Food science and technology challenges for the 21st century: Research to progress society: Outcomes from the 31st EFFoST international conference 2017, Sitges, Spain ☆ Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 Ronan Gormley
The 31st European Federation of Food Science and Technology (EFFoST) International Conference took place in Sitges, Spain on 13–16 November, 2017 under the theme: Food Science and Technology Challenges for the 21st Century. It was organised jointly by Professor Buenaventura Guamis-López (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain) and Professor Olga Martín-Belloso (Universitat de Lleida, Spain) (Conference Chairs) together with an organising committee and the international scientific committee in association with Professor Lilia Ahrné (EFFoST President). The Co-Chairs and the EFFoST President welcomed the delegates on behalf of the Organising Committee and encouraged them to participate fully in all aspects of the event. The conference embraced cutting edge research outcomes together with lectures on mainstream food science and technology including processes, safety, nutrition and health, food analysis, gastronomy and the key area of SME start-ups, and also crisis management. The conference sub-theme was Research to Progress Society which is of critical importance at a time where research impact is paramount and consumers/society are/is increasingly engaging with science both positively and negatively. Networking by attendees was extensive as evidenced by discussions at the poster sessions, during coffee and lunch breaks, and also with the various companies exhibiting at the conference. There were 181 oral presentations embracing 15 plenary lectures, 19 invited lectures and 147 other lectures in 24 theme areas (see section 2) held in five parallel sessions. Poster presentations numbered 467 and there were over 550 attendees.
Revisiting the recent applications of nanofiltration in food processing industries: Progress and prognosis Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-01-08 Kaushik Nath, Haresh K. Dave, Tejal M. Patel
The use of nanofiltration (NF) in food processing industries has evolved from a novel approach into a reliable and techno-economically attractive standard unit operation. The lower operating pressures compared to reverse osmosis, and unique selectivity of the membranes render NF as a less energy-intensive and eco-friendly downstream operation. NF finds its applications in concentrating, fractionating and/or purifying various edible products from the dilute streams thereby enhancing process efficiency to a great extent. It can significantly reduce levels of dissolved solids, colors, organics, hardness, turbidity, divalent and multivalent ions and facilitate the required desalting of permeate streams. Food-processing industries dealing with fruit-juice, beverage, dairy, sugar, lactic acid, and vegetable oils successfully employ NF in a myriad of applications. It is also used in wastewater treatment, recovery of value added components and solvents from food waste, deacidification and nutritional enrichments of certain food products. The present paper reviews the recent status of NF technology in food industries along with its trends and future potentials in the production of high quality foodstuff. Effects of important physicochemical parameters on the permeate flux, solute rejection and product quality are briefly assessed and critically compared with pertinent literature. Fouling propensity of membranes and strategies for its mitigation are also highlighted with special reference to food processing industries.
Advancing food, nutrition, and health research in Europe by connecting and building research infrastructures in a DISH-RI: Results of the EuroDISH project Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Harriëtte M. Snoek, Lars M.T. Eijssen, Marjolein Geurts, Cecile Vors, Kerry A. Brown, Marc-Jeroen Bogaardt, Rosalie A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten, Chris T. Evelo, Leopold Fezeu, Paul M. Finglas, Martine Laville, Marga Ocké, Giuditta Perozzi, Krijn Poppe, Nadia Slimani, Inge Tetens, Lada Timotijevic, Karin Zimmermann, Pieter van ’t Veer
Background Research infrastructures (RIs) are essential to advance research on the relationship between food, nutrition, and health. RIs will facilitate innovation and allow insights at the systems level which are required to design (public health) strategies that will address societal challenges more effectively. Approach In the EuroDISH project we mapped existing RIs in the food and health area in Europe, identified outstanding needs, and synthesised this into a conceptual design of a pan-European DISH-RI. The DISH model was used to describe and structure the research area: Determinants of food choice, Intake of foods and nutrients, Status and functional markers of nutritional health, and Health and disease risk. Key findings The need to develop RIs in the food and health domain clearly emerged from the EuroDISH project. It showed the necessity for a unique interdisciplinary and multi-stakeholder RI that overarches the research domains. A DISH-RI should bring services to the research community that facilitate network and community building and provide access to standardised, interoperable, and innovative data and tools. It should fulfil the scientific needs to connect within and between research domains and make use of current initiatives. Added value can also be created by providing services to policy makers and industry, unlocking data and enabling valorisation of research insights in practice through public-private partnerships. The governance of these services (e.g. ownership) and the centralised and distributed activities of the RI itself (e.g. flexibility, innovation) needs to be organised and aligned with the different interests of public and private partners.
Ohmic-assisted hydrodistillation technology: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Mohsen Gavahian, Asgar Farahnaky
Functionalization techniques for improving SERS substrates and their applications in food safety evaluation: A review of recent research trends Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Tehseen Yaseen, Hongbin Pu, Da-Wen Sun
BackgroundFood safety and quality have gained much attention in recent years and the capability to evaluate food quality and safety in a sensitive, rapid, and reliable manner is of great importance in the food industry. Therefore, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with the advantages of excellent sensitivity, high selectivity, non-destructive nature and significant enhancement to identify the target has demonstrated a great potential for quick detection of chemical contaminants, chemical constitutes, and pathogens in food samples.Scope and approachThe enhancement of Raman signals for SERS is not only related to the interactions between substrates and samples but also the functionalization of substrates to gain SERS active substrates. In the present review, different types of substrates are briefly discussed, functionalization techniques for SERS active substrates are discussed, and applications of functionalized SERS substrate in food samples are presented.Conclusions and key findingsIt is evident that functionalization techniques for improving SERS substrates have given encouraging outcomes, which provides possibility for identifying multiple target analytes within a complex matrix, and thus could be used as a powerful analytical tool in real-world applications in food safety analysis as well as for enhancing food quality surveillance.
Demanding safe foods – Safety testing under the novel food regulation (2015/2283) Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-12-30 Alie de Boer, Aalt Bast
Background A legal framework cannot ensure that a food will never pose a risk to any consumer. Risk management procedures are put in place to control potential risks occurring from food consumption. In the EU, this is translated into premarket authorisation decisions to allow novel food products on the market, laid down in the Novel Food Regulation (NFR). Scope and approach In the authorisation decision under the NFR, the scientific dossier dealing with the food product's safety is key. Various adjustments were made in updating the 1997 NFR to the new NFR (Regulation 2015/2283), but scientific dossier requirements seem comparable between both versions. This paper aims to optimise the crosstalk between the two corner stones of the NFR, science and regulation, and therefore reviews methodological requirements to establish food safety. Key findings and conclusions For novel foods, the scientific dossier must provide evidence that no adverse effects are elicited by consuming the product and consequently, kinetics, toxicology, nutritional information and allergenicity must be analysed. Methodological developments within these fields and specifically in toxicology will reduce required resources as well as the need for large numbers of experimental animals in conducting risk assessments. New methods should be embraced throughout the EU by promoting their (of course critical) use in safety assessments of foods.
Crosslinking of food proteins mediated by oxidative enzymes – A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-12-27 Sivan Isaschar-Ovdat, Ayelet Fishman
Background With the increase in health awareness and the need to reduce content of sugars, fats, and non-natural food ingredients, as well as increasing demand for food and protein alternatives that do not rely on animal source, researchers have used enzymatic crosslinking as a safe and specific biotechnological tool for modulating food matrix properties while maintaining desired textures. Scope and approach The current manuscript reviews three main oxidative enzymes that were utilized for food protein crosslinking since 2010. Each enzyme is characterized by its reaction mechanism, protein substrates and the effect of the enzymatic reaction on the structure or texture of the matrix. The range of substrates varies from milk proteins, gelatin and collagen to plant proteins such as potato and soy, which are used to formulate gels and emulsions through the formation of extensive protein networks. The influence of enzymatic crosslinking on protein digestibility and allergenicity is also reviewed with respect to protein source, enzyme type and the experimental model used. Key findings and conclusions Laccases, tyrosinases and peroxidases are useful crosslinking agents for generating new textures or for modulating the product formulation while maintaining the desired known texture and mouthfeel. The enzymatic treatments were shown to successfully improve the properties of protein-stabilized emulsions and gels. Commercialization of more oxidative enzymes will enable the increased exploitation of new protein sources and novel combinations of known proteins. Modulating satiety, designing meat replacements, formulating non-dairy cheeses and yogurts with superb consistency are just a few applications of enzyme-mediated crosslinked proteins.
