Microencapsulation of antioxidant compounds through innovative technologies and its specific application in meat processing Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-10-16 Belén Gómez, Francisco J. Barba, Rubén Domínguez, Predrag Putnik, Danijela Bursać Kovačević, Mirian Pateiro, Fidel Toldrá, Jose M. Lorenzo
BackgroundMeat has a complex physical structure and chemical composition that is very prone to oxidation. Plants are sources of biologically active compounds (antioxidants) of interest as potential raw materials for meat processing, primary as replacements for synthetic additives. Some examples are essential oils from aromatic plants that are usually unstable under common processing and storage conditions and exhibit strong smell and off flavour. Hence, stable delivery systems like encapsulation are required.Scope and approachEncapsulation, and particularly spray-drying, offers protection of active compounds, their controlled and targeted release in food products and ability to mask unacceptable odours in products.Key findings and conclusionsAlbeit current results are promising for microparticles and nanomaterials, more research is needed to evaluate the application of various natural ingredients in meat processing. Direction of future research should address functionality of systems, consumers’ health concerns and benefits, better sensory acceptance, reduced operating costs, scalability for industrial needs, and size of environmental footprints.
A minireview of effects of white tea consumption on diseases Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Nevin Sanlier, İlker Atik, Azize Atik
Tea, is the most common beverage obtained from leaves of Camellia sinensis plant. Tea is classified as green, yellow, white, oolong, black and Pu-erh due to fermentation process. Important differences of tea species are originated from cultivating conditions of the plant, harvesting procedures and processing of leaves.Green tea and white tea are not fermented, black tea is full fermented and oolong tea is semi-fermented. The most produced tea types in the world are black tea, green tea, oolong tea and white teaspoon respectively. The white tea which has very young tea leaves and buds covered with small, white-silver fuzz is harvested once a year in early spring and has a very mild, sweet taste. There are more catechin and its derivatives in white tea than other tea species. Especially, because of the fact that containing epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) component, white tea has positive effects on health. Cardioprotective, antidiabetic, neuroprotective, anticarcinogenic effects, antimutagenic activities, antimicrobial and anti-obesity properties are important effects of white tea. For these reasons; white tea is known to have protective effects against cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes mellitus, obesity, central nervous system and microorganism-based diseases.In this review, the production of white tea, its composition and the effect of it on health were examined and compared with different tea types.
Lean, six sigma and lean six sigma in the food industry: A systematic literature review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-10-12 Luana Bonome Message Costa, Moacir Godinho Filho, Lawrence D. Fredendall, Fernando José Gómez Paredes
BackgroundThe food industry is an important sector of the world economy, that faces many challenges providing a wide range of products with short delivery times and at low-cost. Continuous Improvement (CI) initiatives could assist this industry manage its challenges as the global market endures economic and political crises. Lean and Six Sigma are two widely used and recognized CI initiatives and are often hybridized as Lean Six Sigma. However, it is not clear how appropriate these strategies are for the food industry.Scope and ApproachA systematic literature review was performed to identify the appropriateness of Lean, Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma initiatives (L&SSi) for improvement in the food industry. The aim is to consolidate the existing knowledge about the application of L&SSi in the food industry, analyze the L&SSi evolution within the sector and identify the relevant aspects of implementation such as drivers of adoption, critical success factors, tools and methods applied, barriers faced and benefits obtained.Key findings and Conclusions: The review suggests that L&SSi are effective in the food industry context. Their implementation in the sector is still growing. Their use was found to reduce costs and increase productivity. Human factors and the food industry characteristics were identified as the main barriers to implementing these initiatives. Future research to investigate the degree that L&SSi practices were adopted in the food industry and to identify the best practices to implement these initiatives is suggested.
Chestnuts and by-products as source of natural antioxidants in meat and meat products: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Noemí Echegaray, Belén Gómez, Francisco J. Barba, Daniel Franco, Mario Estévez, Javier Carballo, Krystian Marszałek, Jose M. Lorenzo
BackgroundChestnuts have traditionally been used for both human and animal consumption due to their nutritional properties. During chestnut industrial processing, several by-products are generated, like chestnut wood, flowers, leaves, shells, barks and burs. These by-products constitute an important source of antioxidant compounds, which can be used as food additives to be incorporated in other food products such as meat in order to improve nutritional and quality characteristics as well as to delay oxidation processes.Scope and approachThis systematic literature review evaluated the main antioxidant compounds of chestnuts by-products, including total content and profile. Moreover, the impact of chestnut by-products addition on animal diet in the microbiological, physicochemical and sensorial properties of meat products will be reported. Finally, the effects of the use of chestnut by-products extracts on the quality and oxidative stability of meat products will be also evaluated.Key findings and conclusionsAccording to literature, chestnut by-products may also provide beneficial effects on health, being involved in the prevention of noncommunicable diseases. At this stage of development, there is a need to carry out more specific studies about the antioxidant profile of the extracts obtained from chestnut by-products. Further research is needed to i) optimize extraction of bioactive compounds, ii) establish effective and safe doses and iii) clarify their effects on microbial inactivation, nutritional, bioactive, physicochemical and sensorial properties of the new meat products. Moreover, further in vivo (animal and human) assays are necessary in order to evaluate the potential health-promoting benefits of extracts obtained from chestnuts by-products.
Selected commercial plants: A review of extraction and isolation of bioactive compounds and their pharmacological market value Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-10-09 Jayanta Kumar Patra, Gitishree Das, Siyoung Lee, Seok-Seong Kang, Han-Seung Shin
Background.Entrepreneurs involved in the commercialization of natural products are currently displaying significant interests in herbal drugs, medicines, and natural product-based herbal products. A broad range of bioactive chemical compounds have been derived from medicinal plants, either in their pure form or as homogenous extracts. As these compounds have broad structural and functional diversities, they offer pharmaceutical companies numerous opportunities for the development of new drug leads. They also represent an excellent source of molecules for the production of food additives, functional foods, nutritional products, and nutraceuticals for the growing number of natural food companies.Scope and Approach.A number of bioactive compounds, including polyphenols, are present in high concentrations in plant species whereas a number of other important compounds such as saponin are present at very low levels. Several identification, extraction, and isolation techniques are currently used to extract bioactive compounds from plants. However, as these techniques are generally laborious and very expensive, there is an urgent need for new advanced techniques for identification, extraction, and isolation of plant bioactive compounds in quantities sufficient for their potential applications in various sectors.Key Findings and Conclusions.The aim of this review is to collate and present information on the identification, extraction, and isolation of the most widely used bioactive compounds from selected commercial medicinal plants, thereby providing a useful resource for medicinal scientists and pharmaceutical and food-related industries seeking to generate high yields at low cost to meet market requirements.
Encapsulation systems for lutein: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-10-10 Benjamin M. Steiner, David Julian McClements, Gabriel Davidov-Pardo
BackgroundThe increased demand by consumers for clean labels has encouraged industry to search for replacements of synthetic ingredients in food products, and in particular, colorants. Lutein, a xanthophyll found in marigolds and corn, can be used in food products as a natural colorant replacing yellow food dyes. Moreover, lutein is considered a nutraceutical due to its potentially beneficial health effects, such as prevention of macular degeneration, role in the development of the visual and nervous systems of fetuses, and its antioxidant properties. However, incorporation of lutein into foods is often limited because of its low-water solubility, chemical instability, and poor oral bioavailability. For this reason, colloidal encapsulation systems have been developed to facilitate the incorporation of lutein into aqueous food and beverage products.Scope and ApproachThis review focuses on exploring encapsulation options for lutein using various emulsion-based, nanoparticle- and microparticle-based and molecular inclusion encapsulation systems, as well as additives that can be used to increase its chemical stability in these systems. This review covers all aspects of lutein encapsulation, including both food-grade and pharmaceutical-grade encapsulation systems.Key Findings and Conclusions: Though lutein-loaded encapsulation systems are extensively explored in this review, emulsions are of the most interest in industry as they are cost efficient and can be designed to increase the stability of lutein by selecting the proper emulsifiers and emulsification techniques. Despite the extensive amount of research carried out on the encapsulation of hydrophobic bioactive molecules such as lutein, there are still opportunities to develop encapsulation systems that further protect these molecules during storage and also increase their bioavailability after ingestion.
To target or not to target? Definitions and nomenclature for targeted versus non-targeted analytical food authentication Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 Nicolai Zederkopff Ballin, Kristian Holst Laursen
The use of non-targeted analytical methods in food authentication has rapidly increased during the past decade. Non-targeted analyses are now used for a plethora of different food commodities but also across several scientific disciplines. This has brought together a mixture of analytical traditions and terminologies. Consequently, the scientific literature on food authentication often includes different approaches and inconsistently used definitions and nomenclature for both targeted and non-targeted analysis. This commentary paper aims to propose definitions and nomenclature for targeted and non-targeted analytical approaches as a first step towards harmonization.
