A novel Z-scheme sonocatalyst system, Er3+:Y3Al5O12@Ni(Fe0.05Ga0.95)2O4-Au-BiVO4, and application in sonocatalytic degradation of sulfanilamide Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Guowei Wang, Siyi Li, Xue Ma, Jing Qiao, Guanshu Li, Hongbo Zhang, Jun Wang, Youtao Song
A novel Z-scheme coated composite, Er3+:Y3Al5O12@Ni(Fe0.05Ga0.95)2O4-Au-BiVO4, was designed for sonocatalytic degradation of sulfanilamide and fabricated by sol-hydrothermal and calcination methods. The prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, Raman spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. In Er3+:Y3Al5O12@Ni(Fe0.05Ga0.95)2O4-Au-BiVO4, Ni(Fe0.05Ga0.95)2O4 and BiVO4 form a Z-scheme sonocatalytic system, Er3+:Y3Al5O12 as an up-conversion luminescence agent (from visible-light to ultraviolet-light) provids the ultraviolet-light for satisfying the energy demand of wide band-gap Ni(Fe0.05Ga0.95)2O4 and Au nanoparticles as co-catalyst forms more active sites to enrich electrons. Also, Au nanoparticles as conductive channels promotes the electrons (e–) from conduction band of BiVO4 to transfer to valence band of Ni(Fe0.05Ga0.95)2O4. Due to the characteristics of valence state diversity, the Fe3+ and V5+ constitute a redox reaction recombination system, which can also push electrons (e–) on conduction band of BiVO4 to quickly transfer to valence band of Ni(Fe0.05Ga0.95)2O4. The sonocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12@Ni(Fe0.05Ga0.95)2O4-Au-BiVO4 nanocomposite was detected through degradation of sulfanilamide under ultrasonic irradiation. A high sonocatalytic degradation ratio (95.64%) of sulfanilamide can be obtained when the conditions of 10.00 mg/L sulfanilamide, 1.00 g/L Er3+:Y3Al5O12@Ni(Fe0.05Ga0.95)2O4-Au-BiVO4, 300 min ultrasonic irradiation and 100 mL total volume were adopted. Some factors such as ultrasonic irradiation time and cycle number on the sonocatalytic degradation efficiency are also investigated by using TOC and UV-vis spectroscopy. Subsequently, the effects of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and hole scavengers were investigated to elaborate the mechanism. The researches show that the prepared Z-scheme Er3+:Y3Al5O12@Ni(Fe0.05Ga0.95)2O4-Au-BiVO4 coated composite displayed an excellent sonocatalytic activity in degradation of sulfanilamide under ultrasonic irradiation. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Investigation of Tip Sonication Effects on Structural Quality of Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) for Superior Solvent Dispersion Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Zeeshan Baig, Othman Mamat, Mazli Mustapha, Asad Mumtaz, Khurram S. Munir, Mansoor Sarfraz
Optimizing dewaterability of drinking water treatment sludge by ultrasound treatment: Correlations to sludge physicochemical properties Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Zhili Meng, Zhiwei Zhou, Dan Zheng, Lujian Liu, Jun Dong, Yanling Yang, Xing Li, Tingting Zhang
Sludge dewatering has proven to be an effective method to reduce the volume of sludge. In this study, drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) was treated by ultra-sonication under variable conditions comparing two sonoreactor types (bath and probe), four frequencies(25, 40, 68, 160 kHz) and four energy density levels(0.03, 1, 3, 5W/mL). The effects of these conditions were studied using specific resistance to filtration and capillary suction time as measures of dewaterability, and floc size, the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) specific surface area and Zeta potential to determine treated sludge characteristics. The results indicated that the dewaterability of sonicated sludge improved at relatively low energy densities of 0.03 and 1.0 W/mL, while an optimum for sonication duration (within 10min) was also identified. Higher frequencies (tested up to 160 kHz) with acoustic energy density of 0.03 W/mL also reduced the dewatering property. At higher energy densities of 3.0 and 5.0 W/mL, dewaterability of sludge deteriorated regardless of ultra-sonication time, with an increase of solubilized organic matter content and severely changed floc characteristics. The deterioration of the dewatering capacity was closely related to the considerably reduced floc sizes, dissolution of proteins and polysaccharides, and to the Zeta potential of sonciated sludge flocs. The dewaterability was not correlated with BET specific surface area. Mechanistic explanations for the observations were discussed by analyzing corrosion patterns of aluminum foil as a measure for cavitation field distribution.
Silver-choline chloride modified graphene oxide: novel nano-bioelectrochemical sensor for Celecoxib detection and CCD-RSM model Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Zohreh Parsaee, Nima Karachi, Seyyed Milad Abrishamifar, Mohammad Reza Rezaei Kahkha, Razieh Razavi
Ultrasound assisted synthesis of WO3-ZnO nanocomposites for brilliant blue dye degradation Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Y.M. Hunge, A.A. Yadav, V.L. Mathe
The present work deals with the preparation of WO3 and WO3-ZnO nanocomposites in presence of ultrasonic irradiation, and its use in the sonocatalytic degradation of brilliant blue dye. WO3-ZnO nanocomposite is prepared using one step in-situ ultrasound assisted method. The successfully prepared WO3 and WO3-ZnO nanocomposites were characterized using different characterization techniques such as XRD, Raman, BET, FE-SEM and EDS. The XRD pattern reveals that the formation of monoclinic and hexagonal crystal structures of WO3 and ZnO respectively. BET study shows that WO3-ZnO nanocomposite have maximum surface area than that of the WO3. EDS study confirms the formation of WO3-ZnO nanocomposites. Further the use of the prepared WO3 and WO3-ZnO nanocomposites as a sonocatalyst for the degradation of brilliant blue dye. The rate constant (k) was evaluated as a function of the initial concentration of brilliant blue dye. It is found that WO3-ZnO nanocomposites exhibits maximum sonocatalytic activity as compared to WO3 photocatalyst.
Ultrasonic soldering of Cu alloy using Ni-foam/Sn composite interlayer Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Yong Xiao, Qiwei Wang, Ziqi Wang, Xian Zeng, Mingyu Li, Ling Wang, Xingyi Zhang, Xiaomeng Zhu
In this study, Cu alloy joints were fabricated with a Ni-foam reinforced Sn-based composite solder with the assistance of ultrasonic vibration. Effects of ultrasonic soldering time on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu/Ni-Sn/Cu joints were investigated. Results showed that exceptional metallurgic bonding could be acquired with the assistance of ultrasonic vibration using a self-developed Ni-foam/Sn composite solder. For joint soldered for 5 s, a (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 intermetallic compound (IMC) layer was formed on the Cu substrate surface, Ni skeletons distributed randomly in the soldering seam and a serrated (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 IMC layer was formed on the Ni skeleton surface. Increasing the soldering time to 20 s, the (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 IMC layer grew significantly and exhibited a loose porous structure on the Ni skeleton surface. Further increase the soldering time to 30 s, Ni skeletons were largely dissolved in the Sn base solder, and micro-sized (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 particles were formed and dispersed homogeneously in the soldering seam. The formation of (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 particles was mainly ascribed to acoustic cavitations induced erosion and grain refining effects. The joint soldered for 30 s exhibited the highest shear strength of 64.9 ± 3.3 MPa, and the shearing failure mainly occurred at the soldering seam/Cu substrate interface.
Nakagami-m parametric imaging for characterization of thermal coagulation and cavitation erosion induced by HIFU Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Meng Han, Na Wang, Shifang Guo, Nan Chang, Shukuan Lu, Mingxi Wan
Nowadays, both thermal and mechanical ablation techniques of HIFU associated with cavitation have been developed for noninvasive treatment. A specific challenge for the successful clinical implementation of HIFU is to achieve real-time imaging for the evaluation and determination of therapy outcomes such as necrosis or homogenization. Ultrasound Nakagami-m parametric imaging highlights the degrading shadowing effects of bubbles and can be used for tissue characterization. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of Nakagami-m parametric imaging for evaluating and differentiating thermal coagulation and cavitation erosion induced by HIFU. Lesions were induced in basic bovine serum albumin (BSA) phantoms and ex vivo porcine livers using a 1.6MHz single-element transducer. Thermal and mechanical lesions induced by two types of HIFU sequences respectively were evaluated using Nakagami-m parametric imaging and ultrasound B-mode imaging. The lesion sizes estimated using Nakagami-m parametric imaging technique were all closer to the actual sizes than those of B-mode imaging. The p-value obtained from the t-test between the mean m values of thermal coagulation and cavitation erosion was smaller than 0.05, demonstrating that the m values of thermal lesions were significantly different from that of mechanical lesions, which was confirmed by ex vivo experiments and histologic examination showed that different changes result from HIFU exposure, one of tissue dehydration resulting from the thermal effect, and the other of tissue homogenate resulting from mechanical effect. This study demonstrated that Nakagami-m parametric imaging is a potential real-time imaging technique for evaluating and differentiating thermal coagulation and cavitation erosion.