Innovative nondestructive imaging techniques for ripening and maturity of fruits – A review of recent applications Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Abid Hussain, Hongbin Pu, Da-Wen Sun
Background For decades, fruit assessment without off-line interruption and sample destruction was a challenge for producers, researchers and food safety agencies. Efforts have therefore been exerted towards the introduction and advancements of innovative imaging technologies for fast, non-invasive and non-destructive monitoring of ripening and maturity stages of fresh produce. Scope and Approach Owing to their non-destructive nature, environmental friendliness, reliability accuracy and simplicity of imaging techniques have been successfully exploited for rapid evaluation of ripening and maturity stages of fruits. The current review provides an overview of recent applications in the last few years. The imaging techniques presented include spectral techniques (Raman imaging, hyperspectral imaging, fluorescence imaging and laser light backscattering imaging), nuclear magnetic techniques (magnetic resonance imaging and soft x-ray) and other techniques including thermal imaging, infrared thermography and microwave imaging. The principles of these imaging techniques are also briefly highlighted, and their applicability is summarized. Key Findings and Conclusions The contemporary imaging techniques presented in this review portray continuous productiveness as excellent quality assessment, particularly for ripening and maturity analysis tools for fruits. Thus, these novel techniques hold great potentiality to replace conventional procedures, because such traditional approaches lack ability to examine fruit ripening and maturity indicators such as lycopene content, flesh freshness, soluble solid content, and other internal quality parameter rapidly and efficiently, furthermore such techniques are time consuming, laborious, destructive and tedious.
Feasibility of using pulsed electric fields to modify biomacromolecules: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Stephen Gitonga Giteru, Indrawati Oey, M. Azam Ali
Antimicrobial potential of legume extracts against foodborne pathogens: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 M.C. Pina-Pérez, M.A. Ferrús Pérez
Lupin seed γ-conglutin: Extraction and purification methods- A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Sharmilee P. Mane, Stuart K. Johnson, Marcello Duranti, Vishnu K. Pareek, Ranjeet P. Utikar
Background Lupin, the largest legume crop in Australia, is gaining global attention because of its unique protein γ-conglutin, which has shown promise as a nutraceutical for controlling blood glucose level and thus reducing the risk of type II diabetes development. Type II diabetes is a chronic condition affecting millions of individuals worldwide, which urgently requires natural side effect free therapies as alternatives to currently used drugs. Purification of γ-conglutin opens up a new avenue for high-value products from lupin seeds as nutraceuticals, the market for which is predicted to reach US$ 250 billion by 2018 (Dutta, Mahabir, & Pathak, 2013). Scope and approach Previously, several research groups have reported trials on extracting and purifying proteins from lupin seed. However, most of these methods have focussed on protein isolates as food ingredients. Very few reports have aimed to purify γ-conglutin from the total proteins, but the methods reported are time-consuming and unsuitable for commercial scale production of high purity γ-conglutin due to the involvement of many processing steps for nutraceutical application. Hence there is a need to fully understand all reported γ-conglutin extraction and purification processes in terms of their advantages and limitations, so that an effective scalable purification process for nutraceutical grade γ-conglutin may be designed in the future. Key findings and conclusions This article reviews reported extraction and purification methods for γ-conglutin, to provide a basis for the development of novel purification technique/process for this potentially highly valuable protein.
Use of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) for multivariate association between bioactive compounds and functional properties in foods: A critical perspective Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-12-15 Daniel Granato, Jânio S. Santos, Graziela B. Escher, Bruno L. Ferreira, Rubén M. Maggio
Agro-defense: Biosensors for food from healthy crops and animals Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-12-14 Suresh Neethirajan, K.V. Ragavan, Xuan Weng
Impact of curcumin nanoformulation on its antimicrobial activity Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-12-14 Anderson Clayton da Silva, Priscila Dayane de Freitas Santos, Jéssica Thais do Prado Silva, Fernanda Vitória Leimann, Lívia Bracht, Odinei Hess Gonçalves
Background Curcumin is a yellow-orange, hydrophobic compound extracted from Curcuma longa and widely used by oriental cultures. It displays numerous biological activities and shows antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as yeasts and molds. However, its low water solubility decreases its bioavailability and hinders its industrial use. Curcumin may be modified by micro/nanoencapsulation or nanonization (transformation in nanometric crystals) techniques, to improve its water solubility and dispersibility and potentiate its biological properties. Furthermore, encapsulated curcumin may be applied to foods as a preservative, to increase the product's shelf life. Scope and approach In this work, the recent developments in the antimicrobial activity of micro- and nanoformulations (nano/microparticles, capsules and nanocrystals) of curcumin are comprehensively reviewed. Also, the most common methods applied for antimicrobial determination are listed and discussed, highlighting the conflicting results of inhibitory concentration that may be found by each technique. Key findings and conclusions When evaluating the antimicrobial properties of curcumin, it becomes important to determine the actual gains from encapsulation because these techniques are usually expensive and may lead to the degradation of curcumin during the encapsulation steps. Attention must be paid when choosing the most suitable experimental method to determine the antimicrobial activity of encapsulated curcumin because minimum inhibitory concentration values may vary significantly.
Combining reformulation, active packaging and non-thermal post-packaging decontamination technologies to increase the microbiological quality and safety of cooked ready-to-eat meat products Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-12-07 Claudia N. Horita, Rafaela C. Baptista, Magdevis Y.R. Caturla, Jose Manuel Lorenzo, Francisco J. Barba, Anderson S. Sant’Ana
Background Cooked ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products are subjected to contamination of spoilage microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria and pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. These microorganisms contaminate cooked RTE meat products after the cooking step and may further grow during shelf-life potentially leading to spoilage or foodborne diseases, respectively. In the current context of salt, fat and chemical preservatives reduction in meat products formulations, a combined strategy that considers the development of more robust formulations, active packaging and the use of non-thermal post-packaging decontamination strategies seems required to ensure shelf-stable and safe RTE cooked food products. Scope and approach The main objective of this review was to discuss the aspects related to reformulation, active packaging and the application of non-thermal decontamination technologies at the post-packaging step of cooked RTE meat products, their advantages, limitations and main challenges for their implementation. Key findings and conclusions In general, post-packaging decontamination technologies aim to reduce or inactivate pathogens and spoilage microorganisms present on the surface of ready-to-eat meat products. Low-temperature plasma, high-pressure processing (HPP), pulsed electric fields, pulsed ultraviolet light and ultrasound are promising alternatives in this segment. However, the choice of the most appropriate approach for post-packaging decontamination of cooked ready-to-eat meat products depends on the type of product and the technological objectives. Meat products formulation and packaging material properties should be considered while defining a post-packaging decontamination approach. Although they are advantageous, non-thermal technologies may present certain limitations such as the increase of oxidative reactions over the shelf-life.
Recent advances in understanding the anti-obesity activity of anthocyanins and their biosynthesis in microorganisms Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-12-07 Lianghua Xie, Hongming Su, Chongde Sun, Xiaodong Zheng, Wei Chen
Background Obesity is a serious health problem and the cause for social and economic burdens. Currently, there is still no cure for obesity, while the investment of time and money for one is huge. Recent years, the possibility of developing natural products from fruits and vegetables with bioactivities into anti-disease agents has become a hot spot in research. Thus, anthocyanins are increasingly causing more attention, as they have been proved to show anti-obesity effects. Furthermore, recent advances in biosynthesis of anthocyanins in microorganisms have illustrated a promising way in producing these valuable compounds in large scales. Scope and approach Anthocyanins have great importance in developing a cure for obesity and biosynthesis in microorganisms has high potential in their massive production. This review therefore highlights the recent advances in the anti-obesity effects of anthocyanins and their biosynthesis in microorganisms. We have comprehensively discussed the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-obesity effects of anthocyanins, the physicochemical and physiological properties of anthocyanins, the suitability of anthocyanins in anti-obesity therapies as well as the possibility of biosynthesis in microorganisms in future application. Key findings and conclusions Anthocyanins have shown anti-obesity effects through multiple mechanisms, and biosynthesis of anthocyanins in microorganisms could have extensive applications. Inhibiting lipid absorption, regulating lipid metabolism, increasing energy expenditure, suppressing food intake and regulating gut microbiota are major mechanisms involved. Moreover, anthocyanins are promising candidates in developing anti-obesity therapies. Further studies are required to explore therapeutic uses of anthocyanins in treating obesity and application of biosynthesis of anthocyanins in microorganisms in industries.
Bioactive compounds from marine macroalgae and their hypoglycemic benefits Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-12-06 Chao Zhao, Chengfeng Yang, Bin Liu, Luan Lin, Satyajit D. Sarker, Lutfun Nahar, Hua Yu, Hui Cao, Jianbo Xiao
Diabetes mellitus is a group of chronic metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin action and/or secretion. It is a worldwide problem which has led to illness and premature mortality for many people, and the number of diabetes cases has been rising sharply. Unluckily, many conventional antidiabetic agents either show limited efficacy or serious mechanism-based side effects. Marine macroalgae possess tremendous nutritional value and have been well-known to cure and prevent diabetes. An increased interest in various bioactive natural products from marine macroalgae, as a potential source of effective antidiabetic agents, has been observed in recent years. The effects of macroalgae may delay the development of diabetes and alter the metabolic abnormalities through various mechanisms of actions. This review provides an overview of marine macroalgae used to prevent and manage diabetes and explores the hypoglycemic properties of macroalgae-derived bioactive compounds such as polyphenol, bromophenols, sulfated polysaccharides, fucoidan, fucosterol, phlorotannins, carotenoid pigments and fucoxanthin with their probable mechanisms behind hypoglycemic activity.