Reciprocal Interactions Between Resveratrol and Gut Microbiota Deepen Our Understanding of Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Its Health Benefits Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 Liang Shen, Hong-Fang Ji
BackgroundResveratrol is a stilbene-based phytochemical, which possesses multiple pharmacological activities. However, the low bioavalibility of resveratrol mystifies its pharmacology.Scope and approachWe discussed the reciprocal interactions of resveratrol with gut microbiota as investigated by in vitro, animal models as well as humans studies.Key findings and conclusionsThe first part described the current in vitro and in vivo evidence concerning the modulative effect of resveratrol on gut microbiota composition, particularly focusing on the involvement of gut microbiota modulation in the anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, and anti-atherosclerosis effects of resveratrol. The second part summarized the bioconversion of resveratrol by gut microbiota, and the identification of metabolites along with bacterial species as generators of these metabolites. This may not only help reconcile the bioavailability conundrum of resveratrol, but also provide directions to expedite its medical applications.
Gradients in compositions in the starchy endosperm of wheat have implications for milling and processing Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-28 Paola Tosi, Jibin He, Alison Lovegrove, Irene Gonzáles-Thuillier, Simon Penson, Peter R. Shewry
BackgroundWheat is the major food grain consumed in temperate countries. Most wheat is consumed after milling to produce white flour, which corresponds to the endosperm storage tissue of the grain. Because the starchy endosperm accounts for about 80% of the grain dry weight, the miller aims to achieve flour yields approaching this value.Scope and ApproachBioimaging can be combined with biochemical analysis of fractions produced by sequential pearling of whole grains to determine the distributions of components within the endosperm tissue.Key Findings and ConclusionsThis reveals that endosperm is not homogeneous, but exhibits gradients in composition from the outer to the inner part. These include gradients in both amount and composition. For example, the content of gluten proteins decreases but the proportion of glutenin polymers increases from the outside to the centre of the tissue. However, the content of starch increases with changes in the granule size distribution, the proportions of amylose and amylopectin, and their thermal properties. Hence these parts of the endosperm differ in the functional properties for food processing. Gradients also exist in minor components which may affect health and processing, such as dietary fibre and lipids. The gradients in grain composition are reflected in differences in the compositions of the mill streams which are combined to give white flour (which may number over 20). These differences could therefore be exploited by millers and food processors to develop flours with compositions and properties for specific end uses.
Valorisation of pineapple wastes for food and therapeutic applications Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-25 Shivali Banerjee, Vijayaraghavan Ranganathan, Antonio Patti, Amit Arora
A review on technological parameters and recent advances in the fortification of processed cheese Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-25 Grace Talbot-Walsh, David Kannar, Cordelia Selomulya
BackgroundAlthough the consumption of processed foods is growing in overseas markets, the increased awareness of consumers to health and wellbeing in recent years has led to a decline in the growth of processed food sales in the Western market. The added pressure on the food manufacturing industry to increase the perceived healthiness of processed foods has opened up new market potential in the area of fortified processed foods, such as processed cheeses.Scope and ApproachThis review paper provides an overview of the current methodologies into the production of a processed cheese with added health benefits, including the use of probiotics and prebiotics, vitamin and mineral fortification and the addition of plant macromolecules.Key Findings and ConclusionsProcessed cheeses with increased health benefits have been of great interest to manufacturers, with reduced salt and reduced fat options commercially available. Although processed cheeses fortified with vitamins, mineral, probiotics and prebiotics are not as widespread, further work in these areas has been identified as a way to produce high value processed cheese products with added health benefits.
Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) pod husk: renewable source of bioactive compounds Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-22 Rocio Campos-Vega, Karen H. Nieto-Figueroa, B. Dave Oomah
BackgroundCocoa Pod Husk (CPH) is the main by-product from the coca industry constituting 67-76 % of the cocoa fruit weight. This waste represents an important, and challenging, economic, environmental renewable opportunity, since ten tons of wet CPH are generated for each ton of dry cocoa beans.Scope and ApproachThis review highlights the value that can be added to this industrial co-product to generate new pharmaceutical, medical, nutraceuticals or functional food products.Key Findings and ConclusionsThe quality and functionality of cocoa pod husk (CPH) has being improving through processing (fermentation, enzymatic hydrolysis, and combustion, among others), guiding to their use as source of volatile fragrance compounds, lipase extraction, skin whitening, skin hydration and sun screening, ruminants’ food, vegetable gum, organic potash, antibacterial and nanoparticles synthesis with antioxidant and larvicidal activities. However, their exploration to produce high-value-added products, specially for the food industry, is limited as well as their potential health benefits. Cocoa pod husk, the main by-product from cacao industry (up to 76%), is an abundant, inexpensive, and renewable source of bioactive compounds like dietary fiber, pectin, antioxidant compounds, minerals and theobromine, justifying their valorization. This review highlights the value addition that can be achieved with this valuable industrial co-product to generate new pharmaceutical, medical, nutraceuticals or functional food products.
Metal oxide-based nanocomposites in food packaging: applications, migration, and regulations Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-22 Coralia V. Garcia, Gye Hwa Shin, Jun Tae Kim
BackgroundMost nanotechnology applications for food packaging involve the use of silver nanoparticles or nanoclay. However, other nanomaterials can also be incorporated into packaging. Metal oxide nanoparticles have been added to petroleum-based and biopolymers to produce nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical and barrier properties, and their antimicrobial effects have also been reported. However, migration of nanoparticles from packaging is of concern because of their potential toxicity in the human body and the environment.Scope and approachThis review focuses on the application of metal oxide-based nanoparticles for producing nanocomposites. Advantages of incorporating metal oxide-based nanoparticles into polymers are presented, and migration of these nanomaterials from packaging into foods is discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the regulations for nanomaterials in packaging is presented.Key findings and conclusionsAddition of metal oxide nanoparticles into polymers allows for the production of nanocomposites with increased mechanical strength and water and oxygen barrier properties, and can also confer other benefits including antimicrobial activity and light-blocking properties. Migration studies have demonstrated that only a negligible amount of nanomaterial migrates from packaging into food simulants or foods, suggesting that consumer exposure to these nanomaterials and its associated health risks would be low. However, the regulatory framework for nanomaterials in packaging is still underdeveloped even in major economies.
Challenges and solutions of optical-based nondestructive quality inspection for robotic fruit and vegetable grading systems: A technical review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-24 Baohua Zhang, Baoxing Gu, Guangzhao Tian, Jun Zhou, Jichao Huang, Yingjun Xiong
BackgroundOptical techniques, including computer vision, spectral imaging, near-infrared technology and other emerging imaging and spectroscopy techniques, have been rapidly developing and widely applied in fruit and vegetable grading systems for nondestructive quality inspecting and grading over the past decades. However, automatic detection of quality and grading is still difficult due to some still existing challenges, which are the key of blocking their commercialization in robotic fruit and vegetable grading systems. The challenges include the following aspects: the influence of physical and biological variability, whole surface detection, discrimination between defects and stems/calyxes, unobvious defect detection, robustness of the features and algorithms, as well as rapid optical detection system development. These challenges can reduce the fruit or vegetable quality inspection accuracy, thus greatly reducing automatic level of the quality inspecting and grading machines.Scope and ApproachAs agricultural engineers with about eight years of technical experience in fruit grading systems, we believe the ultimate goal of each scientific research should seek its task in serving the engineering. So, we have made many attempts to solve the challenges and increase the automation of the grading machines.Key Findings and ConclusionsThe review gives a detailed summary about the challenges and solutions of optical-based nondestructive quality inspection for fruit or vegetable grading systems from the perspective of engineering. Particular attention has been paid to the techniques that can improve the automation degree of the grading robot in this review. The advantages and disadvantages of the solutions are compared and discussed. Additionally, the remaining engineering challenges and future trends are also discussed.
Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) in Foods and Their Detecting Techniques and Methods: A Review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-19 Qingyi Wei, Ting Liu, Da-Wen Sun
BackgroundAdvanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are a sort of complex products formed by the Maillard reaction between the carbonyls of reducing sugars and the free amino groups of amino acids. Some of AGEs ingested through foods accumulate in human body, causing a series of chronic diseases. However, due to the complex and varied structures, there is lack of systematic reviews on dietary AGEs.Scope and approachThis paper summarizes the aspects of AGE formation, influencing factors and hazards, as well as their distribution in foods. The detecting methods available for dietary AGEs are also highlighted. Finally, the main challenges and future efforts for studying AGEs in foods and their effects on health are discussed.Key findings and conclusions: The study of AGEs has great significance in foods and human health. Although great advances in understanding the effects of AGEs in human body are made, more unequivocal guidance for dietary AGEs to people should be provided in future.
