显示样式:     当前期刊: Trends in Food Science & Technology    加入关注       排序: 导出
  • Active biocompounds to improve food nutritional value
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    D. Quintin, P. Garcia-Gomez, M. Ayuso, A.M. Sanmartin

    IntroductionConsumers demand natural products, including nutritional supplements, which require a large and continuous supply of active bioactive compounds at a reasonable price. It is for this reason that the use of agricultural by-products as a source of bioactive compounds has shown its potential in different investigations and research projects.ObjectivesTo study and to develop extraction technologies that do not modify the bioactive properties of the bio molecules during its industrial processing or that even improves its activity.MethodsDifferent extraction methodologies are shown.ResultsExtraction methods with non organic solvents have a minimum environmental impact being the best options for natural food ingredients. Fundamental and applied researches are involved in the optimization of extraction technologies and in the study and development of functional foods and nutritional supplements.ConclusionsValorization of wastes from the food industry into active biocompounds is an issue that is becoming more and more important towards the implementation of the Circular Economy, the goal of zero residues and the Clean Label in the European food industries and the health benefits in the European consumers.

  • Conventional and Emerging Detection Techniques for Pathogenic Bacteria in Food Science: A Review
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-07-05
    Saima Hameed, Lijuan Xie, Yibin Ying

    BackgroundContinuous transformation and development of new detection tools for bacteria has converted the laborious scientific work into smart apparatus in recent years. The journey had begun with the culture-based plate enumeration, and now it has evolved into several culture-independent techniques. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is on the top of the list that is now a routinely used biological approach to detect bacterial cells. Instrumental techniques are also helpful in this regard, as they are more sensitive for detection of various microbes.Scope and approachIn this review, we described new trends and their practical application in the fields of detection microbiology and food technology. This study provides a brief overview of conventional and modern detection techniques which includes nucleic-acid sequence based techniques to non-destructive imaging techniques.Key findings and conclusionsBesides the availability of antibiotics and clinical treatments, bacterial infections significantly increase the mortality rate. It is necessary to detect apparent infectious agents beforehand. Therefore, the detection methods for microorganisms should be more rapid, smart and reliable in response to the need. Conventional detection techniques are slow and time-consuming but more accurate and reliable than the modern detection techniques. By combing the mentioned techniques, scientists can achieve better results.

  • Rye and health - Where do we stand and where do we go?
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-07-03
    Karin Jonsson, Roger Andersson, Knud Erik Bach Knudsen, Göran Hallmans, Kati Hanhineva, Kati Katina, Marjukka Kolehmainen, Cecilie Kyrø, Maud Langton, Emilia Nordlund, Helle Nygaard Lærke, Anja Olsen, Kajsa Poutanen, Anne Tjønneland, Rikard Landberg

    BackgroundHigh whole grain intake has consistently been associated with lowered risk of developing a number of chronic diseases. Among cereals, rye has highest content of dietary fiber, together with a wide variety of bioactive compounds. There is accumulating evidence from intervention studies of physiological effects of rye foods with potential health benefits.Scope and ApproachThis review summarizes the state of the art of rye and health and identifies future directions for research and innovation, based partly on findings presented at the international conference “The Power of Rye”, Åland, Finland, 7–8 June 2017.Key Findings and ConclusionsRye foods have well-established beneficial effects on insulin metabolism compared with wheat bread under isocaloric conditions and at standardized amounts of available carbohydrates, which may have positive implications for diabetes prevention. Recent findings suggest that alterations in blood glucose flux partly explain these effects. Moreover, several studies have shown beneficial effects of rye-based foods on satiety, which is one plausible mechanism behind recently demonstrated beneficial effects on weight management. Emerging results indicate beneficial effects of rye intake on inflammation and blood lipids. More research is needed to uncover underlying mechanisms for other demonstrated effects and the long-term implications for health. A challenge with rye-based foods is making them palatable and widely acceptable to consumers. Development of innovative and tasty rye products and targeted communication strategies is crucial in increasing awareness and consumption of rye foods. Novel results in this regard are presented in this review.

  • Biochanin A: A phytoestrogen with therapeutic potential
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Shikha Raheja, Amit Girdhar, Viney Lather, Deepti Pandita
  • A recent review of citrus flavanone naringenin on metabolic diseases and its potential sources for high yield-production
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-06-30
    Naymul Karim, Zhenquan Jia, Xiaodong Zheng, Sunliang Cui, Wei Chen

    BackgroundMetabolic syndromes are the multi-metabolic abnormality characterized by hyperlipidemia, obesity, hyperglycemia, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and neuro-dysfunction. Naringenin, a naturally occurring flavanone compound, abundantly found in citrus fruit, has demonstrated diverse biological activities. In this context, the role of naringenin in the treatment of metabolic disease and alternative sources for high-yield production of naringenin have recently drawn full scientific attention and become an important issue in research.Scope and approachThis review focuses on recent findings of naringenin against metabolic disorders including oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia, obesity, diabetes, inflammation, and organ toxicity. Also, this review highlights the potential sources of naringenin production.Key findings and conclusionsNaringenin exerts its protective effect against metabolic diseases through multiple mechanisms including its antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals, inducing antioxidant enzymes and targeting on phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein Kinase B/nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (PI3K/Akt/Nrf2), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2/antioxidant responsive element (NRf2/ARE), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and nitric oxide-cGMP-protein kinase G-induced KATP channel (NO-cGMP-PKG-KATP). Moreover, microbial production is recommended as a promising alternative method for large-scale production of naringenin. In conclusion, naringenin is a promising compound for the prevention and management of metabolic diseases. Further clinical studies and trials are needed to prove its protective effects on metabolic syndrome in the human population.

  • Therapeutic potentials and compositional changes of valuable compounds from banana- A review
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-06-30
    Sadia Qamar, Azizuddin

    Banana is considered as a potential source of valuable nutraceutical bioactive compounds. In addition, It is not only considered as a fruit crop but also serve as high energy containing food in various parts of the world. The aim of this review is to evaluate the historical record, uses, biological activities, chemical composition and compositional changes during ripening behavior in both edible and non-edible part of banana. Recent studies have shown that banana as raw materials riches in valuable bioactive compounds including as vitamins, phytosterols, biogenic amines, phenolics, carotenoids, volatile compounds, minerals, starch and carbohydrates which are highly required in the diet as they play important role in the maintenance of human health and well-being. This paper also covers the potential biological activities of banana such as antidiarrheal, antiulcerative, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, wound healing, antilithiatic and anticancer activity. It also provide an outline of chemical constituents of banana named vitamins, polyphenols, steroids, triterpenes and amines, carotenoids, starch and carbohydrates, volatile compounds and mineral contents. Furthermore, with the development of fruit these beneficial bioactive compounds vary rapidly because of adopting atmospheric and standardized post and pre-harvested conditions. The mainstream sectors responsible for these changes are highlighted.

  • Recent development of lactoferrin-based vehicles for the delivery of bioactive compounds: Complexes, emulsions, and nanoparticles
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-06-30
    Fuguo Liu, Shuhan Zhang, Junyi Li, David Julian McClements, Xuebo Liu

    BackgroundLactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that exhibits a variety of potentially beneficial biological activities and has favorable safety and biocompatibility characteristics. For these reasons, LF has been widely used as a functional component in the medical, food, and cosmetic industries. Applications of LF-based materials, such as nanoparticles, hydrogels and emulsions, to encapsulate, protect and deliver bioactive compounds is gaining increasing attention.Scope and approachThis review highlights the considerable potential of LF-based encapsulation and delivery systems by summarizing research progress on the structure, physicochemical properties, and biological activities of LF. In particular, it highlights advances in utilizing LF-based nanocarriers as natural vehicles for nutraceutical delivery and release, as well as strategies for encapsulating lactoferrin as a functional ingredient.Key findings and conclusionsFunctional LF-biopolymer complexes can be formed by heat treatment, covalent conjugation or electrostatic assembly under appropriate fabrication conditions. These complexes have been shown to be highly effective for the oral delivery of nutraceuticals and drugs. Lactoferrin can also be utilized to fabricate emulsions, nanoparticles, or microgels to improve the stability and bioaccessibility of bioactive components. However, there are still a number of challenges associated with optimizing the performance of LF-based delivery systems so that they can be used in commercial applications.