Improving freeze tolerance of yeast and dough properties for enhancing frozen dough quality - A review of effective methods Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-12-02 Wenhuang Luo, Da-Wen Sun, Zhiwei Zhu, Qi-Jun Wang
Background Frozen dough technology could effectively extend the shelf life of bread to ensure the freshness, which is widely used and gradually replace the traditional bread production. However, during the production and storage of frozen dough, a series of problems could take place, such as inhibition of yeast activity, damage of the structure of the dough, leading to the deterioration of dough quality. Scope and Approach This review summarizes the factors that affect the final quality of frozen dough, including yeast activity, dough structure and dough properties. Some effective methods for improving freeze tolerance of yeast, dough structure and dough properties are discussed, including addition of various additives, use of genetic engineering technique, optimization of freezing and storage conditions, and employment of novel freezing technology. Key Findings and Conclusions The addition of additives can not only improve the freeze tolerance of yeast but also maintain the rheological and thermophysical properties of dough. Through the modification of gene, freeze tolerance and fermentation ability of yeast can be improved. Optimizing freezing and storage conditions ensures the activity of yeast as well as dough network structure so that freezing damage due to ice crystals can be minimized. In addition, novel freezing technology such as ultrasound-assisted freezing can simultaneously accelerate the freezing process as well as generate fine and uniform ice crystals, thus protecting dough network structure.
Nanotechnology in the food sector and potential applications for the poultry industry Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-11-27 Thea King, Megan J. Osmond-McLeod, Lesley L. Duffy
Background Salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis are among the most frequently reported foodborne diseases worldwide. Commercial chicken meat has been identified as one of the most important food vehicles for Salmonella and Campylobacter infection. Increased poultry consumption has forced producers to explore methods for increasing their production output, while maintaining the affordability and safety of their products. While the forecast benefits of nanotechnology have yet to be fully realised, it has potential application at many points along the food production chain and offers the opportunity to meet these challenges. Scope and Approach The commercial poultry processing environment plays a significant role in reducing foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms from poultry products prior to being supplied to consumers. This review discusses the potential opportunities and challenges for adopting nano-enabled technologies in the poultry industry, with respect to applications in microbiological food safety and quality assurance in the processing plant. Key Findings and Conclusions Several possibilities exist to exploit the benefits of nanotechnologies in the poultry processing plant to enhance the microbiological safety and quality of products. Those applications include the adoption of nano-enabled disinfectants, surface biocides, protective clothing, air and water filters, packaging, biosensors and rapid detection methods for contaminants, and technologies that assure the authenticity and traceability of products. Although the fate and potential toxicity of nanomaterials are not fully understood at this time and scientific risk assessments are required, it is evident that there have been significant advances in the application of novel nanotechnologies in the food industry.
Dietary triterpenes in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: To date Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-11-23 Hui Teng, Sivapragasam Gothai, Palanisamy Arulselvan, Lei Chen
At present, the importance of triterpenes in food and pharmaceutical industries is mainly based on their potential application in health food and medicine, particularly those commonly used in the treatment of diabetes and its complications. The purpose of this study is to review potential dietary triterpene in the treatment of diabetes and to identify the relationship of the structure and its activity of these compounds with their effective mechanisms. We summarized the latest developments of natural dietary triterpene and terpene-rich material, and discussed their underlying molecular mechanisms of anti-diabetic potential. We also suggested a better evaluation of the pharmacological profile of triterpenes and their derivate with a clear-cut choice of possible human pathologies.
Antioxidants: Reviewing the chemistry, food applications, legislation and role as preservatives Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-11-17 Márcio Carocho, Patricia Morales, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira
Background Food antioxidants play a critical role in the food industry, and have become one of the most widespread methods of conserving food. Their cheapness and ease of use have made them a part of virtually all foodstuffs. Although different, all groups of food antioxidants have a same common objective, to conserve food for the longest possible time without altering it, conferring taste or color. Consumer trends have shifted the industry to find natural antioxidants for conservation, and although synthetic additives have been the mainstream, their natural counterparts have been gaining interest. Scope and approach This review focuses of the different antioxidant groups, describing their properties, function and applicability, as well as indexing the relevant legislation in order to be a guide for academia and industry. Key findings and conclusions The wide number of antioxidant additives allowed by the different countries if of synthetic origin, and consist of pure molecules. Although consumers are leaning toward natural additives, this offer is still quite limited despite the permission of rosemary extract within the European Union. There is still much work to be done in order to completely demystify the importance and safety of antioxidants as well as to harmonize legislation worldwide.
Emerging functional nanomaterials for the detection of food contaminants Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-11-14 Jing-Min Liu, Yaxi Hu, Yu-Kun Yang, Huilin Liu, Guo-Zhen Fang, Xiaonan Lu, Shuo Wang
Along with the progress in nanoscience, a variety of advanced functional nanomaterials were constructed to develop effective and innovative analytical techniques for food safety surveillance. In this review, we summarized the advanced analytical methods that have been developed based upon advanced functional nanomaterials, including plasmonic nanomaterial-based colorimetric methods, fluorescent nanomaterial-based fluorescent methods, advanced functional material-based molecular imprinting technology, advanced functional material-based chromatographic methods, plasmonic nanomaterial-based surface enhanced Raman scattering technology, and advanced functional material-based electrochemical methods. This review provides a progressive roadmap for further development of portable, rapid, and in situ detection technology to promote food safety surveillance from bench to market and eventually reduce the gap between research in the laboratory and industrial applications.
Q fever and prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in milk Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-11-14 Andreana Pexara, Nikolaos Solomakos, Alexander Govaris
Background Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. In humans, although it has been predominantly considered an occupational hazard, in the last decades, Q fever outbreaks have also been reported in various countries, indicating its importance as an emerging public health threat. Domestic ruminants are considered as the most important sources of human infection. In fact, both symptomatic and asymptomatic infected ruminants shed the bacterium into the environment with birth products, but also in urine, faeces, vaginal mucus and milk. Q fever in humans is mainly asymptomatic, but it also may manifest itself as an acute or chronic disease with long-term sequelae. Inhalation of infectious aerosols usually causes the disease in humans, but the presence of C. burnetii in raw milk raises concern over the role of milk as a source of infection. Scope and approach In this review data on Q fever in humans are summarized and the possible transmission of C. burnetii to humans by consumption of unpasteurized milk is discussed. In addition, an overview of the published data on the prevalence studies of C. burnetii in raw milk in various countries is provided. Key findings and conclusions Recent surveys conducted in many countries have revealed that the prevalence of C. burnetii in raw milk can vary over a wide range from 0% to as high as 95%. Based on recent survey data, the risk of C. burnetii infection by consuming unpasteurized milk and raw milk products cannot be considered negligible.
Pecan nuts: A review of reported bioactivities and health effects Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-11-07 Atanas G. Atanosov, Shefali M. Sabharanjak, Gokhan Zengin, Adriano Mollica, Agnieszka Szostak, Mario Simirgiotis, Łukasz Huminiecki, Olaf K. Horbanczuk, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Andrei Mocan
Background Food choices represent a highly significant approach to combat human obesity. Dietary intake of lipids, especially polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, is gaining popularity in the effort to reduce or eliminate the occurrence of obesity. Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) nuts are an abundant source of these dietary fatty acids. Moreover, they are a rich source of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenol with a variety of health-beneficial properties. Scope and Approach In this review, we summarize the literature reports examining physiological effects associated with pecan nuts consumption and described effects of their bioactive constituents. Key Findings and Conclusions The growing body of evidence suggests including pecan nuts into obesity management strategies. The consumption of pecan nuts can mitigate inflammation by reducing the extent of the synthesis of inflammatory mediator molecules. Pecan nuts can also counteract the pro-inflammatory effects of a diet rich in commonly overconsumed saturated fatty acids, characteristic of the Western diet. Additionally, consumption of pecans and other nuts has been linked to reduced risk of physiological parameters associated with cardiovascular disease or metabolic disorders. Diets enriched with tree nuts and peanuts can modulate the blood level of cholesterol, adiposity, and insulin resistance. Almonds and walnuts have been so far the most studied nuts, and studies with them have led to a greater understanding of the protective effects of diverse tree nuts on human physiology. In this review, we summarize the available data indicating that pecan nuts exert similar health-promoting benefits.
Rational and practical aspects of Halal and Tayyib in the context of food safety Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-11-03 Jawad Alzeer, Ulrike Rieder, Khaled Abou Hadeed
Background Food plays a very important role in our daily life and most foods are based on regional, cultural and religious influences. Halal (permissible) food is emerging as one of the most important issue in food industries. Rational understanding of Halal, Tayyib (pure) and Khabith (impure) and their relationship with food safety is essential in determining Halal food status. Scope and approach Initially Halal food was thought to be free from alcohol and pork. Later on Tayyib was strongly introduced into Halal food production and led to include food safety requirements as part of Halal food certificates. However, the practical description of Tayyib and the rational merging with Halal have not been well clarified yet. In this context, we would like to give a practical overview of Halal, Tayyib and Khabith concepts, their values and relationship to food safety. Key findings and conclusion The rational understanding of Halal, Tayyib and Khabith in the context of food safety is essential. Considering Halal as a subject and Tayyib as a process, facilitates Halal certification procedure. The main objective of Tayyib is to produce clean and pure, food and to create a comfortable feeling as a main goal, which can be achieved if food is produced according to Sharia (Islamic principles). Halal labelled food should reflect the concept of Halal and Tayyib, particularly the identification of all ingredients involved in the production, determination of Halal and toxicity status, and removal of repulsive, Najis (ritually unclean) and toxic ingredients.
