turkish standard determined for various foodstuffs. However, HI from consuming Sürk was found to be 1.02 ng kg-1 bw for AFM1, and MoE value for AFB1 was found to be 2982 which clearly indicates health risk AFM1 and AFB1 to Sürk consumers. However, OTA contamination level was found to be low to produce health hazards according to PTWI value. According to health risk assessment of this study presents the first data about occurrence of AFs and OTA in Sürk, yet data should be updated based on seasonal monitoring and consumption habits of both adults and infants.
Microbiota of lutefisk, a Nordic traditional cod dish with a high pH Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Bjørn Tore Lunestad, Didrik Hjertaker Grevskott, Irja Sunde Roiha, Cecilie Smith Svanevik
Most foods have either a neutral or a slightly acidic pH, whereas only a limited number of products have a pH above 8. The Nordic traditional fish dish lutefisk is an exception, with a pH around 12 during production and a ready for consumption pH above 10. Lutefisk is prepared from dried Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), soaked in water and thereafter treated in a lye solution. During this process, the muscle proteins are partially hydrolysed and a characteristic smell and a gel like appearance are developed. Due to its high pH, lutefisk has previously been considered not to harbour any microbiota. However, in our study of commercially available lutefisk, aerobic and anaerobic plate counts of up to 1.2x106 and 3.0x104 CFU g-1, respectively were found. The pure culture isolates from Plate count agar, Iron agar Lyngby and Alkaline Nutrient agar, were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Pseudomonas fragi, Staphylococcus warneri, S. hominis, Aeromonas salmonicida, Kurthia zopfii, Microbacterium oxydans, Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans, Alishewanella tabrizica and Bacillus licheniformis. This is the first report on the microbiota of lutefisk based on cultivation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
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