Ultrasound-induced liquid/solid interfacial reaction between Zn-3Al alloy and Zr-based bulk metallic glasses Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Xingyi Zhang, Yong Xiao, Ling Wang, Chao Wan, Qiwei Wang, Hongchao Sheng, Mingyu Li
Ultrasound-assisted fluxless brazing of Zr based Bulk metallic glasses (Zr-BMG) joint using Zn-3Al filler metal was performed in this study. The effect of ultrasonic vibration time on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Zr-BMG joints were investigated. Results showed that excellent metallurgic bonding could be obtained in ultrasonically brazed Zr-BMG joints. The interfacial reaction between liquid Zn-3Al filler metal and Zr-BMG substrate showed a mutation characteristic, which could be distinguished into incubation period and acceleration period. In the incubation period, Zn50Zr25Al25 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) with small ellipsoidal shape were slowly formed and distributed randomly on Zr-BMG surface. However, in the acceleration period, Zn50Zr25Al25 ellipsoids developed rapidly into a wavy-structured IMCs layer with a thickness of 17 μm, which was comprised of alternate Zn50Zr25Al25 and Zn22Zr sublayers. The microstructure evolution of Zn-3Al/Zr-BMG interface was ascribed to the combined effects of acoustic cavitations and Al element controlled interfacial metallurgic reactions. The average shear strength of joint was increased firstly then decreased slightly with increasing ultrasonic vibration time, and a highest strength value of approximately 100 MPa was obtained for joints brazed for 96 s. The shearing failure was inclined to occur at the Zn-3Al/Zr-BMG interface then transferred into the interfacial IMCs layer with increasing ultrasonic vibration time.
Ultrasound assisted process intensification of uricase and alkaline protease enzyme co-production in Bacillus licheniformis Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Shweta V. Pawar, Virendra K. Rathod
Low energy ultrasound irradiation was used to enhance co-production of enzymes uricase and alkaline protease using Bacillus licheniformis NRRL 14209. Production of uricase and alkaline protease were evaluated for different ultrasound parameters such as ultrasound power, time of irradiation, duty cycle and growth stage of organisms at which irradiation is carried out. Maximum uricase production of 0.825 U/mL and alkaline protease of 0.646 U/mL have been obtained when fermentation broth was irradiated at 6 h of growth stage with 60 W power for 15 min of duration having 40% of duty cycle. The enzyme yield was found to be enhanced by a factor of 1.9 – 3.8 and 1.2 - 2.2 for uricase and alkaline protease respectively. Nevertheless, intracellular uricase was also observed in a fermentation broth after ultrasonic process intensification. The results indicate the effectiveness of low frequency ultrasound in improving enzyme yields with a vision of commercial applicability of the process.
A review on heterogeneous sonocatalyst for treatment of organic pollutants in aqueous phase based on catalytic mechanism Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Pengpeng Qiu, Beomguk Park, Jongbok Choi, Binota Thokchom, Aniruddha B. Pandit, Jeehyeong Khim
Heterogeneous sonocatalysis, as an emerging advanced oxidation process (AOP), has shown immense potential in water treatment and been widely demonstrated to remove persistent organic compounds in the past decade. The present article aims to provide a comprehensive review on the development of a heterogeneous catalyst for enhancing the ultrasonic degradation rate of organic pollutants from a viewpoint of sonocatalytic mechanism. The rational design and fundamentals for preparing sonocatalysts are presented in the context of facilitating the heterogeneous nucleation and photo-thermal-catalytic effects as well as considering the mechanical stability and separation capacity of the heterogeneous catalyst. In addition, some new trends, ongoing challenges and possible methods to overcome these challenges are also highlighted and proposed.
Enhancement of water removing and the quality of fried purple-fleshed sweet potato in the vacuum frying by combined power ultrasound and microwave technology Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Ya Su, Min Zhang, Bhesh Bhandari, Weiming Zhang
The combination of ultrasound and microwave in vacuum frying system was investigated to achieve higher drying efficiency and quality attributes of fried products. Purple-fleshed potato were used as test specimen and different power levels of microwave (0W, 600W, 800W) and ultrasound (0W, 300W, 600W) during vacuum frying. Drying kinetics, dielectric properties, moisture state variation and quality attributes of fried samples were measured in a vacuum frying (VF), and an innovatively designed ultrasound and microwave assisted vacuum frying (USMVF) equipment. The USMVF process markedly increased the moisture evaporation rate and effective moisture diffusivity compared to VF process. The oil uptake was reduced by about 16%-34%, the water activity and the shrinkage was lowered, the texture (crispness) and the color of fried samples were greatly improved. The higher ultrasound and microwave power level in USMVF made a greater improvement. The total anthocyanin levels and retention of fried purple-fleshed potato chips was the highest (123.52 mg/100 g solids and 79.51% retention, respectively) among all treatments in US600M800VF process. The SEM analysis revealed a more porous and disruption microstructure in USMVF sample.
Sonication-assisted synthesis of a new cationic zinc nitrate complex with a tetradentate Schiff base ligand: Crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and investigation of different parameters influence on morphological properties Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 S.A. Mousavi, M. Montazerozohori, A. Masoudiasl, Gh. Mahmoudi, Jonathan M. White
A nanostructured cationic zinc nitrate complex with a formula of [ZnLNO3]NO3 (where L= (N2E,N2'E)-N1,N1'-(ethane-1,2-diyl)bis(N2-((E)-3-phenylallylidene)ethane-1,2-diamine)) was prepared by sonochemical process and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD). The X-ray analysis demonstrates the formation of a cationic complex that metal center is five-coordinated by four nitrogen atom from Schiff base ligand and one oxygen atom from nitrate group. The crystal packing analysis demonstrates the essential role of the nitrate groups in the organization of supramolecular structure. The morphology and size of ultrasound-assisted synthesized zinc nitrate complex have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by changing parameters such as the concentration of initial reactants, the sonication power and reaction temperature. In addition the calcination of zinc nitrate complex in air atmosphere led to production of zinc oxide nanoparticles.
Modeling of sonochemistry in water in the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Olivier Authier, Hind Ouhabaz, Stefano Bedogni
CO2 capture and utilization (CCU) is a process that captures CO2 emissions from sources such as fossil fuel power plants and reuses them so that they will not enter the atmosphere. Among the various ways of recycling CO2, reduction reactions are extensively studied at lab-scale. However, CO2 reduction by standard methods is difficult. Sonochemistry may be used in CO2 gas mixtures bubbled through water subjected to ultrasound waves. Indeed, the sonochemical reduction of CO2 in water has been already investigated by some authors, showing that fuel species (CO and H2) are obtained in the final products. The aim of this work is to model, for a single bubble, the close coupling of the mechanisms of bubble dynamics with the kinetics of gas phase reactions in the bubble that can lead to CO2 reduction. An estimation of time-scales is used to define the controlling steps and consequently to solve a reduced model. The calculation of the concentration of free radicals and gases formed in the bubble is undertaken over many cycles to look at the effects of ultrasound frequency, pressure amplitude, initial bubble radius and bubble composition in CO2. The strong effect of bubble composition on the CO2 reduction rate is confirmed in accordance with experimental data from the literature. When the initial fraction of CO2 in the bubble is low, bubble growth and collapse are slightly modified with respect to simulation without CO2, and chemical reactions leading to CO2 reduction are promoted. However, the peak collapse temperature depends on the thermal properties of the CO2 and greatly decreases as the CO2 increases in the bubble. The model shows that initial bubble radius, ultrasound frequency and pressure amplitude play a critical role in CO2 reduction. Hence, in the case of a bubble with an initial radius of around 5 μm, CO2 reduction appears to be more favorable at a frequency around 300 kHz than at a low frequency of around 20 kHz. Finally, the industrial application of ultrasound to CO2 reduction in water would be largely dependent on sonochemical efficiency. Under the conditions tested, this process does not seem to be sufficiently efficient.