A viewpoint on the gastrointestinal fate of cellulose nanocrystals Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-11-01 Roya Koshani, Ashkan Madadlou
Background Cellulose nanocrystalline (CNC) particles possess unique functional properties such as vastly modifiable surface, considerable mechanical strength and acid resistance, as well as, high aspect ratio. CNCs have received great attention for application in diverse fields of technology including (composite) hydrogels fabrication for the gastric protection and enteral delivery of drugs and nutraceuticals. Scope and approach The orogastrointestinal digestibility and absorbability of the orally administered CNCs is overviewed in the current article. At first, some surface charge-related characteristics of acid-isolated CNCs are communicated. Then, the biocompatibility and biodegradability of CNCs and CNC-reinforced hydrogels are reviewed, followed by presenting credible digestion and absorption scenarios. Finally, the post-absorption metabolism of CNCs is briefly debated. Key findings and conclusions Bacterial cellulose shows good biocompatibility and hemocompatibility. CNC oxidation provides biologically beneficial impacts; for instance, the TEMPO- and periodate-oxidized CNCs have been shown to regulate some blood metabolic variables and improve the degradability in simulated human blood plasma, respectively. Spherical and carboxyl-bearing cellulose nanoparticles can be isolated through ammonium persulfate digestion. The sphericity of particles results in faster cellular uptake. Negatively-charged CNCs are non-mucoadhesive and thus upon ingestion can penetrate into the buccal and intestinal mucosa. One may augment the absorption of CNCs by targeted receptor-mediated endocytosis. It was postulated that sodium bicarbonate secretion into the duodenum can alter CNCs surface chemistry and influence CNC interaction with gut microbiota.
Recommendations for successful substantiation of new health claims in the European Union Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-10-31 Igor Pravst, Anita Kušar, Katja Žmitek, Krista Miklavec, Živa Lavriša, Liisa Lähteenmäki, Viktorija Kulikovskaja, Rosalind N. Malcolm, Charo Hodgkins, Monique M. Raats,
Background While functional foods offer promise for public health and innovation in the food industry, the efficiency of such foods should be assured to protect consumers from misleading claims. Globally, many countries regulate the communication of the health effects of such foods to final consumers. Scope and approach In the European Union (EU), the use of health claims was harmonized in 2006. All claims need to be scientifically assessed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and pre-approved. Implementing the regulation has involved a steep learning curve for stakeholders, resulting in many health claims being rejected. The EU-funded REDICLAIM project used existing guidance documents, analyses of Scientific Opinions on new health claim applications, and a series of interviews with experts involved in such applications to identify key points in the process of authorizing new health claims. Key findings and conclusions Recommendations for the successful substantiation of new health claims in the EU were prepared. The substantiation of health claims is primarily based on human efficacy studies, and greater resources are required to authorize more innovative claims. The reported recommendations should be seen as a starting point for researchers in the area of nutrition and food technology, and for those dealing with functional foods, including the food industry.
Recent advances in the microencapsulation of omega-3 oil and probiotic bacteria through complex coacervation: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-10-31 Divya Eratte, Kim Dowling, Colin J. Barrow, Benu Adhikari
Background Functional foods are a fastest growing sector of the food industry. The development of functional foods comprising omega-3 fatty acids and probiotic bacteria, through complex coacervation process is an emerging area of research and product development. Scope and approach We reviewed relevant literature concerning the use of complex coacervation in microencapsulation, focusing primarily on the inclusion of probiotic bacteria and omega-3 oils into a single delivery format. This review covers advantages and disadvantages of the complex coacervation process to microencapsulate bioactive ingredients, viability of probiotic bacteria and oxidative stability of omega-3 oil during the complex coacervation process, the bioaccessibility of omega-3 oil and probiotic bacteria during simulated gastrointestinal conditions and in-vivo testings. Key findings and conclusions The review describes the advantages of co-encapsulation using complex coacervation followed by spray drying. It also describes the technological hurdles that need to be resolved for further development of industrial applications of co-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria and omega-3 lipids. The co-encapsulation concept has been widely used in pharmaceutical delivery systems, but is a relatively new concept in food ingredient stabilisation and delivery. There is a commercial need of co-encapsulation of multiple bioactive ingredients within a single microcapsules, due to decreased cost and enhanced product quality. Complex coacervation has been shown to be a useful method for the co-encapsulation of multiple unstable bioactive ingredients. Although in-vitro evaluation deliver useful bioavailability information, additional in-vivo and clinical trials are needed to determine the efficacy of bioactive release, particularly for microcapsules containing multiple bioactive ingredients.
Ferulic Acid – An Insight Into Its Current Research and Future Prospects Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2010-11-13 Somsuvra B. Ghatak, Shital J. Panchal
Ferulic acid (FA) is an ubiquitous phenolic plant constituent that exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects against cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, on account of its potent antioxidant capacity. The present review summarizes the most recent literature on FA including our current knowledge of its pharmacological actions, pre-clinical and clinical studies, reported mechanisms of actions and pharmacokinetic profile. Simultaneously, the latest research updates as well as avenues for further research are also elucidated pertaining to the positive effects of this widespread phenolic compound for a better understanding of its potential applications in health and disease that may subsequently help in the development and design of suitable dietary recommendations.
Understanding differences in protein fractionation from conventional crops, and herbaceous and aquatic biomass - Consequences for industrial use Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-12-02 Angelica Tamayo Tenorio, Konstantina E. Kyriakopoulou, Edgar Suarez-Garcia, Corjan van den Berg, Atze Jan van der Goot
Background Alternative protein sources are constantly explored to secure the future food and protein demand. Among these sources, biomasses originating from algae, seaweed or leaves receive lots of attention. However, when the yields and purities of protein extracted from these sources are compared to the corresponding data for protein crops such as soy, lupine and pulses, much lower yields are reported for alternative biomasses. Scope and approach In this overview paper, we analyse whether this difference is due to lack of scientific insight and technology or that more fundamental reasons are behind the variations in the extraction behaviour. For this purpose, we prepared a description of herbaceous and aquatic biomasses (denoted as green biomass/sources) and their protein extraction practices, final products, and common trends and challenges. The discussion continues with a general comparison to protein crops and the implications for future research. Key findings and conclusions Overviewing the state of the art, we tend to conclude that physiological and biochemical factors hinder efficient fractionation of green sources. Such factors include cell architecture and high interconnection between cell components; and biochemical differences, in particular the type of proteins present. These fundamental differences imply that green sources should be explored in a different manner, with higher emphasis on the interesting functional properties of enriched fractions and less on their purity. This approach is further encouraged by highlighting examples where the intricate structures found in green biomass can give rise to positive effects (e.g. health, food structure) when integrally applied in food products.
Non-competitive immunoassay for low-molecular-weight contaminant detection in food, feed and agricultural products: A mini-review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-11-23 Aiping Liu, Laura Anfossi, Li Shen, Cheng Li, Xiaohong Wang
Background Immunoassays have gained considerable attention in safety assurance for food, feed and agricultural products. Generally, immunoassays are presented either in a competitive or non-competitive, sandwich-type format, and the former is extensively employed for low-molecular-weight contaminants, which usually bear one accessible epitope. Theoretically, non-competitive, sandwich-type immunoassays have higher sensitivity, precision and linearity. However, the analyte to be measured in such a format must be large enough to have at least two epitopes to be captured. It is not feasible to detect low-molecular-weight contaminants through conventional non-competitive sandwich-type immunoassay. Consequently, there is a trend to develop new types of sensitive non-competitive immunoassays for low-molecular-weight contaminants. Scope and approach This article reviews the progress in non-competitive immunoassays for low molecular weight contaminants in food, feed and agricultural products, including the principles, applications and suggested perspectives for this field. Key findings and conclusions Anti-metatype antibody-based immunoassays are the most promising method, but dissociation of the antibody-hapten complex might be a challenge, and therefore more in-depth research should be focused on preparation of new formats of the antibody-hapten complex. Meanwhile, strategies for direct non-competitive detection or aimed at the simultaneous detection of different targets would be especially desirable besides focusing on improving the sensitivity and specificity of the detection.
Design of experiments and regression modelling in food flavour and sensory analysis: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-11-23 Peigen Yu, Mei Yin Low, Weibiao Zhou
Background Food sensory science and flavour analysis are key processes in new product development, and is essential in understanding consumers by bridging the gap between product characteristics and consumer perception and acceptance. Scope and approach This article provides a critical review of computer-based approaches to flavour and sensory analysis, including optimal design approaches to sensory experimental designs, and incorporation of nonlinear modelling methods such as artificial neural network into the analysis of results. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods, as well as their statistical background will be discussed. The incorporation of these statistical and mathematical methods into existing analytical processes is briefly covered, along with an overview of available computer software packages. Key findings and conclusions Food flavour and sensory analysis is an information gathering process, and can be divided into two main stages: (1) the design of the experiment; (2) analyses and interpretation of results. The choice of an analytical procedure in sensory and flavour science is crucial in obtaining information correlating food products and consumers. Traditionally, sensory analysis is based on classical experimental designs and linear multivariate analysis techniques. Computer algorithm-based methods such as optimal designs in the design of experiments, and artificial neural network as a non-linear regression method may be used in conjunction with current methods, or adopted to overcome potential shortfalls of existing methods.
