Nanoencapsulation: An efficient technology to boost the antimicrobial potential of plant essential oils in food system Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-01-20 Bhanu Prakash, Anupam Kujur, Amrita Yadav, Akshay Kumar, Prem Pratap Singh, N.K. Dubey
Plant essential oils (EOs) possesses remarkable antimicrobial efficacy and therefore have great potential as an alternative of health hazardous synthetic preservatives. In spite of marvellous efficacy, their application yet not widely used by the food industries due to some of the major intrinsic obstacles viz., low water solubility, bioavailability, volatility and stability in the food system. The recent advancement in nanotechnology has potential to address these existing obstacles of EOs as preservatives in the food system. The applications of nanomaterials as a carrier agent of EOs recently gain momentum of interest by the food industries to improve their shelf-life and preservatives efficacy at low doses. Nanoemulsions, microemulsions, solid-lipid nanoparticles and liposomes are some of the currently used encapsulation strategies to encapsulate plant bioactive compounds. In this review, we explored the potential application of nanoencapsulated plant EOs as novel source of food preservatives. In addition, the prospects, existing limitations and future research direction for their commercialization are also discussed.
Red deer (Cervus elaphus)-specific real-time PCR assay for the detection of food adulteration Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-01-18 Maria Kaltenbrunner, Rupert Hochegger, Margit Cichna-Markl
We present a red deer-specific real-time PCR assay which, combined with a reference real-time PCR assay published previously, allows the quantification of the red deer content in food products. Thus, it can be applied to detect food adulteration. The primer/probe system of the red deer-specific real-time PCR assay amplifies a 87 bp long fragment of the protein kinase C iota gene. To eliminate cross-reactivity with closely related species, the forward primer was designed to contain one deliberate base mismatch adjacent to one red deer-specific base. The red deer-specific real-time PCR assay did not show cross-reactivity with 23 animal and 50 plant species tested. LOD and LOQ, determined by analyzing a serially diluted DNA extract containing 1% (w/w) red deer DNA in pig DNA, were 0.05% and 0.4%, respectively. The accuracy was validated by analyzing DNA mixtures, meat extract mixtures, meat mixtures and model game sausages with known red deer content. The highest accuracy was obtained when the calibration mixture was similar to the analyzed sample in both the composition and concentration of the animal species of interest. High recoveries were not only obtained for raw samples but also after subjection to thermal treatment, including brewing (15 min at 75–78 °C), boiling (90 min at 100 °C) and microwave treatment (15 s, 40 s or 2 min at 650 W). The deer-specific real-time PCR assay was found to be robust with respect to small deviations in the reaction volume or the annealing temperature and the use of another real-time PCR instrument.
Development of a rapid and efficient DNA-based method to detect and quantify adulterations in coffee (Arabica versus Robusta) Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-01-18 Marie-Christine Combes, Thierry Joët, Philippe Lashermes
Worldwide appreciated beverage, “Arabica” and “Robusta” coffee produced from Coffea arabica and C. canephora respectively, represents a high economical value product. Arabica coffee is generally sold at a higher price than Robusta coffee. As both intentional and accidental adulterations of Arabica with Robusta are frequent, a reliable, inexpensive, and high-throughput adulteration detection technology is required for the coffee industry. We developed a DNA-based authentication method that overcomes limitations of metabolic profiling of Robusta and Arabica coffees. The identification of Arabica and Robusta coffee species, as well as the quantification of their relative proportion in blends were performed by High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis on green and roasted coffee products. For a more sensitive detection method, chloroplastic rather than nuclear genetic variations were targeted between Coffea species. By the developed method, the Coffea species of origin can be quickly differentiated and in case of adulteration, the percentage can be determined.
Fate of various Salmonella enterica and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli cells attached to alfalfa, fenugreek, lettuce, and tomato seeds during germination Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-01-17 Yue Cui, Da Liu, Jinru Chen
Contaminated vegetable seeds have been identified as a potential source of foodborne pathogens. This study was undertaken to observe the physiological behavior of various Salmonella enterica and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) cells attached to different types of vegetable seeds during germination. Surface-sanitized seeds (2 g) of alfalfa, fenugreek, lettuce, and tomato were exposed to four individual strains of Salmonella (Baildon, Cubana, Montevideo, and Stanley) or EHEC (three O157:H7 and one O104:H4 strain[s]) at 20 oC for 1 h. Vegetable seeds with attached bacterial cells were germinated on 1% water agar at 25 oC in the dark. Populations of Salmonella and EHEC on various tissues of sprouts/seedlings (seed coat, root, cotyledon, stem, etc.) were determined every other day over a 9-day germination period. The mean populations of Salmonella and EHEC on sprout/seedling tissues increased as the prolongation of germination time. Overall, 93.0% and 92.3% of collected tissue samples (n = 544) tested positive for Salmonella and EHEC, respectively. Seed coats had significantly higher (P < 0.05) bacterial counts (7.8 log CFU/g) compared to the root, cotyledon, and stem tissues (7.1-6.2 log CFU/g). On average, lettuce seedlings and alfalfa sprouts had significantly higher (P < 0.05) numbers of Salmonella and EHEC cells, followed by fenugreek sprouts, and tomato seedlings. The E. coli O104:H4 strain established the lowest (P < 0.05) cell population (5.2 log CFU/g) on sprout/seedling tissues among all EHEC strains used in the study. Among the three E. coli O157:H7 strains, F4546 (7.2 log CFU/g) and H1730 (7.0 log CFU/g) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean cell population than K4499 (6.8 log CFU/g). The mean population of S. Cubana (7.0 log CFU/g) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the populations of the other 3 Salmonella strains (6.5-6.6 log CFU/0.01 g) used in this study. These data suggested that the growth and dissemination of Salmonella and EHEC cells on alfalfa, fenugreek, lettuce, and tomato sprouts/seedlings were influenced by the bacterial strains, type of sprouts/seedlings, and specific sprout/seedling tissues involved.
Updating techniques on controlling mycotoxins - A review Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-01-16 Ying Luo, Xiaojiao Liu, Jianke Li
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungal species and have been reported to be carcinogenic, genotoxic, teratogenic, nephro- and hepatotoxic. Economic losses and health concerns due to mycotoxins occur at all levels of food and feed production, and this has attracted research interest towards exploring novel approaches to decontaminate and/or detoxify mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed. Therefore, we reviewed various strategies for the detoxification of mycotoxins, including pre-harvest prevention strategies and post-harvest detoxification procedures. Strategies for pre-harvest prevention include appropriate environmental factors, good agricultural and manufacturing practices, and favourable storage practices. For post-harvest detoxiﬁcation strategies, physical, chemical, biological and other developing innovative strategies are discussed. This review is meant to be beneficial to the food industry and to contribute to assuring pre- and post-harvest management and processing practices that maximize consumer safety.
Occurrence and co-occurrence of mycotoxins in nuts and dried fruits from China Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-01-16 Yujiao Wang, Jiyun Nie, Zhen Yan, Zhixia Li, Yang Cheng, Weixia Chang
In this study, 16 mycotoxins were analyzed in ten kinds of dried fruits and nuts sampled from four climate zones in China. The results showed that all 16 mycotoxins were detected at a contamination frequency of 124/253. The most frequent mycotoxin category detected was TCs with contamination levels ranging from
Listeria monocytogenes at chicken slaughterhouse: occurrence, genetic relationship among isolates and evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-01-16 Tainara Santos Oliveira, Luana Milen Varjão, Lis Nery Nunes da Silva, Rodrigo de Castro Lisboa Pereira, Ernesto Hofer, Deyse Cristina Vallim, Rogeria Comastri de Castro Almeida
The aims of this study were to verify the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in chicken at industrial slaughterhouse, the presence of virulence genes and genetic relationship among isolates, and evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 195 samples distributed in 36 carcasses after evisceration, 36 after chilling and 36 after packing, 43 carcasses cutting and 44 cuts after packaging, were collected. L. monocytogenes was found in 35 (17.9%) samples, especially in meat cuts, and samples collected after packing were the ones with higher rate of contamination (8.3%). Serotyping revealed the presence of three serovars: 1/2a (87%), 1/2c (8%) and 1/2b (5%). Macrorestriction profile with Apal at Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed 12 pulsotypes, and isolates from carcass and drumettes after packing and breast filet from cuts section showed high pulsotypes diversity. Regarding the profile of antimicrobial susceptibility, 100% of the isolates were sensitive to most antibiotics tested, except for clindamycin; 42% had intermediate resistance and 5% resistance. Isolation of L. monocytogenes in high levels in the chicken slaughtering line, as found in this study points to a potential risk associated, because the pathogen remains viable in the food throughout the cold chain that is used to commercialization. Still, the antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring is of interest of public health and our result shows that the isolates were susceptible to almost all antibiotics tested, indicating that treatment commonly used to control listeriosis infection is adequate.
Restricted access supramolecular solvents for the simultaneous extraction and cleanup of ochratoxin A in spices subjected to EU regulation Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Noelia Caballero-Casero, Sergio García-Fonseca, Soledad Rubio
A simple and high-throughput sample treatment, based on the use of a supramolecular solvent with restricted access properties (SUPRAS-RAM), was developed for the quantification of ochratoxin A (OTA) in spices subjected to EU regulation. The RAM properties of the SUPRAS permitted exclusion of macromolecules by chemical and physical mechanisms, and pigments and essential oils did not influence OTA extraction. Sample treatment took 10 min and required minute amounts of spice (0.2 g) and volume of SUPRAS (0.4 mL). After sample centrifugation, the crude extracts were directed analyzed by liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection (LC-FD) using external calibration. Method validation proved that it met the performance criteria set by the EU guidelines in terms of sensitivity, recoveries, precision, selectivity and trueness. Recoveries found for OTA in spices classified as difficult and unique commodities by the EU (i.e. Capsicum, Piper nutmeg, ginger and turmeric) ranged from 81 to 101%, with repeatability and intermediate precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, in the intervals 0.4-7% and 2-9%, respectively. Method detection and quantification methods were 1.2 and 3 μg/kg. The method meets the requirements to be applied in enforcement and surveillance programs related to OTA in spices.