  • Vegetarianism during pregnancy: Risks and benefits
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-06-28
    J. Costa-Rodrigues, Rute Sá-Azevedo, João Balinha, Graça Ferro

    Background During pregnancy, women face continuous nutritional challenges. Although it is a personal choice, the adoption of a vegetarian dietary pattern during pregnancy must be regarded as a situation that may be associated with some risks and benefits for the mother and the fetus. Scope and Approach In the present review, the most frequent nutritional deficits among pregnant vegetarians will be discussed, namely, those that refer to vitamin B12, zinc, iron, omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D. If properly planned, vegetarian diets may also be associated with some important health benefits. The main potential outcomes of vegetarianism for pregnant women, fetal development and for the early and later life of the newborns will be also reviewed. Key Findings and Conclusions Taken together, despite some of the controversial published data, vegetarianism appears to be a safe dietary pattern during that period of time. So, the option for vegetarianism must be considered a personal choice that like any other feeding pattern may pose some nutritional risks but also bring some potential health outcomes both for the mother and for the children. In order to deal with the nutritional requirements during pregnancy, it is recommended that vegetarian mothers follow strict nutritional counseling.

  • Cyclodextrin-assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds: Current Research and Future Prospects
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-06-29
    Rui Cai, Yahong Yuan, Lu Cui, Zhouli Wang, Tianli Yue

    Background Phenolic compounds (PC) have received much attention due to their potential bioactive and functional properties. The common solvents used to extract PC from natural sources are organic solvents, which may contribute to environmental pollution and cause health problems in persons. The advent of green chemistry is forcing scientists to explore greener solvents. Recently, cyclodextrins (CDs) in aqueous solution have been applied as extraction solvents for PC. Scope and Approach The extraction role of CDs is mainly attributed to their capacity to form inclusion complexes with PC. This review provides an overview of the key factors involved in the extraction process: type of CD, CD concentration, extraction temperature and time, and extraction technique. Advantages of the CD-assisted extraction of PC are summarized and future research needs are also proposed. Key Findings and Conclusions The addition of CD to the water improves the extraction efficiency for PC and shortens the extraction time, and the obtained PC extract present better antioxidant activity. Not only is the removal of CD unnecessary, but also the presence of CD favors the preparation of the PC extract in a solid state, which are very beneficial since they will be expected to be used either to fortify foods or as a food supplement on an industrial scale. However, further studies are required to evaluate the possibility of combining CDs with other extraction methods, such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, negative pressure cavitation and pressurized liquid extraction, to extract PC from natural materials.

  • Drivers that establish and assembly the lactic acid bacteria biota in cheeses
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-06-22
    Marco Gobbetti, Raffaella Di Cagno, Maria Calasso, Erasmo Neviani, Patrick F. Fox, Maria De Angelis

    Structured Abstract Background: Cheeses are inherently microbiologically and biochemically dynamic. Numerous biotic and abiotic drivers govern the establishment and assembly of a core microbiota in cheese, which, for internally-ripened cheeses, having an intermediate to long period of ripening, consists of starter and non-starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB and NSLAB). The management of this dynamic ecosystem has to consider this core as a super-organism, which results from the sums of microbial metabolisms and interactions among individual microbes. Scope and Approach This review focuses on all presumptive drivers, raw and pasteurized milk, farming system and house microbiota, and intrinsic and extrinsic factors during cheese manufacture and ripening, which qualitatively and mainly depending on the farm management system and cheese variety may influence the populations of SLAB and NSLAB. The interactions between these two microbial groups are described also. Key Findings and Conclusions The cheese ecosystem shows a variable flux of its core microbiota from milking through manufacture to ripening. Many and diverse drivers establish and assembly the lactic acid bacteria biota. If such drivers are efficient to guarantee microbial and cheese diversities, on the other hand, their control is the fundamental pre-requisite to synchronize and balance microbiological events. The methodological approaches (e.g., omics techniques and integrated system biology) have markedly improved to concretize this ambitious goal. Facing and improving the knowledge on the main drivers, the current step should focus on a unique puzzle of coexisting species/biotypes likely a super-organism, whose guide has to consider all casehardened microbial elements.

  • How to trace the geographic origin of mushrooms?
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-06-20
    Aly Farag El Sheikha, Dian-Ming Hu

    Mushrooms became one of the most popular food resources worldwide that are very appreciated by consumers. Fresh produce properties including mushrooms are obviously varied based on their geographical origins. In view of the significant increase in the world's production of mushrooms, this will be accompanied by the increasing attention of all actors in the international food trade system (producers, traders, consumers and the authorities) to obtain a safe and high-quality commodity. This can be achieved through the implementation of an efficient and universal geo-tracing technique. Current approaches of geo-tracing mushrooms are few and have several limitations. Our intent is to suggest the DNA barcoding as a potent and universal method for mushrooms geo-traceability.

  • 更新日期:2018-06-14
  • Bio-mediated generation of food flavors – Towards sustainable flavor production inspired by nature
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-06-08
    Rachid Bel-Rhlid, Ralf Günter Berger, Imre Blank

    Background The consumers’ trend toward naturalness and “clean-label” products advocates the development of “bio-mediated” tools including new processes for the generation of flavors. Today, many fundamental studies demonstrate the feasibility of producing individual flavor compounds or more complex flavoring preparations by fermentation or by enzymatic reactions. However, to turn research into industrial applications, the processes have to be simplified and optimized by combining chemistry, biology and process engineering know-how. Scope and approach This review summarises recent basic research and development on cell and enzyme based formation of volatile flavors with focus on smart combinations of biocatalytic and thermal steps to enrich the natural flavor profile of foods. Ideally, targeted bioconversion of specific raw materials and ingredients will release flavor precursors required to generate the desired flavor profile by appropriate thermal processing. Key findings and conclusions The combination of fermentation or enzymatic treatment of raw materials with heat-induced food processes (e.g. drying, extrusion, roasting) represent an elegant approach in industrial food processing to generate flavors under mild conditions. This requires a good control of fermentation or enzymatic reaction steps to produce suitable substrates at the optimal concentrations adapted to the thermal processes. Using traditional cooking and minimal processing conditions (nature-inspired strategies) has become an attractive approach to generate authentic flavor profiles resonating with consumers’ demand for more naturalness.

  • A compendium of wheat germ: Separation, stabilization and food applications
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-06-07
    Fatma Boukid, Silvia Folloni, Roberto Ranieri, Elena Vittadini

    Background Wheat germ is a precious by-product deriving from the milling industry, as it is a natural concentrated source of essential amino and fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, tocopherols, and phytosterols. However, the presence of high enzymatic activities together with a high content of unsaturated oil, induce a fast decrease in the nutritional value of wheat germ during storage and, consequently, strongly limit product's shelf-life. Scope and approach In recent decades, flour blends from raw or/and processed wheat germ received great interest from nutritional and technological perspectives. Nevertheless, the quality of the end-product strongly depended on the supplementation level, as well as the type and the severity of separation and stabilization techniques that wheat germ went through. Hence, in this review, the newest advances in wheat germ pre-handling approaches and food applications are discussed to provide relevant and updated information about its worthiness to be a part of the human diet. Key findings and conclusions To fully valorize and preserve the nutritious potential of wheat germ, effective pre-treatments of separation and stabilization are needed to guarantee its stability and suitability to meet food quality and safety standards. Such an underutilized ingredient might be a valuable fortifying component for a spectrum of foodstuffs.

  • Recent developments in the enhancement of some postharvest biocontrol agents with unconventional chemicals compounds
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Hongyin Zhang, Gustav Komla Mahunu, Raffaello Castoria, Qiya Yang, Maurice Tibiru Apaliya

    Background Produce are susceptible to microbial attack from diverse sources and the use of novel BCAs has gained recognition as alternative and sustainable applications to lessen the current emerging problems with synthetic fungicide use. Most researchers recommend the combination of two or more biocontrol agents in postharvest diseases control. To this end, the enhancement of biocontrol agents and the mechanisms of action in biocontrol systems have attracted many research interests. In this regard, there have been remarkable efforts to develop a multifaceted system approach for disease control. Scope and approach It has been recognized that the various methods of biological control act together additively or synergistically to achieve significant commercial level of 97–99% disease control. The integration of microbial agents with a wide range of unconventional chemicals and their corresponding mechanisms of action to controlling postharvest fungal pathogens of fruits has been proven be successful. Key findings and conclusions In this review, the combined strategy of unconventional chemical compounds and other BCAs have contributed to varied degree of postharvest diseases control. The beneficial effects of these methods depend on the appropriate combination of the agents based on adequate knowledge of their mechanisms of action in the biocontrol system. Lastly, efforts to upscale these methods to commercial implementation level must be given the necessary consideration.

