Improving the bioavailability of phenolic compounds by loading them within lipid-based nanocarriers Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-04-11 Afshin Faridi Esfanjani, Elham Assadpour, Seid Mahdi Jafari
Active biocompounds to improve food nutritional value Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-04-05 D. Quintin, P. Garcia-Gomez, M. Ayuso, A.M. Sanmartin
Introduction Consumers demand natural products, including nutritional supplements, which require a large and continuous supply of active bioactive compounds at a reasonable price. It is for this reason that the use of agricultural by-products as a source of bioactive compounds has shown its potential in different investigations and research projects. Objectives To study and to develop extraction technologies that do not modify the bioactive properties of the bio molecules during its industrial processing or that even improves its activity. Methods Different extraction methodologies are shown. Results Extraction methods with non organic solvents have a minimum environmental impact being the best options for natural food ingredients. Fundamental and applied researches are involved in the optimization of extraction technologies and in the study and development of functional foods and nutritional supplements. Conclusions Valorization of wastes from the food industry into active biocompounds is an issue that is becoming more and more important towards the implementation of the Circular Economy, the goal of zero residues and the Clean Label in the European food industries and the health benefits in the European consumers.
What are the scientific challenges in moving from targeted to non-targeted methods for food fraud testing and how can they be addressed? – Spectroscopy case study Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-04-04 Terry F. McGrath, Simon A. Haughey, Jenny Patterson, Carsten Fauhl-Hassek, James Donarski, Martin Alewijn, Saskia van Ruth, Christopher T. Elliott
Background The authenticity of foodstuffs and associated fraud has become an important area. It is estimated that global food fraud costs approximately $US49b annually. In relation to testing for this malpractice, analytical technologies exist to detect fraud but are usually expensive and lab based. However, recently there has been a move towards non-targeted methods as means for detecting food fraud but the question arises if these techniques will ever be accepted as routine. Scope and approach In this opinion paper, many aspects relating to the role of non-targeted spectroscopy based methods for food fraud detection are considered: (i) a review of the current non-targeted spectroscopic methods to include the general differences with targeted techniques; (ii) overview of in-house validation procedures including samples, data processing and chemometric techniques with a view to recommending a harmonized procedure; (iii) quality assessments including QC samples, ring trials and reference materials; (iv) use of “big data” including recording, validation, sharing and joint usage of databases. Key findings and conclusions In order to keep pace with those who perpetrate food fraud there is clearly a need for robust and reliable non-targeted methods that are available to many stakeholders. Key challenges faced by the research and routine testing communities include: a lack of guidelines and legislation governing both the development and validation of non-targeted methodologies, no common definition of terms, difficulty in obtaining authentic samples with full traceability for model building; the lack of a single chemometric modelling software that offers all the algorithms required by developers.
An overview of the traditional and innovative approaches for pectin extraction from plant food wastes and by-products: Ultrasound-, microwaves-, and enzyme-assisted extraction Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-04-03 Mirela Marić, Antonela Ninčević Grassino, Zhenzhou Zhu, Francisco J. Barba, Mladen Brnčić, Suzana Rimac Brnčić
Background A large amount of food wastes and by-products are produced from farm to plate. They represent valuable sources for the production of high-added value compounds such as pectin. Pectin is the methylated ester of polygalacturonic acid and presents a wide range of applications in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products as well as in food industry such as gelling agent in fruit-based products, stabilizer in fruit and milk beverages and fruit filling for bakery and confectionary products, among others. Therefore, pectin recovery is of a great importance. Scope and Approach The commercially available pectin is almost exclusively derived from citrus peel or apple pomace, by-products from fruit juice manufacturing. But, nowadays the number of novel food waste and by-products sources for pectin extraction are increasing. Moreover, the application of innovative approaches is necessary due to the limitation of conventional processes. The present review will focus on the conventional and innovative processing techniques (microwave extraction, enzymatic extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction) to extract pectin from different wastes and by-products. Key Findings and Conclusions The pectin extraction differs according to the matrix studied as well as temperature, pH, time, solvents, and solid to liquid ratio. The use of innovative extraction processes such as ultrasound, microwave and enzymes can be a useful tool to increase pectin yield and quality, and reducing extraction time, temperature, use of toxic solvents and strong acidic conditions for pectin recovery. Moreover, the combination of solvent modelling and the use of particular extraction process can enable the selective recovery of pectin.
Emerging technologies: Back to the future Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-04-03 Dietrich Knorr
Background Emerging technologies, especially high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields and cold atmospheric plasma applications, are discussed and the need for targeted emerging and future research areas is presented. Scope and Approach The need for more data on kinetics, mechanisms, indicator organisms and microbial aggregation is forwarded. Further, more emphasis needs to be laid on: food chain and process integration; on combination processes of various technologies; re-evaluation of existing technologies using modern toolboxes; improved equipment; materials and process design; adaption of or to product requirements and formulations; and better considerations regarding consumer acceptance of emerging technologies as well as appropriate research design and reporting requirements. Key findings and conclusion Examples of related data generated in the author's laboratories during the last 35 years are presented to aid towards future research quality, process and product improvements.
Advances in selenium-enriched foods: From the farm to the fork Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-29 Jie Wan, Min Zhang, Benu Adhikari
Background Selenium(Se) is an element found in the soil, which is also an essential micronutrient for human body. In fact, Se content of most of foods is very low, the Se requirement of the body can be satisfied with dietary supplements, Se-enriched foods is a good choice to deliver Se. Scope and approach In modern society, the suitable agronomic-based and processing-based strategies can be utilized by farmers and producers to produce Se-enriched food products with high quality. We can also use some methods to optimize the Se content and bioaccessibility of Se-enriched foods. Key findings and conclusions Agricultural stragety biofortification is an efficient way to produce Se-enriched local original products. But some processing methods may decrease the Se content of processed food. In addition, different Se forms have different bioaccessibility to living organisms.
A review: Breathable films for packaging applications Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-29 Dowan Kim, Jongchul Seo
Various packaging technologies have been developed to meet continuously increasing consumer demand for comfortable and safe use, convenience of use, and fresh quality of packaged products. Porous and breathable films provide various advantages such as the minimization of anaerobiosis originating from the accumulation of CO2 in packaging and the automatic release of steam in a microwave system. Non-porous breathable films are among the alternative candidates for packaging applications and they can respond to desired and undesired temperature fluctuations by reversibly changing the gas permeability depending on the temperature change. They can also prevent problems related to packaging integrity such as the intrusion of insects and microorganisms through perforations, undesired permeation of moisture, and loss of flavor in agricultural products and food. This review mainly addresses porous and non-porous breathable films that are responsive to stimuli like temperature changes. Further, the importance and possible packaging application areas of non-porous breathable films with temperature-dependent gas permeabilities are briefly identified.
Challenges to improve the safety of dairy products in China Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-28 Xuli Wu, Yuqin Lu, Haoxie Xu, Moyang Lv, Dongsheng Hu, Zhendan He, Lizhong Liu, Zhimei Wang, Yue Feng
The output and per capita consumption of China's dairy products have increased greatly; however, there has also been an increase in dairy safety issues in recent years. After the melamine milk scandal, China's government reformed the management of dairy products and associated laws to strengthen food safety regulations and raise technical standards to improve the safety of dairy products. Here, we review comprehensive relevant information on dairy supply, dairy product safety issues, and dairy product safety assurance systems in China. We discuss the features of the dairy industrial chain and analyze the key options available to China to improve dairy safety. At present, the dairy industry chain and the corresponding organization system of safety assurance are in a period of transition. The dairy industry chain is shifting from being decentralized and loose to intensive and compact. Meanwhile, the organization system of safety assurance is shifting from being under the sectional supervision of a multiagency coordination system to centralized supervision. In conclusion, the overall safety level of dairy products in China has increased after the melamine milk scandal.
3D printing technology: The new era for food customization and elaboration Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-24 Iman Dankar, Amira Haddarah, Fawaz E.L. Omar, Francesc Sepulcre, Montserrat Pujolà
Background Digitalizing food using 3-Dimensional (3D) printing is an incipient sector that has a great potential of producing customized food with complex geometries, tailored texture and nutritional content. Yet, its application is still limited and the process utility is under the investigation of many researchers. Scope and approach The main objective of this review was to analyze and compare published articles pertaining 3D food printing to ensure how to reach compatibility between the huge varieties of food ingredients and their corresponding best printing parameters. Different from previously published reviews in the same journal by Lipton et al. (2015) and Liu et al. (2017), this review focuses in depth on optimizing extrusion based food printing which supports the widest array of food and maintains numerous shapes and textures. The benefits and limitations of 3D food printing were critically reviewed from a different perspective while providing ample mechanisms to overcome those barriers. Key findings and conclusions Four main obstacles hamper the printing process: ordinance and guidelines, food shelf life, ingredients restrictions and post processing. Unity and integrity between material properties and process parameters is the key for a best end product. For each group, specific criteria should be monitored: rheological, textural, physiochemical and sensorial properties of the material its self in accordance with the process parameters of nozzle diameter, nozzle height, printing speeds and temperature of printing. It is hoped that this paper will unlock further research on investigating a wider range of food printing ingredients and their influence on customer acceptability.