MEMBRANE-BASED technologies as an emerging tool for separating high-added-value compounds from natural products Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-15 Roberto Castro-Muñoz, Vlastimil Fíla
Over the last decades, the exploration of new natural sources for obtaining valuable compounds, which can be used in food technology, has been a research challenge. Several natural products such as fruits, juices, natural extracts, etc., have been proposed. Today, many different technologies are being tested to carry out the extraction of different high-added value compounds (nutraceuticals, phenolic compounds, antioxidants, anthocyanins, saccharides), in which the membrane-based technologies (microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and nanofiltration) have been considered thanks to their intrinsic properties. In fact, these pressure-driven membrane processes are addressed as a promising alternative based on their ability to recover, separate, and fractionate different high-added-value compounds from different aqueous systems. To date, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration have shown the capability to meet the current valorization protocols.The aim of this paper is to provide a critical review of the main natural products processed by membrane technologies for the recovery of high-added value compounds. State-of-the-art of developments in the field are described. Particular attention is paid to experimental results reported for the separation of bioactive compounds and their derivatives of different molecular weight. The literature data are analyzed and discussed in relation to separation technologies, molecule properties, membrane characteristics and other interesting phenomena that occur during their recovery.
Critical assessment of formulation, processing and storage conditions on the quality of alveolar baked products determined by different analytical techniques: a review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-14 Zeineb Nhouchi, Eliot Patrick Botosoa, Romdhane Karoui
BackgroundSensorial, nutritional and microbiological deteriorations of alveolar bakeries are mostly hazardous for producers that are threatened by the loss of consumers’ confidence and market shares. These alterations induce loss of the freshness, which is the first feature of purchasing. Hence, monitoring the quality of baked products has been determined by using different analytical techniques (e.g., rheology, chromatography, sensory analyses, etc.). To date, these tools are used as reference ones, but, they come under criticism due to their destructive and sophisticated aspects. Therefore, many newest techniques have been investigated in order to provide reliable data in a short time and a cheap way without the need of samples preparation.Scope and approachThis review will discuss firstly the techno-functional properties of the lipid component in the formulation of alveolar products and attempts of its reduction and/or substitution. Then, the optimization of bakeries processing will be presented. The macroscopic and molecular techniques commonly used for monitoring quality, freshness and alteration of the alveolar products are finally reviewed.Key findings and conclusions: The potentialities of vegetable oils combined with fibers to reduce the saturated fatty acids content in recipe are highlighted. This review provides also a comprehensive approach for the optimization of alveolar goods processing in order to maintain the nutritional quality of the final product. Regarding quality and freshness control, this review emphasizes the complementarity between traditional methods and innovative ones, including spectroscopic techniques in combination with chemometric tools for understanding the molecular and macroscopic structure of alveolar baked products.
Future challenges in seafood chemical hazards: research and infrastructure needs Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-14 António Marques, Ana L. Maulvault, Maria Leonor Nunes
BackgroundSeafood safety is a priority for all stakeholders associated with supply and consumption. Outbreaks and recalls caused by microbial pathogens, toxins from harmful algal blooms and xenobiotics are attributed to contaminated seafood, leading to considerable public health and economic burdens. Yet, the complexity of seafood safety management systems in a dynamic global market affected by climate change and driven by market demands, urges the implementation of innovative research and infrastructures to ensure the safety of seafood products.Scope and approachThis review presents the major needs in seafood safety research and infrastructures, as far as chemical hazards are concerned.Key findings and conclusionsFaster exchange of information and establishment of synergies across countries and continents, simplified and efficient food safety policies for stakeholders, innovative and applied research that is useful for stakeholders, and maximizing the use of updated infrastructures, are some of the needs to meet seafood safety challenges in the Ocean of Tomorrow.
Biotechnological Routes for Transglutaminase Production: Recent Achievements, Perspectives and Limits Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-14 Limin Wang, Bo Yu, Ruixuan Wang, Jianchun Xie
Background: Transglutaminase (TGase) belongs to the transferases family that catalyses the formation of isopeptide bonds between proteins. Its cross-linking properties are extensively used in food industry. Nowadays, TGase isolation from Streptomyces sp. is used in almost all industrial branches. The complexity of current procedure prompt scientists to develop an efficient and easy-to-use system for the “green” production of TGase.Scope and approach: This article reviews the application of biotechnological routes in transglutaminase (TGase) production. The nature sources and industrial production of TGase were discussed in this review. Furthermore, the potential of biotechnological routes for TGase production was highlighted. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms is exemplified for biotechnological synthesis of TGase. The drawbacks as well as improvements of the production of TGase via biotechnological routes were also discussed.Key findings and conclusionsBiotechnological routes provide the possible measures to heterologous expression of TGase. After decades of efforts, the expression of recombinant TGase has significant improvements. Further research and development towards cost-effective production may resulted in a more affordable product that could be exploited for a broad range of applications.
Removing and detoxifying methods of patulin: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-14 Enjie Diao, Hanxue Hou, Weicheng Hu, Haizhou Dong, Xiangyang Li
Patulin is a toxic metabolite produced by molds, which is often found in many fruits and their products. It poses a serious threat to human health due to eating the foods contaminated by patulin frequently. So it is very important for people to find an ideal method for removing or detoxifying patulin in foods. Physical, chemical, and biological methods have been widely studied to remove or degrade it. This article reviews the latest development in the removal and detoxification of patulin using physical, chemical, and biological methods, points out their disadvantages, summarizes the degradation products and their safety of patulin, and draws the degradation pathway of patulin. Presently, no any singular method is ideal in removing or detoxifying patulin in foods, and a combination of various methods may be the better choice. Meanwhile, more attention should be paid to developing the advanced detoxification equipments during exploring the detoxification methods of patulin.
Food smuggling and trafficking: the key factors of influence Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-12 Jan Mei Soona, Louise Manning
BackgroundFood smuggling and food trafficking are terms not currently defined in the food literature. This work sought to determine how such definitions could be developed in order to inform future research and surveillance activity.Scope and ApproachThe concept of food smuggling and food trafficking is considered, and regulatory food surveillance data for illegal and unauthorised imports and food trade incidents (n=347) into the European Union (EU) between 1987 and 2017 is explored and critiqued.Key findingsIllegal imports, especially animal and fish products, can pose a threat to human and animal health, spread animal disease and invasive plant species, and lead to loss of wildlife and biodiversity. Economies are weakened through the tax avoidance and evasion elements of food smuggling and coercive food trafficking. Reported illegal trade in the EU’s Risk Assessment for Food and Feed (RASFF) database was highest for meat products followed by fruit and vegetables. Purposive sampling means the data does not reflect the true incidence, extent and type of illegal imports especially by individuals for personal use. There are limited global strategies in place to address food smuggling and trafficking. This work has translated the lessons learnt from the processes developed to reduce tobacco smuggling to illicit activity associated with food. Elements of a comprehensive strategy to address illicit food trade include the developing of effective legal and institutional frameworks in association with effective, transparent communication and cooperation systems. This paper fills a current gap in the academic literature on this topic.
An Introduction to Current Food Safety Needs Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-12 Katherine Flynn, Begoña Pérez Villarreal, Alejandro Barranco, Nastasia Belc, Bryndis Bjornsdottir, Vincenzina Fusco, Sandra Rainieri, Sigrun Elsa Smaradottir, Irina Smeu, Paula Teixeira, Hrönn Ólína Jörundsdóttir
Food safety is embedded in food-related problems, and in proposeed solutions. Despite continuous investment, the WHO estimates 23 million cases of foodborne illness and 5,000 deaths in Europe every year and Europeans are not confident in the food system. Now, the circular economy aims to improve global food security through sustainable production, thus new ingredients, methods and food safety challenges. Food is unequivocally linked to non-communicable diseases, and changes are needed for nutritional food safety. Emerging and re-emerging foodborne pathogens are changing the epidemiology of foodborne diseases. Additionally, some chemicals are of concern, and food is a major source of human exposure. Finally, risk communication is required for management of consumer-based foodborne hazards, yet this foodborne illness is common. We ignore food safety challenges at our peril as potential consequences of a lapse are huge; keeping the food supply safe is a never-ending task.
Biomimetic Plant Foods: Structural design and functionality Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-12 Duc Toan Do, Jaspreet Singh, Indrawati Oey, Harjinder Singh
BackgroundThe rising number of people living with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and the widespread demand for healthier foods have posed significant challenges to the food industry. Plant foods, beyond simple nutrition, can provide health-benefiting functionalities within the complex environment of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Biomimetics is defined as taking inspirations from nature to solve problems. Biomimetic plant foods (BPFs) can offer solutions for the future with the design of nature-inspired food structures for improved health and well-being.Scope and ApproachThis review provides an insight into the assembly of plant foods and their disassembly in the human GI tract. The role of plant food structure in controlling the fate of nutrients during digestion is elucidated. Recent developments and future perspectives on designing BPFs are also presented and discussed.Key Findings and ConclusionsPlant foods are hierarchically assembled in nature. During processing and GI digestion, they are disassembled to enable liberation and assimilation of nutrients and bioactive molecules contained within the food matrix. The assembly and disassembly are linked to a hierarchy of structure in plant foods within which different levels (molecule, polymer, cell wall, cell, tissue, organ) and their interactions can modulate nutrient bioaccessibility and digestion. Inspired by nature, BPFs can be engineered to deliver in-body functionality. The emerging trend of biomimetics will potentially pave the way for the future of food.