  • The intelligent delivery systems for bioactive compounds in foods: Physicochemical and physiological conditions, absorption mechanisms, obstacles and responsive strategies
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Jingjing Chai, Ping Jiang, Pengjie Wang, Yumeng Jiang, Dan Li, Weier Bao, Bingxue Liu, Bin Liu, Liyun Zhao, Willem Norde, Qipeng Yuan, Fazheng Ren, Yuan Li

    Background Bioactive natural compounds have received considerable attention due to their health benefits, including anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes and cardiovascular disease-preventing functions. However, the stability of these sensitive compounds can be influenced by unfavourable environmental conditions during processing and storage. In addition, delivery of bioactive compounds via the oral route is restricted by various physiological barriers, including a harsh pH, gastrointestinal enzymes, the mucus layer, and the epithelium. Intelligent delivery systems are a promising method to protect bioactive molecules from degradation and improve their bioavailability. Scope and Approach We have demonstrated the physicochemical and physiological GI conditions. The structural composition of the epithelium and transport mechanisms of bioactives and nanoparticles across the intestinal epithelium were discussed. The effects of enhanced aqueous solubility, stability, bioaccessibility and bioavailability after encapsulation were illustrated. Furthermore, novel intelligent carriers that are responsive to the oral route, pH, enzymes and cell receptors were also discussed. Key findings and conclusions This comprehensive multidisciplinary review provides useful guidelines for the application of bioactive compounds in the food industry. Intelligent carrier systems are designed to improve the low solubility, poor stability and low permeability of the gastrointestinal tract, and they have the potential to improve oral bioavailability.

  • Microencapsulation of active ingredients in functional foods: From research stage to commercial food products
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Qianyu Ye, Nicolas Georges, Cordelia Selomulya

    Background Twelves categories of active ingredients have been recognised to enhance human health. They are to some extent susceptible to certain conditions such as heat, light and low pH. To reduce their susceptibility and achieve controlled release at the target site, various microencapsulation strategies have been introduced. Scope and Approach In this review, the chemical structures, physicochemical properties and beneficial effects of the active components are summarised. Different encapsulation techniques and tailored shell materials have been investigated to optimise the functional properties of microcapsules. Several encapsulated constituents (e.g., amino acids) have been successfully incorporated into food products while others such as lactic acid bacteria are mostly used in the free format. Encapsulating some of these active ingredients will extend their ability to withstand process conditions such as heat and shear, and prolong their shelf stability. Key Findings and Conclusions The functional properties of a microcapsule are encapsulation efficiency, size, morphology, stability, and release characteristics. Several microencapsulation strategies include the use of double emulsions, hybrid wall materials and crosslinkers, increasing intermolecular attraction between shell and core, physical shielding of shell materials, and the addition of certain ions. Other approaches such as the use of hardening agents, nanoencapsulation, or secondary core materials, and the choice of shell materials possessing specific interactions with the core may be used to achieve targeted release of active ingredients. The physicochemical properties of shell materials influence where the active ingredients will be released in vivo. A suitable microencapsulation strategy of active ingredients will therefore expand their applications in the functional foods industry.

  • Tea consumption and disease correlations
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Nevin Sanlier, Buşra Basar Gokcen, Mehmet Altuğ

    Tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world next to water and is obtained from the leaves Camellia sinensis. In recent years, the potential health benefits and effect mechanisms of tea have attracted a lot of interest. The potential health benefits of tea have been attributed to its various phenolic compounds with unique biological properties found in tea. These phenolic compounds are especially catechins and their derivatives, which constitute at most 30% of the dry weight of the tea. Tea is a new and effective strategy for reducing the severity of neurological diseases and for protecting against obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancer (ovaryum, lung, skin, breast, endometrial, prostate, bladder, oral and colorectal cancers). Overall, the study that supports the health benefits of tea is increasing. But, the amounts of and the frequency of tea consumption that is associated with potential health benefits vary greatly from work to work and this situation creates difficulty in determining the optimal consumption amount and frequency that tea can exhibit health benefits. For this reason, we aimed to examine the health effect of the tea and how much consumption is to investigate whether it meets the claimed health benefits. Within that frame, there is a need for more studies on the possible health effects of tea. While studying on that effect, the effects of various doses, forms (in synthetic or natural product matrix), exposure in different periods (short or long term) on health should be studied. However, currently the conducted studies are promising for tea is a bioactive component like polyphenol, theaflavins, thearubigins, caffeine and mineral. In addition, although the fact intake with diet proved to be reliable at the end of the conducted acute and chronic toxicity test is another positive part, safety of bioactive component in tea should be supported through further studies.

  • Relationships between amylopectin internal molecular structure and physicochemical properties of starch
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-06-05
    Fan Zhu

    Background Structure-property relationships of starch components remain a subject of research interest. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence revealing the importance of amylopectin internal structure in determining physicochemical properties of starch. The part between the sole reducing end and out branches of amylopectin forms the internal part of the molecule. It contributes to the formation of the amorphous lamellae of the granules. Scope and Approach This mini-review focuses on the impact of amylopectin internal molecular structure on different physicochemical properties of starch. The properties include gelatinization, swelling power, amylose leaching, pasting, retrogradation, and digestibility of starch. The statistical approach to analyze the structure-property relationships of starch is also discussed. Related nomenclatures are described. Key Findings and Conclusions Amylopectin with a longer internal chain length tends to give more ordered packing of double helices in the granules with a higher thermal stability. A longer internal chain length of amylopectin also contributes to the formation of recrystallized amylopectin with a more ordered structure and higher thermal stability. The results summarised in this mini-review clearly show that the molecular structure of amylopectin internal part should be considered in order to better understand the complex structure-property relationships of starch components.

  • Gold nanoparticles: From synthesis, properties to their potential application as colorimetric sensors in food safety screening
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-06-05
    Hai Chen, Kai Zhou, Guanghua Zhao

    Background Food safety management and guarantee are the basic requirement during food processing, circulation, storage, and marketing. Elevating the ability to evaluate food quality and safety in a rapid, sensitive and reliable manner is of great importance in food industry. Recently, gold nanoparticles due to unique optical property, ease of functionalization and preparation, and high selectivity and sensitivity have received considerable attention in the field of food safety. Scope and approach Gold nanoparticles exhibit distinguishable optical characteristic in different aggregated states and thus have been developed into simple colorimetric sensors for the quick detection of chemical contaminants in food samples. Herein, we reviewed the current methods for synthesis and functionalization of gold nanoparticles, strategies for fabrication of gold nanoparticle based colorimetric sensors and their applications in rapid analysis of food contaminant. Moreover, the inherent optical property of gold nanoparticles and their detecting principle have been highlighted. Finally, the main challenges and future efforts in developing such colorimetric sensors for food contaminants detection were discussed. Key findings and conclusions Gold nanoparticles as smart colorimetric sensors conform to the requirement of modern analysis, such as high selectivity, sensitivity, simplicity, celerity, and portability. Thus, they have great potential to be applied as power sensing tools for food safety screening.

  • Ferulic Acid – An Insight Into Its Current Research and Future Prospects
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2010-11-13
    Somsuvra B. Ghatak, Shital J. Panchal

    Ferulic acid (FA) is an ubiquitous phenolic plant constituent that exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects against cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, on account of its potent antioxidant capacity. The present review summarizes the most recent literature on FA including our current knowledge of its pharmacological actions, pre-clinical and clinical studies, reported mechanisms of actions and pharmacokinetic profile. Simultaneously, the latest research updates as well as avenues for further research are also elucidated pertaining to the positive effects of this widespread phenolic compound for a better understanding of its potential applications in health and disease that may subsequently help in the development and design of suitable dietary recommendations.

  • Organic foods contribution to nutritional quality and value
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Mona Elena Popa, Amalia Carmen Mitelut, Elisabeta Elena Popa, Andreea Stan, Vlad Ioan Popa

    Consumers' concern regarding possible negative health effects of food products produced with intensive farming methods has led to a great interest in the health benefits of organically-produced fruits, vegetables and animal products. Given the significant increase in consumer interest toward this area, there is a need to determine to what extent there is a scientific basis for claims made for organic products. In this sense, studies comparing organic food products and conventional ones were assessed for the key area, nutritional quality. While the assessed articles have shown differences among organic and conventional foods in favour of organic ones, still the information is limited and more research needs to be done in order to draw unwavering conclusions that organic food products are superior compared to conventional ones.

  • Application of atomic force microscopy in microscopic analysis of polysaccharide
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-02-05
    Junqiao Wang, Shaoping Nie

    Background Polysaccharides are one of the major group of bioactive macromolecular derived from plants, bacteria, fungi and seaweeds. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), a type of scanning probe microscopy, is a powerful technology to visualize biopolymers, such as polysaccharides and proteins, up to a single molecular level in “near-native” conditions. Scope and approach This review gives a brief description of AFM technology involved in polysaccharide research in addition to discussion of factors that might influence polysaccharide imaging. More importantly, its contribution to research progress of a variety of well characterized polysaccharides, including pectin, xanthan, carrageenan, curdlan, scleroglucan, xyloglucan, arabinoxylan, starch, etc., and the detailed nanostructure information was summarized. Key findings and conclusions AFM provides a unique insight into polysaccharide studies in terms of morphological features and molecular characteristics, such as heights (diameters), width, contour length, end-to-end distance, polydispersity, etc. Besides, other promising aspects included probing molecular motion and assemblies, as well as visualizing conformation behavior under different conditions.