A comprehensive review of mathematical modeling of paddy parboiling and drying: Effects of modern techniques on process kinetics and rice quality Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 G. Behera, P.P. Sutar
Background Paddy is one of the most important food crops in the world. The major operations of paddy processing are soaking, parboiling/steaming, drying and milling. The paddy processing is an energy-intensive process with the substantial wastewater generation. Scope and approach The knowledge of mathematical modeling in different stages of paddy processing helps to improve the final rice quality and reduce the energy consumption. The present article analyzes the results of the recently published research work on different models used in paddy soaking, parboiling and drying operations. In addition, the article discusses the effects of modern methods of parboiling and drying operations on the process kinetics, microstructural changes and rice quality. Key findings and conclusions Hot water soaking (40–80 °C), single steaming, double steaming, pressure cooking and microwave heating are used to parboil or gelatinize the starch in rice. Also, acids/alkaline solutions can gelatinize the rice starch. The open sun (2–4 days), hot air (50–80 °C), superheated steam, vacuum, infrared (0·167-0·625 W cm−2), and microwave drying (2.45 GHz) are employed to dry the parboiled paddy up to 12–14% moisture content (db). Modelling and simulation tools have been used to study these complex processes during paddy hydration, starch gelatinization and drying. Fick's law of diffusion, Peleg model, and exponential equation are used to describe the water sorption in paddy. Arrhenius equation, Ozawa Model and Kissinger equation are useful in understanding the starch gelatinization kinetics. Several empirical and semi-empirical models are used to study the drying kinetics of gelatinized paddy. In drying, the models are given by Page, Henderson and Pabis and Newton describe the drying kinetics better than other models. The effects of modern methods of the parboiling and drying can be understood from the kinetic and other constants of the models as well as from the change in the microstructure of starch that takes place in the process of gelatinization. The recent developments on the effects of modern methods of hydration, parboiling and drying with limitations have also been focussed in the manuscript. Because of the concerns of wastewater generation during paddy hydration and parboiling, new techniques need to be developed for reducing wastewater generation and its treatment.
Innovative food processing technologies on the transglutaminase functionality in protein-based food products: Trends, opportunities and drawbacks Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Seyed Mohammad Taghi Gharibzahedi, Shahin Roohinejad, Saji George, Francisco J. Barba, Ralf Greiner, Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas, Kumar Mallikarjunan
Background Consumption of protein-based food products has a key role in the improvement of human health. The crosslinking agent microbial transglutaminase (mTGase) is an effective and promising tool to modify animal proteins used in the food industry. Improvement in the gelation process, physicochemical and textural quality, and consumer's demand of protein-based food products could be attained by combining mTGase and some non-conventional food processing technologies. Scope and approach New perspectives and key areas for future research in the development of high-quality food proteins and protein-based products as a function of interaction effect of mTGase and some new processing techniques (e.g. high pressure processing (HPP), ultrasound, microwave (MW) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation) are reviewed. The effect of conventional thermal and emerging processing methods on the mTGase crosslinking activity and protein gel functionality are also compared. Key findings and conclusions The crosslinking density and functional properties of protein gels can be strongly promoted by the synergistic action of mTGase and innovative processing methods. Compared to the conventional heating, HPP with further increase of mTGase affinity to proteins can result in products with better physicochemical quality and more complex and firmer gel structure. The yield, water holding capacity, surface hydrophobicity, strength, and viscoelastic characteristics of mTGase-catalyzed protein gels can be significantly increased by ultrasonication treatments. mTGase-crosslinked hydrogels subjected to high-intensity ultrasonic pretreatment have potential to be used as delivery vehicles for a wide spectrum of bioactive compounds. The application of MW and UV light can substantially improve the surface, textural and structural features of gels generated by mTGase-technology.
Nutritional constituents of pseudo cereals and their potential use in food systems: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Nisar Ahmad Mir, Charanjit Singh Riar, Sukhcharn Singh
Consumers are more focused to adopt healthy life styles and appropriate nutritional habits. From the variety of plants which can be potentially used for human nutrition, today fewer and fewer species are used due to elevated risk of health related problems. Results from a number of recent studies have highlighted the need for an improvement in the nutritional quality of cereal based gluten free products. In order to meet the demands of the growing population new food stuffs are being continuously investigated with the aim to improve the diet and conduce to a better health state. At present attention of researchers is more focused towards the exploitation of alternative crops or underutilized species for multifarious uses. Interest in the pseudo cereals has aroused considerably due to their excellent nutritional, phenolic and phytochemical profile and their use in development of gluten free products. Moreover, the amino acid profile and nutritional properties like essential amino acid index, biological value, protein efficiency ratio and nutritional index of pseudo cereals are higher as compared to conventional cereals like wheat rice and maize. Recent studies have indicated that phenolics present in pseudo cereals have several health benefits like prevention and reduction of oxidative stress, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, commercialization of these pseudo cereals would help to combat various health related issues, and also the availability of palatable pseudo cereal containing gluten-free products would represent advance towards ensuring an adequate intake of nutrients in subjects with celiac disease.
Techno-functional and biological properties of food protein nanofibrils formed by heating at acidic condition Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Mehdi Mohammadian, Ashkan Madadlou
Background Nanofibrillation of proteins by heating at extremely acidic condition for long durations (several hours to days) is studied enthusiastically in food science. The process progresses by the unidirectional self-assembly of peptides as building units of the fibrils. Scope and approach This communication provides a review on the underlying mechanism of protein fibrillation, and various technological properties of the fibrils, followed by discussing their biological and cellular effects. Key findings and conclusions Fibrillation of proteins and addition of the fibrils into liquid foods causes a significant increase of apparent viscosity. Nevertheless, certain post-fibrillation processes such as freeze-drying may result in viscosity reduction. Fibrils form cohesive viscoelastic interfaces, bringing about high foam and emulsion stability. The presence of non-fibrillated peptides and low molecular weight surfactants influence the foaming and emulsification properties of fibrillated protein solutions. Fibrillated protein can yield cold-set gels at extremely low concentrations, which is attributed to formation of space filling networks. Reinforcing polymeric films, conferring hydrophilic character to graphene, developing drug and nutraceutical delivery vehicles such as microcapsules, microgels and fibrillosome and utilization (mostly as scaffolds) in fabrication of biosensors and bio-sorbents are the other applications of protein fibrils. Fibrillation may increase the antioxidant activity of proteins. It can also influence protein digestibility. Fibrils do not exert any major toxicity towards human cell lines and can be exploited as biomimetic cell culture platforms and cellular transport shuttles.
Human exposure to nanoparticles through trophic transfer and the biosafety concerns that nanoparticle-contaminated foods pose to consumers Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Mahsan Karimi, Rohollah Sadeghi, Jozef Kokini
Nanotechnology is comprised of a wide range of technologies dealing with nano-sized structures (at least one dimension from 1 to 100 nm). Nanomaterials are classified as naturally occurring, incidentally synthesized, and intentionally manufactured. Potential benefits of manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) with different chemical compositions have been welcomed in various parts of the food industry such as food packaging and food security. Oral administration is the main way of introducing NPs into the human body. It has been demonstrated by the researchers that NPs have the potential to pose a greater threat to microbiota than bulk materials due to their particle size, surface chemistry, shape, internal structure, and intermediate stability. Even though nanotechnology is now widely applied in many areas of the food industry, the potential risks their extensive use could pose to the consumers and manufactured products are not yet fully understood. The literature shows that there is a knowledge gap about the presence or amounts of different NPs that could enter human body through different foodstuffs. This article is a review of the ways that the most widely found NPs enter human body, animals, plants and the environment. It focuses on the potential biosafety problems NPs might cause upon entering the human body. It also discusses the factors involved in the toxicity of NPs.