Sonochemical synthesis and structural characterization of a new Zn(II) nanoplate metal−organic framework with removal efficiency of Sudan red and Congo red Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-03-05 Nasrin Abdollahi, Mohammad Yaser Masoomi, Ali Morsali, Peter C. Junk, Jun Wang
A 3-D Zn(II) based metal−organic framework (MOF) of [Zn4(oba)3(DMF)2] was synthesized using the nonlinear dicarboxylate ligand, 4,4′-oxybis(benzoic acid) (H2oba) via sonochemical and solvothermal routes. IR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction were used to characterize these MOF samples. The effect of different times of irradiation and various concentrations of primary reagents were experimented for obtaining monotonous morphology. The results show that uniform nanoplates can be achieved by increasing the time of irradiation and decreasing the concentration. N2 adsorption was applied to examine the effect of synthesis method on porosity of the framework. Also Congo red and Sudan red dyes were employed to explore the efficiency of this MOF in removal of the dye pollutants.
Acoustic cavitation induced synthesis of zirconium impregnated activated carbon for effective fluoride scavenging from water by adsorption Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-03-05 Aditi Mullick, Sudarsan Neogi
Environmental concern associated with the side effects of high fluoride content in ground water and surface water has prompted the researchers to look for an efficient, convenient and easy method. Considering the potential of a good adsorbent, present study reports the synthesis of a composite by impregnating zirconium on powdered activated carbon (AC) using ultrasound as the tool for synthesis and applying it for fluoride adsorption from water. The nature of the composite was determined through characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive Xray (EDX), Xray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption analysis (BET) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The pHpzc (point of zero charge) of the adsorbent was found to be 5.03; with the optimum pH obtained at 4 for adsorption of strong electronegative fluoride ions. The initial fluoride concentration was varied from 2.5 upto 20 mg.L-1 and the maximum adsorption capacity of 5 mg.g-1 was obtained. A maximum fluoride removal of 94.4% was obtained for an initial concentration of 2.5 mg.L-1 within an equilibrium time of 180 min. The adsorption isotherm followed the Langmuir isotherm model indicating a monolayer adsorption process and the adsorption kinetics followed pseudo second order model. The effects of various coexisting ions (HCO3-, NO3-, SO42-, Cl-) commonly present in the water were found to have negligible impact on the process performance. Conducting the adsorption-desorption studies for five consecutive cycles for an initial fluoride concentration of 10 mg.L-1, the removal efficiency reduced from 86.2 to 32.6%. The ultrasonic method provided an easy route to synthesize the composite in less time and significantly reduced energy consumption for more than 96% compared to the conventional method.
Numerical Modelling of Acoustic Pressure Fields to Optimize the Ultrasonic Cleaning Technique for Cylinders Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-03-03 Habiba Lais, Premesh S. Lowe, Tat-Hean Gan, Luiz C. Wrobel
Fouling build up is a well-known problem in the offshore industry. Accumulation of fouling occurs in different structures, e.g. offshore pipes, ship hulls, floating production platforms. The type of fouling that accumulates is dependent on environmental conditions surrounding the structure itself. Current methods deployed for fouling removal span across hydraulic, chemical and manual, all sharing the common disadvantage of necessitating halting production for the cleaning process to commence. Conventionally, ultrasound is used in ultrasonic baths to clean a submerged component by the generation and implosion of cavitation bubbles on the fouled surface; this method is particularly used in Reverse Osmosis applications. However, this requires the submersion of the fouled structure and thus may require a halt to production. Large fouled structures such as pipelines may not be accommodated. The application of high power ultrasonics is proposed in this work as a means to remove fouling on a structure whilst in operation. The work presented in this paper consists of the development of a finite element analysis model based on successful cleaning results from a pipe fouled with calcite on the inner pipe wall. A Polytec 3D Laser Doppler Vibrometer was used in this investigation to study the fouling removal process. Results show the potential of high power ultrasonics for fouling removal in pipe structures from the wave propagation across the structure under excitation, and are used to validate a COMSOL model to determine cleaning patterns based on pressure and displacement distributions for future transducer array design and optimization.
Synergistic effect of low and high intensity ultrasonic irradiation on the direct growth of ZnO nanostructures on the galvanized steel surface: Investigation of the corrosion behavior Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-28 Zahra Sharifalhoseini, Mohammad H. Entezari, Mohsen Shahidi
Ultrasonic synthesis of hydroxyapatite in non-cavitation and cavitation modes Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 A.L. Nikolaev, A.V. Gopin, A.V. Severin, V.N. Rudin, M.A. Mironov, N.V. Dezhkunov
The size control of materials is of great importance in research and technology because materials of different size and shape have different properties and applications. This paper focuses on the synthesis of hydroxyapatite in ultrasound fields of different frequencies and intensities with the aim to find the conditions which allow control of the particles size. The results are evaluated by X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy, morphological and sedimentation analyses. It is shown that the hydroxyapatite particles synthesized at low intensity non-cavitation regime of ultrasound have smaller size than those prepared at high intensity cavitation regime. The explanation of observed results is based on the idea of formation of vortices at the interface between phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide solution where the nucleation of hydroxyapatite particles is taken place. Smaller vortices formed at high frequency non-cavitation ultrasound regime provide smaller nucleation sites and smaller resulting particles, compared to vortices and particles obtained without ultrasound. Discovered method has a potential of industrial application of ultrasound for the controlled synthesis of nanoparticles.
Sonochemical Synthesis of A Multi-Responsive Regenerable Water-Stable Zinc(II) Fluorescent Probe for Highly Selective, Sensitive and Real-Time Sensing of Benzaldehyde, Ferric ion and PH Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Xin Rui Wang, Xing Ze Wang, Yong Li, Kun Liu, Shi Xin Liu, Jing Du, Zhuo Huang, Yan Luo, Jian Zhong Huo, Xiang Xia Wu, Yuan Yuan Liu, Bin Ding
Processing of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene/graphite composites by ultrasonic injection moulding: Taguchi optimization Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-26 Xavier Sánchez-Sánchez, Alex Elias-Zuñiga, Marcelo Hernández-Avila
Ultrasonic Cavitation Erosion-Corrosion Behavior of Friction Stir Processed Stainless Steel Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-26 Karthikeyan Selvam, Priya Mandal, Harpreet Singh Grewal, Harpreet Singh Arora
Cavitation erosion remains the primary cause of material degradation in fluid machinery components operating at high speed. Micro-jets/shock waves caused by implosion of bubbles on material surface results in significant material loss and premature failure of the components. The presence of corrosive medium further exuberates this effect, causing rapid degradation. Here, we demonstrate a novel pathway to control cavitation erosion-corrosion by tailoring the surface properties using submerged friction stir processing (FSP), a severe plastic deformation process. FSP parameters were varied over wide range of strain-rates to generate tailored microstructures. High strain-rate processing resulted in nearly single phase fine grained structure while low strain-rate processing resulted in phase transformation in addition to grain refinement. As-received and processed samples were subjected to ultrasonic cavitation in distilled water as well as in corrosive environment of 3.5 % NaCl solution. Individual roles of cavitation erosion, corrosion and their synergistic effects were analyzed. Depending on the microstructure, processed samples showed nearly 4-6 times higher cavitation erosion resistance compared to as-received alloy. Superior cavitation erosion-corrosion resistance of processed samples was attributed to surface strengthening, higher strain-hardening ability and quick passivation kinetics. The results of current study could be potentially transformative in designing robust materials for hydro-dynamic applications.