Current research on cellobiose 2-epimerase: enzymatic properties, mechanistic insights, and potential applications in the dairy industry Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-11 Qiuming Chen, Yaqin Xiao, Wenli Zhang, Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer, Wanmeng Mu
BackgroundOver the past decade, substantial advances have been made in the study of cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE). CE participates in the recently discovered mannan metabolism and catalyzes the interconversion of D-glucose residues at the reducing end of mannooligosaccharides. This enzyme also exhibits different degrees of epimerization and isomerization activities towards different saccharides.Scope and ApproachThis review addresses the latest research on the enzymatic properties, structural information, and technical advances relating to CE.Key Findings and ConclusionsCE is attractive because this enzyme can convert lactose into its epimeric and isomeric forms, epilactose and lactulose, respectively. Epilactose and lactulose are candidate functional food materials that confer significant economic value to CE in the dairy industry. Although a broad range of CEs from different mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms have been characterized, the present knowledge about the relationship between the function and structure of CE is limited and not connected to further genetic modifications for potential CE applications. Thus, more attention has been paid to the midstream and downstream processes for industrial applications of CE. A number of studies on CE have been performed to seek out better industrial applications. However, further efforts are needed to understand the underlying enzymatic reaction mechanism and protein engineering to fulfill the full potential of CE.
Fractionation of polysaccharides by gradient non-solvent precipitation: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-11 Xiuting Hu, H. Douglas Goff
BackgroundAlmost all natural polysaccharides have wide molecular weight distribution and the complex heterogeneous polysaccharides may also exhibit variations in proportions of sugar constituents, linkage type, degree and arrangement of branching or degree of substitution. The heterogeneity of molecular weight and chemical structure restricts basic research and application of polysaccharides. Therefore, it is meaningful to fractionate polysaccharides into fractions with high homogeneity in molecular weight and chemical structure.Scope and ApproachCompared with chromatography and ultrafiltration, gradient non-solvent precipitation is inexpensive, has a wide application scope and can be easily scaled up or down as required. Therefore, this work reviews fractionation of polysaccharides by gradient non-solvent precipitation. Specifically, this work describes the commonly used non-solvents, fractionation mechanism of gradient non-solvent precipitation, how to establish the fractionation procedure, assessment of the fractionation effect and factors that affect fractionation.Key Findings and ConclusionsThis paper provides comprehensive and detailed directions for how to fractionate a new polysaccharide using this method. It is suggested to select a suitable non-solvent and establish the fractionation procedure according to the curve of the polysaccharide recovery as a function of the non-solvent concentration. Fractionation by gradient non-solvent precipitation is based on the difference in solubility of polysaccharides. Therefore, fractionation may be affected by the precipitation conditions and those factors that can affect the solubility of polysaccharides. During fractionation, those factors that negatively affect fractionation should be strictly controlled.
Chemical and biological properties of feijoa (Acca sellowiana) Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-11 Fan Zhu
BackgroundFeijoa (Acca sellowiana) is native to South America and is recognised in some other parts of the world for its highly aromatic fruit. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing feijoa for food product formulation and as fresh produce for consumption. Understanding the chemical composition and biological activities of different botanical parts of feijoa (fruit peel and flesh, leaf, and flower) provides a basis to support the current exploitation.Scope and ApproachThis mini-review summarises the recent advances in chemical composition and biological activities of different botanical parts of feijoa (fruit, leaf, and bud). Properties of feijoa are compared with those of other fruits. Processing feijoa for food product applications is also reviewed. Future research directions on how to better utilize this crop are suggested.Key Findings and Conclusions: Fejioa contains a range of bioactive components such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, dietary fibre, vitamin C, potassium, and essential oils. These compounds contribute to a range of claimed health effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of feijoa extracts. Consumption of fresh feijoa fruit should be moderate due to the presence of a relatively high level of soluble oxalate. Overall, feijoa has great potential to be developed as a sustainable crop.
Is gut microbiota a relevant and competitive dietary target for cardio-metabolic health? Proceedings of an expert workshop Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-07 Elke A. Trautwein, Harry P.F. Peters, David J. Mela, Christine Edwards, Hilde Herrema, Jingyuan Fu, Marian Geldof, Ruud Albers
BackgroundThe gut microbiota is a putative target for dietary interventions for cardio-metabolic health (CMH), including prevention of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This has generated considerable interest, but the actual feasibility for diet or specific foods to induce measurable, sustained and meaningful benefits for CMH risk by this route remains uncertain.Scope and ApproachThis report summarises an expert workshop assessing the gut microbiota as a relevant, feasible and competitive target for CMH benefits by dietary interventions. It summarises the expert presentations and overall view of participants on the current status and outlook, considering also implications for the food industry.Key findings and conclusionsChanging the gut microbiota by diet is possible, but an assessment of the impact on CMH risk is still needed, including clarifying advantages above other known dietary routes. The individual gut microbiota composition may in part determine the impact of diet and its effects on health. Therefore, future developments may identify individuals at risk and thus possible modification of the microbiota to achieve benefits in susceptible (sub) populations depending on their initial microbiota composition. Prebiotics currently appear to be the most promising ingredients; however, required doses may be relatively high and the actual role of gut microbiota needs further assessment. Overall, causal evidence linking gut microbiota interventions with CMH benefits are developing in preclinical models but are still lacking in humans. A significant research effort is needed and ongoing to determine whether potential effects can be reliably substantiated.
Focus on gluten free biscuits: ingredients and issues Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-07 Maria Di Cairano, Fernanda Galgano, Roberta Tolve, Marisa Carmela Caruso, Nicola Condelli
BackgroundAround 1% of world population is affected by celiac disease. Celiacs are constrained to follow a strict gluten free (GF) diet. Often their diet is unbalanced and lacks in many nutrients. In recent years, some breakthroughs have been made but there is still the need to provide better quality products to celiac people. Biscuits represent a good vehicle to distribute nutrients to celiac patients, because they are a convenient food appreciated by all groups of population. In addition, it is easier to produce gluten free biscuits than gluten free breads. Compared to bread, gluten plays a minor role in biscuits so a wider variety of flours might be employed.Scope and approachThis paper focuses on the possibility to use alternative flours to rice and starches flours which may be employed in GF biscuits production. Furthermore, a discussion about technological, sensory and nutritional issues has been carried out. Moreover, to evaluate the composition of commercial GF biscuits, the frequency of occurrence of ingredients on the label of 282 biscuits present on Italian market is included as case study.Key findings and conclusionsMany research showed that it is possible to formulate acceptable GF biscuits using alternative flours from cereals, pseudocereals and legumes, that may also enhance the nutritional quality, the antioxidant activity and the glycemic index of the biscuits. Malting, fermenting and germination can improve the overall quality of biscuits without affecting negatively technological properties. In Italian gluten free biscuits, maize starch and rice flour are the most frequent ingredients whereas alternative flours are still little employed.
Colorimetric Sensor Arrays Based on Chemo-Responsive Dyes for Food Odor Visualization Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-06 Huang Xiao-wei, Zou Xiao-bo, Shi Ji-yong, Li Zhi-hua, Zhao Jie-wen
The improvements of functional ingredients from marine foods in lipid metabolism Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-05 Teng Wang, Changhu Xue, Tiantian Zhang, Yuming Wang
Hyperlipidemia with the characteristic of excessive blood lipid level is a risk factor for stroke, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes, sudden death, and so on. Therefore, we should pay more attention to the dangers of hyperlipidemia and look for natural lipid-lowering ingredients to prevent and relieve hyperlipidemia. In recent years, various studies have shown that active ingredients from marine foods exhibit obvious anti-hyperlipidemia activity, which have attracted more and more researches' attention. This paper shows that the regulatory mechanisms of lipid metabolism mainly include the cholesterol metabolism balance and the metabolism balance of triglyceride and fatty acid. This paper also summarizes active ingredients from marine foods with the role of treating or preventing hyperlipidemia, and relevant literatures published in the past decades are reviewed. The active ingredients from marine foods are divided into polysaccharides, lipids, proteins, saponins, polyphenols and others, which are described in this article from the aspects of active ingredients, sources, models, efficacy and mechanisms. This paper may provide a valuable reference for the development of functional ingredients from marine foods with anti-hyperlipidemia activity.