A review of extraction, analytical and advanced methods for determination of pesticides in environment and foodstuffs Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-11-23 Anwar Samsidar, Shafiquzzaman Siddiquee, Sharifudin Md Shaarani
Pesticides are widely applied to prevent unwanted pests from attacking crops and livestock which led to their access into the environment. Overuses of pesticides in environment are presence of pesticide residues and their metabolites that are causing serious detrimental effects on human health and all other living organisms. Several severe diseases (Cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, birth defects, infertility) and more damages of human health are associated with the exposure of pesticides. The maximum residue limits for pesticides have been regulated by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and European Union to protect human health. Thus, monitoring these compounds is extremely important to ensure that only permitted levels of pesticide are consumed. To date, several techniques have been developed for pesticide detection, from conventional analytical to advanced detection techniques. The conventional analytical methods are gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with various detectors involved a sample preparation step prior to further analysis. Advanced detection methods refer to the sensors development such as electrochemical, optical, piezoelectric and molecular imprinted polymer. In this review, we summarized and explained the available analytical and advanced methods for determination of pesticides compound in environment and foodstuffs. Also, pesticides classification and its toxicity, and available extraction methods are briefly discussed.
Pollen and bee bread as new health-oriented products: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-11-20 Marek Kieliszek, Kamil Piwowarek, Anna M. Kot, Stanisław Błażejak, Anna Chlebowska-Śmigiel, Iwona Wolska
Background An interest in substances of natural origin has been a subject that is increasing constantly-both those known for many years and recently discovered are of great interest to the researchers. This interest also applies to bee products because of their extensive nutritional and therapeutic properties; these products are known and used for several thousand years, but only recently, they became the subject of sparse documented scientific research. With the passing of time, it is difficult to determine what will be the wishes and requirements of the future consumers, what should be introduced to new technologies to ensure the demand for new products. Scope and approach Recently, there has been an increasing demand for natural products, particularly the bee products. Bee bread and pollen, due to their nutritional and medicinal properties, are used for apitherapeutic purposes. These include about 200 different substances, such as free amino acids and vitamins. Special attention should be attributed to unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic, which are found in pollen and bee bread. Key finding and conclusion The fashion for a healthy lifestyle leads to a situation where a number of people start taking care of their health. They search for the highest quality products, preferably with health benefits, rich in vitamins, valuable bioelements, and nutrients. Therefore, bee bread that is rich in beneficial ingredients has proved to fulfill these expectations. It constitutes a wholesome, biologically active nutrient, which can be used in the food industry.
Recent advances in emulsion-based delivery approaches for curcumin: From encapsulation to bioaccessibility Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-11-16 Andrea Araiza-Calahorra, Mahmood Akhtar, Anwesha Sarkar
Background Curcumin has been widely acknowledged for its health-promoting effects. However, its application is often limited by its poor water solubility and biochemical/structural degradation during physiological transit that restricts its bioavailability. Emulsion based approaches have attracted the most research attention to encapsulate curcumin and improve its stability, bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Scope and approach This review summarizes the recent advances in application of different oil-in-water emulsion-based approaches, such as, conventional emulsions (surfactants-, protein- and protein-polysaccharide-stabilized emulsions), nanoemulsions, and Pickering emulsions that have been specifically used to deliver curcumin. Particular emphasis is given to factors affecting curcumin solubility, change in crystalline structure of curcumin upon dispersion and encapsulation efficiency. Changes in the droplet size and emulsion stability during in vitro oral-to-gastrointestinal digestion are discussed, with clear focus on the bioaccessibility of the encapsulated curcumin. Key findings and conclusions Key factors that influence curcumin delivery include emulsion droplet size, oil composition, volume fraction, dispersion conditions of curcumin in the oil phase and the type of interfacial materials. Nanoemulsions have been the preferred choice for delivery of curcumin up to now. Although scarce in literature, emulsions stabilized by edible Pickering particles as shown by recent evidence are effective in protecting curcumin in an in vitro gastrointestinal setting due to their high coalescence stability. Further studies with emulsions stabilized by food-grade particles and accurate tracking of the physiological fate (in vitro to human trials) of different emulsion-based delivery vehicles are essential for rational designing of curcumin-rich functional foods with high bioaccessibility.
A review of novel physical and chemical decontamination technologies for aflatoxin in food Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-11-14 S.K. Pankaj, Hu Shi, Kevin M. Keener
Background Conventional strategies for mycotoxin reduction includes both prevention and decontamination strategies. Decontamination of aflatoxin has been a continuing challenge for the food industry. Novel processing methods are continuously explored to achieve complete aflatoxin degradation in food products. Scope and approach The present review provides an update on recent research for aflatoxin decontamination by conventional methods including thermal processing and chemical treatments. Novel aflatoxin decontamination technologies like microwave heating, gamma and electron beam irradiation, ultraviolet and pulsed light, electrolyzed water and cold plasma are reviewed in detail. This review provides a brief introduction, decontamination mechanism, degradation efficiency, advantages and limitations of these novel technologies. Key findings and conclusion Although conventional thermal technologies are known to cause aflatoxin degradation, they are not adequate for complete aflatoxin degradation in food products. Novel technologies like pulsed light, electrolyzed water and cold plasma have shown complete degradation of aflatoxin on different substrates. However, application on food products need further studies along with the degradant toxicology and its interaction with food components. Novel processing technologies shows significant potential for future applications in decontaminating aflatoxin in the food industry.
Biotechnological production of zeaxanthin by microorganisms Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-11-14 Yating Zhang, Zhen Liu, Jianan Sun, Changhu Xue, Xiangzhao Mao
Background Zeaxanthin is a natural xanthophyll carotenoid that is widely produced by plants, algae and microorganisms and plays a critical role in the prevention of age-related eye diseases, such as macular degeneration and cataracts. Zeaxanthin is also used in the food, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries because of its strong antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. To date, zeaxanthin has been primarily produced by extraction from natural resources, especially plants, which is costly and environmentally unfriendly. The biosynthesis of zeaxanthin by microorganisms has been reported in lots of works to provide another potential route for zeaxanthin production. Scope and approach In this review, we discuss the zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathway, naturally occurring zeaxanthin-accumulating microorganisms containing bacteria and microalgae, the optimization of fermentation conditions using these microorganisms, and zeaxanthin production using microbial cells factory constructed by metabolic engineering. The different metabolic engineering strategies and the zeaxanthin-accumulating level of the reviewed wild and engineered microorganisms are also considered. Furthermore, this work presents perspectives concerning the microbial production of zeaxanthin, especially the trends to construct the metabolically engineered microorganisms for zeaxanthin production. Key findings and conclusions To date, all the reported wild zeaxanthin-accumulating microorganisms belong to either bacteria or microalgae, while most of the reported engineering microorganisms for zeaxanthin production are Escherichia coli or yeast. A feasible strategy for zeaxanthin production is the use of metabolic engineering to construct a zeaxanthin-accumulating microbial cells factories followed by the optimization of fermentation with the engineered strain. Besides the simple overexpression of the biosynthesizing genes, the dynamic regulation of the constructed pathway has also been used for zeaxanthin production by metabolic engineering. Construction of better microbial cells factories which produce more zeaxanthin will profit from the breakthrough of the following fields: Introduction of higher plant zeaxanthin biosynthesizing genes into microorganisms; Characterization of novel zeaxanthin pathway genes from the wild microorganisms producing high level of zeaxanthin; Deep investigation of the farnesyl diphosphate formation pathway; Construction of microbial host with weak antioxidative capacity.
Impact of consumption and cooking manners of vegetable oils on cardiovascular diseases- A critical review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 Kumar Ganesan, Kumeshini Sukalingam, Baojun Xu
Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one leading disease which causes morbidity and mortality worldwide. The rapid consumption of dietary vegetable oils is highly linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. The practice of using repeatedly heated oil is common among the populations due to its cost-effectiveness. Consumption of these oils generates free radicals that may cause potentially harmful and detrimental effect on CVS through the accumulation of TC, TG causing an increase in blood pressure, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular inflammation. It eventually leads to atherosclerotic plaque in the arteries. Scope and Approach The present review aims to provide comprehensive information on twelve fresh as well as repeatedly heated vegetable oils to explore their beneficial and harmful effects. This is to provide an insight and awareness to the public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health. Key findings and conclusion Remarkable studies demonstrated that the health beneficial effects of vegetable oils have been often attributed to their antioxidant properties and abilities to increase cellular antioxidant defense system and thereby scavenge free radicals, inhibit lipid peroxidation, augment anti-inflammatory potential, and further protect the CVS from various adverse effects. However, the repeatedly heated vegetable oils increase the effect of lipid peroxidation and aggravate the development of CVD. In conclusion, it is noted that we should consume the nutritionally rich fresh vegetable oil and discourage the use of repeatedly heated oil in our daily diet to reduce the risk of CVD.