Facile sonochemical synthesis of Zn2SnO4-V2O5 nanocomposite as an effective photocatalyst for degradation of Eosin yellow Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-26 V. Ramasamy Raja, D. Rani Rosaline, A. Suganthi, M. Rajarajan
This study presents a novel method for the preparation of Zn2SnO4/V2O5 nanocomposites via a sonochemical aqueous route. This method is mild, convenient, cheap and efficient. The as prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDAX, TEM, BET, FT-IR and UV-DRS spectra. DRS spectrum shows the adsorption edge of Zn2SnO4-V2O5 in visible region of spectrum. The structural and morphological features of the as synthesized Zn2SnO4-V2O5 nanocomposites have been observed using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. BET surface area analysis inferred that the prepared hetero-junctions are meso-porous in nature. The photocatalytic activity of Zn2SnO4-V2O5 nanocomposites for the degradation of eosin yellow (EY) dye under visible light was investigated in detail. 3% Zn2SnO4-V2O5 nanocomposite exhibited the highest photocatalytic performance (92% of EY degradation) when compared with 2% Zn2SnO4-V2O5 and 5% Zn2SnO4 - V2O5. The adsorption of eosin yellow followed the pseudo-first order kinetic model. Simultaneously, high stability of the sample was also investigated by four successive photodegradation of EY under visible light. The relationship between photocatalytic activity and the structure of 3% Zn2SnO4-V2O5 nanocomposite is discussed, and possible reaction mechanisms are also proposed. Therefore, the facile sonochemical preparation process provides some insight into the application of Zn2SnO4-V2O5 nanocomposites in photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants.
Ultrasound wave assisted adsorption of Congo Red using gold-magnetic nanocomposite loaded on activated carbon: optimization of process parameters Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-26 Ebrahim Alipanahpour Dil, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Arash Asfaram, Ali Akbar Bazrafshan
In this study, gold-magnetic nanocomposite in the presence of ultrasound wave assisted was synthesized and loaded on activated carbon (Au-Fe3O4-NCs-AC) by simple, fast and low-cost process. This novel material was applied for ultrasound assisted adsorption of congo red (CR) as model of toxic and even carcinogenic substance from aqueous solution. The detail of morphology and identity of Au-Fe3O4-AC was characterized by SEM and TEM techniques and correlation among response to variables such as pH (2-10), adsorbent mass (0.005-0.025 g), initial CR concentration (10-30 mg L-1) and ultrasound time (2-6 min) was investigated by response surface methodology (RSM) under central composite design (CCD). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) exhibit a high R2 value of 0.999 and confirm suitability of constructed second-order regression model for excellent evaluation and prediction of the experimental data. The interaction and main factor and optimum conditions of the under study process were determined from response surface plots based on desirability function. The maximum CR adsorption were achieved at pH of 4, 15 mg L-1 of CR, 0.017 g of Au-Fe3O4-AC and 5 min sonication which owing to 99.49 % removal efficiency is highly recommended for future CR removal from different matrixes. Adsorption kinetic follow second-order rate expression in combination to inter particle diffusion and equilibrium adsorption data best represented by the Langmuir isotherm with maximum mono-layer adsorption capacity of 43.88 mg g-1.
A novel highly selective and sensitive detection of serotonin based on Ag/polypyrrole/Cu2O nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-26 S. Selvarajan, A. Suganthi, M. Rajarajan
Experimental Investigation of the Thermal and Disinfection Performances of a Novel Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-26 Xun Sun, Jong Jin Park, Hyun Soo Kim, Seung Ho Lee, Si Jin Seong, Ae Son Om, Joon Yong Yoon
In the present study, we proposed an effective, efficient, and economical approach to disinfect water using a novel, advanced, rotational hydrodynamic cavitation reactor (HCR). First, analyses of the flow field and cavitation generation mechanism in the HCR were conducted through visualization of the reactor flow field using a high-speed camera. Second, the thermal performance was tested in 20 experiments with various rotational speeds of the rotor (2700, 3000, 3300, and 3600 rpm) and pump pressure settings (0.0, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, and 1.5 bar gauge pressure). The HCR maximally achieved a heat generation rate of 48.15 MJ/h and thermal efficiency of 82.18%. Then, the disinfection effect was evaluated using water that simulated an effluent containing Escherichia coli (E. coli) for various flow rates (8, 11, and 14 L/min), a pump pressure setting fixed at 0.5 bar, and a rotational speed of 3600 rpm. In addition, an economical assessment of the disinfection processes was performed by considering the measured electric consumption. The thermal effect generated by the HCR was the dominant factor affecting the concentration of E. coli. The HCR achieved a 100% disinfection rate with a 4.3 L/min treatment rate and a cost of US $ 3.019/m3 at the optimal flow rate. The effects of the pressure setting and rotational speed on the performance were discussed in detail. Finally, compared to the recent studies, the treatment rate of the HCR is several hundred times greater than that obtained by the HCRs utilized in those studies, and also has a reasonable cost.
Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of zinc molybdate nanocrystals and molybdate-doped epoxy/PDMS nanocomposite coatings for Mg alloy protection Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Ubong Eduok, Jerzy Szpunar
Microstructural evolution of SiC joints soldered using Zn–Al filler metals with the assistance of ultrasound Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Bingzhi Wu, Xuesong Leng, Ziyang Xiu, Jiuchun Yan
SiC ceramics were successfully soldered with the assistance of ultrasound. Two kinds of filler metals, namely non-eutectic Zn–5Al–3Cu and eutectic Zn–5Al alloys, were used. The effects of ultrasonic action on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the soldered joints were investigated. The results showed that ultrasound could promote the wetting and bonding between the SiC ceramic and filler metals within tens of seconds. For the Zn–5Al–3Cu solder, a fully grain-refined structure in the bond layer was obtained as the ultrasonic action time increased. This may lead to a substantial enhancement in the strength of the soldered joints. For the Zn–5Al solder, the shear strength of the soldered joints was only ∼102 MPa when the ultrasonic action time was shorter, and fractures occurred in the brittle lamellar eutectic phases in the center of the bond layer. With increasing ultrasonic action time, the lamellar eutectic phase in the bond layer of SiC joints could be completely transformed to a fine non-lamellar eutectic structure. Meanwhile, the grains in the bond layer were obviously refined. Those results led to the remarkable enhancement of the shear strength of the joints (∼138 MPa) using the Zn–5Al solder, which had approached that enhancement using the Zn–5Al–3Cu solder. The enhanced mechanical properties of the joints were attributed to the significant refinement of the grains and the change in the eutectic structure in the bond layer. Prolonged enhanced heterogeneous nucleation triggered by ultrasonic cavitation is the predominant refinement mechanism of the bond metals of the SiC joints.
Effect of ultrasound and chemical treatment on total phenol, flavonoids and antioxidant properties on carrot-grape juice blend during storage Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Muhammad Nadeem, Numra Ubaid, Tahir Mahmood Qureshi, Masooma Munir, Arshad Mehmood
Ultrasonics is one of the developing technologies which is being studied extensively on different food commodities. Our aim was to study the effect of sonication and chemical (Potassium metabisulfite, K2S2O5,) preservation method on grape-carrot juice blend. Sonication/ultrasound treatments (20 kHz frequency, 70% amplitude level (525 W power), and pulse duration 5 s on and 5 s off, 5 min at 15 °C) of all the samples (250 mL) were performed by using an ultrasonic processor with 0.5 inch probe at 2 inch depth of the sample. Additionally, impact of sonication on 90 days of storage period at refrigerated temperature was also measured. It was observed that sonication had a positive effect on nutritional status of juice blend as it enhanced the total phenolic, flavonoid, reducing power and antioxidant properties of juice significantly (p < 0.05) with increase in sonication time. Sonication can be employed successfully for treatment of juice with better nutritional attributes from consumers’ point of view.
Sono-chemical treatment of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl compounds in aqueous film-forming foams using a large-scale multi-transducer dual-frequency based acoustic reactor Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Vitthal L. Gole, Reyes Sierra-Alvarez, Hui Peng, John P. Giesy, Pierre Deymier, Manish Keswani
Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) contain a mixture of organic chemicals, including per- and poly-fluorinated, alky sulfonate substances (PFAS) (1-5% w/w). Some longer-chain PFAS can be toxic, moderately bioaccumulative and persistent in environments. During the present work, decomposition of PFAS present in two commercially available AFFFs (ANSUL- and 3M-) was investigated using a sono-chemical reactor, with volume: 91 L. The reactor consists of 12 transducers with operating frequencies of 1 MHz or 500 kHz and total input power of 12 kW. Degradation of PFASs performed using various dilutions of AFFF revealed that releases of F- and SO4-2 ions was inversely proportional to initial pH of up to 4. Defluorination of ANSUL-AFFF resulted in an increase in the concentration of F- released from 55.6±0.3 µM (500× dilution) to 58.6±0.6 (25× dilution), while for 3M AFFF it increased from 19.9±0.7 µM (500× dilution) to 217.1±2.4 µM (25× dilution). Though amounts of F- released were less for ANSUL-AFFF than for 3M-AFFF, there was a considerable increase in removal of TOC and release of SO4-2 present in ANSUL-AFFF. Approximately 90.5% and 26.6% reduction of perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSA) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCA) in 3M, respectively, and 38.4% reduction of fluorotelomer sulfonates in ANSUL-AFFF were achieved in 13 h. Estimated costs of energy for the treatment of ANSUL-AFFF and 3 M- AFFF at a 500× dilution were $0.015±0.0001/L and $0.019±0.0002/L, respectively.