Stingless bee honey: quality parameters, bioactive compounds, health-promotion properties and modification detection strategies Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-05 Suelen Ávila, Márcia Regina Beux, Rosemary Hoffmann Ribani, Rui Carlos Zambiazi
BackgroundHoney is a natural product produced and marketed worldwide by stingless bees and Apis bees. Both these types of honey contain unique and distinct compounds of variable nutritional and biological importance. Stingless bee honey is popular for its distinct sweetness, mixed with an acidic taste, and fluid texture; it has higher added value than Apis mellifera honey. Due to the relatively low output of stingless bee honey compared to Apis mellifera honey, comprehensive data regarding the former is limited. This complex, natural product requires official, international methodologies and standards to be established to serve as a reference for quality control, to prevent adulteration, and to aid marketing purposes.Scope and approachThe article summarises the existing literature regarding the physicochemical parameters, chemical composition, bioactive constituents, biological properties, and modification detection strategies of honey originated from 478 honey samples from 66 different stingless bee species produced worldwide.Key findings and conclusionsStingless bee honey is one of the most complex natural foodstuffs. This type of honey quantitatively possesses a higher moisture content, greater acidity, a slightly lower level of total carbohydrates, and higher levels of antioxidant and biological activities than Apis mellifera honey. This review emphasises that stingless bee honey represents an important innovation for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, due to its positive health effects and market potential.
Potentials and possible safety issues of using biorefinery products in food value chains Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-05 Lene Lange, Anne S. Meyer
BackgroundMore than one third of all food produced globally goes to waste. New biorefining and bio-processing approaches can help make higher value products from many more components of large scale agro- and food processes than previously exploited. If we do not take advantage of such new bioprocessing opportunities we will soon be wasting even more and in certain cases miss out on opportunities for producing healthier foods.Scope and ApproachIn this short treatise we have selected recent bioprocessing examples that target production of new products from biomass, including plant and marine biomass, and especially from food- and agro-industrial side streams. We have coined these processes and the products from them as having potential since they also encompass improved resource efficiency, getting more value out the raw materials, and lowering of the climate impact of food production per ton produced. These targets go hand in hand with improved industrial competitiveness. A focus on the full use of the biomass, by biological (microbial or enzymatic) processing of residues and side-streams, can pave the way for production of higher value products, such as food and feed ingredients combined with production of bio-fertilizers and bioenergy.Key findings and conclusionsThe new opportunities for bio-based value chains from the yellow and the green agricultural and forestry bio-refineries, bioprocessing of different types of food- and agro-industrial side-streams and new materials from the blue biomass, e.g. seaweeds, and the red slaughterhouse side-streams are described, exemplified and discussed, and safety issues are addressed.In conclusionIncreased resource efficiency via targeted biorefining, often employing enzymatic processing, may open the door to improved environmental sustainability and industrial competitiveness. Further, a biorefining agenda can create new jobs. Development of new business models may moreover pave the way for revenue sharing through the entire value chain.
Use of encapsulated natural compounds as antimicrobial additives in food packaging: A brief review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-09-05 Micheli Zanetti, Thaís Karoline Carniel, Francieli DalcaCnton, Raul Silva dos Anjos, Humberto Gracher Riella, Pedro H.H. de Araújo, Débora de Oliveira, Marcio Antônio Fiori
Milk fatty acids and potential health benefits: An updated VISION Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-28 Pilar Gómez-Cortés, Manuela Juárez, Miguel Angel de la Fuente
BackgroundMilk fat intake is often associated with a high risk of suffering from cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to its high saturated fat content. However, not all saturated fatty acids (SFA) are equal and they present structural differences that promote distinct effects on the biological processes. In addition, there is a growing scientific consensus pointing to dairy fat as a natural source of bioactive components.Scope and ApproachThe present review provides the most recent knowledge on the bioactive properties of fatty acids detected in dairy products and their potential effects on consumer health. The metabolic processes that involve these fatty acids and serious chronic diseases such as CVD, obesity, diabetes or cancer are explained and discussed throughout the text based on in vitro, animal and human studies. Moreover, information gaps are highlighted to inspire further research in the field.Key Findings and ConclusionsRecent investigations support that milk SFA should no longer be considered as a single group in terms of metabolism or negative effects in case of excess. Even they suggest that individual SFA possess specific properties associated with important physiological functions. Whole dairy products would also promote human health due to the presence of certain bioactive fatty acids. Among them, it is worth mentioning the maintenance of gut microbiota and weight control from short and medium-chain SFA, the essential role of branched-chain SFA in gut health at birth and the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases by vaccenic and rumenic acids.
Improvers and functional ingredients in whole wheat bread: A review of their effects on dough properties and bread quality Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-28 Lauren Tebben, Yanting Shen, Yonghui Li
BackgroundDespite the associated health benefits of whole grains, consumption of whole grain products remains far below recommended levels. Whole wheat bread is often associated with many distinctive attributes such as low loaf volume, firm and gritty texture, dark and rough crust and crumb appearance, bitter flavor, and reduced shelf-life. There is a need to improve its quality and sensory characteristics so as to increase consumer appeal and, ultimately, increase the intake of whole wheat bread. The inclusion of various ingredients improves dough and bread properties.Scope and ApproachThis review examines the effects of enzymes, emulsifiers, hydrocolloids, and oxidants on the properties of whole wheat bread and dough, with particular attention to effects on loaf volume and hardness. Wheat gluten and other plant materials are also discussed. Gaps in the research into whole wheat bread are identified, and future research needs are recommended.Key Findings and ConclusionsXylanase reduces the water absorption of whole wheat flour and increases loaf volume and crumb softness by hydrolyzing ararbinoxylans. α-amylase can be beneficial under certain conditions. Phytase may activate endogenous α-amylase. G4-amylase is promising but needs validation by further research on its effect on loaf volume, crumb hardness, and staling. Vital wheat gluten overcomes many of the challenges of whole wheat bread production and is found in the majority of commercial whole wheat breads. Emulsifiers DATEM and SSL can improve the volume, texture and staling profile of whole wheat bread. Several types of improvers are generally needed in combination to provide the greatest improvement to whole wheat dough and bread.
Enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis of food proteins and- production of bioactive peptides using high hydrostatic pressure technology Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-22 Alice Marciniak, Shyam Suwal, Nassim Naderi, Yves Pouliot, Alain Doyen
BackgroundBioactive peptides (BPs) generated by hydrolysis of food proteins exhibit a broad spectrum of biological properties (antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, etc.) in both in vitro and in vivo models. Initially obtained from milk and egg products, BPs have now largely been obtained from food byproducts such as marine, animal and plant biomasses. Amongst the various strategies being developed for BPs production, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) is the most widely preferred due to its GRAS nature. However, the main challenge of EH is to decrease the time and quantity of enzyme, and improve yield and bioactivity of BPs.Scope and approachConsequently, innovative and efficient food technologies have been developed to satisfy these needs. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing, a non-thermal technology, initially developed to extend food shelf-life, is being considered as a promising tool to improve the efficiency of EH and generate high value-added peptide fractions from various complex biomasses.Findings and conclusionsThis innovative and emerging technology enhances EH by inducing protein unfolding/denaturation, as well as activating the enzymes used while maintaining their nutritional and functional properties. This review discusses the state of the art of HHP technique, its applications in combination with EH, and potential challenges for the production of BPs from food-derived protein sources.
Application of protein-based edible coatings for fat uptake reduction in deep-fat fried foods with an emphasis on muscle food proteins Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-21 Daniel Ananey-Obiri, Lovie Matthews, Malak H. Azahrani, Salam A. Ibrahim, Charis M. Galanakis, Reza Tahergorabi
Background Deep-fat frying is a common cooking method where fat or oil is used as the heat transfer medium, in direct contact with the food at a temperature above the boiling point of water. During the deep fat frying method, oil not only serves as a heating medium but also absorbs into food, increasing the total fat content. As a result, consumption of deep-fat fried foods has been associated with coronary heart diseases, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Selection of an appropriate food coating before frying may act as a barrier to moisture loss, which is important commercially, and also reduce fat uptake during frying. Scope and approach This paper succinctly reviews different protein sources for edible coatings and compare them with muscle food proteins which were used in deep-fat fried foods. Key findings and conclusions Protein-based coatings have been explored as potential coating materials in fat-uptake reduction. Comparatively, proteins are able to form films with better mechanical and barrier properties than polysaccharides. Application of muscle food proteins (myofibrillar proteins) as coatings, which are rich in these proteins, is novel and could be product-friendly for deep-fried muscle foods.