Modifications of starch by electric field based techniques Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Fan Zhu
Background Native starches have limited applications and are commonly modified for desired properties. There has been increasing demand for physically and non-chemically modified starches from the market as consumers prefer “natural and healthy” food products. Among various physical means, electric field based techniques have been gaining a research focus for starch modifications during the last few years. Another trend is to produce modified starches using cleaner process. Electric fields of certain conditions can facilitate the “cleaner production” of food and industrial ingredients. Scope and approach This mini-review summarises the modifications of starches from different botanical sources by the electric field based techniques. The techniques are based on pulsed electric field, induced electric field, moderate electric field, and ohmic heating. Physicochemical properties, granular and molecular structures, applications of starch as affected by the electric field based modifications are reviewed. Structure-function relationships of starch as affected by the electric fields are discussed. Impact of electric fields on food systems rich in starch (e.g., flour) is also reviewed. Research gaps to better utilize these techniques for starch modifications are suggested. Key findings and conclusions Different electric field based methods greatly modify the starch physicochemical properties to different extents. Factors affecting the outcomes of the modifications include the starch type and concentrations, electrical conductivity, and electric field type, strength, and duration. Starch modification processes such as hydrolysis and substitutions can be efficiently optimized by applying electric fields. The functionalities of food systems rich in starch can also be modified by these techniques. It becomes evident that electric field based techniques have potential to be used in starch modifications to create a range of functionalities and to help meet the ever-rising market of clean label ingredients.
Eco-innovative technologies for extraction of proteins for human consumption from renewable protein sources of plant origin Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Milica Pojić, Aleksandra Mišan, Brijesh Tiwari
Background The need for renewable and sustainable sources of proteins is growing. Diets containing more plant protein are increasing due to several reasons: the negative environmental impacts of animal protein production, the increasing vegetarianism and veganism trends, and inadequate consumer acceptance of food grade insects. Scope and approach This paper links the isolation of valuable proteins from sustainable sources – by-products from processing industry of plant origin and eco-innovative technologies which are emerging for this purpose (electrostatic separation, subcritical water extraction, reverse micelles extraction, aqueous two-phase systems extraction, enzyme-, microwave-, ultrasound-, pulsed electric energy- and high pressure-assisted extraction). In this way, not only the key challenges of modern food processing are met-the assurance of cost-effective, sustainable and environmentally friendly production, but also the concept of zero food waste seems more achievable. Key findings and conclusions A number of different techniques have emerged with high potential to assist protein extraction of preserved techno-functional properties, but they are still in the early stage of its industrial applications. In the EU, its industrial application may be hindered by legislative issues. The respective Novel Food Regulation classifies food obtained in a production process not used for food production before 15 May 1997, as “novel food’’ and the regulatory status for each single case must be sought. On the other hand, the utilization of novel processing technologies is regulatory encouraged in EU due to their potential to reduce the environmental impact of food production, enhance food security and bring benefits to consumers.
Postbiotics: An evolving term within the functional foods field Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 J.E. Aguilar-Toalá, R. García-Varela, H.S. García, V. Mata-Haro, A.F. González-Córdova, B. Vallejo-Cordoba, A. Hernández-Mendoza
Background It has been recognized that a number of mechanisms mediating the health benefits of beneficial bacterial cells do require viability. However, new terms such as paraprobiotic or postbiotic have emerged to denote that non-viable microbial cells, microbial fractions, or cell lysates might also offer physiological benefits to the host by providing additional bioactivity. Scope and Approach This review provides an overview of the postbiotic concept, evidence of their health benefits and possible signaling pathways involved in their protective effects, as well as perspectives for applications in foods and pharmaceuticals. Key Findings and Conclusions Postbiotics refers to soluble factors (products or metabolic byproducts), secreted by live bacteria, or released after bacterial lysis, such as enzymes, peptides, teichoic acids, peptidoglycan-derived muropeptides, polysaccharides, cell surface proteins, and organic acids. These postbiotics have drawn attention because of their clear chemical structure, safety dose parameters, long shelf life and the content of various signaling molecules which may have anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-obesogenic, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant activities. These properties suggest that postbiotics may contribute, to the improvement of host health by improving specific physiological functions, even though the exact mechanisms have not been entirely elucidated.
Dietary nutrition and gut microflora: A promising target for treating diseases Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Ying Nie, Feijun Luo, Qinlu Lin
Background The human gastrointestinal tract harbors hundreds of millions of microorganisms, which create a unique environment for each individual. The relationship between gut microflora and human health is being increasingly recognized, and the influence of gut microbiota on the host is well characterized, including maintenance of the body's energy metabolism and immune system. Gut microbiota have been found to be closely linked to obesity, allergy, diabetes, cancer or even some mental diseases. Diet can strongly affect human health, partly by modulating gut microbial composition and quantity. Scope and Approach In this review, the relationship between diseases and gut microbes and the effect of different dietary components on gut microflora are summarized. This paper mainly focused on how different diet structure such as high intake of dietary fiber, fat, protein and alcohol etc. may exert impact on specific diseases via gut microflora. Key findings and conclusions Specific diseases can be strongly affected by gut microflora and dietary nutrition plays an important role in affecting the composition of gut microflora for individuals since their birth. A bridge between diets and multiple diseases via gut microbiota is built in this review, hopefully to provide references for further investigation of how the diets affect human health via gut microflora and for development of functional foods targeting on gut microflora to solve some health problems.
Improving food products' quality and storability by using Layer by Layer edible coatings Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Hadar Arnon-Rips, Elena Poverenov
Background Natural materials-based edible coatings provide a promising approach for enhancing quality and prolonging storability of food products. Since one single material often cannot answer numerous applicative requirements, there has been recent development in composite edible coatings. The Layer by Layer (LbL) approach is based on the alternate deposition of different biopolymers and allows for a more effective control over the physicochemical properties and activity of edible coatings. Scope and approach In this review, the progress in the development of active edible coatings, by utilizing the LbL approach, has been summarized. The discussion includes raw materials that are used to form LbL matrices, physical and mechanical properties of the prepared edible coatings, their bioactivity and applications on various food products. Key findings and conclusions The LbL method enables to regulate material properties and allows the formation of advanced edible coatings. Currently, LbL edible coatings are mostly applied on fresh fruit and vegetables, although their application on processed food products is also possible. LbL edible coatings may provide food products with prolonged storability, enhanced physiological quality, improved appearance, and antimicrobial protection. The LbL method can also be combined with other approaches and utilized for the delivery of active agents. In the Food Technology and edible coatings research fields, the utilization of the LbL approach has only recently begun to be established. Further research is anticipated to lead to a new generation of rationally designed edible coatings with precisely adjusted properties for the effective enhancement of food products quality and storability.
Allergenic and novel food proteins: State of the art and challenges in the allergenicity assessment Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Isabella Pali-Schöll, Kitty Verhoeckx, Isabel Mafra, Simona L. Bavaro, E.N. Clare Mills, Linda Monaci
Background There is an increasing demand for animal-derived products in the developing countries. This poses major concerns for the sustainable production of safe and nutritious food. Consequently, to address these needs alternative sustainable sources of valuable dietary proteins are sought for. Scope and approach In this review, we discuss novel alternative protein sources for human food consumption such as novel foods derived from other animal sources like insects. Before these novel foods can enter the market place, they should demonstrate their safety for consumers. We herein provide an overview of the legislative framework currently in place across Europe, the key elements required for allergenicity assessment of novel foods, the tools at disposal for allergenicity prediction and the most advanced technologies available for food allergen detection and characterization. Key finding and conclusions Effective characterization of potential protein-based allergenic hazards in novel food ingredients is essential to support effective risk assessment. Development of a cost-effective, validated tool box to allow improved hazard characterization for allergenicity risk assessment is needed. Although novel methodologies, such as mass spectrometry, have great potential for allergen characterization and allergen detection in different food contributing to reduce the risk for allergic consumers, some work is still required for method validation and the creation of protein sequence databases for proteomic analysis.
Safe and sustainable protein sources from the forest industry – The case of fish feed Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Birgir Örn Smárason, Björn Alriksson, Ragnar Jóhannsson
Background Aquaculture represents a solution to the future world demand for healthy protein while challenges that require urgent solutions are emerging in feed production, such as the rising costs of feed protein and massive imports. From a European perspective, a large proportion of the protein demand is met with imported protein. This article will focus on the development of protein-rich microorganisms (i.e. Single cell protein) as a novel raw material in fish feed which can be produced as an important co-product in wood-based biorefineries, increasing sustainability and the utilization of organic waste material. Scope and Approach Developing a safe and sustainable protein resource from local organic waste-material represents an opportunity for Europe to decrease its reliance on nutritional imports, and address mounting food sector sustainability concerns and a growing protein deficit. At the same time, the nutrient recycling industry represents a growing industry, addressing waste valorization and protein feed production concerns at once. Key Findings and Conclusion An industry and research collaboration has focused on selecting which microorganisms and residual streams from a wood-biorefinery site that would be best suited for production of SCP. The study showed that 38–68% of the fishmeal in a Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) feed could be replaced with SCP while maintaining a similar or slightly improved fish growth. As reported by FAO, aquaculture production of Nile tilapia in 2014 was 3.7 million tonnes, making it one of the most produced fish species in the world.