An advanced pretreatment strategy involving hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation along with alum coagulation for the mineralization and biodegradability enhancement of tannery waste effluent Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Shivendu Saxena, Sunil Rajoriya, Virendra Kumar Saharan, Suja George
In the present study, coagulation followed by cavitation was studied as a pretreatment tool for tannery waste effluent (TWE) with the aim of reducing its COD, TOC, TSS etc. and enhancing its biodegradability to make it suitable for anaerobic digestion. Initially, coagulation was applied to TWE using alum as a coagulant. The residual pH of treated effluent was found to be around pH of 4.5 where maximum COD and TSS reduction was achieved. In order to enhance the efficiency of pretreatment process, coagulated tannery waste effluent (CTWE) was further subjected to hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) and ultrasonication (US). In case of HC, effect of process parameters such as inlet pressure and dilution on the treatment of CTWE was initially investigated. Lower operating pressure (5 bar) was more favorable for the treatment of CTWE using HC in order to enhance the biodegradability index (BI) from 0.14 to 0.57 in 120 min. The CTWE samples when subjected to 50% dilution, HC pretreatment exhibited higher percentage and quantum reduction in TOC and COD. On the other hand, pretreatment of TWE using coagulation followed by US demonstrated that BI of effluent was enhanced from 0.10 to 0.41 in 150 min. Energy efficiency evaluation for all processes at their optimized conditions was done based on the actual amount of COD reduced per unit energy delivered to the system. Coagulation followed by HC for the pretreatment of TWE was found to be six times more energy efficient as compared to coagulation followed by US.
Water treatment: Mn-TiO2 synthesized by ultrasound with increased aromatics adsorption Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 M. Stucchi, A. Elfiad, M. Rigamonti, H. Khan, D.C. Boffito
Efficient and controllable thermal ablation induced by short-pulsed HIFU sequence assisted with perfluorohexane nanodroplets Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-20 Nan Chang, Shukuan Lu, Dui Qin, Tianqi Xu, Meng Han, Supin Wang, Mingxi Wan
A HIFU sequence with extremely short pulse duration and high pulse repetition frequency can achieve thermal ablation at a low acoustic power using inertial cavitation. Because of its cavitation-dependent property, the therapeutic outcome is unreliable when the treatment zone lacks cavitation nuclei. To overcome this intrinsic limitation, we introduced perfluorocarbon nanodroplets as extra cavitation nuclei into short-pulsed HIFU-mediated thermal ablation. Two types of nanodroplets were used with perfluorohexane (PFH) as the core material coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or an anionic fluorosurfactant (FS) to demonstrate the feasibility of this study. The thermal ablation process was recorded by high-speed photography. The inertial cavitation activity during the ablation was revealed by sonoluminescence (SL). The high-speed photography results show that the thermal ablation volume increased by ∼643% and 596% with BSA-PFH and FS-PFH, respectively, than the short-pulsed HIFU alone at an acoustic power of 19.5 W. Using nanodroplets, much larger ablation volumes were created even at a much lower acoustic power. Meanwhile, the treatment time for ablating a desired volume significantly reduced in the presence of nanodroplets. Moreover, by adjusting the treatment time, lesion migration towards the HIFU transducer could also be avoided. The SL results show that the thermal lesion shape was significantly dependent on the inertial cavitation in this short-pulsed HIFU-mediated thermal ablation. The inertial cavitation activity became more predictable by using nanodroplets. Therefore, the introduction of PFH nanodroplets as extra cavitation nuclei made the short-pulsed HIFU thermal ablation more efficient by increasing the ablation volume and speed, and more controllable by reducing the acoustic power and preventing lesion migration.
Production of polyimide ceria nanocomposites by development of molecular hook technology in nano-sonochemistry Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-19 Mehdi Hatami
Sonochemical incorporated of Cytosine in Cu-H2bpdc as an Antibacterial Agent Against Standard and Clinical Strains of Proteus Mirabilis with rsbA Gene Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-19 Hajar Naseri, Asghar Sharifi, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Kheibar Dashtian, Seyed Sajad Khoramrooz, Leila Manzouri, Seyed Abdolmajid Khosravani, Vahid Pezeshkpour, Farzad Sadri, Marzieh Askarinia
The cytosine embedded copper based metal-organic framework (Bio-MOF) was synthesized by facile one-step sonochemical method by simply mixing of 4-4, biphenyldicarboxylic, cytosine and copper nitrate (Bio-Cu-H2bpdc-Cy). The prepared bio-MOF was characterized by XRD, FTIR and FE-SEM techniques. The effect of Cu-H2bpdc-Cy on the expression of the rsbA gene was evaluated in the clinical and standard proteus mirabilis and study of MIC of Cu-H2bpdc-Cy by microdilution against them that have the rsbA gene. According to different concentrations of MIC, MBC concentrations was cultured on blood agar culture medium. Regarding to the concentration of MIC, gene expression changes were obtained by real-time PCR. MIC for standard and clinical strains of proteus mirabilis was 1.6 and 1.8 mg/ml, and also MBC was obtained to be 1.8 and 2.0 mg/ml, respectively. Finally, in the real time PCR method, expression of the rsbA gene in presences of bio-Cu-H2bpdc-Cy was reduced, but has no effect on the gene expression of the Housekeeping DNA Gyrase-B gene. Considering the effect of Cu-H2bpdc-Cy on the rsbA gene in proteus mirabilis bacteria, it is possible to use of Cu-H2bpdc-Cy agent as a therapeutic supplement against this bacterium.
Graphene nanosheets preparation using magnetic nanoparticle assisted liquid phase exfoliation of graphite: The coupled effect of ultrasound and wedging nanoparticles Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-16 Alireza Hadi, Jafar Zahirifar, Javad Karimi-Sabet, Abolfazl Dastbaz
Effects of ultrasonic treatment on amylose-lipid complex formation and properties of sweet potato starch-based films Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-16 Pengfei Liu, Rui Wang, Xuemin Kang, Bo Cui, Bin Yu
To investigate the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the properties of sweet potato starch and sweet potato starch-based films, the complexing index, thermograms and diffractograms of the sweet potato starch-lauric acid composite were tested, and light transmission, microstructure, and mechanical and moisture barrier properties of the films were measured. The results indicated that the low power density ultrasound was beneficial to the formation of an inclusion complex. In thermograms, the gelatinization enthalpies of the ultrasonically treated starches were lower than those of the untreated sample. With the ultrasonic amplitude increased from 40% to 70%, the melting enthalpy (△H) of the inclusion complex gradually decreased. X-ray diffraction revealed that the diffraction intensity of the untreated samples was weaker than that of the ultrasonically treated samples. When the ultrasonic amplitude was above 40%, the diffraction intensity and relative crystallinity of inclusion complex gradually decreased. The scanning electronic microscope showed that the surface of the composite films became smooth after being treated by ultrasonication. Ultrasonication led to a reduction in film surface roughness under atomic force microscopy analysis. The films with ultrasonic treatment exhibited higher light transmission, lower elongation at break, higher tensile strength and better moisture barrier property than those without ultrasonic treatment.