Salvia spp. plants-from farm to food applications and phytopharmacotherapy Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-21 Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Beraat Ozcelik, Gökçe Altın, Ceren Daşkaya-Dikmen, Miquel Martorell, Karina Ramírez-Alarcón, Pedro Alarcón-Zapata, Maria Flaviana B. Morais-Braga, Joara N.P. Carneiro, Antonio Linkoln Alves Borges Leal, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, Rabin Gyawali, Reza Tahergorabi, Salam A. Ibrahim, Razieh Sahrifi-Rad, Farukh Sharopov, Bahare Salehi, María del Mar Contreras, Javad Sharifi-Rad
Salvia is one of the largest genera of the family Lamiaceae. It is widely distributed in the temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions all over the world. Besides its ethnobotanical importance, some species such as S. officinalis (sage, common sage), S. sclarea (clary sage), S. lavandulifolia (Spanish sage), S. miltiorrhiza (danshen), and S. hispanica (chia) are traded on the market as a food and because of the interest in their essential oils and/or popularity in traditional medicine. The high diversity of the Salvia genus and phytochemical richness generate great interest for discovering new biological active compounds, including those found in essential oils. Salvia plant essential oils exhibit broad-spectrum pharmacological activities and represent great interest for food preservation as potential natural products. Thus, this review describes the phytochemical composition of essential oils from different Salvia spp. according to the geographic regions, plant organ, and phenological stage. Moreover, the cultivation and growing conditions of Salvia plants have been also revised. Finally, the interest on Salvia plants for food and pharmaceutical applications has been covered, through reporting their biological properties, including as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-alzheimer, hypotensive, anti-hyperglycemia, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-cancer, and skin curative agents.
The scientific challenges in moving from targeted to non-targeted mass spectrometric methods for food fraud analysis: a proposed validation workflow to bring about a harmonized approach Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-21 Daniele Cavanna, Laura Righetti, Chris Elliott, Michele Suman
Background; Detecting and measuring food fraud is a challenging analytical task since a very wide range of food ingredients and types may be adulterated by numerous potential adulterants, many of which are yet unknown. To date most of the methods applied for the control of food fraud are targeted methods, which are focused on the detection of one or a few classes of known compounds. Scope and Approach; There is an increasing availability of solutions and applications based on high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), allowing parallel non-targeted approaches, novel compound identification and retrospective data analysis. For these types of methods sample-handling must be minimal to allow the inclusion of as many as possible chemical categories. However data-handling of such methods is much more demanding, together with the potential requirement to integrate multiplatform data as well as conducting data fusion. To allow the processing of massive amounts of information based on the separation techniques and mass spectrometry approaches employed, effective software tools capable of rapid data mining procedures must be employed and metabolomics based approaches does appear to be the correct way forward. To verify the relevance of modelling results, appropriate model validation is essential for non-targeted approaches, confirming the significance of the chemical markers identified. Key Findings and Conclusions; The present paper is devoted to review and assess the current state of the art with regards non-targeted mass spectrometry in food fraud detection within many food matrices and to propose a harmonized workflow for all such applications.
Structuring processes for meat analogues Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-20 Birgit L. Dekkers, Remko M. Boom, Atze Jan van der Goot
Background Animal-derived protein foods, such as meat, have a large impact on the environment. Meat analogues are products that replace meat in its functionality, i.e. have similar product properties and sensory attributes, which is achieved by the fibrous nature of those products. Scope and approach The techniques used to make fibrous products that mimic muscle meats are outlined and categorized based on their approach. The bottom-up approach refers to assembly of structural elements that are combined. The top-down approach refers to structuring of biopolymer blends using an overall force field. The strengths and weaknesses of these approaches are discussed in terms of ingredient and equipment use, (achievable) product resemblance, robustness, scalability, and resource efficiency. To enlarge the theoretical framework, the techniques with the top-down strategy are further contextualized by relating to structure formation processes of materials with other applications, and the methods to analyse the fibrous structures are further outlined. Key findings and conclusions Techniques that follow the bottom-up strategy have the potential to resemble the structure of meat most closely, by structuring the proteins hierarchically through assembly of individual structural components. The top-down strategy is better scalable, is more efficient in its use of resources, but can only create the desired structure on larger length scales. Significant progress has been made on the methods to analyse structured products from the last category. Most analysis methods focussed on the (micro)structural anisotropy of the fibrous products, however there is also a need for methods that allow in situ analysis of the evolution of the structure during processing.
A concise guide to active agents for active food packaging Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-20 Carla Vilela, Mia Kurek, Zvi Hayouka, Bettina Röcker, Selçuk Yildirim, Maria Dulce C. Antunes, Julie Nilsen-Nygaard, Marit Kvalvåg Pettersen, Carmen S.R. Freire
Background The ever-growing world population results in the ineluctable increase of food demand which translates in the augment of the global market of packaging materials. Hence, the concept of active packaging materializes as a technology to enhance the safety, quality and shelf-life of the packaged foods. Active packaging systems can contribute to the reduction of food waste by providing, apart from an inert barrier to external conditions, several functions associated with food preservation, namely absorbing/scavenging, releasing/emitting and removing properties, temperature, microbial and quality control. Scope and Approach The purpose of this review is to present a concise (but wide-ranging) appraisal on the latest advances in active agents for active food packaging. Emphasis is placed on active functions such as antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, oxygen and ethylene scavenging, and carbon dioxide emitting. An effort was made to highlight representative articles that prompted research on active agents towards viable market solutions. Key Findings and Conclusions Active packaging is a thriving field given its duality as barrier to external detrimental factors and active role in food preservation and quality. The use of natural active agents is a flourishing field due to the general concern towards natural-based additives. Nevertheless, research is still in its early stages with a long way to go in the design of innovative and economical active packaging materials containing appropriate active agents. The interaction between packaging, environment and food is the key challenge for achieving commercial translation.
Advance in food-derived phospholipids: sources, molecular species and structure as well as their biological activities Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-18 Na Sun, Jin Chen, Di Wang, Songyi Lin
BackgroundPhospholipids derived from different food sources have been extensively studied and widely used in different industrial areas, including food, animal feed, medicine, and pharmaceuticals. In recent years, the utilization of phospholipids, particularly bioactive ones, has gained attention, owing to their enrichment of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.Scope and ApproachThis article presents a detailed and up-to-date review on the sources, molecular species, and structures of food-derived phospholipids. Moreover, this review highlights the structure–activity relationship of phospholipids and provides mechanistic insights into their biological activities.Key Findings and ConclusionsFood-derived phospholipids have been isolated and characterized from various sources, including plant, animal, and aquatic sources. These phospholipids possess considerable differentiation in their molecular species and structure, owing to variations in the properties of the polar headgroup, the length of the fatty alkyl chain, and the degree of unsaturation. In particular, the molecular species of aquatic-source phospholipids show a substantial amount of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly EPA and DHA. The diversity in molecular species and structures results in different biological activities. Polar headgroups such as choline and amino groups, as well as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids, are crucial to our food system and health, especially regarding antioxidant activity, memory, improving immunity, and preventing cardiovascular disease.
Current Major Degradation Methods for Aflatoxins: A Review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-18 Zhao Peng, Liangkai Chen, Yalun Zhu, Yue Huang, Xiaoli Hu, Qinghua Wu, Andreas K. Nüssler, Liegang Liu, Wei Yang
Emulsion electrospinning: Fundamentals, food applications and prospects Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-18 Cen Zhang, Fengqin Feng, Hui Zhang
Background In the past decades, many natural bioactive compounds with antioxidant, immunoregulatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities have been successfully identified in plant and animal materials. However, due to their poor solubility, unfavorable flavor, low bioavailability and instability during food processing and storage, the development of bioactive compounds used in the food industry presents many technological challenges. Scope and approach Emulsion electrospinning is a novel and simple technique to fabricate core-shell nanofibers, and either water-in-oil (W/O) or oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions can be electrospun to directly encapsulate hydrophilic or hydrophobic compounds into core-shell fibers, respectively. This review introduces fundamentals and advantages of emulsion electrospinning as well as its food applications. The effects of different types of emulsifiers on the formation of emulsion systems and emulsion-based electrospun fibers are highlighted. Further, the existing limitations and scope for future research are discussed. Key findings and conclusions Recent studies have found that the emulsion-based electrospun nanofibers can enhance the encapsulation efficiency, stability, and bioavailability of bioactive compounds, as well as achieve targeted delivery and controlled release, thus providing new strategies to improve their barrier performance compared to conventional electrospinning and therefore facilitating the development of emulsion-based electrospun mats in the food industry.
Using starch molecular fine structure to understand biosynthesis-structure-property relations Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-16 Wenwen Yu, Haiteng Li, Wei Zou, Keyu Tao, Jihui Zhu, Robert G. Gilbert
BackgroundStarch is a complex branched glucose polymer, mainly comprising amylose and amylopectin. The number of individual chains as a function of the number of monomer units they contain, i.e. the chain-length distributions (CLDs), are controlled by the underlying biosynthetic process occurring during plant growth. CLDs are currently commonly related to biosynthetic processes and to functional properties by dividing into arbitrarily chosen regions. However, this empiricism is not completely satisfactory: conclusions can depend on the choice of division. Biosynthesis-based models replacing this arbitrary division by model-based parameterization have been developed, but are presently rarely used, because of the complex underlying mathematics.Scope and ApproachThese models are summarized in non-mathematical language. These give information on the biosynthetic processes producing the starch, and yield a parameterization of CLD data to give a fit that is essentially the same as experiment. Additionally, the models are sufficiently flexible that they can also fit data for modified starches. This enables the whole CLDs for both amylose and amylopectin as a small number of parameters which can be used to find statistically-valid structure-property relations.Key Findings and ConclusionsThe underlying theory and data-fitting methodology can be used both to better understand starch biosynthesis, to see what structural features control functional properties and to deduce mechanisms for observed correlations. This enables raw materials to be chosen in non-empirical ways to select and process grains and other starch sources for improved foods and other products.