Risk communication strategies (on listeriosis) for high-risk groups Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Rui Leandro Maia, Paula Teixeira, Teresa Letra Mateus
Background Most cases of listeriosis are domestically acquired. Although consumers have a key role in its prevention, it is generally agreed that individuals at higher risk have a low awareness of the infection. Scope and approach A summary of the scientific information on listeriosis awareness among high-risk groups will be presented. Reasons explaining unawareness and potential strategies to communicate with target groups in a manner that can effectively change risk behaviours reducing the burden of listeriosis will be discussed. Key findings and conclusions Research efforts are needed in particular experimental studies that can identify which communication factors have a causal effect on peoples’ risk behaviour and how these factors influence the processing of information by consumers.
Mycotoxin risks under a climate change scenario in Europe Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Antonio Moretti, Michelangelo Pascale, Antonio F. Logrieco
As determined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, warming of the climate system is unequivocal and has been associated with rising sea levels, diminished amounts of ice and snow and increasing oceanic and atmospheric temperatures. Such climate changes have a significant impact on stages and rates of toxigenic fungi development and can modify host-resistance and host-pathogen interactions, influencing deeply also the conditions for mycotoxin production that vary for each individual pathogen. Moreover, the new combinations mycotoxins/host plants/geographical areas are arising to the attention of the scientific community and require new diagnostic tools and deeper knowledge of both biology and genetics of toxigenic fungi. In this review, it is underlined that an extension of the aflatoxin contamination risk in maize in South and Central-Europe is highly likely in the next 30 years, due to favorable climatic conditions to the growth of Aspergillus flavus. Moreover, the mycotoxigenic Fusarium species profile on wheat in Europe is in continuous change in Northern, Central and Southern-Europe with, in particular, a worrisome growing contamination of F. graminearum in the Central and Northern Europe.
Occurrence of trace metals in foodstuffs and their health impact Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Ahmed A. El-Kady, Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab
Background Unlike organic pollutants, heavy metals are not created nor are biodegradable materials. They naturally occur in earth crust and many of them reach the environment via anthropogenic activities, which belonged to mining, smelting, production of fertilizers, pesticide applications and others. Scope and approach Due to their water solubility and bioaccumulative tendency in different matrices of the environment, some heavy metals are extremely toxic even at low exposure levels and can be transported into the food chain. Key findings and conclusions Many criteria are defined to identify heavy metals based on their specific gravity, weight and atomic number, chemical properties and their toxicity, therefore the heavy metals term is still very loose. Dietary exposure is a significant route for trace metals to the humans and constitutes about 90% of exposure. Long term exposure to metals via food consumption, drinking water or other occupational sources leads to serious problems, e.g., hepatotoxicity, kidney failure and neurotoxicity. Analysis of the current situation concluded that the concentrations of heavy metals declined over the years, but they are still hot spots suffering from domestic wastes, agrochemicals like pesticides, fertilizers and industrial wastes. Due to the contamination sources in those hot spots, levels of some metals exceeded the approved permissible limits and become sources of severe problems to humans. Almost comprehensive hazard assessment of these metals is missing due to insufficient data corresponding to body burden for groups potentially exposed to high concentration of metals and their concentrations in foodstuffs.
Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS): A novel reliable technique for rapid detection of common harmful chemical residues Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-05 Yingfen Jiang, Da-Wen Sun, Hongbin Pu, Qingyi Wei
Background The irrational usage of chemical substances including pesticides and drugs in agricultural and food production is a significant food safety issue due to its residues. Therefore, the detection of harmful residues in foods is an indispensable step for guaranteeing the consumer's health. Conventional methods, such as HPLC, GC-MS and LC-MS are accurate enough, but they fail to meet the requirements of the modern industry for rapid and on-line detection. Novel reliable techniques should thus be developed as alternatives. Scope and Approach In this review, fundamentals of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is introduced. Recent advances in its usage for detecting harmful chemical residues in agricultural products including pesticides, antibiotics and β2-adrenergic agonists are discussed by two typical ways of detection improvement, and the advantages of SERS are addressed. Finally, future trends to routine use of SERS applications in harmful residues are presented. Key Findings and Conclusions SERS is a promising detection technique for the detection of common harmful chemical residues with merits of simple sampling, rapid data collection and non-destructiveness. Despite rapid developments in the technology, there is much studies should be done before SERS could be used as a daily tool for the industry.
Effects of electric fields and electromagnetic wave on food protein structure and functionality: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Zhong Han, Meng-jie Cai, Jun-Hu Cheng, Da-Wen Sun
Background Protein is an essential component of human diet and can be applied to many aspects in food systems due to its abundant nutritional value and functional properties. There are many physical methods that have been used to modify the inherent structure of protein to expand its application areas in the food industry. Among them, electric fields and electromagnetic wave technologies have attracted increasing attention on their abilities to modify food protein structure and functionality, due to the advantages of energy efficiency, food safety and minimal loss of nutrients. Scope and approach The current review presents the effects of electric fields and electromagnetic wave including pulsed electric field, microwave, radio frequency and gamma irradiation on the changes in food protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary) and functionality (solubility, apparent viscosity, emulsifying, foaming, and gelling properties). The affecting factors such as protein concentration and pH, and the strength and duration of electric fields and electromagnetic wave on the mechanisms and effectiveness of changes in protein structure and functional properties are introduced, and the advantages and limitations of these technologies for protein modification are also discussed. Key findings and conclusions Applications of electric fields and electromagnetic wave can induce the conformational changes of protein via the creation of free radicals or larger or smaller molecules, damaging the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of protein, and thus influence the functional properties. Therefore electric fields and electromagnetic wave are useful methods to modify food protein structure and functionality for the food industry, and active researches focus on multi-technology corporations for modifying protein structure are urgently required.
Effects of freezing on cell structure of fresh cellular food materials: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Dongmei Li, Zhiwei Zhu, Da-Wen Sun
Background Fresh cellular food materials including fruits and vegetables and animal tissues normally consist of fine organized cellular structures. Freezing is a common method to preserve the quality and safety of these cellular foods. However, the formation of ice crystals during food freezing may cause damage to the food microstructure, leading to the deterioration of food quality after thawing. Scope and approach This review offers current knowledge on freezing damage to cell structure of fresh cellular food materials. Effects of cell structure and water distribution on the texture and sensory properties of fresh cellular foods are presented. Mechanisms of cell structure damages caused by freezing are discussed. Novel methods to control the formation of ice crystals and preserve cell structures are also provided. Key findings and conclusions The quality of cellular foods after frozen-thawed is highly correlated with the integrity and viability of tissue cells. The formation of ice crystals, water migration and the inherent characteristics of cell structure are regarded as the main factors affecting the cell structure during freezing. For obtaining better quality of frozen products, further investigation and understanding on freezing damage to cell structure of fresh cellular foods is necessary. It is hoped that the current review will provide more information on improving frozen food quality for the frozen food industry.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis technology for nonthermal inactivation of microorganisms in foods Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Zhiwei Zhu, Huanhuan Cai, Da-Wen Sun
Background Microbial contamination is a serious challenge in the food industry. With the increasing demand for fresh, nutritious and healthy food, novel techniques for microbial inactivation are highly needed. By absorbing photoenergy, titanium dioxide (TiO2) based photocatalyst can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are capable of inactivating microorganisms. Scope and approach This review summarizes recent research developments of TiO2 photocatalysis (TPC) for antibacterial applications in liquid, gas and solid systems in the food industry. Basic principles of TPC, the mechanism of photocatalytic inactivation, and strategies for improving photoactivity are described, and applications of TPC for decomposing organic substances are presented. Furthermore, applications of combining TPC with other technologies are also discussed. Conclusions and key findings: The review shows that TPC technology has the ability to inactivate foodborne microorganisms, but with some drawbacks such as catalyst deactivation and low utilization of visible light. Modification can widen the light response into visible range and improve the photoactivity. The combined technologies can enhance the effectiveness of microbial inactivation. However, further study is still needed to improve both photocatalytic disinfection efficiency and food quality maintenance.
Status and developments in analogue cheese formulations and functionalities Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Fabio Masotti, Stefano Cattaneo, Milda Stuknytė, Ivano De Noni
Background Analogue cheeses (AC) are homogeneous cheese-like matrices obtained by mixing water, oils/fats, proteins, emulsifying salts and other ingredients under the influence of heat and mechanical shear. These versatile products are used both directly for consumption and mainly indirectly as ingredients in several foods. Scope and approach Increasing consumers' expectations, consumption habits, current lifestyles and cheese industry dynamism are factors driving the research towards the development of new cheese-like products and functionalities. This review describes the state of the art on AC formulations in relation to properties of the final product. Key findings and conclusions Extensive data from research on AC highlight the current growing interest for the development of innovative functionalities to satisfy specific end-use applications. The outcomes of most investigations drew attention to the basic role of type and amount of ingredients to obtain a wide array of customized functionalities. An insight into the role and the interactions among constituents of the formulation and the effect on resultant textural, melting and sensory properties of AC has been provided.