The dry chain: Reducing postharvest losses and improving food safety in humid climates Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 Kent J. Bradford, Peetambar Dahal, Johan Van Asbrouck, Keshavulu Kunusoth, Pedro Bello, James Thompson, Felicia Wu
Background Even as increasing populations put pressure on food supplies, about one-third of the total food produced for human consumption is wasted, with the majority of loss in developing countries occurring between harvest and the consumer. Controlling product dryness is the most critical factor for maintaining quality in stored non-perishable foods. The high relative humidity prevalent in humid climates elevates the moisture content of dried commodities stored in porous woven bags, enabling fungal and insect infestations. Mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxin) produced by fungi in insufficiently dried food commodities affect 4.5 billion people worldwide. Scope and approach We introduce the term “dry chain” to describe initial dehydration of durable commodities to levels preventing fungal growth followed by storage in moisture-proof containers. This is analogous to the “cold chain” in which continuous refrigeration is used to preserve quality in the fresh produce industry. However, in the case of the dry chain, no further equipment or energy input is required to maintain product quality after initial drying as long as the integrity of the storage container is preserved. In some locations/seasons, only packaging is required to implement a “climate smart” dry chain, while in humid conditions, additional drying is required and desiccant-based drying methods have unique advantages. Key findings and conclusions We propose both climate-based and drying-based approaches to implement the dry chain to minimize mycotoxin accumulation and insect infestations in dry products, reduce food loss, improve food quality, safety and security, and protect public health.
Value added products from fermentation of sugars derived from agro-food residues Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-10-31 Ana Belen Diaz, Ana Blandino, Ildefonso Caro
Background Globally, significant amounts of agro-food residues are generated, most of which are burned as waste disposal. Given the abundance of this biomass, it can be used as raw material for the production of biofuels and valuable chemicals through biochemical conversion. Research in this field has gained importance given concerns regarding limitation of fossil resources, environmental problems and sustainability and preference towards natural, biodegradable and environmentally friendly products. Furthermore, the accessibility of alternative substrate sources for fermentative production of these high-value products has been one of the primary goals of industrial biotechnology research in the past two decades. Scope and approach The present review is focused in the production of high value products through microbial fermentation of sugars from agro-food residues. Research in this field is interesting due to concerns regarding limitation of fossil resources. On the one hand, for the production of these bioproducts it is important the accessibility of alternative substrate and, on the other hand, the selection of the right microorganism to obtain the desired product. For this reason, the novelty of the present work is that details all different bioproducts which can be obtained through fermentation of sugars derived from agro-food residues, describing raw materials, pretreatments, mode of operation, conditions and microorganisms used, together with the production yields. Key findings and conclusions The use of renewable and environmentally sustainable agro-food residues as raw material for the production of bio-based products has gained interest recently. For this purpose, the application of a suitable pretreatment to improve biomass digestibility and the optimization of biomass hydrolysis for the production of fermentable sugars is crucial to make bio-based products competitive with petroleum-based ones. The combination of pretreatments together with the employment of microorganisms tolerant to inhibitors generated during the pretreatment or able to ferment pentose sugars in hydrolysates have turned out to be interesting approaches. Regarding hydrolysis and fermentation, SHF and SSF are the predominant strategies, although CBP and SSCF have gained recognition recently. The final bioproduct cost depends on the productivity, yield per quantity of substrate, cost of raw material and the recovery method. In this way, for the commercialization of these bioproducts, some technical challenges are still needed, including the reduction of the pretreatments and enzymes costs, the design of strains with tailored capabilities, downstream processes optimization, waste treatment, etc.
Micro- and nano-scaled materials for strategy-based applications in innovative livestock products: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-10-31 Karna Ramachandraiah, Mi-Jung Choi, Geun-Pyo Hong
Background With the advent of new technologies and the emphasis on innovation, novel engineered particles are being developed that possess superior functional properties, consumer acceptance and cost effectiveness. The performance of particulate systems in animal derived foods is dependent on several factors including particle size, shape, chemical and structural properties. Scope and approach Micro- and nano-sized materials for the three major strategic applications in animal derived foods are discussed. Although this review describes a few examples of dairy products such as milk and cheese, it primarily emphasizes meat, poultry, fish and eggs. Key findings and conclusions While whole grains with large particle sizes influence gizzard growth and function, superfine powders of yeast cell wall and oolong tea have improved immune function and meat quality along with reductions in fat. As a part of a product reformulation strategy to reduce sodium, salt-loaded chitin nanofibers incorporated in seafood have resulted in enhanced saltiness. To reduce allergies associated with eggs, microparticulation of protein has been attempted but without any success. However, micro-sizing fish powder has enhanced transglutaminase (TGase) activity in surimi. In terms of storage strategy, ZnO nanoparticles loaded onto carboxymethyl cellulose film have improved color stability and water holding capacity (WHC) of pork. Other potential applications include reutilization of wastes in biodiesel production and nanoquantum dot-based lighting to improve the showcasing of meat. For the successful application of particle technologies in animal derived foods, knowledge gaps related to the toxicity of nanomaterials, commercialization challenges and negative public perception need to be addressed.
Beverage dealcoholization processes: Past, present, and future Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-10-31 Dave Mangindaan, K. Khoiruddin, I.G. Wenten
Background It is clearly observed that there is a highly significant increase on the demand of non-alcoholic beverages (such as beer and wine) for the last few years. However, there is a huge issue faced by the market, where most of the available non-alcoholic beverages are not organoleptically accepted, as they exhibit lack of flavor and aroma, and also different taste compared to the regular brews. Therefore, it is imperative to have appropriate processes or methods to selectively remove ethanol while retaining the volatile components that are related with flavor and aroma of original brew. Scope and Approach To present a clear background about the dealcoholization and its importance, this paper will bring a brief discussion on the nutrient and health aspects related to the beer and wine. Furthermore, some conventional approaches for dealcoholization in the past will be discussed, mainly on the thermal-based processes. Moreover, the state of the art and the present status of the beverage dealcoholization processes will be discussed in detail, focusing on the approaches utilizing membranes along with some miscellaneous dealcoholization methods. In addition, the dealcoholization employing the membrane processes is the spotlight for the future perspective and development. Key Findings and Conclusions The membrane processes demonstrate promising results for beverage dealcoholizations while preserving the sensorial properties. However, there is still a lot effort to be placed on the research for the development of the prospective separation process that may produce brews that are both healthy (dealcoholized) and delicious.
A review of pectin methylesterase inactivation in citrus juice during pasteurization Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-10-26 Sara Aghajanzadeh, Aman Mohammad Ziaiifar
Background Pectin, naturally found in citrus, plays a key role in the quality of the obtained juices. Pectin methylesterase enzyme (PME) influences the cloud stability, viscosity, color, mouth feeling and flavor of the juices by de-esterification of pectin. Iinactivation of PME is introduced as a pasteurization index in citrus juices, due to its higher thermal resistance than the spoilage microorganisms. Scope and approach Inactivation of PME using different thermal (conventional, microwave and ohmic heating) and non-thermal (pulsed electric field, high pressure processing and high pressure carbon dioxide) processes is important in juice production. The aim of this study was to review the effect of these processing methods on the PME inactivation in different citrus juices. Key finding and conclusion Using non-thermal methods in combination with moderate thermal methods can be more effective in PME inactivation with minimum loss in citrus juice quality.
Whey and soy protein-based hydrogels and nano-hydrogels as bioactive delivery systems Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-10-25 Arash Abaee, Mehdi Mohammadian, Seid Mahdi Jafari
Is there a relationship between intestinal microbiota, dietary compounds, and obesity? Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-10-23 Joanna Kałużna-Czaplińska, Paulina Gątarek, Max Stanley Chartrand, Maryam Dadar, Geir Bjørklund
Background The links between gut microbiota and obesity are complex and multidirectional. A large number of studies have demonstrated the provoking effect of microbiota as the main environmental factor on the metabolic, and physiology status of its human host, as well as energy harvest. Dietary compounds are a source of energy and metabolites for gut bacteria. Dietary compounds also change the composition of gut microbiota and can influence the production of their metabolites. Impact of intestinal microbiota composition and metabolic interaction, including interaction with dietary components are the key issue in human health and obesity. Scope and approach Gut microecology could help fulfill the gap between obesity and energy intake throughout altering the processing of nutrients and energy storage in the body, revealing diet-related and age-related changes in the human intestinal microbiome and their consequences. Therefore, it is of critical importance in the prevention of obesity to understand how different types of food can influence gut mucosal integrity. Key findings and conclusions The association between gut microbiota and host metabolism could help explain promising therapeutic approaches throughout gut microbiota regulation in preventing and treating obesity.