Effect of plant extracts on the techno-functional properties of biodegradable packaging films Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-14 Shabir Ahmad Mir, B.N. Dar, Ali Abas Wani, Manzoor Ahmad Shah
Background One of the innovations in food packaging includes the development of biodegradable films based on wide range of ingredients. The utilization of these ingredients affects the properties of developed packaging films. Scope and approach This review provides the recent insights on the effect of plant extracts on the techno-functional properties of biodegradable films including physical, mechanical, barrier, functional, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The incorporation of plant extracts into films is a promising method to prevent or reduce the deterioration of food quality, thus contributing to preserving and extending the shelf life of food. Key findings and Conclusions: Recent investigations emphasis on the identification of extracts from various plant sources such as leaves, fruits, pomace, seeds, etc. for use in biodegradable polymers. Plant extracts represent an interesting ingredient for biodegradable food packaging material, mainly due to their natural origin and phytochemical properties, allowing for obtaining active materials aiming to extend shelf life and value to the product. This innovative food packaging concept has gaining interest among researchers due to its potential to provide food quality and safety measures. However, their inclusion in biodegradable films for food packaging may imply some impact on properties.
Antibiotic resistance in foodborne bacteria Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-10 Manuela Caniça, Vera Manageiro, Hikmate Abriouel, Jacob Moran-Gilad, Charles M.A.P. Franz
Background Antibiotic resistance, mainly due to imprudent use of antibiotics in agriculture, environment, animal and human medicine, has been widely recognized as one of the main global health concerns, threatening food security, and human and animal health, causing considerable economic losses. Scope and Approach We summarize the state of the art in antibiotic resistance foodborne bacteria and related reservoirs, some actions to overcome this threat, and the future perspectives in the field. Key Findings and Conclusions Food and food production may be a vehicle of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes to humans that have a public health impact. Mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, have the ability to form hybrid elements interplaying with or from the environment and foodborne bacteria. These genetic structures are able to encode for resistance for many antibiotics, namely those that are last resort treatments for patients infected with multidrug resistant bacteria. Information, education and training, surveillance, monitoring, record-keeping, reduction of infection, legislation, optimization and reduced antibiotic use, and sustainable investment for alternatives, are important actions to bring under control antibiotic resistant foodborne bacteria. Omics technologies such as genomics, metagenomics and transcriptomics, are valuable tools for surveillance and control of antibiotic resistance in different One Health settings, notably with respect to the selection, dissemination, and distribution of antibiotic resistant bacteria in food, as well as to unravel the antibiotic resistance mechanism involved. In the future metatranscriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are expected to enlarge next-generation-sequencing tools to strengthen control of antibiotic resistance in food.
Social norms and risk communication Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-10 Joachim Scholderer, Nina Veflen
Social norms are beliefs about what people in general would consider appropriate behaviour in a particular social context. In this mini-review, we summarise research on the role of social norms in the context of safe food handling practices. We review existing evidence regarding the influence of social norms on food handling practices related to cross-contamination and hygiene, time-temperature control and adequate cooking. Furthermore, we discuss the consequences of biases in social norms and how they might be mitigated by norm-oriented risk communication messages. Finally, we discuss potential conflicts between norms that are instrumental for safe food handling practices and norms that are instrumental for maintaining social relationships, and suggest directions for future research.
Potential use of electronic noses, electronic tongues and biosensors as multisensor systems for spoilage examination in foods Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Mahdi Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Constantin Apetrei, Jesus Lozano, Amarachukwu Anyogu
Development and use of reliable and precise detecting systems in the food supply chain must be taken into account to ensure the maximum level of food safety and quality for consumers. Spoilage is a challenging concern in food safety considerations as it is a threat to public health and is seriously considered in food hygiene issues accordingly. Although some procedures and detection methods are already available for the determination of spoilage in food products, these traditional methods have some limitations and drawbacks as they are time-consuming, labour intensive and relatively expensive. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of rapid, reliable, precise and non-expensive systems to be used in the food supply and production chain as monitoring devices to detect metabolic alterations in foodstuff. Attention to instrumental detection systems such as electronic noses, electronic tongues and biosensors coupled with chemometric approaches has greatly increased because they have been demonstrated as a promising alternative for the purpose of detecting and monitoring food spoilage. This paper mainly focuses on the recent developments and the application of such multisensor systems in the food industry. Furthermore, the most traditionally methods for food spoilage detection are introduced in this context as well. The challenges and future trends of the potential use of the systems are also discussed. Based on the published literature, encouraging reports demonstrate that such systems are indeed the most promising candidates for the detection and monitoring of spoilage microorganisms in different foodstuff.
Nepeta Species: From Farm to Food applications and Phytotherapy Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-04 Bahare Salehi, Marco Valussi, Arun Kumar Jugran, Miquel Martorell, Karina Ramírez-Alarcón, Zorica Z. Stojanović-Radić, Hubert Antolak, Dorota Kręgiel, Ksenija S. Mileski, Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, William N. Setzer, María de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Bilge Şener, Javad Sharifi-Rad
Plant species have long been regarded as possessing the principal ingredients used in widely disseminated ethnomedical practices. Different surveys showed that medicinal plant species used by the inhabitants for the traditional treatment of diseases are inadequately screened for their therapeutic/preventive potential and phytochemical findings. The genus Nepeta L., which belongs to the family Lamiaceae, are widely used in traditional medicine. In this review, Nepeta species, which are used as traditional herbal medicine pursued indigenously, have reported several fpharmacological effects as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, sedative, relaxant, cholesterol lowering, antiasthmatic, carminative, diuretic, diaphoretic, febrifuge, vermifuge, herbicidal, insecticidal and insect repellent, all of them directly related to the specific chemical composition. According to the Nepeta genus phytochemistry, there exist two main essential oil chemotypes. The first is the nepetolactone chemotype, and the second is the 1,8-cineole and/or linalool chemotype. The active constituents from Nepeta genus may provide the opportunity for the production of antidepressive, antidiabetes, analgestic, anti-inflammatory, lipid-lowering and cardioprotective drugs. Due to the effects of Nepeta species on improving the complications of various diseases, the need for doing more extensive and comprehensive clinical trials for the use of Nepeta species in the treatment of diseases is necessary. Recommended future directives incurring the design and conduct of comprehensive trials are pointed out to validate the usefulness of these active plant species and bioactive secondary metabolites either alone or in combination with existing conventional therapies.
Curcumin based nanomedicines as efficient nanoplatform for treatment of cancer: New developments in reversing cancer drug resistance, rapid internalization, and improved anticancer efficacy Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 Shahzeb Khan, Muhammad Imran, Tariq Tahir Butt, Syed Wadood Ali Shah, Muhammad Sohail, Arif Malik, Srijit Das, Hnin Ei Thu, Aishah Adam, Zahid Hussain
Avocado by-products: nutritional and functional properties Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 Rafael G. Araújo, Rosa M. Rodriguez-Jasso, Héctor A. Ruiz, Maria Manuela E. Pintado, Cristóbal Noé Aguilar
BackgroundAvocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a tropical and subtropical fruit that is native to Mexico and Central America; avocado is gaining increasing worldwide acceptance and has received extensive marketing and a wide distribution due to its relevant nutritional benefits for human health. Mexico harvests more than 30 % of avocados worldwide, representing the main producer and exporter of avocado, which has become a crop of high interest and has great economic impact on Mexico.Scope and approachIn this paper, we describe relevant information on the production, composition and application of avocado, with an emphasis on its by-products, focusing on the proper use of waste and the possibility of monetizing waste for nutritional and environmental purposes. The entire avocado is rich in biocompounds (pulp, seed and peel) and has many health benefits, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities, as well as dermatological uses and others. In this paper, we demonstrate the current panorama of production, exportation and uses of avocado in Mexico.Key findings and conclusionsSeveral food grade ingredients can be obtained from avocado wastes, particularly premium-grade fats or extracts with a high functional power. Studies should continue to identify the profiles and phytochemicals available to the business sector, which can also be implemented to valorize the nutritional and functional potential of avocado seeds and peels.