  • How to make risk communication influence behavior change
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-02-07
    Øydis Ueland

    Background The aims of risk communication to consumers are at least two-fold: to provide information about a food risk or safety issue, and for education purposes enabling a change towards safer behavior. Scope and approach In this paper, challenges confronting risk communicators in providing information consumers act upon will be summarily addressed. The emergence of web-based communication channels as avenues for improved dissemination will also be discussed. Key findings and conclusions Studies show that providing relevant risk messages to vulnerable consumers and target groups requires in-depth knowledge about the receivers of information. Characteristics of these groups may vary across countries, cultures and from case to case, therefore it may be necessary to collect more information about how risk communication should be presented and in which channels to reach the target groups. Messages should be repeated regularly and presented in a way that seems relevant to consumers; less statistics and more stories that they can relate to. Internet is rapidly becoming the number one information channel. Using social media, and web-based tools and games have the potential to rapidly reach specific target groups. Achieving behavior change is dependent on the consumers perceiving the risk information to be relevant for themselves.

  • A nanostructural view of the cell wall disassembly process during fruit ripening and postharvest storage by atomic force microscopy
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Sara Posé, Candelas Paniagua, Antonio J. Matas, A. Patrick Gunning, Victor J. Morris, Miguel A. Quesada, José A. Mercado

    Background The mechanical properties of parenchyma cell walls and the strength and extension of adhesion areas between adjacent cells, jointly with cell turgor, are main determinants of firmness of fleshy fruits. These traits are modified during ripening leading to fruit softening. Cell wall modifications involve the depolymerisation of matrix glycans and pectins, the solubilisation of pectins and the loss of neutral sugars from pectin side chains. These changes weaken the cell walls and increase cell separation, which in combination with a reduction in cell turgor, bring about textural changes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to characterise the nanostructure of cell wall polysaccharides during the ripening and postharvest storage of several fruits. This technique allows the imaging of individual polymers at high magnification with minimal sample preparation. Scope and approach This paper reviews the main features of the cell wall disassembly process associated to fruit softening from a nanostructural point of view, as has been provided by AFM studies. Key findings and conclusions AFM studies show that pectin size, ramification and complexity is reduced during fruit ripening and storage, and in most cases these changes correlate with softening. Postharvest treatments that improve fruit quality have been proven to preserve pectin structure, suggesting a clear link between softening and pectin metabolism. Nanostructural characterisation of cellulose and hemicellulose during ripening has been poorly explored by AFM and the scarce results available are not conclusive. Globally, AFM could be a powerful tool to gain insights about the bases of textural fruit quality in fresh and stored fruits.

  • Mycotoxin risks under a climate change scenario in Europe
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-03-08
    Antonio Moretti, Michelangelo Pascale, Antonio F. Logrieco

    As determined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, warming of the climate system is unequivocal and has been associated with rising sea levels, diminished amounts of ice and snow and increasing oceanic and atmospheric temperatures. Such climate changes have a significant impact on stages and rates of toxigenic fungi development and can modify host-resistance and host-pathogen interactions, influencing deeply also the conditions for mycotoxin production that vary for each individual pathogen. Moreover, the new combinations mycotoxins/host plants/geographical areas are arising to the attention of the scientific community and require new diagnostic tools and deeper knowledge of both biology and genetics of toxigenic fungi. In this review, it is underlined that an extension of the aflatoxin contamination risk in maize in South and Central-Europe is highly likely in the next 30 years, due to favorable climatic conditions to the growth of Aspergillus flavus. Moreover, the mycotoxigenic Fusarium species profile on wheat in Europe is in continuous change in Northern, Central and Southern-Europe with, in particular, a worrisome growing contamination of F. graminearum in the Central and Northern Europe.

  • Allergenic and novel food proteins: State of the art and challenges in the allergenicity assessment
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-03-08
    Isabella Pali-Schöll, Kitty Verhoeckx, Isabel Mafra, Simona L. Bavaro, E.N. Clare Mills, Linda Monaci

    Background There is an increasing demand for animal-derived products in the developing countries. This poses major concerns for the sustainable production of safe and nutritious food. Consequently, to address these needs alternative sustainable sources of valuable dietary proteins are sought for. Scope and approach In this review, we discuss alternative protein sources for human food consumption such as novel foods derived from other animal sources like insects. Before these novel foods can enter the market place, their safety for consumers should be demonstrated. We herein provide an overview of the legislative framework currently in place across Europe, the key elements required for allergenicity assessment of novel foods, the tools at disposal for allergenicity prediction and the most advanced technologies available for food allergen detection and characterization. Key finding and conclusions Effective characterization of potential protein-based allergenic hazards in novel food ingredients is essential to support effective risk assessment. Development of a cost-effective, validated tool box to allow improved hazard characterization for allergenicity risk assessment is needed. Although novel methodologies, such as mass spectrometry, have great potential for allergen characterization and allergen detection in different food contributing to reduce the risk for allergic consumers, some work is still required for method validation and the creation of protein sequence databases for proteomic analysis.

  • Risk communication strategies (on listeriosis) for high-risk groups
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-03-08
    Rui Leandro Maia, Paula Teixeira, Teresa Letra Mateus

    Background Most cases of listeriosis are domestically acquired. Although consumers have a key role in its prevention, it is generally agreed that individuals at higher risk have a low awareness of the infection. Scope and approach A summary of the scientific information on listeriosis awareness among high-risk groups will be presented. Reasons explaining unawareness and potential strategies to communicate with target groups in a manner that can effectively change risk behaviours reducing the burden of listeriosis will be discussed. Key findings and conclusions Research efforts are needed in particular experimental studies that can identify which communication factors have a causal effect on peoples’ risk behaviour and how these factors influence the processing of information by consumers.

  • Safe and sustainable protein sources from the forest industry – The case of fish feed
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-03-08
    Birgir Örn Smárason, Björn Alriksson, Ragnar Jóhannsson

    Background Aquaculture represents a solution to the future world demand for healthy protein while challenges that require urgent solutions are emerging in feed production, such as the rising costs of feed protein and massive imports. From a European perspective, a large proportion of the protein demand is met with imported protein. This article will focus on the development of protein-rich microorganisms (i.e. Single cell protein) as a novel raw material in fish feed which can be produced as an important co-product in wood-based biorefineries, increasing sustainability and the utilization of organic waste material. Scope and Approach Developing a safe and sustainable protein resource from local organic waste-material represents an opportunity for Europe to decrease its reliance on nutritional imports, and address mounting food sector sustainability concerns and a growing protein deficit. At the same time, the nutrient recycling industry represents a growing industry, addressing waste valorization and protein feed production concerns at once. Key Findings and Conclusion An industry and research collaboration has focused on selecting which microorganisms and residual streams from a wood-biorefinery site that would be best suited for production of SCP. The study showed that 38–68% of the fishmeal in a Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) feed could be replaced with SCP while maintaining a similar or slightly improved fish growth. As reported by FAO, aquaculture production of Nile tilapia in 2014 was 3.7 million tonnes, making it one of the most produced fish species in the world.

  • High oleic peanut breeding: Achievements, perspectives, and prospects
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-05-29
    Bhagwat Nawade, Gyan P. Mishra, T. Radhakrishnan, Snehaben M. Dodia, Suhail Ahmad, Abhay Kumar, Atul Kumar, Rahul Kundu
  • Chitosan coatings enriched with essential oils: Effects on fungal decay of fruits and mechanisms of action
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-05-23
    Carlos David Grande Tovar, Clemencia Chaves-Lopez, Annalisa Serio, Chiara Rossi, Antonello Paparella

    Background Pesticides have a negative impact on the health of consumers and on the environment, and as a consequence, the use of naturally occurring antimicrobial agents have become more popular to prevent food spoilage. An alternative is the use of chitosan, because of its antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and its capacity to form films having good mechanical properties. Chitosan has been used in the preparation of films and coatings for the preservation of different food products, and the addition of essential oils have been shown to be a good strategy to improve its antimicrobial activity in situ. Scope and approach This review compiles information related to studies and research that employ chitosan as matrix for films, coatings and nanogels with essential oils extracted from plants, as antifungal agent. A special emphasis has been addressed to the effect exerted on the most pathogenic fungi for crops, also highlighting the mechanisms of action that researchers attribute to the composite, together with inhibition data. Key Findings and Conclusion Effective natural treatments, using chitosan-essential oils films or nano-emulsions, improve the preservation of fruit in terms of fungal decay. The effect is particularly dependent on the ability to release the antimicrobial compounds from the polymer matrix, the type of essential oils, the fungal species, and the incubation temperature. Several efforts are still required to understand in detail the mechanism of degradation of perishable food, how the chitosan-essential oils composites control or inhibit food decay, the effects on other pathogenic and non-pathogenic moulds as well as on the production of mycotoxins.