Spilanthol-containing products: A patent review (1996–2016) Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-17 Narjara Silveira, Louis Pergaud Sandjo, Maique Weber Biavatti
Background Spilanthol is a bioactive alkamide widespread in Asteraceae and Piperaceae plant species. The species from Asteraceae are famous because of their sensorial anesthetic and spicy properties. One of these plants is Acmella oleracea, popularly known as jambu, is widely used as a spice in Brazilian cuisine and as a folk remedy. Many scientific papers can be found in the literature regarding the biological importance of spilanthol and its methods of extraction. However, to date, none of the studies has presented a technological mapping of patents involving this natural product. Scope and approach The present study aimed to compile data relating the state of the art on patents filed or granted between 1996 and 2016 involving spilanthol. To that end, a patent research was performed in the international patent database Patentscope, in a period of 20 years (1996–2016), using the keyword spilanthol. Key findings Patents were separated into four groups of interest, according to the technological use of spilanthol: a) pharmacological properties; b) use in cosmetics; c) methods for obtaining and d) sensorial effects. Only 91 patents were found regarding the first three groups, which showed that there is a scope for the development of new technologies. The sensorial properties of spilanthol are widely used in oral care compositions, personal products, cleaning products, foodstuffs and beverages. Conclusions This study presents different technological approaches to apply spilanthol, which helps to visualize opportunities and to boost innovation for new products.
Integrated processing of plant-derived waste to produce value-added products based on the biorefinery concept Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-15 Qing Jin, Liangcheng Yang, Nicholas Poe, Haibo Huang
Fruit for sport Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-15 Alireza Naderi, Sajjad Rezaei, Adel Moussa, Kyle Levers, Conrad P. Earnest
Background Nutritional practices targeting improved exercise performance and training adaptations are considered to be ergogenic aids. Currently, the majority of attention is given to the macronutrients carbohydrate and protein, while micronutrients are considered to a lesser scale. Though literature does exist, very little attention is given to fruit and respective fruit extracts. Scope and approach Fruit as a whole, contains macro- and micronutrients, fiber, minerals, vitamins, a number of bioactive phytochemicals, including phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins and ellagitannins and intuitively should be considered a regular part of an athletes diet. The primary aim of this review is to review the extant literature and provide a narrative overview of studies involving fruit, respective fruit extracts, and their effects on exercise performance and recovery. Included in this review are blackcurrant, grapes, pomegranate, cherry, banana, watermelon and blueberry. Key findings and conclusions There appears to be a consistent pattern in the literature for fruits extracts to improve antioxidant capacity. Data supporting performance improvements are less compelling. While the health affects of whole fruits is intuitive, there is a paucity of studies examining whole fruits as part of an athletic diet.
A nanostructural view of the cell wall disassembly process during fruit ripening and postharvest storage by atomic force microscopy Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 Sara Posé, Candelas Paniagua, Antonio J. Matas, A. Patrick Gunning, Victor J. Morris, Miguel A. Quesada, José A. Mercado
Background The mechanical properties of parenchyma cell walls and the strength and extension of adhesion areas between adjacent cells, jointly with cell turgor, are main determinants of firmness of fleshy fruits. These traits are modified during ripening leading to fruit softening. Cell wall modifications involve the depolymerisation of matrix glycans and pectins, the solubilisation of pectins and the loss of neutral sugars from pectin side chains. These changes weaken the cell walls and increase cell separation, which in combination with a reduction in cell turgor, bring about textural changes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to characterize the nanostructure of cell wall polysaccharides during the ripening and postharvest storage of several fruits. This technique allows the imaging of individual polymers at high magnification with minimal sample preparation. Scope and approach This paper reviews the main features of the cell wall disassembly process associated to fruit softening from a nanostructural point of view, as has been provided by AFM studies. Key findings and conclusions AFM studies show that pectin size, ramification and complexity is reduced during fruit ripening and storage, and in most cases these changes correlate with softening. Postharvest treatments that improve fruit quality have been proven to preserve pectin structure, suggesting a clear link between softening and pectin metabolism. Nanostructural characterization of cellulose and hemicellulose during ripening has been poorly explored by AFM and the scarce results available are not conclusive. Globally, AFM could be a powerful tool to gain insights about the bases of textural fruit quality in fresh and stored fruits.
Edible halophytes of the Mediterranean basin: Potential candidates for novel food products Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 S.A. Petropoulos, A. Karkanis, N. Martins, I.C.F.R. Ferreira
Background Recent trends in the food science industry and consumers’ preferences for diversified diets suggest the consumption of wild greens not only as diet complements but also as healthy and functional foods for targeted conditions, rendering its commercial cultivation of major importance in order to avoid irrational gathering and genetic erosion threats. The Mediterranean basin abounds in wild edible species which have been used for food and medicinal purposes by human throughout the centuries. Many of these species can be found near coastal areas and usually grow under saline conditions, while others can adapt in various harsh conditions including high salinity. Scope and approach The aim of this review focuses on listing and describing the most important halophyte species that traditionally have been gathered by rural communities of the Mediterranean basin, while special interest will be given on their chemical composition and health promoting components. Cases of commercially cultivated halophytes will be also presented to highlight their potential as alternative cash crops, while results from in vitro and in vivo health effects will be presented. Key findings and conclusions The recent literature has provided useful information regarding the potential of wild halophytes as promising ingredients in functional food products and/or as sources of bioactive compounds. However, further research is needed regarding the chemical characterization of these species under commercial cultivation practices, while further clinical and model trials have to be conducted to assess their long term bioactivity and elucidate potential toxic effects and regulations of safe consumption.
Marijuana-infused food and Canadian consumers’ willingness to consider “recreational” marijuana as a food ingredient Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-10 Sylvain Charlebois, Simon Somogyi, Brian Sterling
At the time of this study, the Canadian government intends to legalize the use of recreational cannabis. Despite its intentions, the regulatory framework remains ambiguous. Food businesses, with their constant search for growth, are considering launching several food products with cannabis as an ingredient, once the drug is legalized. This study does not look at the health effects of cannabis per se, but rather consumers’ perception of cannabis as a food ingredient through the lens of food innovation, if it were to be legalized. It explores several dimensions, including cannabis-infused food products sold in grocery stores and dishes served at restaurants. It evaluates potential times when consumers would consume these products, in addition to their preferred food products. The survey also looks at perceived risks related to specific demographics such as children and pregnant women. The survey assesses both perceived risks and anticipated behaviour in a market in which a former illicit product becomes readily available. The results show that Canadians, although mostly favourable to cannabis's legalization and willing to try cannabis-infused food products, are concerned about health risks the drug represents, especially for young children. Results also suggest that most Canadians do not feel knowledgeable enough to cook with cannabis at home, which opens an opportunity for leaders in the industry. Finally, the study presents limitations and suggested future paths for research.
Sulfated modification of polysaccharides: Synthesis, characterization and bioactivities Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-10 Zhijun Wang, Jianhua Xie, Mingyue Shen, Shaoping Nie, Mingyong Xie
Background Polysaccharides are a kind of biological macromolecular substance with multiple biological effects. Natural polysaccharides derived from plants and fungi are known as ideal raw food supplements for health food and pharmaceuticals due to their few side effects. Sulfated modification could significantly improve structure characteristics, promote bioactivities, and even add new bioactivities to polysaccharides. Thus, sulfated polysaccharides are increasingly causing more attention, as they have been proved to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, anticancer, and immunoregulatory, and anticoagulant activities. Furthermore, recent advances in synthesis, characterization and bioactivities of sulfated polysaccharides can promote its application in the food industry or pharmaceutics. Scope and approach This paper reviewed the main methods of sulfated modification, structural changes and the bioactivities of sulfated polysaccharide derivatives. We have comprehensively discussed biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides, emphatically the effects of sulfated group, composition, functional groups, as well as their replaced position on the bioactivities of sulfated polysaccharides, in order to reveal the potential mechanism of sulfation on bioactivities of polysaccharides. Key Findings and Conclusions This paper reviewed the recent research in the sulfated modification of polysaccharides and provided future directions for research in this area. There are many methods for sulfated modification, such as chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method, concentrated sulfuric acid method, and sulfur trioxide-pyridine method, which could improve anti-coagulant, anti-oxidative, immunoregulation, anti-tumor, and anti-virus activities of polysaccharides. Sulfated modification could change bioactivities of polysaccharides due to their effects on structure characteristics. DS, monosaccharide compositions, replaced position of sulfated groups were considered to contribute to their bioactivities promotion. Further studies are required to explore the application of sulfated polysaccharides in pharmaceutical and food industries.