Quantitative study of food safety climate in Belgian food processing companies in view of their organizational characteristics Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 E. De Boeck, L. Jacxsens, A.V. Mortier, P. Vlerick
The impact of organizational characteristics on food safety management systems is already intensively studied. Recently, scientific research goes beyond the managerial and technical aspects of the food safety management system, incorporating the impact of human behavior by exploring the food safety climate in food companies. In this study the food safety climate in the Belgian food processing industry was investigated and correlations between food safety climate and organizational (general and quality-related) characteristics of food processing companies were assessed. Additionally, the factorial validity of the applied food safety climate assessment tool was investigated, using exploratory factor analysis. Data were gathered through an online survey. Overall, the food safety climate was perceived to be on a good level for most of the 136 responding companies. Companies with multiple sites in Belgium appeared to perceive the food safety climate better than one-site companies. Food companies providing more than one training session per year appeared to perceive their food safety climate significantly better than companies providing less training (p < .001). For the other organizational characteristics investigated (such as company size, sector, presence of quality department, time spent on quality control, certification, available budget for maintaining the FSMS) no significant correlations with the food safety climate could be proven. Exploratory factor analysis revealed the existence of 4 underlying factors: factor 1 mainly dealing with ‘leadership related’ indicators, factor 2 with ‘resources related’ indicators, factor 3 with ‘communication related’ indicators and factor 4 is a mix of mainly ‘risk awareness related’ indicators and some ‘commitment related’ indicators.
Properties, vapour-phase antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of active poly(vinyl alcohol) packaging films incorporated with clove oil Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Chenwei Chen, Zhewei Xu, Yarui Ma, Jinliang Liu, Qinjun Zhang, Zhipeng Tang, Kaijia Fu, Fuxin Yang, Jing Xie
The active poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films incorporated with clove oil (CO) at level of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% (w/w) was prepared. The effects of CO content on the structural, mechanical, gas barrier and thermal stability properties of the films were investigated. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities in vapour phase of the films were evaluated by investigating the microbiological analyses and lipid oxidation of the packed trichiurus haumela without contacting the PVA films. The oil droplets were observed on the surface and cross-section of the films as CO increased from 3% to 9% via scanning electron microscope (SEM). It resulted in the heterogeneous film structure featuring discontinuities. Some negative impacts on the properties of the films were observed with increasing CO. Compared with pure PVA film, the tensile strength (TS) of film added with 9% CO decreased 14.13%, the elongation at break increased 26.64%, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) reduced 54.31%, oxygen transmission rate (OTR) increased 90.77% and thermal stability was worsened slightly. The bacterial growth and lipid oxidation of the packed trichiurus haumela were inhibited by the packaging with CO-containing films. The PVA film containing 9% CO showed the best quality protective effectiveness. Its microbiological shelf-life could be extended for 2 days and 28.07% reduction of malonaldehyde was obtained on day 7 comparing with control sample, indicating the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were effective in vapour phase. It could be a promising active packaging for potential application in the non direct contact packaging-food system to create a protective atmosphere around the packaged foodstuffs.
Colourimetric detection of swine-specific DNA for halal authentication using gold nanoparticles Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Zhenyun He, Hongshun Yang
Detecting pork contamination is critical for halal food preparation. A fragment of species-specific DNA from swine mitochondrial genome was selected as a target, and two oligonucleotides complementary to the target were used as probes for pork identification. The probe-conjugated gold nanoparticles bound to the target DNA, leading to the aggregation of gold nanoparticles and thus causing the colour of the gold nanoparticles to change from red to blue. More than 0.1 μmol/L of DNA led to an obvious colour change, which was observed by naked eyes after dotting test solutions onto a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate. Furthermore, 0.001-1 μmol/L of the target was semi-quantified by using a digital camera and image processing software. This colourimetric detection might be a promising technique for differentiation of pork from other animal meat products without using any sophisticated machines, and thus will be used for halal authentication.
Influence of 405 nm light-emitting diode illumination on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. on ready-to-eat fresh salmon surface at chilling storage for 8 h and their susceptibility to simulated gastric fluid Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Xinzhi Li, Min-Jeong Kim, Hyun-Gyun Yuk
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of 405 nm light-emitting diode (LED) against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. on the surface of ready-to-eat (RTE) fresh salmon, and to determine the susceptibility of LED-illuminated bacterial cells to simulated gastric fluid (SGF). A cocktail culture of L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. was inoculated onto the freshly cut salmon surface and then illuminated by 405 nm LED (16 ± 2 mW/cm2) for 8 h at 4 and 12 °C. Illuminated cells were subsequently exposed to SGF at 37 °C. Results showed that the populations of LED-illuminated L. monocytogenes and Salmonella cells were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by 0.4 and 0.5 log CFU/cm2 for 8 h compared to non-illuminated cells at 4 °C. At 12°C, significant reductions of 0.3 and 0.4 log CFU/cm2 were observed for LED-illuminated cells, respectively. The D-values of LED-illuminated L. monocytogenes cells at 4 and 12 °C in SGF were 6.0 and 9.4 min, which were significantly lower than those of non-illuminated cells (14.4 and 15.6 min), respectively. Similarly, LED illumination also caused significant decreases in the D-values of Salmonella cells, resulting in 19.7 and 32.9 s of LED-illuminated cells at 4 and 12 °C, respectively, compared to those of non-illuminated cells (37.5 and 46.7 s). No significant color change was observed for LED-illuminated salmon for 8 h at both 4 and 12 °C. Although 405 nm LED illumination did not largely reduce the population of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella cells on fresh salmon during storage at chilling temperatures, these results indicate that 405 nm LED illumination might make them sensitive to gastric acid. Thus, this study suggests that the implementation of 405 nm LED in the storage of RTE fresh salmon products could be useful to minimize the risk of listeriosis and salmonellosis.
Biodegradation of mycotoxin patulin in apple juice by calcium carbonate immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Hui Tang, Xiaoning Peng, Xiaohong Li, Xianghong Meng, Bingjie Liu
The degradation of mycotoxin patulin in apple juice by calcium carbonate immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was investigated. Batch experiments was used to study the optimal degradation conditions, including immobilized PPL addition, temperature, degradation time and initial concentration of immobilized PPL for apple juice. The concentration of patulin in apple juice was determined by HPLC. The results showed that the optimal degradation conditions were 40 °C for 18 h, adding 0.03 g/mL immobilized PPL. After the degradation of patulin, the amount of amino acids, aroma components, polyphenols had changed insignificantly in apple juice, and the patulin degradation rate was over 70% at the initial concentration of 1 mg/L. Consequently, the addition of immobilized PPL would not have a significant effect on the nutritional content. It suggested that immobilized PPL could be used for patulin degradation in apple juice.
New insights on the risk factors associated with the presence of Salmonella on pig carcasses. Lessons from small slaughterhouses. Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-29 J.A. Sánchez-Rodríguez, L. Navas, F.M. Vinuesa, C. Castells, M.A. Martínez, A. López, B. Lindez, C. Cabrera-Vique
This study analyses the prevalence of Salmonella on the surface of pig carcasses and identifies the serotypes present, in order to determine risk factors associated with the slaughter process. We analysed 393 samples, using the abrasive pad method, from pig carcasses obtained from three small slaughterhouses in southern Spain. Of the 393 samples, 45 (11.4%; 95% CI: 8.3-14.6%) were contaminated with Salmonella, with the main serotypes being S. Typhimurium (35.6%), S. Derby (31.1%) and S. Rissen (11.1%). In addition to this analysis, we examined 13 risk factors that have been described in previous research. The polishing stage, the use of pressurised water at the intermediate cleaning stage and the turbidity of the scalding water were the main risk factors found to be associated with the presence of Salmonella. Scalding the carcass using water with a turbidity exceeding 1000 NTU increases the risk of contamination by Salmonella (1001-2000 NTU, OR=3.24, 95%CI: 1.12-9.35; >2000 NTU, OR=6.26, 95%CI: 1.42-27.46), while the omission of the polishing stage (OR=0.10; 95%CI: 0.01-0.87) and not using pressurised water in an intermediate cleaning process (OR=0.09, 95%CI: 0.01-0.48) decrease the risk of contamination by this pathogen.
Characterisation of Campylobacter contamination in broilers and assessment of microbiological criteria for the pathogen in broiler slaughterhouses Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-29 F. Reich, A. Valero, F. Schill, L. Bungenstock, G. Klein
Campylobacter is considered an important foodborne pathogen, having a high impact on public health burden. Source allocation studies identified broiler meat as the most important food transmission vehicle of Campylobacter. In this regard, microbiological limits are under development in the EU and characterisation of microbial contamination seems to be an essential step towards implementing sampling schemes. The aim of this study was to analyse broiler batches processed at three conventional slaughterhouses in Germany for their Campylobacter load at the end of processing. Microbial data of positive and negative batches from the studied slaughterhouses were used to fit different statistical distributions (i.e., lognormal, Poisson-lognormal and negative binomial) by means of the maximum likelihood estimation method. Finally, the performance of microbiological criteria was assessed by calculating the probability of accepting batches using two microbiological limits recently discussed by the European Food Safety Authority (500 and 1,000 cfu/g). Samples of broiler neck skin and caecal content (356 batches) were collected in three German slaughterhouses (A, B and C) for fresh meat production from conventionally reared broilers during the period from July 2013 to June 2016. Microbial analyses of five pooled neck skin samples and one pooled caecal sample per batch were performed. In this study, the prevalence of Campylobacter caecum positive broiler batches processed at slaughterhouses A, B and C was 42.7 (n = 117), 21.7 (n = 120) and 47.9% (n = 119), respectively. The Campylobacter mean count in neck skin samples of positive batches was highest in slaughterhouse A, with 2.9±0.6 log10 cfu/g compared to slaughterhouse B with 2.7±0.7 log10 cfu/g and slaughterhouse C with 2.7±0.7 log10 cfu/g. The results showed that distributions skewed to the right, thus indicating a high proportion of low microbial counts in the samples. Negative binomial regression provided a better fit at low contamination levels (<100 cfu/g), while the Poisson-lognormal distribution described both within- and between-batch variability better at higher microbial counts. The fitted statistical distributions were further used to evaluate the performance of different microbiological criteria based on an acceptance sampling approach in relation to the defective units based on different limits (mean counts) set at each slaughterhouse. Results obtained will help food business operators to evaluate the status of microbiological hygiene and safety in relation to Campylobacter contamination, also assisting them in setting their own limits of acceptance for process improvement under consideration of existing legal requirements.