  • Advances in micro and nano-encapsulation of bioactive compounds using biopolymer and lipid-based transporters
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-05-23
    Mohammad Rezaul Islam Shishir, Lianghua Xie, Chongde Sun, Xiaodong Zheng, Wei Chen

    Background Bioactive compounds possess plenty of health benefits, but they are chemically unstable and susceptible to oxidative degradation. The application of pure bioactive compounds is also very limited in food and drug formulations due to their fast release, low solubility, and poor bioavailability. Encapsulation can preserve the bioactive compounds from environmental stresses, improve physicochemical functionalities, and enhance their health-promoting and anti-disease activities. Scope and approach Micro and nano-encapsulation based techniques and systems have great importance in food and pharmaceutical industries. This review highlights the recent advances in micro and nano-encapsulation of bioactive compounds. We comprehensively discussed the importance of encapsulation, the application of biopolymer-based carrier agents and lipid-based transporters with their functionalities, suitability of encapsulation techniques in micro and nano-encapsulation, as well as different forms of improved and novel micro and nano-encapsulate systems. Key findings and conclusions Both micro and nano-encapsulation have an extensive application, but nano-encapsulation can be a promising approach for encapsulation purposes. Maltodextrin in combination with gums or other polysaccharides or proteins can offer an advantageous formulation for the encapsulation of bioactive compounds by using encapsulation techniques. Electro-spinning and electro-spraying are promising technologies in micro and nano-encapsulation, while solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructure lipid carriers are exposing themselves as the promising and new generation of lipid nano-carriers for bioactive compounds. Moreover, phytosome, nano-hydrogel, and nano-fiber are also efficient and novel nano-vehicles for bioactive compounds. Further studies are required for the improvement of existing encapsulate systems and exploring their application in food and gastrointestinal systems for industrial application.

  • Water transport in starchy foods: Experimental and mathematical aspects
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-05-21
    Oguz Kaan Ozturk, Pawan Singh Takhar

    Background The availability and movement of water inside the food materials play essential roles for food stability by affecting their physical and chemical properties, and microbiological activity. Understanding the moisture sorption behavior is a necessary step to control food properties. Food processing unit operations like drying and cooking influence the behavior of starch since such systems trigger swelling or shrinkage as a result of moisture sorption or desorption mechanisms. Also, these processes alter many aspects of starch-containing foods such as acceptability, nutritional value, quality, and shelf-life. Scope and approach Therefore, understanding the water transport in starchy foods and the changes occurring in functional properties of starch has a great importance to describe and model their sorption and drying behavior. First, the primary mechanisms occurring during water transport such as moisture sorption, swelling, gelatinization, and glass transition are discussed using experimental results presented in the literature. Additionally, the hybrid mixture theory (HMT) and its potential for predicting transport mechanisms in starchy foods is discussed. Key findings and conclusions In addition to experimental considerations, the mathematical modeling provides complementary information to predict the heat and fluid transfer. The hybrid mixture theory based multiscale models are able to describe the physico-chemical changes and general transport mechanisms occurring within a porous food matrix. This theory can also be used to predict the quality changes in food products during processing.

  • l-arabinose isomerases: Characteristics, modification, and application
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-05-21
    Wei Xu, Wenli Zhang, Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Wanmeng Mu
  • Viability of commercial cucumber fermentation without nitrogen or air purging ☆
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-05-21
    Yawen (Karen) Zhai, Ilenys M. Pérez-Díaz, Joscelin T. Diaz

    Background Bloater defect in cucumber fermentation refers to the formation of gas pockets in the seed cavity or endocarp as the result of carbon dioxide (CO2) production and accumulation. It is known to cause significant economic losses for the pickling industry. Scope and Approach This article reviews the causes of bloater defect, sources of the CO2 inducing bloating and strategies to mitigate the production of such gas in fermentations to reduce the defect, including controlled fermentation, inoculation of selected starter cultures, and cover brine acidification and reformulation. It also reviews the application of air or nitrogen purging to reduce bloater index in commercial operations. Key findings and conclusions Microbial activity during fermentation, tissue respiration within the cucumbers as well as the pressure in the fermentation tanks and cover brine composition impact the levels of dissolved CO2 conducive to cucumber bloating. It is speculated that the ability of selected gram-negative bacteria, naturally present in soil and fresh cucumbers, to colonize the internal tissue results in the production of trapped CO2 in the endocarp and seed cavity which accumulates causing bloating defect early in the fermentation. Effective manipulation of the indigenous microbiota may enable cucumber fermentations of acceptable quality without purging. Additionally, conversion of the oxygen present in the fermentation, from equilibration with the atmosphere, to hydrogen peroxide instead of CO2 could aid in the reduction of the incidence of bloating.

  • Analytical methods combined with multivariate analysis for authentication of animal and vegetable food products with high fat content
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
    Arantzazu Valdés, Ana Beltrán, Cristina Mellinas, Alfonso Jiménez, María Carmen Garrigós
  • Dedicated non-destructive devices for food quality measurement: A review
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-05-17
    Sadjad Abasi, Saeid Minaei, Bahareh Jamshidi, Davood Fathi

    The quality of agricultural products is of high importance in terms of consumer interest, determining market acceptance, and thus, directly affects storage and post-harvest processing operations. Quality measurement of fruits, vegetables and food products is at the center of attention by the food industry. Non-destructive measurements of quality parameters have been conducted on many agricultural products and have proved to be rapid and accurate in estimating the quality factors involved. While, non-destructive methods are very useful for quality testing, the recent interest by consumers, researchers, and the food industry in the application of new portable and/or handheld non-destructive devices for quality assessment of agricultural products has added a new dimension to the issue. Because these devices are small-sized, low-cost, low-weight, and easy to use, they can be utilized by farmers, quality inspectors, and even consumers. Thus, researchers have focused on developing portable non-destructive devices for a variety of food items. This review, examines the latest reports on the design and development of dedicated non-destructive portable and/or handheld devices for quality monitoring of agricultural products.

  • Cold atmospheric pressure plasma and low energy electron beam as alternative nonthermal decontamination technologies for dry food surfaces: A review
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-05-08
    Christian Hertwig, Nicolas Meneses, Alexander Mathys

    Background Dry food products are often highly contaminated, and dry stress-resistant microorganisms, such as certain types of Salmonella and bacterial spores, can be still viable and multiply if the product is incorporated into high moisture food products or rehydrated. Traditional technologies for the decontamination of these products have certain limitations and drawbacks, such as alterations of product quality, environmental impacts, carcinogenic potential and/or lower consumer acceptance. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) and low energy electron beam (LEEB) are two promising innovative technologies for microbial inactivation on dry food surfaces, which have shown potential to solve these certain limitations. Scope and approach This review critically summarizes recent studies on the decontamination of dry food surfaces by CAPP and LEEB. Furthermore, proposed inactivation mechanisms, product-process interactions, current limitations and upscaling potential, as well as future trends and research needs for both emerging technologies, are discussed. Key Findings and conclusions CAPP and LEEB are nonthermal technologies with a high potential for the gentle decontamination of dry food surfaces. Both technologies have similarities in their inactivation mechanisms. Due to the limited penetration depth of both technologies, product-process interactions can be minimized by maintaining product quality. A first demonstrator with Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7 for LEEB has already been introduced into the food industry for the decontamination of herbs and spices. Compared with LEEB, CAPP is at the advanced development stage with TRL 5, for which further work is essential to design systems that are scalable to industrial requirements.