Lactulose: Properties, techno-functional food applications, and food grade delivery system Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 Majid Nooshkam, Afshin Babazadeh, Hossein Jooyandeh
Background Every year, high volumes of whey are producing by dairy industries, which require significant capital investments to discard this highly reactive by-product and to reduce its adverse impacts on the environment. Protein recovery and also whey lactose transformation to biologically active and high added value compounds such as lactulose, are the suggested solutions to reduce these issues. Lactulose is a prebiotic sugar with versatile applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. Scope and approach This review mainly discusses current approaches of lactulose synthesis, its properties, applications in food and pharmaceutical sections, interactions with lipids and proteins, and its potential use as a food grade delivery system. Key findings and conclusions The disaccharide lactulose is a synthetic and non-digestible sugar, which can be synthesized from lactose by glucose to fructose rearranging methods. Its β-glycosidic bond cannot be hydrolyzed by enzymes of upper part of digestional tract. As a potent prebiotic disaccharide, lactulose induces the growth of health-enhancing probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains in concomitant with pathogen-growth suppression. Lactulose is applied in many food products as a bifidogenic agent and functional prebiotic additive for regulating intestinal functions. In pharmaceutical sciences, it can also be used as an effective therapeutic compound for treating some disorders like hepatic encephalopathy and chronic constipation and also as a food grade colon-targeted delivery system (CODES).
Innovative refractance window drying technology to keep nutrient value during processing Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 Nathalie Bernaert, Bart Van Droogenbroeck, Els Van Pamel, Hendrik De Ruyck
The evaluation of the impact of food processing on the nutrients and health benefits of vegetables and fruits is of high practical importance. In this short literature overview the refractance window drying (RWD) technology, a novel contact drying technique, was compared with other drying techniques as the freeze drying technique to stabilize fruits and vegetables. The antioxidant capacity, phenolic or polyphenol content and carotenoids are important published quality properties. The RWD technology as mild drying process showed various opportunities to maintain the product quality and the nutrient content as well as their biological activity to a high degree.
Health impacts of different edible oils prepared from coconut (Cocos nucifera): A comprehensive review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-07-29 Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Soorya Parathodi Illam, Achuthan C. Raghavamenon
Background Edible oils, preferably plant origin are rich sources of fatty acids and other lipophilic antioxidants to the body. Among these, oils derived from the coconut kernel (Cocos nucifera) are widely used in India and the Asia Pacific, which includes copra oil (CO), virgin coconut oil (VCO) and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) oil. Based on the mode of preparation, their composition and biological effects vary. Scope and approach This review compares the physicochemical and biological properties of coconut oils prepared by different methods. The metabolism of coconut oil and its predominant content lauric acid is also explained. This review emphasizes the use of VCO in the prevention and amelioration of several degenerative diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancers, over CO or RBD oils. Key findings and Conclusion There are no evident differences in the fatty acid profiles of CO, VCO and RBD oils. However, they differ in their polyphenol contents, which are reported to be high in VCO, possibly due to less harsh treatment during its preparation. Various epidemiological and clinical reports indicating the health risk of coconut oils could be pertinent to the data on the individuals consumed CO/RBD oil, which lacks polyphenols. Whereas, VCO have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, lipid-lowering and cytoprotective efficacies, which may be attributed to its higher polyphenolics. Further, emerging studies have indicated that hot-extracted VCO (HVCO) have a pharmacological advantage over VCO prepared by fermentation. At this juncture, further explorations on the biopharmaceutical potential of VCO have to be undertaken through clinical studies.
Zein and zein -based nano-materials for food and nutrition applications: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-07-29 Mohammad Reza Kasaai
Background Zein, a byproduct of corn with renewable resources, unique hydrophobic/hydrophilic character, film/fiber forming and antioxidant properties, is a promising biopolymer for food and nutrition applications. The advantages in properties and efficiencies of nano materials over bulk counterparts are the basis of their unique nature in novel technologies. These advantages also expand their possible applications. Scope and approach An effort has been made to review on applications of zein/zein-based nano-materials in various branches of food (except food packaging) and nutrition sectors. The effects of various parameters affecting preparations and properties of the nano-materials are also discussed. Nano-encapsulation of foods and nutrients is the major section of this study. Key findings and conclusions (i) the average size of zein nanoparticles reported to be 50–200 nm; (ii) the functions of zein nanomaterials were multiples: a carrier of delivery (food, beverage, and nutrient) systems; a shell or a core of encapsulated systems; or a food ingredient; (iii) zein-based nano-materials have been used for encapsulation of food and nutrient components including lipids; essential oils; fat soluble vitamins; food colorants; flavors; and natural anti-oxidants; (iv) the bioavailability of food and nutrient components such as folic acid, vitamin D3, curcumin, beta-carotene, and resveratrol was improved by employing the zein-nanoparticles in comparison with the bulk counterparts; and (v) bioactive substances with potential applications for food and nutrition sectors were stabilized by zein/zein-based nano-materials.
Applications of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) in food products Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-07-29 V. Zettel, B. Hitzmann
Background The outstanding nutritional and technological properties lead to innovative applications of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) in food products. Scope and Approach The aim of this contribution is to give an overview of the various food application approaches for chia. The nutritional and technological properties of chia as well as its technological and innovative utilization are presented. Examples for the various applications in food products are given in five main topics: baked goods, dairy products, meat and fish products, gluten-free products and other products such as functional food, hydrocolloid and thickener. Key findings and conclusions Besides the nutritional benefits of chia incorporation in food products the technological effects are emphasized very often. Summarized in five main topics, most authors conclude that chia is a valuable food ingredient for functional food development. The application of chia in baked goods for example is beneficial not only to improve the nutritional value but acting as hydrocolloid or substitute egg, fat or gluten. The increase of oil stability and applications as food thickener in novel food applications are of high importance too. As different chia fractions give various options for applications the utilization of chia for further food products will increase significantly in the future.
The next protein transition Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-07-27 Harry Aiking, Joop de Boer
Background Meeting the UN Sustainable Development Goals requires a relatively rapid transition towards a circular economy. Therefore, a multidisciplinary perspective is required to sketch why a transition from diets based primarily on animal proteins towards diets based primarily on plant proteins products is extremely urgent for both food security and sustainability. Scope and Approach This review starts out by identifying ecological, economic and social aspects of sustainable food consumption. Subsequently, it is argued how protein supply is underlying and linking the top-3 of anthropogenic impacts based on the planetary boundaries concept, i.e. 1) biodiversity loss, 2) nitrogen cycle acceleration, and 3) carbon cycle acceleration (resulting in climate change). These environmental impacts associated with current Western food consumption need to be reduced urgently. In order to address the inefficiencies inherent to current dietary patterns, therefore, a ranked list of more sustainable options is proposed, based on their order of magnitude. Addressing consumers, industry, and governmental stakeholders plus cultural aspects, challenges and options are sketched. Key Findings and Conclusions Clearly, a dietary transition from primarily animal towards plant protein products is required. Fortunately, new dietary guidelines are increasingly taking sustainability into account and the contours of a diet transition are slowly emerging.
Balancing the desire to decrease food waste with requirements of food safety Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-07-27 Gyula Kasza, Barbara Szabó-Bódi, Zoltán Lakner, Tekla Izsó
Background Decreasing food waste has become an important area of food policy. This paper investigates the relationship between food waste reduction and food safety risks. It is a frequent question in both public and professional discussions that how the utilization of expired food stuffs and leftovers could be solved without compromising food safety. Scope and Approach The most important food waste reduction theories and initiatives are listed and evaluated. Key Findings and Conclusions It is challenging to find the golden rule of balance between food waste and food safety. Solutions that seem to be credible often raise the risk to consumers. In order to meet both aspects, cooperation and co-development of food chain actors (consumers and authorities as well) are needed.
Breeding for public health: A strategy Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-07-27 Sven Ove Hansson, Per Åman, Wulf Becker, Dirk-Jan De Koning, Carl Johan Lagerkvist, Ingrid Larsson, Anna Lehrman, Ulf Risérus, Sten Stymne
Background Plant and animal breeding can contribute to promote human health by providing new and healthier food products that farmers can produce in an economically viable way and consumers will choose to buy and eat. However, this can only be achieved if breeding makes full use of knowledge about nutrition, consumer behaviour, farming and agricultural economics. A strategy is needed for breeding for public health. Scope and Approach A multidisciplinary group of researchers has developed a strategy for plant and animal breeding for public health. The group includes experts in plant breeding, animal breeding, food science, nutrition science, clinical nutrition, agricultural economics, consumer research, and ethics. Key Findings and Conclusions An outline is proposed of a strategy for breeding for public health. It aims at improving public health in both low- and high-income countries. To prevent chronic disease, the highest priority should be to develop healthy variants of traditional food items that can be introduced universally, i.e. completely replace the older, less healthy variants. In particular in low-income countries, food products with enhanced micronutrient content are urgently needed. In all countries, crops with improved fatty acid composition can contribute substantially to improved public health. A reasonable second priority is products that may not be suitable for universal introduction but will expectedly be demanded by large groups of consumers. One example could be diminishing the energy density of traditional foodstuffs by reducing their fat, sugar, and starch content and increasing their dietary fibre content. Changes in the current organization of the market for farm products are needed to encourage the production of healthier foodstuffs.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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