Increase of Deoxynivalenol during the Malting of Naturally Fusarium Infected Chinese Winter Wheat Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-29 Zhao Jin, Yan Cao, Aimei Su, Yongchang Yu, Minwei Xu
Wheat constitutes a significant adjunct ingredient for beer brewing in China, but is prone to be contaminated with Deoxynivalenol (DON). To evaluate the development of DON and its producing-Fusariums in the malting, thirteen Chinese winter wheat samples of natural DON levels under the national standard limit (1000 μg/kg) were selected to malt in lab-scale. DON levels increased in the malting for all samples by 282% on average, and exceeded of 1000 μg/kg in 7 malts. Fate of DON and Fusariums in the malting was monitored for three samples with the largest increase of DON levels. Around 95% of initial wheat DON was washed away by steeping, but the DON level rose up to 7-fold in the following germination, which was caused by the growth of Fusariums with tri5 DNA level increasing by 28-fold averagely. Fifty-one percent of tri5 DNA in the germinated wheat was terminally denatured by high temperature in the kilning stage, but DON survived. About 26% of DON was get rid by de-rooting. The result highlighted the risk of DON increase in the malting of Fusarium Height Blight wheat.
Contamination and Characterization of Multiple Pathogens in Powdered Formula at Retail collected between 2014 and 2015 in China Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-29 Gan Xin, Dong Yinping, Yan Shaofei, Hu Yujie, Séamus Fanning, Wang Jiahui, Li Fengqin
A total of 119 powdered formula samples collected from supermarkets, E-shops and online maternal counters in 16 provinces in China between 2014 and 2015 were analyzed for Cronobacter, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium sporogenes, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Cronobacter was also tested by a broth microdilution method. Virulence genes related to emetic and diarrheal toxins production harbored by B. cereus were detected by multiplex PCR. The results showed that the prevalence of Cronobacter, B. cereus, C. sporogenes contamination were 3.4%, 36.1% and 9.2%, respectively. The contamination level of Cronobacter ranged from 0.36 MPN/100 g to 15 MPN/100 g. All Cronobacter isolates cultured from powdered formula tested were susceptible to all antimicrobials agents tested except one isolate which showed intermediate resistance to ciprofloxacin. The prevalence of B. cereus contamination in goat-based powdered formula was higher than that of milk-based powdered formula. A large number of B. cereus isolates (93.0%) carried nhe- and entFM-encoding genes (65.1%). Subtyping results demonstrated that the frequency of nheA, nheB, nheC were 86.1%, 88.4%, 39.5%, while 27.9%, 25.6%, 20.9% were positive for hblA, hblC, hblD , respectively. The cytK gene was detected in 25.6% of B.cereus isolates. There were 5 isolates identified as carrying both hblA/C/D and nheA/B/C and being potentially toxic. These data pointed to the need to improve the hygienic and manufacturing practices during powdered formula production in order to reduce the outbreak burden of foodborne disease risk in China.
Quantification of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Nigerian Traditional Beers and Spices using a Multi-mycotoxin LC-MS/MS Method Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-29 Cynthia Adaku Chilaka, Marthe De Boevre, Olusegun Oladimeji Atanda, Sarah De Saeger
Traditional beers and spices play important roles in the diets of millions of Nigerians. Unfortunately, these products may be colonised by fungal infestation and subsequent production of mycotoxins. In the present study, a total of 229 food commodities consisting of 99 traditional beers (burukutu=54, pito=45), 58 traditional spices (dawadawa=17, ogiri=20, okpehe=21), and 72 indigenous beans (African locust beans=30, African castor beans=21, African mesquite beans =21) were analysed for Fusarium mycotoxins and their modified forms using a multi-mycotoxin LC-MS/MS method. All the sample types were found to be contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins. In general, 77% (176/229) of the samples analysed were positive of at least one Fusarium toxin at an individual incidence rate of 75% (traditional beers), 74% (traditional spices), and 82% (indigenous beans). Deoxynivalenol was the most prevalent mycotoxin in the traditional beers at an incidence rate of 61%, while fumonisin B2 was the most dominant mycotoxin in traditional spices (rate–33%) and indigenous beans (rate–58%). Evidence of a cocktail of Fusarium mycotoxins was observed in all the sample types. This study reports for the first time a wide spectrum of Fusarium mycotoxins in traditional beers, spices, and indigenous beans of Nigerian origin.
There is information in the tails: Outliers in the food safety attitude-behaviour gap. Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-29 Susana O. Moreaux, Charles A. Adongo, Ishmael Mensah, Francis E. Amuquandoh
The gap between food safety attitudes and behaviour is well acknowledged. Bridging this gap is critical in controlling food borne illnesses. Understanding the basis for behavioural outliers in food safety practices can be vital for persuading and transforming future unfavourable food safety behaviour(s). However, there appears to be limited insights available on this subject. This study investigates the extent to which Khebab vendors relate with the food safety attitude-behaviour gap hypothesis and whether this gap is stratified by education and training exposure. Employing interviews and non-participant observation, data was collected from 50 vendors in the Cape Coast Metropolis in Ghana. The results indicate a significant gap between food safety attitude and behaviour, irrespective of educational status and training. It was also found that home-based food safety socialisation, customer dissatisfaction and associated consequences and egoistic tendencies accounted for outliers.
Correlations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polar components in edible oils during deep frying of peanuts Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-29 Ye Zhu, Xu Li, Jianhua Huang, Chenwei Zhao, Jinfeng Qi, Qingzhe Jin, Xingguo Wang
Peanuts were deep-fried for 192 h in soybean oil and two blends (super palm olein oil/soybean oil /high oleic sunflower oil, at volume ratios of 2:2:1 and 3:2:1). For each type of oil, changes in the total polar components (TPCs), the polar component composition (polymerized products, oxidized products and hydrolysis products), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the correlations between them were investigated. These parameters were found to increase as the deep-frying time increased; the increase was fastest for soybean oil. In this study, the TPCs content showed higher correlations with polymerized products and oxidized products than with hydrolysis products. In addition, the Pearson correlation coefficients between PAHs and polymerized products and between PAHs and oxidized products were higher (ranging, 0.766 to 0.917), which proved that the changes in PAHs concentrations are related to oxidative stability of oils. These results may be helpful in studying the mechanism of PAHs formation and increase and in developing ways to reduce PAHs contents during frying processes.
Effect of natural antioxidants on inhibition of parent and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Chinese fried bread youtiao Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-29 Guangyi Gong, Xue Zhao, Shimin Wu
The effects of three natural antioxidants (rosemary extract, tea polyphenol, and antioxidant of bamboo) on the levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and five oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) in typical Chinese fried food youtiao were investigated, with synthesized antioxidant tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) added to the frying oil for comparison. Soybean and palm oils were chosen as frying oils. The antioxidants were added to the frying oil in concentrations of 60, 120, and 180 mg/kg, and PAH and OPAH analysis was performed using GC-MS. Furthermore, the acid value, peroxide value, and polar components were detected to evaluate the antioxidant effect. Compared to samples without added antioxidants, the addition of TBHQ, rosemary extract, tea polyphenol, and antioxidants of bamboo reduced the total PAH and total OPAH concentrations by up to 30.30%, 23.47%, 11.38%, and 28.85%, respectively, for youtiao fried in soybean oil, and by up to 38.94%, 27.56%, 9.45%, and 39.26%, respectively, for youtiao fried in palm oil. The best inhibition was achieved by antioxidant of bamboo, which also showed good performance in slowing youtiao quality degradation. These results could inform good frying practice to improve the quality of fried food with low PAH and OPAH levels, and aid understanding of the new potential benefits of natural antioxidant extracts.
Effect of inoculating Lactobacillus pentosus R3 on N-nitrosamines and bacterial communities in dry fermented sausages Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-29 Yaqing Xiao, Peijun Li, Ying Zhou, Fei Ma, Conggui Chen
We investigated the effects of Lactobacillus pentosus inoculation on N-nitrosamines (NAs) contents and bacterial communities in dry fermented sausages. Culture-dependent and culture-independent (high-throughput sequencing) methods were employed to evaluate the bacterial communities. The results showed that inoculation with L. pentosus improved the microbiological quality of dry fermented sausages by enhancing the competitiveness of dominant bacteria and inhibiting the growth of undesirable microbes. At the end of ripening, NA content, nitrite residue, carbonyl content, total volatile basic nitrogen, pH value, and water activity of the sausages inoculated with L. pentosus were lower than the control (p < 0.05). L. pentosus showed nitrite depletion ability in Mann–Rogosa–Sharp broth. The bacteria obtained from L. pentosus-inoculated sausages significantly degraded NAs in phosphate-buffered saline (p < 0.05). Thus, L. pentosus can reduce NA levels in dry fermented sausages directly by degrading NAs and indirectly by decreasing their precursors (nitrite, amines) or inhibiting NA formation under conditions of lower pH and water activity, which may be attributed to the higher microbiological quality. Thus, L. pentosus is a potential starter culture for improving safety in the production of dry fermented sausages.
Aeromonas salmonicida isolates: Attachment ability and sensitivity to four disinfectants Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Jun Qi, Huawei Wang, Linlin Cai, Huhu Wang, Xinglian Xu, Guanghou Zhou
Aeromonas spp. are closely associated with food spoilage, and often enter the food chain through cross-contamination during processing from biofilms on food-contacted surfaces. The attachment abilities of two high-spoilage Aeromonas salmonicida isolates were compared. The sensitivities of these isolates in biofilm to four disinfectants, namely sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), were assayed. The results indicated that isolate 1425 showed higher attachment ability as compared to isolate 1435 at initial attachment (30 min) under a short-term attachment scenario (5 h), reaching more than 5 log CFU/cm2. Under a long-term attachment scenario (7 days), isolate 1425 formed a mature biofilm after 5 days of incubation, with the highest observed cell numbers of nearly 9 log CFU/cm2. The dynamics of biofilm formation of isolate 1435 were relatively stable, with cell population ranging from 6.25 to 7 log CFU/cm2. The composition of the extracellular polymeric substances and the morphology of the mature biofilm were identified by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The mature biofilm formed by isolate 1425 showed more resistance to tested disinfectants than that of isolate 1435. Sodium hypochlorite (200 mg/L) and AEW (40 mg/L) showed greater lethal effects than the other disinfectants. Moreover, 40 mg/L of AEW was as effective as 200 mg/L of sodium hypochlorite. These findings indicated that the biofilm formed by microorganisms associated with food spoilage and safety could not be ignored during food processing and that AEW may be a promising alternative to sodium hypochlorite for the elimination of such biofilms.