  • 更新日期:2018-05-08
  • Mind Genomics (Conjoint Analysis): The new concept research in the analysis of consumer behaviour and choice
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-05-07
    Sebastiano Porretta, Attila Gere, Dalma Radványi, Howard Moskowitz

    Concepts are critical for the development and marketing of products and services. Market research practitioners and their corporate clients are well aware of the need to create winning concepts. To that end, a very large practice has emerged in the business world designed to understand the current competitive environment, identify opportunities, and convert these opportunities into concepts. Look at any prospectus by a market research company and there immediately emerges a self-proclaimed expertise on concept research. In actuality, however, the scientific underpinnings of concept research are quite weak. There is a dearth of both practical and scientific information about how to create and evaluate concepts. Although practitioners provide services for evaluation and optimization, the publications offered by the scientific community and the academic business researchers do not go into depth about how to create and measure concepts, leaving corporations and their developers/researchers in the lurch. The paper introduces the last concept technical upgrade, Mind Genomics, i.e., at its very simplest level, is the study of mixtures, the study of everyday stimuli, to understand the rules of choice, to discover what is important to a person and what is not. MG determines which aspects of the topic drive interest, or not; how people differ in the way they respond to these aspects of the topic; and how these differences cluster to form segments, called mind-sets. An application of MG was carried out to evaluate consumer acceptance of insect protein.

  • Plasma activated water (PAW): Chemistry, physico-chemical properties, applications in food and agriculture
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-05-04
    Rohit Thirumdas, Anjinelyulu Kothakota, Uday Annapure, Kaliramesh Siliveru, Renald Blundell, Ruben Gatt, Vasilis P. Valdramidis

    Background Cold plasma is an emerging non-thermal disinfection and surface modification technology which is chemical free, and eco-friendly. Plasma treatment of water, termed as plasma activated water (PAW), creates an acidic environment which results in changes of the redox potential, conductivity and in the formation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS). As a result, PAW has different chemical composition than water and can serve as an alternative method for microbial disinfection. Scope and approach This paper reviews the different plasma sources employed for PAW generation, its physico-chemical properties and potential areas of PAW applications. More specifically, the physical and chemical properties of PAW are outlined in relation to the acidity, conductivity, redox potential, and concentration of ROS, RNS in the treated water. All these effects are in microbial nature, so the applications of PAW for microbial disinfection are also summarized in this review. Finally, the role of PAW in improving the agricultural practices, for example, promoting seed germination and plant growth, is also presented. Key findings and conclusions PAW appears to have a synergistic effect on the disinfection of food while it can also promote seedling growth of seeds. The increase in the nitrate and nitrite ions in the PAW could be the main reason for the increase in plant growth. Soaking seeds in PAW not only serves as an anti-bacterial but also enhances the seed germination and plant growth. PAW could potentially be used to increase crop yield and to fight against the drought stress environmental conditions.

  • Application of atomic force microscopy in food microorganisms
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-05-04
    Qin Liu, Hongshun Yang

    Background Microorganisms play an important role in the food industry. Knowledge of the surface structural and physical properties of food microorganism cells is crucial to gain a detailed understanding of their functions in the natural environment and to explore them efficiently in various food processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), as a non-invasive examination tool, has been widely used to image the surface ultrastructure and to probe the physical properties of food microorganisms. Scope and approach In the current review, detailed applications of AFM in various food microorganisms are outlined, including surface imaging, biomolecular interactions, surface stiffness, and physicochemical properties, which have contributed to our knowledge of cell surface functions. The study emphasises the combination of AFM imaging with force determination, which added a new feature to the AFM technique; i.e., mapping of specific interactions. The combined use of AFM with other complementary techniques for a comprehensive description of cell surface is also reported. Conclusions and key findings: AFM has given promising results and thus could be a powerful technique for surface characterisation at nanoscale resolution and could provide new insight into the structure-function relationship of microbial surfaces.

  • The components of a food traceability system
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-05-03
    Petter Olsen, Melania Borit

    Background Traceability of food products has become the focus of regional and national legislation, of many research and technical development initiatives and projects, and of many scientific articles. However, most of the scientific publications do not differentiate between the components of a traceability system, and those who do to some degree use inconsistent terminology and definitions. This weakens the analysis and the conclusions, and it can lead to misunderstanding in relation to what a traceability system is, what the components are, and how system functionality can be improved. Scope and approach This paper provides a structure for describing and analyzing a traceability system and emphasizes the difference between the system mechanisms as opposed to the attributes of the units that are traced. The basis for the classification outlined in this article is practical experience from traceability system implementations in the food industry, and participation in international standardization processes relating to food traceability. The references and the authors’ experience are from the food sector, but the component description is likely to be relevant and applicable to any product traceability system in a supply chain. ‘Traceability system’ is used as a generic term in this article, encompassing the principles, practices, and standards needed to achieve traceability of food products, regardless of how these are implemented. In practice in the food industry, most traceability systems are computerized and they are implemented through extensive use of information and communications technology (ICT), but in principle a traceability system could be manual and paper-based (as was indeed common practice only a few years ago), and the components hierarchy outlined in this article would still be applicable. Key findings and conclusions This paper identifies the general components of a traceability system to be the identification of the units under consideration, the recording of the joining and splitting of these units as they move through the supply chain (the transformations), and the recording of the unit attributes. The distinction between the different components is particularly important when describing and comparing traceability systems, and when recommending improvements. In both these cases, the respective components need to be considered separately.

  • Bamboo: A rich source of natural antioxidants and its applications in the food and pharmaceutical industry
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-05-03
    Chongtham Nirmala, Madho Singh Bisht, Harjit Kaur Bajwa, Oinam Santosh

    Background: Bamboo is a multipurpose plant known mostly for its industrial uses but is now being recognized as a potential source of bioactive compounds and natural antioxidants. All the parts of the bamboo plant such as rhizome, culm shaving, leaves, roots, shoots and seeds have clinical applications. Studies have revealed that bamboo is a rich source of antioxidants and regular consumption of bamboo-based products may reduce the risk of age-related chronic diseases including cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancer and diabetes. Scope and approach: This review article reports a comprehensive insight concerning antioxidants and antioxidant properties of bamboo shoots and leaves and their prospects for utilization in the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. Antioxidants are vital constituents in the food and pharmaceutical industry as they scavenge free radicals that cause deterioration of products during processing and storage. They also promote human health by neutralizing cell damage caused by free radicals. Key findings and conclusion: Antioxidants are known to confer health benefits such as prevention of cancer and degenerative diseases, slowing down the aging process and promotion of cardiovascular health. The main antioxidants in bamboo leaves and shoots are phenols, vitamin C & E and mineral elements such as selenium, copper, zinc, iron and manganese. At present, natural antioxidants are in great demand as synthetic antioxidants being used in food and pharmaceuticals may be deleterious to health. Hence, bamboo a fast growing plant with huge biomass can serve as an alternative for the production of natural antioxidants.

  • Are the present standard methods effectively useful to mitigate the environmental impact of the 99% EU food and drink enterprises?
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-05-03
    Alessio Cimini, Mauro Moresi

    Background The environmental performance of food and drink production may be currently assessed by several standard methods. Except the ISO Life Cycle Assessment, Environmental Product Declaration® and Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) methods, all the other international standards account for the single impact category of climate change. The PEF method requires the estimation of as many as 14 impact categories and is thus regarded as complex and expensive. Several independent studies have shown that climate change is the impact category with the lowest uncertainty level. Scope and Approach In this viewpoint paper, the mere assessment of the Product Carbon Footprint (PCF) using so-called secondary data was recommended as the most direct and economical method to allow SMEs to improve their sustainability via a simple and stepwise virtuous approach. Key Findings and Conclusions By applying a previously developed LCA model, the carbon footprint (PCF) of beer packed in 66-cL glass bottles in a medium-sized brewery was estimated (∼90 kg CO2e hL−1) and the main life cycle hotspots were identified. By resorting to 100%-recycled glass bottles, barley grown locally using organic agriculture methods, rail instead of road transport; etc., it was possible to reduce PCF to as low as 49 kg CO2e hL−1. A cost/benefit analysis might help SMEs to recognize which opportunities effectively reduce their product environmental impact, as well as to decide to invest on the collection of selected primary data to make PCF calculation more accurate, or further progress in the estimation of other selected impact categories.

  • Global food security – Issues, challenges and technological solutions
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-05-03
    Ultan McCarthy, Ismail Uysal, Ricardo Badia Melis, Samuel Mercier, Colm O. Donnell, Anastasia Ktenioudaki

    Background Food security is both a complex and challenging issue to resolve as it cannot be characterized or limited by geography nor defined by a single grouping, i.e., demography, education, geographic location or income. Currently, approximately one billion people (16% of global population) suffer from chronic hunger in a time when there is more than enough food to feed everyone on the planet. Therein lies the Food security challenge to implement an ability to deal with increasing food shortages, caused by a combination of waste and an ever expanding world population. At current levels prediction state that we must increase global food production by 70% on already over exploited finite infrastructures before 2050. Scope and Approach This review paper firstly introduces the concept of Food Security with an overview of its scale and depth in the context of the global food industry. It then highlights the main sources. The readership is then introduced to the key factors affecting food security and highlights the many national and international measures adopted to tackle the problem at both policy and technological level. Key Findings and Conclusions Food experts indicate that no one single solution will provide a sustainable food security solution into the future. Collective stakeholder engagement will prove essential in bringing about the policy changes and investment reforms required to achieve a solution. Achieving truly sustainable global food security will require a holistic systems-based approach, built on a combination of policy and technological reform, which will utilize existing systems combined with state-of-the-art technologies, techniques and best practices some of which are outlined herein.