Health perspectives of a bioactive compound curcumin: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Abdur Rauf, Muhammad Imran, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Saud Bawazeer
Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) is a is an important consituitents present in Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) rhizome. It is also a lipophilic molecule that rapidly permeates cell membrane. Curcumin has been used as pharmacological traditional medicinal agent in Ayurvedic medicine for ∼6000 years. Being chemopreventive agent, curcumin has been found to modulate multiple molecular pathways through several mechanisms, e.g. induction of apoptosis, inhibition survival signals, and prevention from reactive oxidative species (ROS). Curcumin significantly caused reduction in lung cancer stem cells markers (CD133, ALDHA1, CD44, Nanog, and Oct4) and the number of CD133-positive cells as well as efficiently decreased the tumorsphere formation, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptotic cell death. It also suppressed the activation of both Wnt/β-catenin and Sonic Hedgehog pathways. Curcumin has been also reported to diminish renal hypertrophy, reduce mesangial matrix expansion, and cause a lower level of albuminuria. It also inhibited the upregulated protein and mRNA expressions of collagen IV and fibronectin in the renal cortices as well as significantly reduced the mature interleukin-1β, cleaved caspase-1, and NLRP3 protein levels in the renal cortices of db/db mice as well as in HK-2 cells. It also ameliorated the defective insulin signalling pathway by upregulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1R, IRS-2, PI3K, p-PI3K, Akt and p-Akt protein expression while downregulating IR and IRS-1. Besides, curcumin lowered the heart MDA and DNA fragmentation levels, increased concentration of SOD, catalase, and gluathione levels, decreased the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells and γH2AX protein expression, while it lowered the percentage (%) of capspase 3 positive cells and improved the percentage of Bcl-2 positive cells. The current review article presents effective role of curcumin against cancer, diabetes, oxidative stress, cardiovascular, obesity, and aging.
Cold plasma processing of milk and dairy products Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Nathalia M. Coutinho, Marcelo R. Silveira, Ramon S. Rocha, Jeremias Moraes, Marcus Vinicius S. Ferreira, Tatiana C. Pimentel, Monica Q. Freitas, Marcia C. Silva, Renata S.L. Raices, C. Senaka Ranadheera, Fábio O. Borges, Simone P. Mathias, Fabiano A.N. Fernandes, Sueli Rodrigues, A.G. Cruz
Background Thermal pasteurization and sterilization are predominantly used in the dairy industry due to their efficacy in improving the product safety and shelf life. However, heat treatment can cause undesirable protein denaturation, non-enzymatic browning, loss of vitamins and volatile flavor compounds, freezing point depression, and flavour changes. Cold plasma is a non-thermal technology that has gained attention in recent years as a potential alternative method for chemical and thermal disinfection in foods using ambient or moderate temperatures and short treatment times. Scope and approach This review aims to describe the fundamentals, parameters, and technology on cold plasma, discussing the critical processing factors involved in this technology. Also, it describes the mechanisms of microbial inactivation and provides an overview of the effects of non-thermal plasma on the quality of dairy products, considering a physicochemical, sensory and microbiology perspective. Key findings and conclusions Cold plasma uses less aggressive mechanisms of action to the milk matrix when compared to the techniques currently used, and has shown an excellent performance on the elimination of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms besides maintaining, in many cases, the nutritional, functional, and sensory characteristics of the product.
How to make risk communication influence behavior change Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Øydis Ueland
Background The aims of risk communication to consumers are at least two-fold: to provide information about a food risk or safety issue, and for education purposes enabling a change towards safer behavior. Scope and approach In this paper, challenges confronting risk communicators in providing information consumers act upon will be summarily addressed. The emergence of web-based communication channels as avenues for improved dissemination will also be discussed. Key findings and conclusions Studies show that providing relevant risk messages to vulnerable consumers and target groups requires in-depth knowledge about the receivers of information. Characteristics of these groups may vary across countries, cultures and from case to case, therefore it may be necessary to collect more information about how risk communication should be presented and in which channels to reach the target groups. Messages should be repeated regularly and presented in a way that seems relevant to consumers; less statistics and more stories that they can relate to. Internet is rapidly becoming the number one information channel. Using social media, and web-based tools and games have the potential to rapidly reach specific target groups. Achieving behavior change is dependent on the consumers perceiving the risk information to be relevant for themselves.
Application of atomic force microscopy in microscopic analysis of polysaccharide Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-05 Junqiao Wang, Shaoping Nie
Background Polysaccharides are one of the major group of bioactive macromolecular derived from plants, bacteria, fungi and seaweeds. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), a type of scanning probe microscopy, is a powerful technology to visualize biopolymers, such as polysaccharides and proteins, up to a single molecular level in “near-native” conditions. Scope and Approach This review gives a brief description of AFM technology involved in polysaccharide research in addition to discussion of factors that might influence polysaccharide imaging. More importantly, its contribution to research progress of a variety of well characterized polysaccharides, including pectin, xanthan, carrageenan, curdlan, scleroglucan, xyloglucan, arabinoxylan, starch, etc., and the detailed nanostructure information was summarized. Key Findings and Conclusions AFM provides a unique insight into polysaccharide studies in terms of morphological features and molecular characteristics, such as heights (diameters), width, contour length, end-to-end distance, polydispersity, etc. Besides, other promising aspects included probing molecular motion and assemblies, as well as visualizing conformation behavior under different conditions.
Lipid nano scale cargos for the protection and delivery of food bioactive ingredients and nutraceuticals Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-03 Sahar Akhavan, Elham Assadpour, Iman Katouzian, Seid Mahdi Jafari
Ferulic Acid – An Insight Into Its Current Research and Future Prospects Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2010-11-13 Somsuvra B. Ghatak, Shital J. Panchal
Ferulic acid (FA) is an ubiquitous phenolic plant constituent that exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects against cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, on account of its potent antioxidant capacity. The present review summarizes the most recent literature on FA including our current knowledge of its pharmacological actions, pre-clinical and clinical studies, reported mechanisms of actions and pharmacokinetic profile. Simultaneously, the latest research updates as well as avenues for further research are also elucidated pertaining to the positive effects of this widespread phenolic compound for a better understanding of its potential applications in health and disease that may subsequently help in the development and design of suitable dietary recommendations.
Effects of nonthermal food processing technologies on food allergens: A review of recent research advances Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-02 Flora-Glad Chizoba Ekezie, Jun-Hu Cheng, Da-Wen Sun
Background The increasing prevalence of food allergy cases is an issue of global concern. As a result, scientific innovations have been taking place to induce chemical modifications for achieving attenuation of allergenic responses in sensitive individuals or for manufacturing hypoallergenic foods using food processing technologies. Conventional processing techniques involving heat treatment are usually exploited, but may be accompanied by dramatic changes in food quality attributes due to high temperature. Therefore, alternative nonthermal technologies may be a new direction for attaining hypoallergenicity. Scope and approach This review presents the current knowledge and recent findings on the possibility of engaging nonthermal technologies including pulsed light, high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, ultrasound and pulsed electric field, for the elimination of allergenic proteins in foods and their underlying mechanisms. In contrast to heat-based methods, nonthermal treatments can adequately retain sensorial and nutritional quality of the food products, while altering allergenicity. Food allergy classification, clinical manifestations, epitope characterization and detection methods are also presented. Key findings and conclusions To date, studies show that nonthermal processes have complicated effects on food allergens. Much further research efforts should be made for using nonthermal processing technologies as alternatives to replace traditional techniques. Nonetheless, it is expected that in the near future, susceptible individuals will benefit from different hypoallergenic products processed with novel nonthermal technologies at an affordable cost.
Antimicrobial packaging based on starch, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(lactic-co-glycolide) materials and application challenges Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-02 Nichrous Mlalila, Askwar Hilonga, Hulda Swai, Frank Devlieghere, Peter Ragaert
Background In recent years, food packaging has focused on two scientific pillars; adopting the biodegradable packaging materials and development of antimicrobial packaging for extended shelf life, quality and safety of food products. The bioplastic materials provide a promising application in the packaging industry to substitute environmentally deleterious petrochemical-based plastics. Scope and Approach This paper gives insights to very recent progress on the antimicrobial application of starch, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and poly (lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA) as well as their blends and nanocomposites in food packaging research. It also presents an overview of the antimicrobial application of these materials particularly in food and biomedical industry. Key Findings and Conclusions PHB, starch and PLGA materials have unique properties towards novel application in foods, cosmetics, medicines as well as various composites. The materials necessitate critical studies to improve their industrial performance both for processing engineering and antimicrobial packaging due to functional and technical limitations.