Viability assay of E. coli O157: H7 treated with electrolyzed oxidizing water using flow cytometry Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Chunling Zhang, Xi Chen, Xiaodong Xia, Baoming Li, Yen-Con Hung
Bacteria treated with chlorine-based sanitizer could enter into viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state, which may be underestimated its health risk. In this study, E. coli O157: H7 was treated with slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW), acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) and sodium hypochlorite with different available chlorine concentrations (ACC). The reduction of population was determined, as well as the status of treated cells (viable and culturable, VBNC, dead) was assayed using flow cytometry combined with plate counting. Finally, the cell which cannot be detected using routine media was cultured in p-TSB to resuscitate. The results showed that the reduction of E. coli O157: H7 increased with increasing ACC of SAEW, AEW and sodium hypochlorite and the antimicrobial effect of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) waters was much higher than sodium hypochlorite. SAEW, AEW and sodium hypochlorite with ACC of 30, 20 and 60 mg/L achieved E. coli O157: H7 colonies to non-detectable level on solid media. The results obtained from flow cytometric assay indicated that culturable cells after EO water and sodium hypochlorite treatments with increasing ACC firstly enter VBNC state and then transferred to dead status. VBNC E.coli was able to be resuscitated in p-TSB and therefore regarded as a potential risk for human health. E. coli O157: H7 in VBNC state after EO water treatment should be taken into consideration and complete inactivation could be achieved by elevated chlorine concentration.
Parallel reaction monitoring to improve the detection performance of carcinogenic 4-methylimidazole in food by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry coupled with dispersive micro solid-phase extraction Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Dawei Chen, Pengcheng Yan, Bing Lv, Yunfeng Zhao, Yongning Wu
Carcinogenic 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) formed by Maillard reaction is commonly found in various food, which are colored with caramel or prepared in cooking and roasting processes. The sample preparation and detection of 4-MEI are extremely difficult due to its low molecular weight and high water solubility. In this study, a simple sample preparation based on the dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (dispersive micro SPE) procedure was developed for the analysis of 4-MEI in food. Dispersive micro SPE method is convenient, time-saving and low-cost, and its cleanup effect is comparable to that of the traditional SPE method. Moreover, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) was also used for the accurate qualitative and quantitative detection of 4-MEI. Among various acquisition modes of HRMS, a new parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) mode was found to contribute to a significant reduction in background noise of 4-MEI, resulting in its detection performance increased by 50- or 100-fold. Finally, this method was validated in eight kinds of food, including the complex matrices (soy sauce, vinegar, coffee and tea), and applied in real food samples. The results showed that the presence of 4-MEI in cooking and roasting food (e.g. coffee and tea) is of concern.
Herb and spice fraud; the drivers, challenges and detection Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Pamela Galvin-King, Simon A. Haughey, Christopher T. Elliott
The global herb and spice industry, valued at approximately US$4 billion, continues to grow. This industry is continuously under threat from criminals dealing in economically motivated adulteration. Opportunities for criminals to adulterate herbs and spices can occur at any point along the long and complex supply chains. This review looks at the cases and effects of adulteration in the herb and spice industry, and analytical methods being used to detect it and ultimately prevent it. The economy and consumer confidence can be negatively affected following a food fraud scandal. Fraud may also pose a health risk to consumers, even though it is economically motivated, such as the case with nut protein in cumin and paprika. Therefore, for these reasons, rapid screening techniques are required to detect and help prevent fraud from occurring in the industry. Advances in technology has resulted in an increase in the use of spectroscopic techniques being used alongside chemometrics for the detection of adulteration in the herb and spice industry. Also, improvements in DNA analysis and mass spectrometry are providing faster and cheaper methods of adulteration detection. These advancing techniques aim to protect the herb and spice industry and its consumers from fraud by detecting, deterring and therefore preventing adulteration.
Using acid and alkaline electrolyzed water to reduce deoxynivalenol and mycological contaminations in wheat grains Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Fei Lyu, Fei Gao, Xuxia Zhou, Jianyou Zhang, Yuing Ding
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a worldwide cereal contaminant, is mainly produced by Fusarium spp.. It not only affects the cereal quality reducing the end-use, but also poses a serious threat to food and feed safety. In order to protect human and animal health and reduce economic losses, it is important to find ways to reduce DON and mycological contamination. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of acid electrolyzed water (AcidEW) and alkaline electrolyzed water (AlkEW) with different pH values on eliminating DON and inactivating fungi in naturally contaminated wheat grains. Both AcidEW and AlkEW showed great activity on the elimination of DON and mycological contamination. The optimal pH values of AcidEW and AlkEW for DON elimination were 5.5 and 9.5, respectively. Afterwards, effects of pH 5.5 AcidEW and pH 9.5 AlkEW on F. graminearum and qualities of wheat grains were observed. AcidEW and AlkEW displayed better activity on reducing F. graminearum than pure water. Both AcidEW and AlkEW had no effect on the moisture, crude protein, wet gluten, whiteness and microstructure of wheat grains, as compared with the pure water. Moreover, AcidEW could improve farinograph property of wheat grains. Therefore, either AcidEW or AlkEW can be as a novel method to reduce DON and fungal contaminations, especially, AcidEW.
Multiple fish species identified from China's roasted Xue Yu fillet products using DNA and mini-DNA barcoding: Implications on human health and marine sustainability Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Xiong Xiong, Lili Yao, Xiaoguo Ying, Lixia Lu, Lisa Guardone, Andrea Armani, Xiaohui Xiong
Roasted Xue Yu fillet is among the most common fish products in China and the market appealing can be reflected by its high price that occasionally exceeds 300 RMB/kg in local supermarket. However, due to the lack of harmonization around the definition of Xue Yu, as well as the disability of visual inspection for transformed fish products, China’s roasted Xue Yu fillet products are quite deep in the scandal of species adulteration. The objective of this study is to apply DNA and mini-DNA barcoding for the species identification of 153 roasted Xue Yu fillet products, on behalf of 30 brands, collected from 16 cities of China. The mislabeling rate was assessed according to three increasingly stringent definitions: 1) Xue Yu meaning Gadiformes species; 2) Xue Yu meaning Gadidae species; 3) Xue Yu meaning Gadus spp. Results highlighted a very high mislabeling rate, which reached 58% even with the least stringent definition. Only 42% of the samples were identified as belonging to Gadiformes, while the others were Scorpaeniformes, Tetraodontiformes and Lophiiformes. Moreover, the implications on human health and marine sustainability were also discussed, given the identification of poisonous Lagocephalus spp. from 37 samples and the China’s rising consumption of marine resources.
National molecular tracing network for foodborne disease surveillance in China Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Weiwei Li, Shuyu Wu, Ping Fu, Jikai Liu, Haihong Han, Li Bai, Xiaoyan Pei, Ning Li, Xiumei Liu, Yunchang Guo
To improve the early detection of geographically dispersed common-source foodborne outbreaks, a national foodborne disease molecular tracing network (TraNet) was launched in 2013 based on the existing laboratory-based foodborne disease surveillance system in China. TraNet consists of 32 provincial and many municipal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that conduct molecular subtyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) on foodborne pathogens submitted by sentinel hospitals within their jurisdictions, and submit these PFGE profiles to a national database for further analysis. Currently, TraNet plays a significant role in the identification of etiologic causes and tracks contaminated food during foodborne outbreaks.
Fluorescence spectroscopy for discrimination of botrytized wines Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-27 Jana Sádecká, Michaela Jakubíková, Pavel Májek
Some botrytized wines with “protected designation of origin” have a high market price, thus they are prone to adulteration with cheaper alternatives. This work presents the use of fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics as a relatively fast and inexpensive tool to discriminate botrytized wines according to two classification criteria: (1) distinguishing between botrytized wines of different quality, namely four-, five-, and six butt wines, and essence; and (2) distinguishing between unadulterated and adulterated samples. Various emission and synchronous fluorescence spectra were recorded and compressed by principal component analysis (PCA) and then linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was performed. The best PCA-LDA results (the percentage of correct classification for each wine category in the prediction step) were obtained with fluorescence spectra recorded on raw samples. Regarding wines of different quality, four- and five butt wines as well as essences were 100% correctly classified, while six butt wine samples were 80% correctly classified using emission spectra excited at 390 or 460 nm as well as synchronous fluorescence spectra recorded at wavelength difference of 100 nm. Regarding unadulterated and adulterated samples, the percentages of correct classification were 60, 80, 80 and 100% for four-, five-, and six butt wines and essence, respectively, while adulterated samples were 100% correctly classified, in all cases, using synchronous fluorescence spectra recorded at wavelength difference of 100 nm.
Roller conveyer system for the reduction of pesticides using non-thermal gas plasma - A potential food safety control measure? Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Yoichi Toyokawa, Yoshihito Yagyu, Risa Yamashiro, Kazunori Ninomiya, Akikazu Sakudo
We previously described a novel roller conveyer plasma device, which generates gas plasma via atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge, to disinfect vegetables in situ during the sorting process. Here, we tested this system to verify whether or not such treatment was also effective in pesticide reduction. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed the pesticide malathion, present at levels typically observed on treated crops, was efficiently degraded to less than one tenth of the original level within 1 min. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmed the decrease in the level of pesticide cocktail PL14-2 and FA-2, including organophosphorus pesticides and other classes of pesticides, after plasma treatment. A cholinesterase inhibitory activity assay was used as an index to measure the activity of PL14-2 and FA-2, which showed that the gas plasma treatment reduced the biological activity of the pesticides. In addition to its proven biocidal effects, our findings demonstrate the potential of this non-thermal plasma system as a food safety control measure ensuring reduction of pesticide residues in foodstuffs.