  • Mass spectrometry based proteomics as foodomics tool in research and assurance of food quality and safety
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-05-03
    Uroš Andjelković, Djuro Josić

    Background As a comprehensive discipline that studies food and nutrition, foodomics requires reliable qualitative and quantitative information about the food proteome component in order to extract new integrative information from the complex multivariable space of omics. This new information is necessary to achieve a higher level of understanding of processes in food science and technology, consequently new functions of food and improved markers of food quality and safety and completely transform concept of food safety. Scope and approach We are making an effort to present mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomic approaches that are being utilized in different proteomic studies, not necessarily in the field of foodomics, which are important and have the potential to advance this field. Current analytical capabilities of MS-based proteomics together with sample preparation procedures and quantification strategies, and recent technical developments were presented. Key findings and conclusions MS-based proteomics enables the analysis of different aspects of proteins and provides a variety of approaches for reliable quantification of individual proteins and/or food proteome. This is a complex field and its successful implementation requires a dedicated analyst, a thorough design of sample preparation procedure, the selection of an MS technique and approach, an adequate type of mass spectrometer, a thorough data analysis and validation. Improvements in the technology of mass spectrometers are continuously expanding capabilities of MS-based proteomics.

  • Recent advances in atomic force microscopy for assessing the nanomechanical properties of food materials
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-05-02
    Stefany Cárdenas-Pérez, José Jorge Chanona-Pérez, Juan Vicente Méndez-Méndez, Israel Arzate-Vázquez, Josué David Hernández-Varela, Norma Güemes Vera

    Background Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to study the molecular structure of biological materials. AFM has become a novel tool that allows measurement of nanomechanical properties of food materials. The importance of evaluating these properties in foods is that the biological functions are closely linked with physical phenomena that occur on the cell surfaces. Scope and approach The AFM is a technique that has already been used in the food research community as an efficient tool to evaluate cell mechanics occurring in food materials and it is possible to study the physical phenomena that occur in the cells and tissues of food during its processing and storage. This article presents an overview of the main issues that may arise during the evaluation of mechanical properties by AFM. It may be used as a guideline in order to apply these techniques for foods. A summary of the most recent studies in the nanomechanical properties of food is included. Key findings and conclusions AFM has been used to evaluate how nanomechanical phenomena on cell surfaces influence in the quality of food materials, as well as to evaluate the changes that occur at the nanometric scale in food materials due to its processing and storage. The methods to analyze nanomechanical properties in foods are not yet standardized since this is still a rarely used technique for foods. The development and application of techniques for measuring the nanomechanical properties in food materials is necessary. AFM and nanoindentation will be useful tools for the development of food nanotechnology.

  • A critical analysis of the cold plasma induced lipid oxidation in foods
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-04-27
    Mohsen Gavahian, Yan-Hwa Chu, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Francisco J. Barba, N.N. Misra

    Background : Cold plasma is an emerging, economical and environment-friendly technology with potential applications in food and bioprocessing industry, including microbial decontamination, enzyme inactivation, shelf-life extension, and physicochemical modification. These advantages stem from the cocktail of reactive species and the physical processes that are associated with gaseous electrical discharges. However, when oxygen is present as a component of the gas in which plasma discharges are made, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) could result in decreased food quality. The lipids oxidation induced by an oxygen-containing cold plasma process can eventually affect the acceptability and shelf-life of foods. Scope and approach : Product safety and quality are crucial considerations for the industrial adoption of cold plasma technology, necessitating a comprehensive review. This review critically analyses the oxidative impact of this novel technology on lipids, highlights the practical implications, and proposes strategies to mitigate the challenges. Key findings and conclusions : Cold plasma in oxygen-containing inducer gases affects the lipids in several food materials including cereals, edible oils, dairy, and meat products. Therefore, it is necessary to understand and address its oxidative effects in different foods. Processing the appropriate food types under optimized process conditions along with the careful handling of the plasma-treated foods are among the key considerations to minimize the negative impacts on food lipids.

  • Bringing cultured meat to market: Technical, socio-political, and regulatory challenges in Cellular Agriculture
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-04-27
    Dr Neil Stephens, Illtud Dunsford, Lucy Di Silvio, Dr Marianne Ellis, Abigail Glencross, Dr Alexandra Sexton

    Background Cultured meat forms part of the emerging field of cellular agriculture. Still an early stage field it seeks to deliver products traditionally made through livestock rearing in novel forms that require no, or significantly reduced, animal involvement. Key examples include cultured meat, milk, egg white and leather. Here, we focus upon cultured meat and its technical, socio-political and regulatory challenges and opportunities. Scope and Approach The paper reports the thinking of an interdisciplinary team, all of whom have been active in the field for a number of years. It draws heavily upon the published literature, as well as our own professional experience. This includes ongoing laboratory work to produce cultured meat and over seventy interviews with experts in the area conducted in the social science work. Key Findings and Conclusions: Cultured meat is a promising, but early stage, technology with key technical challenges including cell source, culture media, mimicking the in vivo myogenesis environment, animal derived and synthetic materials, and bioprocessing for commercial scale production. Analysis of the social context has too readily been reduced to ethics and consumer acceptance, and whilst these are key issues, the importance of the political and institutional forms a cultured meat industry might take, must also be recognised, and how ambiguities shape any emergent regulatory system.

  • Main characteristics of peanut skin and its role for the preservation of meat products
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-04-25
    Jose M. Lorenzo, Paulo E.S. Munekata, Anderson S. Sant'Ana, Rafaela Baptista Carvalho, Francisco J. Barba, Fidel Toldrá, Leticia Mora, Marco A. Trindade

    Background The produced peanuts by-products are a huge challenge, but it is recognized to be a source of valuable nutrients, including natural antioxidants and antimicrobials. Antioxidants are considered as necessary ingredients in food to prevent oxidative reactions and their undesirable effects in food quality during processing and storage. However, the use of such compounds is regulated due to their harmful effects revealed by in vitro and in vivo studies. The use of natural antioxidants appears as an interesting alternative for food producers, particularly meat industries. Scope and approach Peanut skin (PS), a by-product of peanut processing in agro-industries, constitutes an under-explored source of natural antioxidants. Thus, this review was focused on both the reuse of peanuts by-products and societal health, reducing the use of synthetic antioxidants and antimicrobials. Key findings and conclusions Proanthocyanidins are the main compounds in PS that are associated with the antioxidant activity in vitro and its protective effect in meat products. Studies in recent literature strengthen the role of PS as a natural source of antioxidants wherein oxidative reactions involving mainly pigments, lipids and proteins are delayed.

  • Nutritional, functional and biological properties of insect proteins: Processes for obtaining, consumption and future challenges
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-04-23
    Ruann Janser Soares de Castro, André Ohara, Jessika Gonçalves dos Santos, Maria Aliciane Fontenele Domingues

    Background Consuming insects as an alternative protein source is considered a future trend and a viable strategy that could potentially contribute to global food security. Insects are a non-conventional source of protein, either for human consumption directly or indirectly as a component in recomposed foods or added to feedstock mixtures. Moreover, these proteins have demonstrated a broad range of applications as peptides with antihypertensive, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. However, aspects such as food safety and processing of these proteins need further studies for their elucidation and optimization. Scope and Approach In this review, aspects of nutritional value and risks of insect consumption are reported. Additionally, conventional processing techniques and recent advances in insect protein extraction and production are presented. The application of bioactive peptides obtained from insect protein hydrolysates is reported, focusing on their potential antihypertensive, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Key Findings and Conclusions Insect proteins have great advantages in terms of nutritional value, total protein level and amino acid profile. However, some safety concerns must be taken into consideration in large-scale production. The conventional processing of insects proteins is very particular, depending on several aspects such as species, larval stage, and cultivation, among others. Nonetheless, recent advances in insect protein production via enzymatic hydrolysis and heterologous expression have shown a promising technology for the study and exploitation of their bioactive properties, such as the antimicrobial, antioxidant and antihypertensive (inhibition of ACE) activity of insect peptides.