Rod-shaped cavitation bubble structure in ultrasonic field Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-16 Bai Lixin, Wu Pengfei, Liu Huiyu, Yan Jiuchun, Su Chang, Li Chao
Rod-shaped cavitation bubble structure in thin liquid layers in ultrasonic field is investigated experimentally. It is found that cavitation structure successively experiences several stages with the change of the thickness of the thin liquid layer. Rod-shaped structure is a stable structure of the boundary between the cavitation cloud region and the non-cavitation liquid region, which can be formed in two different ways. Cavitation bubbles in a thin liquid layer have a distribution in the thickness direction. The rod-shaped structures tend to crosslink with each other to form stable Y-branch structures. The angle of the Y-branch structure is Gauss distribution with mathematical expectation μ = 119.93. A special rod-shaped cavitation structure with source is also investigated in detail. Due to the pressure gradient in the normal direction, the primary Bjerknes force causes the bubbles in the rod-shaped structure on both sides to converge to the axis. The secondary Bjerknes forces between the bubbles also make the cluster converge, so the large bubbles which are attached to the radiating surface tend to align themselves along the central line. According to the formula deduced in this paper, the variation of curvature of curved rod-shaped structure is qualitatively analyzed. The Y-branch structure of cavitation cloud and Plateau boundary of soap bubbles are compared.
Development of an electrochemical process for production of nano-copper oxides: Agglomeration kinetics modeling Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 Seyed Hadi Shahcheraghi, Mahin Schaffie, Mohammad Ranjbar
The main objective of this study was the development of a simple, clean, and industrial applicable electrochemical process for production of high pure nano-copper oxides from mining and industrial resources (e.g., ore, spent, slag and wastewater). To conduct the proposed process, a special set up containing an electrochemical cell in an ultrasonic system (28 kHz and 160 W) was proposed. Accordingly, using this set up and applying appropriate voltage (≈ 5 V) at 25°C, in the presence of N2 gas, the simultaneous anode dissolution and nano-copper oxides formation (≈ 24 nm) can be occurred, rapidly (less than 45 minutes). Then, the effect of N2 gas and free radicals generated by ultrasonic irradiation was studied. The results showed, in the absence of ultrasonic irradiation and N2, an increase of electrolyte pH from 6.42 to 10.92, a decrease of electrolyte Eh from 285 mV to –1.14 V, and formation of copper nanoparticles. While, in the presence of ultrasonic and N2, the CuO nanoparticles were formed due to presence of H2O2 generated by interaction of free radicals. Moreover, a novel method for kinetics modeling of nanoparticles agglomeration was proposed according to distributed activation energy model and Arrhenius parameters variation. The results showed that, in the absence of ultrasonic irradiation, the nanoparticle agglomerates were firstly formed (interface controlled mechanism) and then, the diffusion of nanoparticle agglomerates was occurred (diffusion controlled mechanism). Therefore, the control of nanoparticles size and shape may be impossible without surfactant. Also, in the presence of ultrasonic irradiation, the whole of agglomeration process followed interface controlled mechanism. Therefore, using ultrasonic irradiation, the nanoparticles shape and size don’t change due to prevention of agglomerates diffusion.
One-step sonochemical synthesis of 1D β-Stannous Tungstate Nanorods: An efficient and excellent electrocatalyst for the selective electrochemical detection of antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 Thangavelu Kokulnathan, Jeyaraj Vinoth Kumar, Shen-Ming Chen, Raj Karthik, Arumugam Elangovan, Velluchamy Muthuraj
Ultrasonic-assisted in-situ fabrication of BiOBr modified Bi2O2CO3 microstructure with enhanced photocatalytic performance Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 Lijun Cheng, Xumin Hu, Liang Hao
Via an ultrasonic-assisted in-situ etching method, BiOBr modified Bi2O2CO3 microstructures were fabricated in short time. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, BET, UV-Vis, XPS and PL spectra methods. Rhodamine B (RhB) aqueous solution was applied to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared samples. The results showed that the sample prepared at pH of 2 in which the molar ratio of BiOBr and Bi2O2CO3 was 0.69:1 had the largest specific surface area, the best utilization for ultraviolet and visible light and efficient separation efficiency of charge carriers, contributing to its best photocatalytic activity. •O2- was proved to be main active species in RhB photodegradation process. Last, the photocatalytic mechanism of the composite was discussed in detail.
Impact of Ultrasound on Galactooligosaccharides and Gluconic Acid Production Throughout a Multienzymatic System Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 Fabián Rico-Rodríguez, Juan Carlos Serrato, Antonia Montilla, Mar Villamiel
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS), recognised prebiotic, can be industrially produced from lactose and commercial β-galactosidase (β-gal) from Kluyveromyces lactis. Residual lactose and glucose limit GOS applications. To handle this problem, a multienzymatic system, with β-gal and glucose oxidase (Gox), was proposed to reduce glucose content in reaction media through its oxidation to gluconic acid (GA). Besides, ultrasound (US) horn effect over the multienzymatic system to produce GOS and GA has been evaluated. A production over 40% of GOS was found in all treatments after the first h of reaction. However, glucose consumption and GA production was significantly higher (P<0.05) for sequential reaction assisted by US, obtaining the best production of GOS (49%) and GA (28%) after 2 h of reaction. The conformational and residual activity changes of enzymes under US conditions were also evaluated, Gox being positively affected whereas in β-gal hardly any change was found.
Synthesis of phosphonic acid silver-graphene oxide nanomaterials with photocatalytic activity through ultrasonic-assisted method Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 Yongshen Li, Yunna Song, Zheng Ma, Shuai Niu, Jihui Li, Ning Li
In this article, phosphonic acid silver-graphene oxide nanomaterials (Nano-PAS-GO) was synthesized from silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution and phosphoric graphene oxide (PGO) via the convenient ultrasonic-assisted method, and the structure and morphology were characterized, and the photocatalytic activity and recyclability were evaluated through photocatalyzing degradation of Rhodamin B (RhB) aqueous solution, and the possible photocatalytic mechanism was also discussed. Based on those, it was confirmed that Nano-PAS-GO has been synthesized from AgNO3 solution and PGO colloidal suspension under ultrasonic-assisted condition, and Nano-PAS-GO has consisted of phosphoric acid silver nanoparticles and GO with 2D lattice (2D GO lattice) connected in the form of C-P bonds, and the photodegradation rate of Nano-PAS-GO for RhB aqueous solution has reached 93.99%, and Nano-PAS-GO has possessed the nicer recyclability when the photocatalytic time was 50 min. From those results, the strong and stable interface .between PAS nanoparticles and 2D GO lattice connected in the form of the covalent bonds has effectively inhibited the occurrence of the photocorrosion phenomenon.
Synthesis of Novel Amperometric Urea-Sensor Using Hybrid Synthesized NiO-NPs/GO Modified GCE in Aqueous Solution of Cetrimonium Bromide Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-11 Zohreh Parsaee
Ultrasound-electrospinning-assisted Fabrication and Sensing Evaluation of a novel membrane as Ultrasensitive sensor for copper (II) ions Detection in aqueous environment Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-10 Wei Gao, Pouya Haratipour, Mohammad Reza Rezaei Kahkha, Arash tahvili
The present study has reported an optimized fabrication and application of a novel PVA / TEOS / Schiff base nanofibers membrane as a highly sensitive copper (II) ions in aqueous environment. Here in, for first time, an ultrasound-assisted synthesized symmetric Schiff base has been immobilized on a hybrid polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and TEOS using electrospinning technique for detection and filtration of copper ions. For this purpose, various working parameters were evaluated and finally the optimized nano fibers membrane was synthesized with 72 nm thickness and PVA / TEOS / Schiff base ratio of (wt%) 8:6:1. The optimized sample named PTLNFM has been employed successfully as an ultra sensitive chemosensor for Cu (II) detection in real samples. The immobilized Schiff base used as a chelating agent could detect copper (II) in the range from 9.34×10−8 to 1.15×10−5 mol L-1 with the following correlation equation: Absorbance = 0.066 [Cu2+ ] × 10-6 + 0.095 and R2 = 0.992 and LOD of 1.27 × 10-8 mol L-1 which was lower than most of the reported detection limits in the previous literatures. Validity of this method has been carried out by analysis of Cu2+ in real samples with satisfying recoveries of over 96.11-99.24%.The developed membrane could be offered for diverse use such as medical or industrial applications.