The prevalence and load of Salmonella, and key risk points of Salmonella contamination in a swine slaughterhouse in Jiangsu province, China Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Zihao Zhou, Xuanchen Jin, Huijuan Zheng, Jingwen Li, Chuang Meng, Kequan Yin, Xiaolei Xie, Cuiying Huang, Tianyao Lei, Xinyu Sun, Zemiao Xia, Yuan Zeng, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
We investigated Salmonella contamination in a slaughterhouse in Jiangsu province (China) by analysing prevalences, loads, and serotypes of Salmonella isolates. In total, 480 samples were collected, with total prevalence of 25.4%. High Salmonella prevalence and load were observed at exsanguination and splitting stages (40.6% and 75.0%; 2.50 ± 0.94 and 2.24 ± 0.72 logMPN/m2, respectively), with low prevalence and load at dehairing, flaming, and chilling stages (2.5%, 5.0%, and 15.0%; 1.39 ± 0.42, 1.36 ± 0.31, and 1.38 ± 0.30 logMPN/m2, respectively). The Salmonella prevalence and load increased substantially from flaming to splitting stage. Six serovars were represented among 122 Salmonella isolates; S. Derby and S. Typhimurium were predominant and were subtyped using PFGE and CRISPR typing approaches. Fourteen PFGE clusters were identified, with discrimination indices (DI) of 0.929 and 0.976 for S. Derby and S. Typhimurium, respectively. Clusters A1, A2, B, C1, C3, C4, D1, F, I, J, L1, M2, and N2 indicated the isolates from same sampling visit were distributed in same cluster. Cluster D1 and K showed that the strains isolated from splitter and carcass swab-samples were highly resemble. Salmonella serovars with the same CRISPR type were mostly isolated after splitting (represented by Dercr 1, Dercr 2, Dercr 3, Tycr 1, Tycr 2, Tycr 3, Tycr 4, and Tycr 6). Our findings revealed that introduced Salmonella was the major source of swine carcass contamination; three slaughtering steps (polishing, rectal drilling, and evisceration) between flaming and splitting were important risk points for Salmonella release, post-splitting slaughtering processes were major contamination risk points, and the splitter was a contamination factor. Our data suggest routes for controlling Salmonella contamination in a swine slaughterhouse.
Application of competitive models in predicting the simultaneous growth of Staphylococcus aureus and lactic acid bacteria in milk Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Ľubomír Valík, Pavel Ačai, Alžbeta Medveďová
The simultaneous growth of Staphylococcus aureus and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter culture was studied in milk at different temperatures and LAB inoculums (ranging from 12 °C to 30 °C and 103–107 CFU ml−1, respectively). The modelling and predictive ability of three competition models were evaluated. Competition coefficients representing mutual population influence were incorporated into two of the models. This enabled the use of model parameters from individual S. aureus and LAB growth curves as well as those from co-culture growth in milk. Both the results and their statistical indices showed that incorporation of averaged competition coefficients resulting from individual co-culture trials improved the prediction of S. aureus behaviour in co-culture with LAB.
Developing a hazard analysis worksheet in a small food business with the application of a T-shaped matrix diagram Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Waldemar Dzwolak
Based on the information obtained from quality/food safety managers, hazard analysis worksheets (HAWs) and flow diagrams were identified, using the ABCD method, as the elements which generate the most extended areas of food safety management systems (FSMSs) based on HACCP procedures. In order to simplify this part of documentation, a shortened form of HAWs designed on the basis of a T-shaped matrix diagram (T-HAWs) was developed. T-HAWs were implemented on a trial basis in three small food businesses (SFBs) for a period of six months. After five months, documentation users evaluated the suitability of both the classic and the new forms of HAWs. The evaluation results were expressed in a numerical form as the documentation usability index (DUI), which values for the classic HAWs amounted from 0.55 to 1.1, and for T-HAWs ranged from 1.3 to 1.8. Student's t-test confirmed the existence of significant differences of the DUI values between both evaluated forms of the HAWs. The study demonstrates that the FSMSs documentation area may be a subject of research aimed at simplifying and reducing the volume of system documents through the use of effective methods and management tools. The T-HAWs developed in this work, in combination with a simplified flow diagram, provided an opportunity for a significant reduction in the classic HACCP plan, which may facilitate the implementation and application of the Codex HACCP principles and HACCP-based procedures in SFBs. Even though the T-HAWs were positively assessed by the users of HACCP documentation, certain limitations were identified, therefore the results of this study should be regarded as preliminary investigations which require to be continued with a greater number of SFBs representing a greater range of food industry sectors included.
An innovative oligonucleotide microarray to detect spoilage microorganisms in wine Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-16 Fabio Cimaglia, Mariana Tristezza, Antonietta Saccomanno, Patrizia Rampino, Carla Perrotta, Vittorio Capozzi, Giuseppe Spano, Maurizio Chiesa, Giovanni Mita, Francesco Grieco
The aim of this investigation has been the design and validation of an oligonucleotide microarray in order to detect 17 different wine-spoilage microorganisms, i.e. 9 yeasts, 5 lactic bacteria and 3 acetic acid bacteria species. Furthermore, several strains belonging to these species has been found to produce undesirable compounds for wine consumers. Oligonucleotide probes specific for each microorganism were designed to target the intergenic spacer regions (ISR) between 18S-5.8S region for yeasts and 16S-ITS1 region for bacteria. Prior to hybridization the ISR were amplified by combining reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reactions using a designed consensus primer. Each oligonucleotide-probes exclusively recognized its target without undesired aspecific cross-hybridizations. Under our experimental condition, the microarray assay analysis was able to detect the amount of DNA equivalent to 24 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), 160 (Lactobacillus brevis) and 124 (Gluconobacter oxydans) cells, three species chosen as experimental models for the three studied microbial classes. Moreover, a novel procedure that allowed the extraction of genomic DNA from a mixture of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells from contaminated wine was developed. The obtained results confirm that the microarray assay is able to detect specifically different spoilage microorganisms present in mixture in contaminated wines. For the first time the microarray methodology has been applied for the simultaneous identification of different mixed population of spoilage yeast and bacteria directly isolated from wine, thus indicating the practicability of oligonucleotide microarrays as a contamination control in wine industry.
Identification of determinants of postharvest losses in Zimbabwean tomato supply chains as basis for dedicated interventions Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-15 Lesley Macheka, Elisabeth J.H. Spelt, Evert-Jan Bakker, Jack G.A.J. van der Vorst, Pieternel A. Luning
Postharvest losses (PHL) are a major problem in tomato supply chains, especially in tropical climates, as up to 40% of harvested fruits are estimated to decay along the chain. The study aimed at identifying which farmers' context characteristics, logistics and quality control activities relate with the generation of PHL in tomato supply chains, particularly in Zimbabwe. Commercial and subsistence tomato farmers (n = 197) from five major tomato-growing areas were analysed using a diagnostic tool to assess the status of logistics and quality control activities, the vulnerability of farmers' context, and the actual PHL. Hierarchical cluster analysis resulted in three clusters of farmers grouped based on similarities on context vulnerability and status of logistics and quality control activities. Spearman's rank correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analyses revealed that more advanced logistics and control activities, and context characteristics with a lower vulnerability to PHL are associated with less postharvest losses. The context characteristics, features of storage facilities, features of cropping system, and market price stability were significant determinants (p < .05) and explained 29% (Adjusted R2 = 0.287) of the variation in the PHL. The logistics control activity, determining processing volumes was identified as a possible determinant (p < .05) and explained 21% (Adjusted R2 = 0.205) of the variation in the observed PHL. The quality control activities, deciding on maturity to harvest, deciding on moment to harvest, and storage practices were the identified determinants (p < .05), which explained 23% (Adjusted R2 = 0.230) of the variability in the observed postharvest losses. A framework of intervention strategies tailored to tomato farmers' development stage is proposed to support them in a step-wise improvement of logistics and quality control practices to reduce PHL and advance towards more advanced supply chains.
Prevalence and persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in premises and products of small food business operators in Northern Ireland Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-14 Robert H. Madden, Mike Hutchison, Kieran Jordan, Vincenzo Pennone, Ozan Gundogdu, Nicolae Corcionivoschi
Listeriosis is a foodborne disease, with a high mortality rate, that predominantly effects the elderly. Under European Union legislation, EC 2073/2005, food business operators are encouraged to undertake sampling to ensure that the food processing environment, and required to ensure that food products, are free of Listeria monocytogenes. To determine the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in smaller food processing facilities in Northern Ireland, 24 companies submitted six processing environment swabs and two food samples every two months for eighteen months (July 2015 to November 2016) for L. monocytogenes examination. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was 4.6% in food samples, and 6.3% in processing environment swabs. Over the duration of the study, 96 isolates of L. monocytogenes were obtained, one from each positive sample, except for two meat samples that had >100 cfu/g, where two isolates were obtained from each sample. No seasonality in occurrence of L. monocytogenes was seen for food isolates but significantly higher numbers of positive processing environment swabs were found in the warmer months of May, July and September (p = .007). Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed the presence of 27 pulsotypes; 9 pulsotypes were shared between different facilities and 9 were persistent. Based on a Combase predictive growth model, 77.5% (n = 130) of the foods tested were predicted to support the growth of L. monocytogenes. All of the isolates carried the pathogenicity genes inlA and actA and 71.4% carried qacH, which confers resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds which are frequently used in sanitizers. Whole genome sequencing of the isolates allowed multi-locus sequence typing to be undertaken. The data indicated that the sequence types identified included those with disease-causing ability, highlighting the disease-causing potential of the isolates.