  • Diversity and fate of spore forming bacteria in cocoa powder, milk powder, starch and sugar during processing: A review
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-04-22
    Ana Paula Maciel Pereira, Anderson S. Sant’Ana

    Background Raw materials such as cocoa, milk powder, sugar, and starch are widely used in the formulation of a wide variety of processed foods. The unit operations applied during their production vary according to their specific properties, technological advances and needs, which undoubtedly affect the microbial composition found in these raw materials. The microbial composition of these raw materials is known to consist mainly of spores of bacteria, which are known to withstand harsh food processing conditions. Scope and research This article aims to discuss data available on the diversity of spore forming bacteria in selected raw materials (cocoa, milk powder, sugar, starch). These raw materials are contaminated mainly by spore forming bacteria, which can germinate and be a concern in products made with these ingredients. In addition, this review presents data gaps and studies needed to establish the fate of spore forming bacteria throughout the production chain of specific raw materials. Key findings and conclusions The review of literature conducted in this study indicates that data on the effects of processing and diversity of spore forming bacteria in sugar and starch are much scarcer compared with cocoa and milk powders. Thus, cutting-edge approaches combining quantitative data with metagenomics could be used to improve our knowledge on the fate and diversity of spore forming bacteria in raw materials. These approaches can be employed to guide further developments that are aimed at enhancing food safety and controlling food spoilage caused by spore forming bacteria.

  • Meeting the challenges in the development of risk-benefit assessment of foods
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-04-21
    Maarten J. Nauta, Rikke Andersen, Kirsten Pilegaard, Sara M. Pires, Gitte Ravn-Haren, Inge Tetens, Morten Poulsen

    Background Risk-benefit assessment (RBA) of foods aims to assess the combined negative and positive health effects associated with food intake. RBAs integrate chemical and microbiological risk assessment with risk and benefit assessment in nutrition. Scope and Approach Based on the past experiences and the methodological differences between the underlying research disciplines, this paper aims to describe the recent progress in RBAs, identifying the key challenges that need to be addressed for further development, and making suggestions for meeting these challenges. Key Findings and Conclusions Ten specific challenges are identified and discussed. They include the variety of different definitions and terminologies used in the underlying research disciplines, the differences between the “bottom-up” and the “top-down” approaches and the need for clear risk-benefit questions. The frequent lack of data and knowledge with their consequential uncertainties is considered, as well as the imbalance in the level of scientific evidence associated with health risks and benefits. The challenges that are consequential to the need of considering substitution issues are discussed, as are those related to the inclusion of microbiological hazards. Further challenges include the choice of the integrative health metrics and the potential scope of RBAs, which may go beyond the health effect. Finally, the need for more practical applications of RBA is stressed. Suggestions for meeting the identified challenges include an increased interdisciplinary consensus, reconsideration of methodological approaches and health metrics based on a categorisation of risk-benefit questions, and the performance of case studies to experience the feasibility of the proposed approaches.

  • Improving the bioavailability of phenolic compounds by loading them within lipid-based nanocarriers
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-04-11
    Afshin Faridi Esfanjani, Elham Assadpour, Seid Mahdi Jafari
  • Active biocompounds to improve food nutritional value
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    D. Quintin, P. Garcia-Gomez, M. Ayuso, A.M. Sanmartin

    Introduction Consumers demand natural products, including nutritional supplements, which require a large and continuous supply of active bioactive compounds at a reasonable price. It is for this reason that the use of agricultural by-products as a source of bioactive compounds has shown its potential in different investigations and research projects. Objectives To study and to develop extraction technologies that do not modify the bioactive properties of the bio molecules during its industrial processing or that even improves its activity. Methods Different extraction methodologies are shown. Results Extraction methods with non organic solvents have a minimum environmental impact being the best options for natural food ingredients. Fundamental and applied researches are involved in the optimization of extraction technologies and in the study and development of functional foods and nutritional supplements. Conclusions Valorization of wastes from the food industry into active biocompounds is an issue that is becoming more and more important towards the implementation of the Circular Economy, the goal of zero residues and the Clean Label in the European food industries and the health benefits in the European consumers.

  • What are the scientific challenges in moving from targeted to non-targeted methods for food fraud testing and how can they be addressed? – Spectroscopy case study
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-04-04
    Terry F. McGrath, Simon A. Haughey, Jenny Patterson, Carsten Fauhl-Hassek, James Donarski, Martin Alewijn, Saskia van Ruth, Christopher T. Elliott

    Background The authenticity of foodstuffs and associated fraud has become an important area. It is estimated that global food fraud costs approximately $US49b annually. In relation to testing for this malpractice, analytical technologies exist to detect fraud but are usually expensive and lab based. However, recently there has been a move towards non-targeted methods as means for detecting food fraud but the question arises if these techniques will ever be accepted as routine. Scope and approach In this opinion paper, many aspects relating to the role of non-targeted spectroscopy based methods for food fraud detection are considered: (i) a review of the current non-targeted spectroscopic methods to include the general differences with targeted techniques; (ii) overview of in-house validation procedures including samples, data processing and chemometric techniques with a view to recommending a harmonized procedure; (iii) quality assessments including QC samples, ring trials and reference materials; (iv) use of “big data” including recording, validation, sharing and joint usage of databases. Key findings and conclusions In order to keep pace with those who perpetrate food fraud there is clearly a need for robust and reliable non-targeted methods that are available to many stakeholders. Key challenges faced by the research and routine testing communities include: a lack of guidelines and legislation governing both the development and validation of non-targeted methodologies, no common definition of terms, difficulty in obtaining authentic samples with full traceability for model building; the lack of a single chemometric modelling software that offers all the algorithms required by developers.

  • An overview of the traditional and innovative approaches for pectin extraction from plant food wastes and by-products: Ultrasound-, microwaves-, and enzyme-assisted extraction
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-04-03
    Mirela Marić, Antonela Ninčević Grassino, Zhenzhou Zhu, Francisco J. Barba, Mladen Brnčić, Suzana Rimac Brnčić

    Background A large amount of food wastes and by-products are produced from farm to plate. They represent valuable sources for the production of high-added value compounds such as pectin. Pectin is the methylated ester of polygalacturonic acid and presents a wide range of applications in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products as well as in food industry such as gelling agent in fruit-based products, stabilizer in fruit and milk beverages and fruit filling for bakery and confectionary products, among others. Therefore, pectin recovery is of a great importance. Scope and Approach The commercially available pectin is almost exclusively derived from citrus peel or apple pomace, by-products from fruit juice manufacturing. But, nowadays the number of novel food waste and by-products sources for pectin extraction are increasing. Moreover, the application of innovative approaches is necessary due to the limitation of conventional processes. The present review will focus on the conventional and innovative processing techniques (microwave extraction, enzymatic extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction) to extract pectin from different wastes and by-products. Key Findings and Conclusions The pectin extraction differs according to the matrix studied as well as temperature, pH, time, solvents, and solid to liquid ratio. The use of innovative extraction processes such as ultrasound, microwave and enzymes can be a useful tool to increase pectin yield and quality, and reducing extraction time, temperature, use of toxic solvents and strong acidic conditions for pectin recovery. Moreover, the combination of solvent modelling and the use of particular extraction process can enable the selective recovery of pectin.

  • Emerging technologies: Back to the future
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-04-03
    Dietrich Knorr

    Background Emerging technologies, especially high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields and cold atmospheric plasma applications, are discussed and the need for targeted emerging and future research areas is presented. Scope and Approach The need for more data on kinetics, mechanisms, indicator organisms and microbial aggregation is forwarded. Further, more emphasis needs to be laid on: food chain and process integration; on combination processes of various technologies; re-evaluation of existing technologies using modern toolboxes; improved equipment; materials and process design; adaption of or to product requirements and formulations; and better considerations regarding consumer acceptance of emerging technologies as well as appropriate research design and reporting requirements. Key findings and conclusion Examples of related data generated in the author's laboratories during the last 35 years are presented to aid towards future research quality, process and product improvements.

  • Advances in selenium-enriched foods: From the farm to the fork
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 6.609) Pub Date : 2018-03-29
    Jie Wan, Min Zhang, Benu Adhikari

    Background Selenium(Se) is an element found in the soil, which is also an essential micronutrient for human body. In fact, Se content of most of foods is very low, the Se requirement of the body can be satisfied with dietary supplements, Se-enriched foods is a good choice to deliver Se. Scope and approach In modern society, the suitable agronomic-based and processing-based strategies can be utilized by farmers and producers to produce Se-enriched food products with high quality. We can also use some methods to optimize the Se content and bioaccessibility of Se-enriched foods. Key findings and conclusions Agricultural stragety biofortification is an efficient way to produce Se-enriched local original products. But some processing methods may decrease the Se content of processed food. In addition, different Se forms have different bioaccessibility to living organisms.

Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
化学 • 材料 期刊列表