Integrated science-based approach to study quality changes of shelf-stable food products during storage: A proof of concept on orange and mango juices ☆ Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Scheling Wibowo, Carolien Buvé, Marc Hendrickx, Ann Van Loey, Tara Grauwet
Background Defining the exact shelf-life of a shelf-stable food product is still a real challenge for food manufacturers as there are many variables to be considered. Currently, many shelf-life determinations of commercial shelf-stable products are based on trial-and-error methods which could pose risks resulting in brand damage (overestimation) or food waste (underestimation). Because degradation reactions determining shelf-life are really complex, predicting quality changes remains a challenge; consequently, a scientific approach which considers multiple variables is greatly needed. Recent advances in analytical methods (e.g. GC-MS fingerprinting) and data analysis techniques (e.g. multivariate data analysis and kinetic modelling) can play a key role in this context if they are used in (accelerated) shelf-life studies. Moreover, the role of sensory evaluations should not be forgotten as changes in sensorial properties or decreases in consumer acceptance levels as a function of storage time are in most cases the primary reasons for defining the end of shelf-life. Scope and approach This review paper focuses on research progresses in this field and addresses future challenges for quality investigation during storage and prediction of shelf-life dates. As proof of concept, the paper focuses on investigating quality changes of pasteurised shelf-stable orange and mango juices during storage. Key findings and conclusions In the study of shelf-stable orange and mango juices, the (combined) analytical targeted and untargeted fingerprinting approach proved to be a useful approach for identifying major-quality related chemical changes and was able to select shelf-life markers (i.e. quality parameters with a clearly observable time- (and temperature-) dependent change). In studying the kinetics of change of the monitored quality attributes, it is tempting to think that the fastest reactions will determine the shelf-life of a shelf-stable product. However, consumer acceptance through sensory evaluation plays also an important role in determining the acceptability limit and therefore the best before date. The integrated science-based approach put forward can be used to investigate quality changes of a wide range of shelf-stable products during storage.
Organic foods contribution to nutritional quality and value Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Mona Popa, Amalia Mitelut, Elena Popa, Andreea Stan, Vlad Popa
Consumers' concern regarding possible negative health effects of food products produced with intensive farming methods has led to a great interest in the health benefits of organically-produced fruits, vegetables and animal products. Given the significant increase in consumer interest toward this area, there is a need to determine to what extent there is a scientific basis for claims made for organic products. In this sense, studies comparing organic food products and conventional ones were assessed for the key area, nutritional quality. While the assessed articles have shown differences among organic and conventional foods in favour of organic ones, still the information is limited and more research needs to be done in order to draw unwavering conclusions that organic food products are superior compared to conventional ones.
How can China prepare for the domestic cultivation of Bt maize? Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Yunhe Li, Eric M. Hallerman, Yufa Peng
Recent documents issued by the State Council of China indicate that China's central government is paving the way to commercial cultivation of genetically engineered (GE) staple crops, with priority on insect-resistant GE (IRGE) maize expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins. Multiple Bt maize lines have been developed in China, and their efficacy and benefits to human health and the environment have been demonstrated. We here consider issues regarding approval of GE lines for international trade, measures to be taken to ensure harmonious co-production of GE and non-GE crops, and management of evolution of Bt resistance in maize pests that should be addressed before commercialization of Bt maize in China.
A review of chemical composition and nutritional properties of minor vegetable oils in China Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Ruinan Yang, Liangxiao Zhang, Peiwu Li, Li Yu, Jin Mao, Xiupin Wang, Qi Zhang
Background With a continuous increase in population and economic development, the demand for high quality seed oils keeps increasing in China. In the last decades, many minor edible oils become increasing and popular. Scope and approach In this review, the chemical composition and nutritional properties of minor edible oils, including flaxseed oil, corn oil, rice bran oil, camellia oil, safflower oil, almond oil, grape seed oil, walnut oil, perilla seed oil, pumpkin seed oil, evening primrose oil, Eucommia ulmoides oliver seed oil, penoy seed oil, sea buckthorn seed oil, Acer truncatum Bunge seed oil, Torreya grandis seed oil and tomato seed oil, were summarized. The characteristic chemical compositions of these 17 kinds of minor edible oils were analyzed from fatty acid composition, phytosterols, tocopherols, total phenolic content, squalene and β-carotene contents. Key findings and conclusions Different types of vegetable oils have their own specific advantages and biological activities, and appropriate vegetable oils can be selected to meet individual needs accordingly. For example, Acer truncatum Bunge seed oil contains 5.55% nervonic acid (C24:1) that can promote the repair and regeneration of nerve cells and tissues damaged, while corn oil and rice bran oil have higher contents of campesterol and total phytosterol and might be better choices for patients with high cholesterol and cardiovascular diseases. This review could benefit comprehensive understanding nutritional values of minor vegetable oils and future researching on nutrition and product development.
Flaxseed gum a versatile natural hydrocolloid for food and non-food applications Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Jun Liu, Youn Young Shim, Timothy Tse, Yong Wang, Martin J.T. Reaney
Background Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) gum (FG) is a by-product of the flax oil industry which can be easily prepared from flaxseed meal, flaxseed hull and/or whole flaxseed. FG has many potential food and non-food applications as it imparts marked solution properties and is proposed to have nutritional values as dietary fiber. However, FG is underutilized due to constituents with non-consistent physicochemical and functional properties. Scope and approach The present review provides an update of recent research into FG composition including its major constituents, proteins and polysaccharides. The review also describes findings related to FG solution physico-chemical properties including rheological, gelation, and emulsification properties that potentially determine FG applications. Possible FG structural modifications (crosslinking, esterification, and etherification) and interactions with proteins are also reviewed to elucidate strategies for FG utilization through manipulation of controllable properties. Key findings and conclusions Flaxseed cultivars exhibit substantial genotypic variation with respect to monosaccharide and polysaccharide composition, molecular weight, and protein contents. Thus, selection of flaxseed genotype can help to optimize FG composition and benefit FG product design where specific functional and nutritional properties are required. Structural modification of FG polysaccharides offers another way for targeted tuning of FG properties and to minimize the inherent drawbacks of FG polysaccharides. Moreover, FG-protein interactions can also be engineered. Based on the mechanistic understanding of FG-protein interaction, FG-protein complexes can be utilized as texture modifiers, emulsifiers, and matrixes for bioactive nutrients encapsulation etc. to impart desired properties to foods, cosmetics, pharmaceutics, and medicines.
Phytopharmacology of Acerola (Malpighia spp.) and its potential as functional food Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Tarun Belwal, Hari Prasad Devkota, Hanaa A. Hassan, Sudhir Ahluwalia, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan, Andrei Mocan, Atanas G. Atanasov
Physiological mechanisms explaining human differences in fat perception and liking in food spreads-a review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Elisabeth Guichard, Veronica Galindo-Cuspinera, Gilles Feron
Background Fat perception and liking are the subjects of growing interest from industries and the scientific community to reduce the fat content in food products while maintaining consumers’ liking. Scope and Approach In this review, the different physiological parameters involved in fat perception and fat liking for food emulsions are explored, focusing on spreads. A deeper analysis of the physiological mechanisms occurring during the melting and inversion phases, followed by bolus formation, mouth coating and oral clearance, allows an examination of the links between food composition, food structure, oral physiological parameters, fat perception and liking. Key Findings and Conclusions Fat perception is a multimodal sensation involving olfactory, gustatory and tactile cues. The main sensory descriptors associated with fat liking are creaminess, spreadability and aroma perception. During the melting and inversion phases, oral volume, saliva flow and tongue-palate compression contribute to the heat transfer and cooling effect, leading to the first sensory perception. Global acceptability is also driven by the mouthfeel sensation perceived after swallowing. Mouthfeel is a consequence of the bolus formation, mouth coating and oral clearance processes that are dependent on both emulsion composition and oral physiological parameters (saliva flow, saliva composition, fungiform papillae). Understanding the physiological mechanisms controlling fat perception can lead to a better understanding of the consumer's preference and liking for food emulsions.
Food science and technology challenges for the 21st century: Research to progress society: Outcomes from the 31st EFFoST international conference 2017, Sitges, Spain ☆ Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 Ronan Gormley
The 31st European Federation of Food Science and Technology (EFFoST) International Conference took place in Sitges, Spain on 13–16 November, 2017 under the theme: Food Science and Technology Challenges for the 21st Century. It was organised jointly by Professor Buenaventura Guamis-López (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain) and Professor Olga Martín-Belloso (Universitat de Lleida, Spain) (Conference Chairs) together with an organising committee and the international scientific committee in association with Professor Lilia Ahrné (EFFoST President). The Co-Chairs and the EFFoST President welcomed the delegates on behalf of the Organising Committee and encouraged them to participate fully in all aspects of the event. The conference embraced cutting edge research outcomes together with lectures on mainstream food science and technology including processes, safety, nutrition and health, food analysis, gastronomy and the key area of SME start-ups, and also crisis management. The conference sub-theme was Research to Progress Society which is of critical importance at a time where research impact is paramount and consumers/society are/is increasingly engaging with science both positively and negatively. Networking by attendees was extensive as evidenced by discussions at the poster sessions, during coffee and lunch breaks, and also with the various companies exhibiting at the conference. There were 181 oral presentations embracing 15 plenary lectures, 19 invited lectures and 147 other lectures in 24 theme areas (see section 2) held in five parallel sessions. Poster presentations numbered 467 and there were over 550 attendees.