Nanopowder synthesis of novel Sn(II)-imprinted poly(dimethyl vinylphosphonate) by ultrasound-assisted technique: Adsorption and pre-concentration of Sn(II) from aqueous media and real samples Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-09 Amir Shafiee Kisomi, Afshin Rajabi Khorrami, Taher Alizadeh, Majid Farsadrooh, Hamedreza Javadian, Arash Asfaram, Shabnam Najafi AsliPashaki, Parisa Rafiei
In this research, a novel Sn(II)-imprinted poly(dimethyl vinylphosphonate) nanopowder (Sn(II)-IPDMVPN) was prepared using Sn2+, dimethyl vinylphosphonate, azobis isobutyronitril and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the template, ligand, initiator and cross linker, respectively. The non-imprinted poly(dimethyl vinylphosphonate) nanopowder (NIPDMVPN) was also synthesized utilizing the same procedure without using SnCl2.2H2O in order to compare the results with the Sn(II)-IPDMVPN. The structure, morphology and composition of the products were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, XRF, BET, FT-IR and NMR techniques. Some experimental conditions including pH, eluent concentration and sample volume were optimized to maximize Sn(II) adsorption by the Sn(II)-IPDMVPN. It was found that the optimum conditions are pH=5, 1.00 M of HNO3 as eluent and sample volume up to 50 mL. The results obtained by ICP-MS indicated that the Sn(II)-IPDMVPN had much higher adsorption capacity for Sn(II) ions (about three-fold) than the NIPDMVPN. The applicability of the Sn(II)-IPDMVPN was also investigated in three different real samples. Under the best experimental conditions, the calibration graphs were linear in the range of 0.19–90 μg L-1 with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.990. The detection limit was calculated to be 0.06 μg L-1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for six replicate measurements of Sn(II) at 1.00 ng mL-1 was determined to be 1.8%. The results showed that the Sn(II)-IPDMVPN-ICP-MS is a very simple, rapid, sensitive and efficient method for the determination of Sn(II) ions in water samples.
A new methodology to prepare ceramic-organic composite coatings with good cavitation erosion resistance Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-09 Wen Deng, Guoliang Hou, Shuangjian Li, Jiesheng Han, Xiaoqin Zhao, Xia Liu, Yulong An, Huidi Zhou, Jianmin Chen
A simple, scalable and economical method was proposed to obtain ceramic-organic composite coating with excellent comprehensive properties include hardness, toughness, elastic recovery, lamellar interfacial bonding and anti-cavitation erosion: introducing epoxy resin into the pores and micro-cracks of plasma sprayed ceramic coating. The results indicate that the epoxy resin was successfully penetrated into the whole ceramic coating and filled almost all defects by vacuum impregnation, which greatly enhanced its compactness and mechanical properties. The bonding strength between top coating and metal interlayer significantly increased from 17.3 MPa to 53.0 MPa, and the hardness (H) of top coating greatly increased from 11.07 GPa to 23.57 GPa. Besides, the value of H3/E2 also increased from 0.06 GPa to 0.15 GPa, meaning the toughness of ceramic coating had been obviously improved. The pure ceramic coating had been punctured only after 4 h of cavitation test. However, the resin with high elasticity and toughness can effectively absorb impact energy, prevent cracks propagation and delay splats spallation during the cavitation erosion process. The novel composite coating displayed far better cavitation erosion resistance than pure ceramic coating, and it was still intact after 10 h of test.
Using ultrasonic (US)-initiated template copolymerization for preparation of an enhanced cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) and its application in sludge dewatering Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Li Feng, Shuang Liu, Huaili Zheng, Jianjun Liang, Yongjun Sun, Shixin Zhang, Xin Chen
Imparting Superhydrophobic and Biocidal Functionalities to a Polymeric Substrate by the Sonochemical Method Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Asya Svirinovsky, Ilana Perelshtein, Michal Natan, Ehud Banin, Aharon Gedanken
Sonocatalytic activity of a heterostructured β-Bi2O3/Bi2O2CO3 nanoplate in degradation of bisphenol A Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Gooyong Lee, Shaliza Ibrahim, Shanmuga Kittappa, Heekyung Park, Chang Min Park
Novel heterostructured β-Bi2O3/Bi2O2CO3 nanoplates (hBN) were synthesized to observe the sonocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) (widely used as a model pollutant) under ultrasonic (US) irradiation. Prior to obtaining the hBN, the Bi2O2CO3 micropowder precursor was prepared under hydrothermal conditions and then converted to hBN by increasing the calcination temperature to 300°C. The synthesized hBN samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (FESEM/EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The hBN/US system exhibited greater sonocatalytic activity for the degradation of BPA than the US treatment with the single element bismuth oxide, β-Bi2O3 prepared by annealing the Bi2O2CO3 precursor at 400°C for 1 h. The US frequency and US power intensity in the hBN/US system were the key operating parameters, which were responsible for the complete degradation of BPA during 6 h of reactions. The degradation efficiency of BPA under the US irradiation was positively correlated with the dose of hBN. Our findings indicate that heterostructured hBN can be used as an efficient sonocatalyst for the catalytic degradation of BPA in water and wastewater treatment.
CuY Zeolite Catalysts Prepared by Ultrasonication-assisted Ion-exchange for Oxidative Carbonylation of Methanol to Dimethyl Carbonate Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Je-Min Woo, Jung Yoon Seo, Hyunuk Kim, Dong-Ho Lee, Young Cheol Park, Chang-Keun Yi, Yeong Seong Park, Jong-Ho Moon
The influence of ultrasonication treatment on the catalytic performance of CuY zeolite catalysts was investigated for the liquid-phase oxidative carbonylation of methanol to dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The deammoniation method of NH4Y into HY zeolites was optimized and characterized by elemental analyzer, derivative thermogravimetry, Brunauer−Emmett−Teller (BET) analyzer, and powder X-ray diffractometry, revealing that the HY zeolite deammoniated at 400 °C presented the highest surface area, complete ammonium/proton ion exchange, and no structure collapse, rendering it the best support from all the prepared zeolites. CuY zeolites were prepared via aqueous phase ion exchange with the aid of ultrasonication. Upon ultrasonication, the Cu+ active centers were uniformly dispersed in the Y zeolites, penetrating the core of the zeolite particles in a very short time. In addition to enhancing the Cu dispersity, the ultrasonication treatment influenced the BET surface area, acid amount, Cu+/Cu2+ ratio, and also had a relatively small impact on the Cu loading. Consequently, adequate exposure to ultrasonication was able to increase the conversion rate of methanol into dimethyl carbonate up to 11.4% with a comparable DMC selectivity of 23.7%. This methanol conversion is 2.65 times higher than that obtained without the ultrasonication treatment.
Ultrasonic assisted synthesis with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of NiO/Ag3VO4 nanocomposite and its Antibacterial activity Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 V. Ramasamy Raja, D.Rani Rosaline, A. Suganthi, M. Rajarajan
A new analytical device incorporating a nitrogen doped lanthanum metal oxide with reduced graphene oxide sheets for paracetamol sensing Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Sathish Kumar Ponnaiah, Prakash Periakaruppan, Balakumar Vellaichamy
Physicochemical changes and microbial inactivation after high-intensity ultrasound processing of prebiotic whey beverage applying different ultrasonic power levels Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Jonas T. Guimarães, Eric Keven Silva, Verônica O. Alvarenga, Ana Letícia R. Costa, Rosiane L. Cunha, Anderson S. Sant'Anna, Monica Q. Freitas, M. Angela A. Meireles, Adriano G. Cruz
In this work, we investigated the effects of the ultrasonic power (0, 200, 400 and 600 W) on non-thermal processing of an inulin-enriched whey beverage. We studied the effects of high-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) on microbial inactivation (aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria (AMHB), total and thermotolerant coliforms and yeasts and molds), zeta potential, microstructure (optical microscopy, particle size distribution), rheology, kinetic stability and color. The non-thermal processing applying 600 W of ultrasonic power was comparable to high-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment (75°C for 15 s) concerning the inactivation of AMHB and yeasts and molds (2 vs 2 log and 0.2 vs 0.4 log, respectively), although HIUS has reached a lower output temperature (53 ± 3° C). The HIUS was better than HTST to improve beverage kinetic stability, avoiding phase separation, which was mainly attributed to the decrease of particles size, denaturation of whey proteins and gelation of polysaccharides (inulin and gellan gum). Thus, non-thermal processing by HIUS seems to be an interesting technology for prebiotic dairy beverages production.