Cloud-based system for rational use of pesticide to guarantee the source safety of traceable vegetables Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-14 Jianping Qian, Ce Shi, Shanshan Wang, Yingzhuo Song, Beilei Fan, Xiaoming Wu
Recent legal requirements and market demands have motivated more food companies to implement traceability systems. Ensuring safe farming practices is the first step in food supply chain traceability, and reasonable pesticide use is a main feature of food safety and sustainable production. This study describes the design and development of a cloud-based platform for rational pesticide use to guarantee the source safety of traceable vegetables. The system includes a pesticide use control cloud platform (PUCC) and a pesticide user application (PUA), which interactively guide users through the steps of pesticide purchasing, pesticide application, harvest time, and pesticide evaluation. Models for evaluating and recommending potential pesticides were developed based on an open library of pesticide use rules. The PUCC, which includes the main functions of farmer registration, authentication of platform administrator, and information management for plant protection service agencies, was developed using Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 and deployed on the Internet. The PUA provides interfaces for pesticide purchasing guideline, pesticide application, optimal harvest time, and feedback. As a case study, the system was used for about a year in 24 vegetable bases in Tianjin. The effectiveness of the system was evaluated by investigating 8 management center staff members and 41 farmers. Management agencies noted the positive effects of promoting reasonable pesticide use, facilitating information accessibility, and enhancing management. Advantages to farmers included reducing the risk of unreasonable pesticide usage, decreasing the risk of counterfeit pesticides, and improving vegetable quality and safety; disadvantages included increased costs and reduced efficiency. In addition, the system improved external and internal traceability to ensure crop quality and safety.
Consumer use effects on nanoparticle release from commercially available ceramic cookware Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-07 Susana Addo Ntim, Samuel Norris, Keana Scott, Treye A. Thomas, Gregory O. Noonan
Food preparation and storage materials are often subjected to stressful conditions such as scraping and cleaning with abrasive pads throughout their lifecycle. In general, understanding potential nanoparticle migration when in contact with food is important in assessing their safety. A ceramic-coated fry pan and a ceramic sauce pot (both commercially available) were evaluated for nanoparticle migration under three consumer use conditions. Washing, scouring, and scratching conditions were simulated by linear abrasion using scrubbing pads, steel wool and tungsten carbide burr attachments, respectively. Migration of titanium (Ti) and silicon (Si) was evaluated using 3% acetic acid as a food simulant. Ti and Si concentrations in simulant were generally higher under the consumer use scenarios than in fresh/unused pans. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles were detected in the simulant under the most aggressive use scenario simulated by abrasion with the tungsten carbide burr attachment. TiO2 and SiO2 particle number concentrations were on the order of 108 and 107 particles dm−2, with median diameters of 250 nm and 460 nm, respectively. The aluminum (Al) concentration migrating from the sauce pot was also higher under the consumer use scenarios than in fresh/unused pots, but without any detectable nanoparticle migration.
Effect of Tea Marinades on the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in charcoal-grilled chicken wings Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-07 Chong Wang, Yunting Xie, Jun Qi, Ying Yu, Yun Bai, Chen Dai, Chunbao Li, Xinglian Xu, Guanghong Zhou
Growth modeling of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in ground chicken meat ☆ Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-06 Christopher Sommers, Chi-Yun Huang, Lee-Yan Sheen, Shiowshuh Sheen, Lihan Huang
Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), including Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), are common contaminants in poultry meat, and are a major pathogen associated with inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, sepsis, and urinary tract infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the growth potential of UPEC in ground chicken meat. A multi-isolate cocktail of UPEC was inoculated into ground chicken meat 103−4 log CFU/g and incubated at 4, 10, 15, 22, and 30 °C. The USDA Integrated Pathogen Modeling Program (IPMP) was used to conduct mathematical modeling and validation of UPEC growth using the Huang Primary Model and the Huang Square Root Secondary Model. No growth occurred at 4 °C, while the lag phases were ca. 23.6, 11.5, 5.2, and 0.36 h at 10, 15, 22, and 30 °C. According to the model, the Tmin, the minimum temperature for UPEC growth in ground chicken, was 5.1 °C. The growth rates (μmax, ln CFU/g h−1) were ca. 0.06, 0.27, 0.48, and 0.90. Approximately 83.9% of the residual errors are between ±0.5 log CFU/g, suggesting that the predictive models and the associated kinetic parameters are sufficiently accurate in predicting the growth of UPEC in ground chicken. These models have been validated and can be used in risk assessment of ExPEC in poultry meat.
Dual-wavelength fluorescence polarization immunoassay to increase information content per screen: Applications for simultaneous detection of total aflatoxins and family zearalenones in maize Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-06 Xiya Zhang, Qianqian Tang, Tiejun Mi, Sijun Zhao, Kai Wen, Liuchuan Guo, Jiafei Mi, Suxia Zhang, Weimin Shi, Jianzhong Shen, Yuebin Ke, Zhanhui Wang
Botanical authentication of lavender (Lavandula spp.) honey by a novel DNA-barcoding approach coupled to high resolution melting analysis Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-05 Sónia Soares, Liliana Grazina, Joana Costa, Joana S. Amaral, Maria B.P.P. Oliveira, Isabel Mafra
Monofloral honeys (such as, lavender honey) are highly appreciated by the consumers due to their flavour, taste and properties. However, since they are considered prime products, they are often targets of adulteration. This work exploits DNA barcoding combined with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis to establish the botanical origin of honey, using lavender honey as a case study. The plastidial matK gene was targeted as a candidate barcode for Lavandula species identification. The method allowed differentiating the species in three clusters with confidence levels >99%, being the results well correlated with the sequencing analysis. It was successfully applied to identify the botanical origin of several lavender honeys, which were grouped in the cluster of the most common species in Portugal (L. stoechas subsp., L. penduculata and L. viridis). The proposed method represents a simple, specific and cost-effective tool to authenticate the botanical origin of honey.
Helicobacter pylori growth pattern in reference media and extracts from selected minimally processed vegetables Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-05 M.C. Pina-Pérez, A. González, Y. Moreno, M.A. Ferrús
Helicobacter pylori is an emergent foodborne pathogen of concern, the entrance of which into the food chain has been recently related with the possible contamination of raw or minimally processed vegetables. The present study documented the growth kinetics of the bacterium at 5, 20 and 37 ᵒC, in reference media and vegetable substrates, to be fitted to the Gompertz equation. H. pylori was able to grow at 37 ᵒC and 20 ᵒC, but not at refrigeration temperature. Incubation temperature decrease significantly (p-value < 0.05) affected growth kinetic parameters, with the elongation of lag phase duration (λ) and the reduction of the maximum specific growth rate (μmax) (0.10 log10(CFU/ml)/h at 37 ᵒC; 0.04 log10(CFU/ml)/h at 20 ᵒC). In vegetable extracts, the microorganism remained in a viable culturable (VC) form for a maximum of 5 days (20 ᵒC), being unable to grow significantly in chard, spinach and in kale. In lettuce, H. pylori achieved growth of close to 1 log10 cycle (after 5 days at 20 ᵒC) (μmax 0.79 log10(CFU/ml)/d). The present study is the first reporting kinetic parameter values describing the growth behavior of H. pylori at its optimum growth temperature and, also studying the most relevant handling temperatures for minimally processed vegetables: commercial distribution (room temperature 20ᵒC), and refrigeration temperature.
Norovirus contamination in retail oysters from Beijing and Qingdao, China Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-05 Jiang Tao, Han Chunhui, Séamus Fanning, Li Nan, Wang Jiahui, Zhang Hongyuan, Zhang Jing, Li Fengqin
The consumption of raw oyster has been linked to numerous foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by norovirus (NoV) in different countries of the world, including in China. This study investigated the prevalence of NoV and contamination levels in retail oysters taken from markets in Beijing and Qingdao in China. The oysters were collected monthly from seafood markets between September 2015 and September 2016 (13 months) in both cities. The digestive glands of these oysters were dissected and NoV particles were extracted. Viral RNA was detected using a TaqMan-based real time one-step reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) protocol. Of total 672 oyster samples assessed, 652 were considered to be valid for inclusion in the study. The prevalence of NoV was 20.71% (135/652), and this included 21.48% (29/135) of the samples that were positive for the GI strain alone, 62.96% (85/135) contained the GII strain alone and 15.56% (21/135) were mixed with GI and GII, respectively. A total of 68 NoV-positive samples were quantified by qRT-PCR and values obtained ranged from 3.55 × 103 to 1.45 × 106 genomic copies per g digestive tissue. The NoV contamination in retail oysters fluctuated with the sampling month and peaks of contamination occurred in February (49.12%) and March (55.36%) 2016, respectively. Considering some of the oysters were consumed as raw or half-cooked in China, as a risk reduction measure these oysters should be well heated prior to consumption. Furthermore, successive and region-extended monitoring in retail oysters for NoV as well as risk communication is recommended.
Gelatin speciation using real-time PCR and analysis of mass spectrometry-based-Proteomics datasets Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-05 Behrooz Jannat, Kazem Ghorbani, Hooshang Shafieyan, Somaye Kouchaki, Abdolazim Behfar, Naficeh Sadeghi, Samira Beyramysoltan, Faride Rabbani, Salman Dashtifard, Mohsen Sadeghi
Authentication of gelatin, an ingredient in food and drug products, is of interest with respect to some regulations and religion rules. Determination of the gelatin origin is particularly challenging because of the similarity in amino acid sequences of collagen types in different species. In this study, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique using species-speciﬁc primers and also chemometrics analysis of mass spectral data were investigated to differentiate bovine, porcine and fish source of gelatin in commercial pure gelatin and gelatin-containing food and drug products. The specific PCR primer set was optimized using real-time PCR approach to routinely determine the gelatin source. Real-time PCR is sensitive to identify gelatin origin from traces of species-specific DNA. However, source determination is impossible when DNA is denatured or removed during production process. Alongside, chemometrics methods (PLS/DA and PCA) were used for mining LC/MS data sets to obtain patterns for discrimination of gelatin origins. LC/MS data sets involve MS spectrum of tryptic gelatin peptides generated from gelatin samples. Using PLS/DA method, a discrimination model is developed for identifying origin of the extracted gelatin. The method is practical to determine the halal authenticity of gelatin in the pure and processed products.