UV-irradiated mushrooms as a source of vitamin D2: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-10-20 Oludemi Taofiq, Ângela Fernandes, Lillian Barros, Maria Filomena Barreiro, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira
Background The deficiency of vitamin D has been widely reported all over the world and linked to several chronic diseases. Mushrooms are valuable nutritional foods with recognized bioactive properties, leading the application of UV irradiation to the production of significant amounts of vitamin D2. In this context, cultivated species such as Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus have been widely studied. Scope and approach However, there is still gap considering the knowledge of the most appropriate irradiation procedures (dose, intensity, distance between source and sample, exposure time) in order to maximize the content of vitamin D2 in the mushrooms. This strategy will enable vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms to be commercially available at affordable costs. Considering the interest and potential of application, this review mentioned some of the physiological roles and sources of vitamin D, while the major focus was on mushroom's UV irradiation as a source of vitamin D2. Also, topics related to its bioavailability and clinical studies evidencing the health benefits reported so far were also addressed. Key findings and conclusions UV-irradiated mushrooms present a high rate of conversion from ergosterol to vitamin D2 at short treatment time and have the potential to increase serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Even though irradiated mushrooms exhibit some promising advantages, there is still a huge knowledge gap to allow for extraction, separation, recovery and purification of vitamin D2 from irradiated mushroom at minimal process cost and high purity percentage to be utilized as bio-based ingredient to reduce vitamin D deficiency as well as present other health promoting benefits.
Electrospinning: A novel nano-encapsulation approach for bioactive compounds Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-10-20 Peng Wen, Min-Hua Zong, Robert J. Linhardt, Kun Feng, Hong Wu
Background Bioactive compounds have gained increasing attention for their health benefits. However, the instability of bioactive compounds during food processing and storage, and low bioavailability or chemical instability when exposed to upper gastrointestinal tract conditions significantly compromised the envisioned benefits, thus limiting their applications. Electrospinning has been recognized as a promising method to encapsulate bioactive compounds since it does not involve any severe conditions of temperature, pressure, or harsh chemicals. Therefore, the nanofibers produced by electrospinning have attracted particular attention in food industry due to the potential as vehicle for the encapsulation and controlled delivery or release of bioactive compounds. Scope and approach Electrospinning is a novel delivery approach for bioactive compounds, it opens a new horizon in food technology with the possibility of commercialization in the near future. This paper presents a brief summary of electrospinning, and its application in encapsulation different types of bioactive compounds by biopolymer matrixes are also highlighted. Further, the existing limitations and scope for future research are discussed. Key findings Recently, considerable studies have been carried out in encapsulation of bioactive compounds using electrospinning. The obtained nanofilm could enhance stability, encapsulation efficiency and oral bioavailability of bioactive compounds, as well as achieve targeted delivery and controlled release, thus facilitating the development of functional foods.
Experimental and numerical investigation of the performance of retail refrigerated display cabinets Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-10-19 Nattawut Chaomuang, Denis Flick, Onrawee Laguerre
Background Refrigerated display cabinets are widely used to preserve chilled and frozen food products in retail food stores. Storage temperatures must be efficiently controlled to ensure that the product temperature is maintained below the recommended value. Numerous surveys have demonstrated that refrigerated display cabinets, seem to be a weak link in the food cold chain, and household practices also constitute weak links. A great deal of effort has been devoted to the investigation and improvement of the performance of cabinets in terms of both temperature homogeneity and energy efficiency. Scope and approach In this review article, an investigation of refrigerated display cabinet performance, from basic experimental field and laboratory studies to advanced numerical simulation, is presented. Field investigation enables knowledge of real-use conditions to be acquired and identifies problems encountered during food storage. However, such investigation is usually costly and time-consuming. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach is becoming a promising alternative used to study the influence of various design parameters and operating conditions on the cabinet performance. Key findings and conclusions Ambient air infiltration across air curtains is the most significant factor indicating the performance of open display cabinets. This issue is still problematic in many research and development contexts. The application of closed doors becomes an alternative solution which has been proven that it can provide several advantages. As little research involving this type of refrigeration equipment is available, thus further investigation is required in order to obtain additional data.
Modelling the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes by high hydrostatic pressure processing in foods: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-10-16 Arícia Possas, Fernando Pérez-Rodríguez, Antonio Valero, Rosa Maria García-Gimeno
BackgroundThe application of High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) processing technology as a non-thermal pasteurization method has been extensively investigated over the last two decades. Listeria monocytogenes is a relevant target for food safety due to its ability to grow and/or survive in a wide range of environmental conditions and be present at hazardous levels in food commodities where lethal treatments have not been carried out, such as some ready-to-eat foods (RTE).Scope and ApproachThis review presents a compilation of modelling studies describing pressure-induced inactivation of L. monocytogenes in foods. The influence of a series of factors, including technological parameters, food matrix composition and the physiological state of bacterial cells on inactivation levels is also discussed, as it should be clearly understood and evaluated in order to set and optimize HHP processing conditions.Key findings and conclusionsThe use of mathematical models to predict the inactivation and probability of recovery of L. monocytogenes in foods during HHP application and subsequent storage can help food processors and managers to comply with the current microbiological regulations established for RTE foods, as well as optimize processing conditions.
Antioxidant properties of the flavonoid fisetin: An updated review of in vivo and in vitro studies Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-10-12 Alireza Farsad Naeimi, Mohammad Alizadeh
Background The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by oxidative damage of the cellular ingredients has a substantial role in the development of many diseases, such as cancer. Fisetin (3, 3′, 4′, 7 –tetrahydroxyflavone) is a less familiar but widely distributed plant-based flavonoid in foods. Recently, several biological activities of fisetin have been identified including neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant activity of fisetin as a flavonoid has been shown in several studies, but limited comprehensive data is available on the mechanistic aspects of its antioxidant activity. Scope and approach This paper reviewed the reports regarding intracellular antioxidant effects of fisetin in different settings, with a comparative view to the other structurally related flavonoids. Additionally, we have summarized the suggested mechanisms of action for fisetin considering its possible interactions with signaling pathways. Some directions for future studies, reinforcing the antioxidant capacity of the human body against oxidative stress and related disorders are identified. Key findings and conclusions Fisetin, when transmitted through cellular membranes, can interact with diverse redox-related signaling pathways. These pathways are mainly NF-κB, Nrf2, MAPK, and PI3K/Akt, so fisetin exerts its effective antioxidant activity through multiple mechanisms such as reinforcing enzymatic and non-enzymatic intracellular antioxidants, chelating transition metal ions and acting as a substrate for oxidoreductase activity. Therefore, the antioxidant effects of fisetin include more than just free radical scavenging. In the future, other cellular pathways that are also possibly involved should be explored and conducting well-designed clinical trials using low-doses of fisetin should be considered.
The development of seaweed-derived bioactive compounds for use as prebiotics and nutraceuticals using enzyme technologies Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-10-12 Suvimol Charoensiddhi, Michael A. Conlon, Christopher M.M. Franco, Wei Zhang
Background Seaweeds are a large and diverse group of photosynthetic macro-algae found across the world's oceans. There is a growing recognition that they are important sources of bioactive compounds with a variety of biological activities that could potentially contribute to functional food and nutraceutical industries. Scope and approach The complex structure and distinctive components of seaweed cell walls, which differ significantly from terrestrial plants, presents a major challenge for the effective extraction of bioactive compounds from inside the cells. Enzyme technologies have been used to improve the extraction, hydrolysis, and structure modification efficiently with a high degree of environmental sustainability. This review critically analyses the advances, challenges, and future directions in applying enzyme technologies to improve the extraction and processing of bioactive compounds from seaweeds and their potential applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Key findings and conclusions Different enzymatic processes have been demonstrated to (1) assist the extraction by breaking down the seaweed cell walls, and (2) degrade or hydrolyse macromolecules including polysaccharides and proteins. These enzymatic processes improve the yield and recovery of bioactive compounds and enhance their biological properties with regard to prebiotic, antioxidant, ACE inhibitory, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral effects. Seaweed-derived bioactive compounds from these processes present significant new opportunities in developing novel food applications. The current food regulations and safety requirements for seaweeds and their products are addressed for commercial product development.
Application of ultraviolet C technology for surface decontamination of fresh produce Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-10-12 Xuetong Fan, Runze Huang, Haiqiang Chen
Background Microbial food safety and spoilage due to human pathogens and decay-causing microorganisms are the major challenges for the production of fresh produce where contaminations often occur on the surface of the food. Fresh produce cannot be thermally treated as heating adversely affects the organoleptic characteristics and nutrients of the food, and thermally processed fresh produce may not be considered as “fresh” any more. Shortwave ultraviolet (UV-C) is a nonthermal technology that employs physical light energy to inactivate microorganisms on the surface of foods. Scope and approach This article reviewed the most recent development in the application of UV-C for surface decontamination of food with a focus on fresh produce. Considerations and challenges for commercialization of the technology are emphasized. Research on pulsed light (PL) is also discussed as the germicidal effect of PL is mainly due to the UV-C component of the light spectrum. Key Findings and Conclusions Many factors affect the efficacy of UV-C against foodborne pathogenic bacteria for food surface decontamination; these factors include UV-C dose, location of microorganisms on food, surface characteristics of foods, treatment temperature, species and serotype of microorganisms, state of bacteria, time from inoculation to UV-C treatment, and inoculation level. Combinations of UV-C/PL with other interventions can achieve synergistic and/or additive efficacy against human pathogens. For commercialization of the technology, accurate assessment of absorbed UV doses and means to overcome the shadowing effect are needed. Issues such as survival and growth of pathogens during post-UV-C storage, and possible formation of viable, but nonculturable bacteria require further investigations.