Revisiting the recent applications of nanofiltration in food processing industries: Progress and prognosis Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-01-08 Kaushik Nath, Haresh K. Dave, Tejal M. Patel
The use of nanofiltration (NF) in food processing industries has evolved from a novel approach into a reliable and techno-economically attractive standard unit operation. The lower operating pressures compared to reverse osmosis, and unique selectivity of the membranes render NF as a less energy-intensive and eco-friendly downstream operation. NF finds its applications in concentrating, fractionating and/or purifying various edible products from the dilute streams thereby enhancing process efficiency to a great extent. It can significantly reduce levels of dissolved solids, colors, organics, hardness, turbidity, divalent and multivalent ions and facilitate the required desalting of permeate streams. Food-processing industries dealing with fruit-juice, beverage, dairy, sugar, lactic acid, and vegetable oils successfully employ NF in a myriad of applications. It is also used in wastewater treatment, recovery of value added components and solvents from food waste, deacidification and nutritional enrichments of certain food products. The present paper reviews the recent status of NF technology in food industries along with its trends and future potentials in the production of high quality foodstuff. Effects of important physicochemical parameters on the permeate flux, solute rejection and product quality are briefly assessed and critically compared with pertinent literature. Fouling propensity of membranes and strategies for its mitigation are also highlighted with special reference to food processing industries.
Advancing food, nutrition, and health research in Europe by connecting and building research infrastructures in a DISH-RI: Results of the EuroDISH project Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Harriëtte M. Snoek, Lars M.T. Eijssen, Marjolein Geurts, Cecile Vors, Kerry A. Brown, Marc-Jeroen Bogaardt, Rosalie A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten, Chris T. Evelo, Leopold Fezeu, Paul M. Finglas, Martine Laville, Marga Ocké, Giuditta Perozzi, Krijn Poppe, Nadia Slimani, Inge Tetens, Lada Timotijevic, Karin Zimmermann, Pieter van ’t Veer
Background Research infrastructures (RIs) are essential to advance research on the relationship between food, nutrition, and health. RIs will facilitate innovation and allow insights at the systems level which are required to design (public health) strategies that will address societal challenges more effectively. Approach In the EuroDISH project we mapped existing RIs in the food and health area in Europe, identified outstanding needs, and synthesised this into a conceptual design of a pan-European DISH-RI. The DISH model was used to describe and structure the research area: Determinants of food choice, Intake of foods and nutrients, Status and functional markers of nutritional health, and Health and disease risk. Key findings The need to develop RIs in the food and health domain clearly emerged from the EuroDISH project. It showed the necessity for a unique interdisciplinary and multi-stakeholder RI that overarches the research domains. A DISH-RI should bring services to the research community that facilitate network and community building and provide access to standardised, interoperable, and innovative data and tools. It should fulfil the scientific needs to connect within and between research domains and make use of current initiatives. Added value can also be created by providing services to policy makers and industry, unlocking data and enabling valorisation of research insights in practice through public-private partnerships. The governance of these services (e.g. ownership) and the centralised and distributed activities of the RI itself (e.g. flexibility, innovation) needs to be organised and aligned with the different interests of public and private partners.
Ohmic-assisted hydrodistillation technology: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Mohsen Gavahian, Asgar Farahnaky
Functionalization techniques for improving SERS substrates and their applications in food safety evaluation: A review of recent research trends Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Tehseen Yaseen, Hongbin Pu, Da-Wen Sun
Background Food safety and quality have gained much attention in recent years and the capability to evaluate food quality and safety in a sensitive, rapid, and reliable manner is of great importance in the food industry. Therefore, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with the advantages of excellent sensitivity, high selectivity, non-destructive nature and significant enhancement to identify the target has demonstrated a great potential for quick detection of chemical contaminants, chemical constitutes, and pathogens in food samples. Scope and approach The enhancement of Raman signals for SERS is not only related to the interactions between substrates and samples but also the functionalization of substrates to gain SERS active substrates. In the present review, different types of substrates are briefly discussed, functionalization techniques for SERS active substrates are discussed, and applications of functionalized SERS substrate in food samples are presented. Conclusions and key findings It is evident that functionalization techniques for improving SERS substrates have given encouraging outcomes, which provides possibility for identifying multiple target analytes within a complex matrix, and thus could be used as a powerful analytical tool in real-world applications in food safety analysis as well as for enhancing food quality surveillance.
Demanding safe foods – Safety testing under the novel food regulation (2015/2283) Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-12-30 Alie de Boer, Aalt Bast
Background A legal framework cannot ensure that a food will never pose a risk to any consumer. Risk management procedures are put in place to control potential risks occurring from food consumption. In the EU, this is translated into premarket authorisation decisions to allow novel food products on the market, laid down in the Novel Food Regulation (NFR). Scope and approach In the authorisation decision under the NFR, the scientific dossier dealing with the food product's safety is key. Various adjustments were made in updating the 1997 NFR to the new NFR (Regulation 2015/2283), but scientific dossier requirements seem comparable between both versions. This paper aims to optimise the crosstalk between the two corner stones of the NFR, science and regulation, and therefore reviews methodological requirements to establish food safety. Key findings and conclusions For novel foods, the scientific dossier must provide evidence that no adverse effects are elicited by consuming the product and consequently, kinetics, toxicology, nutritional information and allergenicity must be analysed. Methodological developments within these fields and specifically in toxicology will reduce required resources as well as the need for large numbers of experimental animals in conducting risk assessments. New methods should be embraced throughout the EU by promoting their (of course critical) use in safety assessments of foods.
Crosslinking of food proteins mediated by oxidative enzymes – A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-12-27 Sivan Isaschar-Ovdat, Ayelet Fishman
Background With the increase in health awareness and the need to reduce content of sugars, fats, and non-natural food ingredients, as well as increasing demand for food and protein alternatives that do not rely on animal source, researchers have used enzymatic crosslinking as a safe and specific biotechnological tool for modulating food matrix properties while maintaining desired textures. Scope and approach The current manuscript reviews three main oxidative enzymes that were utilized for food protein crosslinking since 2010. Each enzyme is characterized by its reaction mechanism, protein substrates and the effect of the enzymatic reaction on the structure or texture of the matrix. The range of substrates varies from milk proteins, gelatin and collagen to plant proteins such as potato and soy, which are used to formulate gels and emulsions through the formation of extensive protein networks. The influence of enzymatic crosslinking on protein digestibility and allergenicity is also reviewed with respect to protein source, enzyme type and the experimental model used. Key findings and conclusions Laccases, tyrosinases and peroxidases are useful crosslinking agents for generating new textures or for modulating the product formulation while maintaining the desired known texture and mouthfeel. The enzymatic treatments were shown to successfully improve the properties of protein-stabilized emulsions and gels. Commercialization of more oxidative enzymes will enable the increased exploitation of new protein sources and novel combinations of known proteins. Modulating satiety, designing meat replacements, formulating non-dairy cheeses and yogurts with superb consistency are just a few applications of enzyme-mediated crosslinked proteins.
Innovative nondestructive imaging techniques for ripening and maturity of fruits – A review of recent applications Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Abid Hussain, Hongbin Pu, Da-Wen Sun
Background For decades, fruit assessment without off-line interruption and sample destruction was a challenge for producers, researchers and food safety agencies. Efforts have therefore been exerted towards the introduction and advancements of innovative imaging technologies for fast, non-invasive and non-destructive monitoring of ripening and maturity stages of fresh produce. Scope and Approach Owing to their non-destructive nature, environmental friendliness, reliability accuracy and simplicity of imaging techniques have been successfully exploited for rapid evaluation of ripening and maturity stages of fruits. The current review provides an overview of recent applications in the last few years. The imaging techniques presented include spectral techniques (Raman imaging, hyperspectral imaging, fluorescence imaging and laser light backscattering imaging), nuclear magnetic techniques (magnetic resonance imaging and soft x-ray) and other techniques including thermal imaging, infrared thermography and microwave imaging. The principles of these imaging techniques are also briefly highlighted, and their applicability is summarized. Key Findings and Conclusions The contemporary imaging techniques presented in this review portray continuous productiveness as excellent quality assessment, particularly for ripening and maturity analysis tools for fruits. Thus, these novel techniques hold great potentiality to replace conventional procedures, because such traditional approaches lack ability to examine fruit ripening and maturity indicators such as lycopene content, flesh freshness, soluble solid content, and other internal quality parameter rapidly and efficiently, furthermore such techniques are time consuming, laborious, destructive and tedious.
Feasibility of using pulsed electric fields to modify biomacromolecules: A review Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 5.191) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Stephen Gitonga Giteru, Indrawati Oey, M. Azam Ali
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