Effects of NaCl, Glucose, and their combinations on Biofilm Formation on Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) Surfaces by Vibrio parahaemolyticus Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-05 Md. Furkanur Rahaman Mizan, Md. Ashrafudoulla, Mohammad Sadekuzzaman, Iksoon Kang, Sang-Do Ha
The aim of this study was to evaluate the promotive and/or inhibitory effects of NaCl, glucose, their combinations on biofilm formation and quorum sensing (QS) autoinducer-2 (AI-2) production on black tiger shrimp surfaces, using three strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Initially, six different NaCl concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5%) were evaluated for a maximum biofilm formation (∼6.3 log CFU/cm2) at 30°C. Inhibitory effects of glucose at six different levels (0.005, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02, 0.025, and 0.05%) were then investigated using the NaCl level previously found for a maximal biofilm formation. V. parahaemolyticus formed the best biofilm at 2% NaCl and the least biofilm at 5% NaCl, regardless of vibrio strain. In combination of 2% NaCl and glucose at different levels, the largest biofilm was observed at 0.015%, with the least biofilm seen at 0.05%, regardless of vibrio strain. Addition of salt and glucose more than the optimal level (2% salt and 0.015% glucose at 2% salt) inducted a stepwise inhibition of vibrio growth and biofilm formation in a continuous matter. In the visual evaluation, similar results were observed for vibrio growth, biofilm formation, live/dead cell detection, and quorum sensing.
Heterologous expression of two novel bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus crustorum MN047 and application of BM1157 in control of Listeria monocytogenes Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-05 Lanhua Yi, Lingli Luo, Xin Lü
Foodborne pathogens cause diseases by food chain transmission, therefore preservatives or antimicrobials are essential for food products, among which bacteriocins are considered as promising alternatives of chemical preservatives. Moreover, bacteriocins can potentially be used as antibiotic alternatives. In this study, two genes of novel bacteriocins (BM1157 and BM1300) from probiotic Lactobacillus crustorum MN047 were identified, cloned, and then expressed in Escherichia coli expression system. The genes were inserted into expression vector pET-28a and transformed into competent E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS, after which the two bacteriocins were successfully heterologously expressed. Further, it showed that the BM1157 and the BM1300 had broad spectrum activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. The characteristics and action mode of the BM1157 were further investigated because of its higher antimicrobial activity. It was found that the BM1157 had MIC value of 5.2 μg/mL against both S. aureus and E. coli. Moreover, it was stable at high temperature and resistant to proteinases. The BM1157 had bactericidal action mode according to time-kill curve. The results of scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope demonstrated that the BM1157 killed Listeria monocytogenes by biofilm destruction and pore formation. The antibiofilm activity and pore formation were further verified by crystal violet dye and lactic dehydrogenase release. In addition, the BM1157 inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes in milk.
The blue discoloration of fresh cheeses: A worldwide defect associated to specific contamination by Pseudomonas fluorescens Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-12-01 Ana del Olmo, Javier Calzada, Manuel Nuñez
Italian authorities reported in 2010 that mozzarella imported from Germany turned blue after opening the package. The “blue mozzarella” defect was associated with Pseudomonas fluorescens strains contaminating processing water in some dairy plants. Afterwards, similar episodes occurred in various European countries and the USA, all characterized by the development of an intense blue discoloration on the surface of fresh cheeses when exposed to air. Recent research on the presumptive causal microorganisms and the metabolites associated with the blue discoloration has contributed to elucidate the bacterial species and pigments responsible for this particular type of spoilage. Quorum sensing mechanisms may induce the production of blue pigment and free aromatic amino acids may enhance its biosynthesis. Physicochemical characteristics of fresh cheeses favorable for growth of psychrotrophic bacteria and long shelf life periods demanded by large supermarket chains contribute to explain the increasing incidence of blue discoloration. Appropriate cleaning and disinfection programs and addition of pepsin-digested lactoferrin are of great help in solving the problem.
Fundamental study on the improvement of the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus reuteri R29 through increased production of phenyllactic acid and reuterin Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-11-30 Marcus Schmidt, Kieran M. Lynch, Emanuele Zannini, Elke K. Arendt
Lactic acid bacteria have shown great potential as bio-preservative agents to maintain high food quality and safety. The strain Lactobacillus reuteri R29 is reported to have a broad spectrum of antifungal activity and suitability for application in food systems. Its antifungal activity is predominantly based on phenyllactic acid (PLA). Furthermore, it is potentially a producer of reuterin, a potent antimicrobial agent. This study focused on increasing the antifungal activity in vitro by supplementation of the growth medium with phenylalanine and glycerol to increase the yield of PLA and reuterin, respectively. For PLA, the addition of 1.5% phenylalanine (w/v) to MRS, resulted in significantly increased accumulation of PLA and antifungal performance against Fusarium culmorum. Supplementation of MRS with 500mM glycerol combined with a reduced glucose content (1.5%) showed the highest reuterin accumulation combined with fungal inhibition. To investigate the antifungal performance in situ, these cell-free supernatants (cfs) were applied in a bread system. The application of PLA-enriched cfs resulted in significantly extended (4 days) microbial shelf life compared to the control. The reuterin-enriched medium did not lead to significant shelf life extension. In conclusion, Lactobacillus reuteri R29 and its PLA-enriched cfs were found to be very promising alternatives for food bio-preservation.
A three-year survey of Florida packinghouses to determine microbial loads on pre- and post-processed tomatoes Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-11-30 J. De, Y. Li, A. Sreedharan, R.Goodrich Schneider, A. Gutierrez, M. Jubair, M.D. Danyluk, K.R. Schneider
Prevention of microbial cross-contamination during postharvest handling is an important step to minimize microbial food safety hazards of produce. Dump tanks and flume systems are widely used in many states (e.g., Florida) to transfer/wash tomatoes, and are one of the most critical points where cross-contamination may occur. This study presents data gathered over three years (2013, 2014, and 2015) on tomatoes collected from five growing regions in Florida to evaluate the risk associated with postharvest processing of tomatoes in commercial packinghouses. A total of 840 and 839 composite samples, from pre- and post-processed tomatoes, respectively, were analyzed for aerobic plate count (APC), and total coliforms (TC) and generic E. coli (EC). The least square mean (LSM) value of APC for all samples (both pre- and post-processed) was 6.0 log CFU/tomato (n=840), whereas the LSM for TC counts was 4.1 log CFU/tomato (n=839). Ninety-one (10.8%) and 820 (97.7%) out of 839 samples of post-processed samples had TC and generic EC counts below the detection limit of 1.3 log CFU/tomato, respectively. APC and TC counts in post-processed samples were significantly lower (p<0.0001) than those in the pre-processed samples. There was no significant difference (p=0.1011) in the occurrence of generic EC pre- and post-process. APC and TC were significantly higher (p<0.0001) on samples collected in 2014 than 2013 and 2015, while the generic EC levels were not significantly different between 2013 and 2014. All samples collected in 2015 were negative for generic EC. TC counts varied significantly (p<0.0001) by season, with highest counts in summer and lowest in the winter, over the three-year period. APC were significantly (p<0.0001) higher in summer and fall seasons as compare to winter and spring. Microbial loads were significantly higher in the northern sites compared to the southern sites. Tomatoes from site 5 (southernmost) had significantly lower APC and TC (p<0.0001) than recorded from other four sites. Data from this research demonstrated that the postharvest wash treatments used at the packinghouse surveyed in this study effectively reduced the overall microbial load and prevented cross-contamination.
Modernizing the antimicrobial residue monitoring programs for pig meat in Europe – the balance between flexibility and harmonization Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Lis Alban, Anaïs Léger, Anouk Veldhuis, Gerdien van Schaik
The EU Residue Directive is currently being renegotiated. One key question is how to balance flexibility and harmonization. To address this, we reviewed Danish, Dutch and Swiss monitoring programs for antimicrobial residues in pig meat using the recently developed RISKSUR design tool. The results identified variation regarding number of surveillance components, reactions to suspect and positive findings, prevention activities, diagnostic method, sample matrix, use of targeted/risk-based approaches, and sampling frequency. This variability could be explained by differences in overall surveillance objective: Denmark and the Netherlands have a large pork export and higher need for documenting compliance with legislation, whereas Switzerland only trading with EU has a lower need for spending resources on monitoring. It is recommended that the future EU Directive should set standards for monitoring to ensure a basic level of monitoring enabling comparison of results. Minimum handling of carcasses with residues above maximum residue level should be harmonized. Risk-based sampling should be encouraged, and results from risk-based and random sampling should be reported separately. Harmonization is unnecessary for number of surveillance components (but a private component is recommended), prevention, diagnostic method, and way of sampling – assuming that the diagnostic method and sampling matrix combination have sufficient validity.
A panel of SNPs markers for meat traceability of Halal beef in the Chinese market Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-11-27 Jie Zhao, Ailiang Chen, Xinyong You, Zhenzhen Xu, Yan Zhao, Wenjing He, Luyao Zhao, Shuming Yang
Genetic traceability in the whole food supply chain is a reliable method to protect the integrity of Halal beef, but there is no available SNPs panel for the meat traceability of cattle breeds in China. This study aimed at developing a useful SNP panel for Halal beef traceability in the Chinese market. Fifty-nine SNPs markers belonging to 29 autosomes of bovine genome were tested in seven cattle breeds which were the Chinese main breed source of Halal beef. SNPs with minor allele frequencies less than 30% were excluded and a thirty-six highly informative SNPs panel had been selected. With the SNPs panel, the probability that one individual is incorrectly assigned ranges from 1.12 out of 10 (×15) to 3.38 out of 10 (×12), depending on the breed. In addition, twelve most polymorphic SNPs markers in the pooled animals were successfully used for meat traceability of Halal beef by meat-blood pairs. The selected thirty-six SNPs of panel could be employed to further guarantee the safety of Halal beef in the Chinese market.