Synthesis of Fe3O4@CuS@Ni2P-CNTs magnetic nanocomposite for sonochemical-assisted pre-concentration of trace Allura Red from aqueous samples prior to HPLC-UV detection: CCD-RSM design Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Arash Asfaram, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Hassan Abidi, Hamedreza Javadian, Mohammad Zoladl, Fardin Sadeghfar
A simple procedure based on ultrasound-assisted (UA) dispersive micro solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) was applied for adsorption of trace amount Allura Red (AR) in fruit juice and water samples. After loading process by UA-D-μ-SPE, the concentrated AR was eluted and monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet -visible detector (HPLC-UV). The best operational conditions were obtained as follows: pH = 3.0, 8 mg of the sorbent, sonication time of 4.5 min and 0.16 mL THF as elution solvent. Under the optimum operational conditions, the present method was acceptable for AR quantification in the range of 1.0-5000 ng mL-1. The repeatability based on RSD with the amount of 1.67–3.18%, low LOD (0.198 ng mL-1) and LOQ (0.659 ng mL-1) were obtained. The UA-D-μ-SPE-HPLC-UV method was successfully applied for trace quantification of AR from water and commercial fruit juice samples supplied from local supermarkets, and acceptable relative recoveries over the range of 97.7-105.4% with RSDs ≤ 5.50% were obtained.
Association schemes perspective of microbubble cluster in ultrasonic fields Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-06 S. Behnia, M. Yahyavi, R. Habibpourbisafar
Dynamics of a cluster of chaotic oscillators on a network are studied using coupled maps. By introducing the association schemes, we obtain coupling strength in the adjacency matrices form, which satisfies Markov matrices property. We remark that in general, the stability region of the cluster of oscillators at the synchronization state is characterized by Lyapunov exponent which can be defined based on the N-coupled map. As a detailed physical example, dynamics of microbubble cluster in an ultrasonic field are studied using coupled maps. Microbubble cluster dynamics have an indicative highly active nonlinear phenomenon, were not easy to be explained. In this paper, a cluster of microbubbles with a thin elastic shell based on the modified Keller-Herring equation in an ultrasonic field is demonstrated in the framework of the globally coupled map. On the other hand, a relation between the microbubble elements is replaced by a relation between the vertices. Based on this method, the stability region of microbubbles pulsations at complete synchronization state has been obtained analytically. In this way, distances between microbubbles as coupling strength play the crucial role. In the stability region, we thus observe that the problem of study of dynamics of N-microbubble oscillators reduce to that of a single microbubble. Therefore, the important parameters of the isolated microbubble such as applied pressure, driving frequency and the initial radius have effective behavior on the synchronization state.
A novel antibiotic wastewater degradation technique combining cavitating jets impingement with multiple synergetic methods Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-06 Yuequn Tao, Jun Cai, Xiulan Huai, Bin Liu
Antibiotics degradation remains a longstanding challenge in wastewater treatment. Towards this objective, we have developed a novel technique combining cavitating jets impingement with multiple synergetic methods, i.e., UV/Fenton, analogous Fenton, and photocatalytic oxidation in the present work. Three kinds of antibiotics namely amoxicillin, doxycycline and sulfadiazine sodium, are selected as model pollutants. Individual application of cavitating jets impingement was firstly conducted to evaluate the effects of jets impinging forms and nozzle inlet pressure. The effects of impingement on promoting antibiotics degradation and weakening the coalescing effects of cavitation bubbles are confirmed. Perpendicular double cavitating jets impingement is proved to be the most effective impinging form and brought a COD (chemical oxidation demand) reduction of 30.04% with the impinging effect index 1.22 at jet inlet pressure 10 MPa. Increasing the jet inlet pressure can improve the COD reduction and the effectiveness of impingement. Subsequently, UV/Fenton process is introduced to intensify the degradation process. The effects of important parameters are investigated by means of orthogonal experiments and the maximum COD reduction is up to 71.16% under the optimum conditions. Then, analogous Fenton process and photocatalytic oxidation are adopted for further enhancing the COD reduction. Different approaches used in the present work are assessed in view of multiple aspects. With COD reduction of 79.92%, the combination of cavitating jets impingement, UV/Fenton, analogous Fenton and photocatalytic oxidation is proved to be optimum method for antibiotic wastewater treatment.
Electrospun nanofibers decorated with bio-sonochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles as an ultrasensitive probe in amalgam-based mercury (II) detection system Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-06 Zohreh Parsaee
In situ observation of single cell response to acoustic droplet vaporization: membrane deformation, permeabilization, and blebbing Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-06 Dui Qin, Lei Zhang, Nan Chang, Pengying Ni, Yujin Zong, Ayache Bouakaz, Mingxi Wan, Yi Feng
In this study, the bioeffects of acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) on adjacent cells were investigated by evaluating the real-time cell response at the single-cell level in situ, using a combined ultrasound-exposure and optical imaging system. Two imaging modalities, high-speed and fluorescence imaging, were used to observe ADV bubble dynamics and to evaluate the impact on cell membrane permeabilization (i.e., sonoporation) using propidium iodide (PI) uptake as an indicator. The results indicated that ADV mainly led to irreversible rather than reversible sonoporation. Further, the rate of irreversible sonoporation significantly increased with increasing nanodroplet concentration, ultrasound amplitude, and pulse duration. The results suggested that sonoporation is correlated to the rapid formation, expansion, and contraction of ADV bubbles near cells, and strongly depends on ADV bubble size and bubble-to-cell distance when subjected to short ultrasound pulses (1 μs). Moreover, the displacement of ADV bubbles was larger when using a long ultrasound pulse (20 μs), resulting in considerable cell membrane deformation and a more irreversible sonoporation rate. During sonoporation, cell membrane blebbing as a recovery manoeuvre was also investigated, indicating the essential role of Ca2+ influx in the membrane blebbing response. This study has helped us gain further insights into the dynamic behavior of ADV bubbles near cells, ADV bubble-cell interactions, and real-time cell response, which are invaluable in the development of optimal approaches for ADV-associated theranostic applications.
High intensity ultrasound treatment of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) protein: Effect on surface properties, foaming ability and structural changes Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-06 Alejandro Martínez-Velasco, Consuelo Lobato-Calleros, Blanca E. Hernández-Rodríguez, Angélica Román-Guerrero, Jose Alvarez-Ramirez, E. Jaime Vernon-Carter
Response surface methodology was used for establishing the amplitude (72.67%) and time (17.29 min) high-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) conditions leading to an optimized faba bean protein isolate (OFPI) with lower interfacial tension, zeta potential and viscosity, and higher solubility than native faba bean protein isolate (NFPI). OFPI showed significantly higher adsorption dynamics at the air-water interface, and produced foam with significant smaller bubble diameter, higher overrun, stability and yield stress, and lower liquid drainage than NFPI. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that the secondary structure of OFPI deferred from NFPI in terms of increases in β conformations (6.61% β-sheet, 19.6% β-turn, 0.8% anti-parallel β-sheet) and decreases in inter-molecular aggregates (43.54%). Multienzyme study pinpointed that the structural changes could have induced a decrease on the relative protein digestibility of OFPI respect that of NFPI. The results of this work demonstrate that HIUS technology improves the surface and foaming properties of faba bean protein isolate, which may favour the revalorisation of this crop.
A novel inverse numerical modeling method for the estimation of water and salt mass transfer coefficients during ultrasonic assisted-osmotic dehydration of cucumber cubes Ultrason. Sonochem. (IF 4.218) Pub Date : 2018-02-06 Hosein Kiani, Farzaneh Karimi, Mohsen Labbafi, Morteza Fathi
The objective of this paper was to study the moisture and salt diffusivity during ultrasonic assisted-osmotic dehydration of cucumbers. Experimental measurements of moisture and salt concentration versus time were carried out and an inverse numerical method was performed by coupling a CFD package (OpenFOAM) with a parameter estimation software (DAKOTA) to determine mass transfer coefficients. A good agreement between experimental and numerical results was observed. Mass transfer coefficients were from 3.5×10-9 to 7×10-9 m/s for water and from 4.8 ×10-9 m/s to 7.4 ×10-9 m/s for salt at different conditions (diffusion coefficients of around 3.5×10-12 to 11.5×10-12 m2/s for water and 5 ×10-12 m/s to 12 ×10-12 m2/s for salt). Ultrasound irradiation could increase the mass transfer coefficient. The values obtained by this method were more close to the actual data. The inverse simulation method can be an accurate technique to study the mass transfer phenomena during food processing.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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