SERS-microfluidic systems: A potential platform for rapid analysis of food contaminants Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-10-10 Hongbin Pu, Wang Xiao, Da-Wen Sun
Background Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) techniques are becoming increasingly widespread and accessible for accurate and specific identification of chemical or microbiological contaminants in foodstuffs. However, the consistency and repeatability of SERS-based techniques is a challenge due to complicated detection environments. This drawback can be overcome by integrating the SERS detection into a microfluidic platform, which can provide a continuous flow condition for highly reproducible SERS measurements. Furthermore, the SERS-microfluidic platform can perform elaborating sample pre-treatments, showing great potentials for on-situ analysis of food contaminants. Scope and approach This review mainly summarizes the principles and methods of SERS-microfluidic systems, as well as their applications in rapid analysis of food contaminants. Three ways of integrating SERS substrate into microfluidic channels are highlighted. Finally, the main challenges and future efforts in developing SERS-microfluidic systems for on-situ food contaminants detection are discussed. Key findings and conclusions SERS-microfluidic platform conforms to the development tendency of modern analytical technology, and has great potentials for rapid analysis of food contaminants.
Spirulina – From growth to nutritional product: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-09-28 Ruma Arora Soni, K. Sudhakar, R.S. Rana
Background Spirulina is multicellular and filamentous cyanobacteria that have achieved a considerable popularity in the health sector, food industry and aquacultures. It develops and grows in water, can be harvested and processed easily. It has very high content of macro and micronutrients, essential amino acids, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidants. Spirulina is considered as a complete food supplement to fight against malnutritional deficiencies in developing countries. Spirulina is deemed safe for human consumption as evident by its long history of food use and latest scientific findings. In recent years, Spirulina has gathered enormous attention from research fraternity as well as industries as a flourishing source of nutraceutical and pharmaceuticals. Scope and Approach The primary objective of this paper is to review the utilization of Spirulina as a dietary supplement in the food industry. In the present work, the three main area of Spirulina research: growth, harvesting and potential application are presented. Key findings and conclusion The important growth parameters have been studied to enhance Spirulina biomass productivity qualitatively and quantitatively. This review provides useful information on commercially viable technology for Spirulina cultivation. Mass cultivation and Innovative formulations are further needed to fortify conventional foods with Spirulina based protein system.
The agri-food chain and antimicrobial resistance: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-09-27 John A. Hudson, Lynn J. Frewer, Glyn Jones, Paul A. Brereton, Mark J. Whittingham, Gavin Stewart
Background Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major threat to public health and there is much current activity to ameliorate that threat. However, the relative contributions that potential sources of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria represent are not well established. Over-prescription of antimicrobials by clinicians is one source of selection for AMR bacteria/genes, but antimicrobials are used in greater quantities in food production. These bacteria/genes can then reach humans via food, the environment, or other means. Scope and approach Summarised in this review are potential transmission routes of AMR bacteria/genes from agricultural production to human infections. The situation is complicated, and it is difficult to compare studies because of different methodologies and definitions of resistance being used. Data and examples to illustrate each transmission route are provided where available. Key findings and conclusions Quantitative data for defined organism/phenotype/gene combinations for exposure assessment are rare. Another problem is the identification of indistinguishable AMR bacteria in foods and human cases, which is invariably taken to show that food consumption is a source of infections. However, these data do not show the direction in which the flow of the organism/gene occurred nor do they rule out another source(s), and such data are scant. Case control studies could identify food exposures associated with particular organism/gene infections. The construction of models representing potential transmission pathways may help to reveal their relative contributions. However, the data may not be available to support these models. The lack of coherent data hampers the development of effective policy.
Potential health benefits of natural products derived from truffles: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-09-22 Seema Patel, Abdur Rauf, Haroon Khan, Shah Khalid, Seema Patel, Mohammad S. Mubarak
Background Truffle, the hypogeous, ascomycetous macrofungus, has been an appreciated food for ages and is gaining rising status in the culinary domain. With the identification of its components such as ergosterol, tuberoside anandamide, polysaccharides, and phenolics, and the validation of nutritional benefits as antioxidant, an anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antitumor, antimicrobial, and aphrodisiac, it is attracting international consumer attention. However, due to the huge chasm between demand and supply, some types, such as the white Tuber magnatum and the Périgord or black truffle Tuber melanosporum are very expensive, which restricts their accessibility to only a limited population. Scope and approach This review can be a good reference for truffle research. In addition, this review summarizes the relevant literature and available data pertaining to the nutritional, health, and medicinal benefits and uses of truffles. Key findings and conclusions Truffle plantations are being established, but they are riddled with a variety of challenges. The biological roles are also scantily-evaluated, unlike mushrooms, which render some potential consumers sceptic regarding their food safety. Awareness of their present standing might kindle interest among researchers to investigate their food and health scopes and to design strategies to enhance productivity.
Consumers’ emotions elicited by food: A systematic review of explicit and implicit methods Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-09-22 S. Lagast, X. Gellynck, J.J. Schouteten, V. De Herdt, H. De Steur
Background The increased interest in consumer and sensory research to focus on total consumer experience when examining the relationship between food and consumer, has led to the development of a number of instruments to capture emotional responses elicited by food, beyond sensory liking. Scope and approach This systematic review identified 70 studies that applied both a food preference measurement (e.g. sensory evaluation, acceptance, liking, hedonic or preference measurements) and a measurement of emotion elicited by food. The narrative synthesis provides an overview of the methods, measurements and instruments that are currently applied in consumer and sensory research to measure emotions in relation to food. Based on how emotional responses are assessed, two types of methods are distinguished: explicit and implicit methods. All studies are categorized into these two methods and structured by the applied measurement with their specific instrument. Key findings and conclusions The results confirm the dominance of explicit methods to investigate emotional responses in relation to food. Although implicit measurements are only limitedly applied in consumer and sensory research, the increase and evolution of (often interdisciplinary) techniques have created new, promising approaches to capture emotional responses.
Factors affecting extraction and evolution of phenolic compounds during red wine maceration and the role of process modelling Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-09-21 Patrick C. Setford, David W. Jeffery, Paul R. Grbin, Richard A. Muhlack
Background The overall quality of red wine is well known to be influenced markedly by various phenolic compounds that are extracted from the grape solids during maceration. The concentration and composition of phenolics then impact the flavour and mouthfeel of wines. Scope and Approach This review analyses the available literature on specific process variables that influence the diffusive mass transfer and evolution of phenolic compounds during red wine maceration. These variables are discussed in terms of techniques and strategies used by winemakers to influence the extractive behaviour of phenolic compounds and control their concentration in the finished wine. Mathematical models used to describe extraction and evolution phenomena in wine are also examined and the potential for future models to predict phenolic behaviour is discussed. Key Findings and Conclusions The impact of various winemaking techniques aimed at improving the extraction of phenolic compounds during red winemaking, as well as the subsequent reactions that take place following extraction, are qualitatively well understood. Mathematically, many of these techniques can be described in terms of their changing process variables such as temperature, solvent conditions and sold-liquid contact. Despite this, non-steady state models for mass transport or reaction kinetics of phenolic compounds in wine fermentation are currently unavailable in published literature. Further research into the production of global models capable of accurately describing this behaviour would be a significant advancement for industry and would aid in the development of adaptive process control technologies for red wine phenolic composition.
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and brain health: Preclinical evidence for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-09-20 Olivier Kerdiles, Sophie Layé, Frédéric Calon
Background As the prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases increases steadily, the need to develop new treatment approaches intensifies and the possibility of targeting risk and protective factors to delay onset of these diseases is attracting more interest. Dietary habits stand as one of the most promising modifiable risk factors for both Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Scope and approach Over the last 30 years, several groups have generated data indicating that concentrations of specific brain lipids highly depend on dietary intake. Preclinical results show that treatments with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) improve cognition, provide neuroprotection (and even neurorestoration), reduce neuroinflammation and influence neuronal function, while high-fat diets exert deleterious effects. Preclinical experiments have been conducted in well-recognized animal models of AD, PD, and ischemic stroke. Key findings and Conclusions These studies have shown that dietary n-3 PUFA treatments consistently improve cognitive performance in animal models and may also exert disease-modifying actions. N-3 PUFA also provide protection to dopaminergic neurons in animal models of PD and possibly recovery after lesion. Furthermore, some of these effects might depend on specific diet formulations to protect long-chain fatty acids from oxidation or synergies with other nutrients. More generally, this review aims at providing evidence that adjustments in the consumption of dietary lipids alone or combined with other nutrients may be a cost-effective intervention to optimize brain function and prevent AD or PD.
A review on enzymatic synthesis of aromatic esters used as flavor ingredients for food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals industries Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-09-20 Amanda Gomes Almeida SÁ, Alessandra Cristina de Meneses, Pedro Henrique Hermes de Araújo, Débora de Oliveira
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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