Viability of Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) metacercariae from mullets (Mugil liza) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil after exposure to freezing and heating in the temperature range from -35 °C to 180 °C Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-11-24 Juliana Novo Borges, Karina Corrêa Lopes, Cláudia Portes Santos
The presence of trematodes in fish products is a problem of concern to health authorities because of the potential hazards. Viability studies of heterophyid metacercariae are still scarce and lack methodological standardization. In this study of the heterophyid trematode Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa, we isolated metacercariae from Mugil liza and conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of heating or freezing mullet musculature on the survival of the metacercariae. The parasites were incubated in mullet muscle tissue at different temperatures, ranging from -20 °C to 180 °C, for different intervals. The physical damages were evaluated through SEM images. The estimated number of metacercariae in mullets was 514 in 308 g of musculature. Control metacercariae (no freezing or heating) were highly motile and showed no external damage after excystation with trypsin. All metacercariae were dead after heating for 15 minutes at 60 °C, 100 °C and 180 °C. For freezing temperatures, all metacercariae died after two hours of exposure to -35 °C and -20 ºC, but 24 hours of exposure to -10 ºC was necessary to kill all metacercariae present in the fillets. The SEM images showed damage to the tegument of A. (P.) longa exposed to heating and freezing temperatures that included some cracks and areas of spine loss. Parasites exposed to extreme temperatures also seemed to shrink. According to our results, the recent update of Brazilian law on food safety with specific procedures for inactivation of parasites was important to prevent outbreaks of trematodiases caused by Ascocotyle (P.) longa.
Multi-mycotoxin determination in rice, maize and peanut products most consumed in Côte d’Ivoire by UHPLC-MS/MS Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-11-23 Ama Léthicia Manizan, Michalina Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Isabelle Piro-Metayer, Katrina Campbell, Rose Koffi-Nevry, Christopher Elliott, David Akaki, Didier Montet, Catherine Brabet
The aim of this study was to determine the multi-mycotoxin occurrence in cereal and oilseed products most consumed in Côte d’Ivoire. A total of 238 samples of rice (88 produced locally or imported), maize (79, cracked or flour) and peanut paste (71) were collected in the main markets of Abidjan, Bouaké and Korhogo. An UHPLC-MS/MS method allowed the analysis of 77 mycotoxins. All the peanut paste samples were contaminated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) with 99% exceeding the EU limits of 2 μg.kg-1 for AFB1 and 4 μg.kg-1 for total aflatoxins (AFT: B1+B2+G1+G2), and concentrations reaching up to 4535 μg.kg-1 (AFB1) and 8094 μg.kg-1 (AFT). Maize (96%) and rice (57%) samples were also contaminated by AFB1 with 58% and 24% respectively above the EU limits and maximum levels of 80 μg.kg-1 for maize and 14 μg.kg-1 for rice. Only 6% of the cereal samples (3 rice and one maize samples) had ochratoxin A content above the EU limit (3 μg.kg-1). Fumonisins and zearalenone were detected, respectively, in 91% and 8% of the maize samples, and in 18% and 5% of the rice samples but at levels below EU limits. Out of the 238 samples, 91% were contaminated with more than one mycotoxin including EU regulated mycotoxins and/or other mycotoxins mainly beauvericin (79% of the samples), equisetin (71%), aflatoxin M1 (45%), cyclopiazonic acid (32%), fumonisin B3 (29%), sterigmatocystin (24%, citrinin (18%), ochratoxin B (16%) and fusaric acid (15%). The peanut paste samples represented the highest risk to consumer health followed by maize and rice samples.
Influence of storage temperature/time and atmosphere on survival and thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 inoculated to almond powder Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-11-17 Teng Cheng, Shaojin Wang
The purposes of this study were to explore combined effects of storage temperature, time and atmosphere on survival and thermal inactivation of pathogenic Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 with nonpathogenic E. coli ATCC 25922 as a surrogate inoculated to low-moisture almond powder. A thermal death time test heating block system (TDT-HBS) was used to rapidly determine thermal inactivation of E. coli ATCC 25922. Surviving populations and D75-values of E. coli ATCC 25922 in the almond powder with 6.0% w.b. were determined monthly for 12-month storage under three packaging atmosphere conditions at -20, 4, and 24 °C. The results showed that survival and thermal inactivation curves of E. coli ATCC 25922 fitted well to both Weibull and first-order-kinetic models, respectively. The effects of storage atmosphere on reducing surviving populations and D75-values of E. coli ATCC 25922 became more remarkable as the storage temperature increased. The reductions of 2.55 log CFU/g for surviving populations and 31.2% for D75-values were observed after 12-months storage at 24 °C under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), and holding for 50.4 min at 75 °C could reach at least 4-log reductions of E. coli ATCC 25922, which are required by the USDA for safe exportation. Storage under MAP at ambient temperature may hold potential to inhibit surviving populations and reduce thermal resistance of S. Enteritidis PT 30 in low-moisture almond powder.
Dietary exposure of the Chinese population to phthalate esters by a Total Diet Study Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-11-11 Xin Yang, Dawei Chen, Bing Lv, Hong Miao, Yongning Wu, Yunfeng Zhao
Dietary exposure to phthalate esters (PAEs) was assessed for the general Chinese population in the 5th Chinese Total Diet Study (TDS). Concentrations of 16 PAEs, including bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), bis (2-n-butoxyethyl) phthalate (DBEP), bis (2-ethoxyethyl) phthalate (DEEP), bis (2-methoxyethyl) phthalate (DMEP), bis (4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate (BMPP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), dipentyl phthalate (DPP), diphenyl phthalate (DPhP), di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHXP), dinonyl phthalate (DNP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) were determined in 192 composite food samples collected from the TDS. The results showed that 76.0% of the samples contained one or more PAEs with concentrations ranging from 0.017 to 7.19 mg/kg. The most frequently detected PAEs were DEHP (43.8%), DBP (35.9%), DMP (26.6%), DNP (25.5%), DIBP (24.5%), and DCHP (18.8%). The major dietary source of PAEs was vegetables, followed by cereals. A dietary exposure of the general population was assessed using lower bound (LB) and upper bound (UB) assumptions for left-censorship management. The average estimated daily intakes of PAEs in the general Chinese population ranged from 0.00 to 6.38 μg/kg bw per day, which were lower than the respective tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) of PAEs. The results suggested that dietary exposures to all of the PAEs analyzed in this study were unlikely to pose unacceptable health risks to the majority of the population in China.
Elimination of Salmonella enterica on common stainless steel food contact surfaces using UV-C and atmospheric pressure plasma jet Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-11-09 Alonzo A. Gabriel, Ma Luisa P. Ballesteros, Leo Mendel D. Rosario, Roy B. Tumlos, Henry J. Ramos
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ultraviolet-C irradiation and atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment as inactivation methods of Salmonella spp. on stainless steel surfaces commonly used as food contact surfaces. Two types of stainless steel namely 304 and 316, were used as test surfaces with each type having three different finishes: 2B, Hair line (HL), and Mirror (MR). A cocktail of 7 serovars of S. enterica at mid stationary phase (17 h) cells were allowed to adhere onto the surfaces (4h) prior to UV-C and plasma treatment. Results showed that the test organism exhibited a biphasic UV-C inactivation composed of a fast log linear inactivation phase followed by a slower inactivation tail on all test surfaces. The D values calculated from the faster log linear inactivation phase ranged from 2.54 (316 2B and 316 HL) to 4.31 s (304 2B). The maximum population reduction calculated before the inactivation tail ranged from 3.32 (316 HL) to 4.97 log CFU/in2 (304 MR). Plasma treatment of metal surfaces resulted in abrupt increase in surface temperature, reaching up to 180 °C within 15 s of treatment, and led to log linear inactivation in all surfaces treated with atmospheric plasma jet. The D values ranged from 2.66 (304 2B) to 3.43 s (316 MR). Both metal type and surface finish were observed not to affect the efficacies of UV-C inactivation and atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment. The results obtained in the study demonstrated the potential of the tested physical treatments as alternatives to commonly used food contact surface chemical sanitation protocols.
Evaluation of antimicrobials residues in farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) after administration through medicated feed Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-11-09 João Rosa, Sara Leston, Maria Castro, Andreia Freitas, Jorge Barbosa, Miguel Ângelo Pardal, Paulo Rema, Jorge Dias, Fernando Ramos
The use of antimicrobials in aquaculture is a well-known fact and merits the focus of the scientific community. In the present study, five drugs (oxytetracycline, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, oxolinic acid and flumequine) were selected to assess their retention in muscle tissues from gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Fish were placed in 150 L tanks at 18° C, and fed for 7 days with experimental diets containing two concentrations of each antimicrobial (ranging from 5.51 to 131.16 mg kg-1). Edible tissues were then analyzed through a validated multi-class quantification method (UHPLC-MS/MS). The results indicate that sulfadiazine concentrations were the highest immediately after the feeding period and decreased towards day 3. Flumequine was only detected on the first day with concentrations below the MRL. Both trimethoprim and oxolinic acid concentrations were below the MRLs 3 days after the feeding period was over (oxolinic acid was not detected in muscle samples at day 14 for prophylaxis and day 28 for both treatments). Oxytetracycline residues in muscle tissues were the highest through time, with concentrations above the MRL for 7 days (Cday7 of 111.2 and 157.2 μg kg-1 for both dosages). Results suggest that these antimicrobials can be present in gilthead seabream muscle samples for longer periods than previously reported, when realistic conditions are tested. With the exception of oxytetracycline, concentrations were below the MRLs established 3 days after the feeding trial was over meaning that adverse effects related to human consumption are not likely. Nevertheless, allergic reactions or resistance to antimicrobials can be developed if low concentrations of such compounds are ingested on a frequent basis, as is the case of the Mediterranean diet.
Broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, chemical composition and mechanism of action of garlic (Allium sativum) extracts Food Control (IF 3.496) Pub Date : 2017-11-08 Cun Chen, Chun-Hong Liu, Jing Cai, Wei Zhang, Wei-Liang Qi, Zheng Wang, Zhi-Bin Liu, Yi Yang
In many cultures, garlic (Allium sativum) has a reputation as a therapeutic panacea. In this work, a range of plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi were inhibited by garlic bulb extracts that were obtained under various conditions. The conditions included different solvents (distilled water, methanol and ethanol), and water at different pH values (pH 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 9.0 and 10.7). Water extraction produced the best antimicrobial activity, compared to methanol and ethanol, and the greatest activity was obtained by extraction under strongly acidic condition (pH 3.0). Subsequent analysis using HPLC and GC–MS revealed that the major active ingredients were 3-vinyl-1,2-dithiacyclohex-5-ene and 3-vinyl-1,2-dithiacyclohex-4-ene. In addition, changes observed in membrane permeability, protein leakage and by scanning electron microscopy suggested that the antimicrobial activity of garlic extracts may be due to destruction of the structural integrity of cell membranes, leading to cell death.
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