ATPS: “Aqueous two-phase system” as the “answer to protein separation” for protein-processing food industry Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-16 Bilal Muhammad Khan, Kit-Leong Cheong, Yang Liu
Every individual needs food for its nutritional value and flavor while the economic growth of a nation depends on a thriving profit-generating industry. The food industry caters to both needs in an efficient manner. Proteins can rightly be considered as the driving force behind the overwhelming success of this industry. However, purification of proteins is not an easy undertaking due to their intricate nature while presently employed procedures for this purpose, regrettably, are both costly, and labor- and time-intensive in addition to being unsettling on proteins structural conformity. ATPS has accumulated a lot of interest from the scientific community due to its mild operating conditions, high recovery yield, ease of scaling it up, and its cost-effective and environment friendly nature. This review tries to amass some accounts concerning the utility of ATPS for the separation and purification of proteins. Some auspicious clues in this regard can be witnessed along with a few loopholes which need to be addressed before this technique can truly demonstrate its potential vis-à-vis industrial protein purification. Overall, a polymer – salt (citrates in particular) ATPS with an added inert supplementary salt can be regarded as a better option for purifying proteins.
Impact of gut microbiota on neurological diseases: Diet composition and novel treatments Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-12 Ana Larroya-García, Diana Navas-Carrillo, Esteban Orenes-Piñero
Gut microbiota has significant effects on the structure and function of the enteric and central nervous system including human behaviour and brain regulation. Herein, we analyze the role of this intestinal ecosystem, the effects of dietary changes and the administration of nutritional supplements, such as probiotics, prebiotics, or fecal transplantation in neuropsychiatric disorders. Numerous factors have been highlighted to influence gut microbiota composition, including genetics, health status, mode of birth delivery and environment. However, diet composition and nutritional status has been repeatedly shown to be one of the most critical modifiable factors of this ecosystem. A comprehensively analysis of the microbiome-intestine-brain axis has been performed, including the impact of intestinal bacteria in alterations in the nervous, immune and endocrine systems and their metabolites. Finally, we discuss the latest literature examining the effects of diet composition, nutritional status and microbiota alterations in several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism, anxiety, depression, Alzheimer's disease and anorexia nervosa.
Extrusion processing of raw food materials and by-products: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-12 Vivian Offiah, Vassilis Kontogiorgos, Kolawole O. Falade
Extrusion technology has rapidly transformed the food industry with its numerous advantages over other processing methods. It offers a platform for processing different products from various food groups by modifying minor or major ingredients and processing conditions. Although cereals occupy a large portion of the extruded foods market, several other types of raw materials have been used. Extrusion processing of various food groups, including cereals and pseudo cereals, roots and tubers, pulses and oilseeds, fruits and vegetables, and animal products, as well as structural and nutritional changes in these food matrices are reviewed. Value addition by extrusion to food processing wastes and by-products from fruits and vegetables, dairy, meat and seafood, cereals and residues from starch, syrup and alcohol production, and oilseed processing are also discussed. Extrusion presents an economical technology for incorporating food processing residues and by-products back into the food stream. In contemporary scenarios, rising demand for extruded products with functional ingredients, attributed to evolving lifestyles and preferences, have led to innovations in the form, texture, color and content of extruded products. Information presented in this review would be of importance to processors and researchers as they seek to enhance nutritional quality and delivery of extruded products.
Modulation of gastrointestinal barrier and nutrient transport function in farm animals by natural plant bioactive compounds – A comprehensive review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-12 Amlan Kumar Patra, Salah Amasheh, Jörg Rudolf Aschenbach
The use of antibiotics in diets has been restricted in several countries as a precautionary measure to avoid development of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic microorganisms. This regulation promoted the exploration of natural plant bioactive compounds (PBCs) as feed additives to improve productivity, welfare and health of livestock and poultry. Along with several beneficial attributes of PBCs, including antimicrobial, antioxidant and various pharmacological effects, they also improve barrier function and nutrient transport in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This comprehensive review discusses the effects of different PBCs on the integrity, nutrient transport and permeability of GI epithelia and their mechanism of actions. Dietary PBCs influence the maintenance and enhancement of GI integrity via a number of mechanisms including altered signaling pathways and expression of several tight junction proteins (claudins, occludin, and zonula occludens proteins), altered expression of various cytokines, chemokines, complement components and their transcription factors, goblet cell abundance and mucin gene expression, and the modulation of the cellular immune system. They also affect nutrient transporter gene expression and active absorption of nutrients, minerals and ammonia. One intriguing perspective is to select an effective dose at which a specific PBC could improve GI barrier function and nutrient absorption. The effective doses and clear-cut molecular mechanisms for PBCs are yet to be elucidated to understand discrepant observations among different studies and to improve the targeted biotechnological and pharmaceutical uses of PBCs in farm animals. The latter will also enable a more successful use of such PBCs in humans.
Changes in conformation and quality of vegetable protein during texturization process by extrusion Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-12 Jinchuang Zhang, Li Liu, Hongzhi Liu, Ashton Yoon, Syed S. H. Rizvi, Qiang Wang
Texturized Vegetable Protein (TVP), as the meat analogues, has aroused the attention due to the advantages of health and nutrition. During the extrusion process of TVP, under the comprehensive effects of temperature, shear force, and pressure, complex conformational changes and molecular interactions amongst protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and other components occur, which determine the quality of TVP. Control of the extrusion process is still a big challenge. Therefore, this review summarized the development and current status of food extrusion technology for the production of TVP and gave detailed descriptions about the conformational changes of the main components during the extrusion process, focusing on the effects of barrel temperature, moisture content, feed rate and screw speed on TVP quality. Lastly, we discussed the approaches to characterize the extrusion process and proposed a new system analysis model.
Dietary fat and gut microbiota: mechanisms involved in obesity control Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 Olívia Gonçalves Leão Coelho, Flávia Galvão Cândido, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
Obesity is a serious global health problem that is directly related to various morbidities manifestation. Intestinal dysbiosis has been implicated on obesity pathogenesis. Diet composition can alter gut microbiota, regardless of energy intake. Dietary fatty acids quality may affect gut microbiota composition, which in turn may affect host metabolic health. The mechanisms by which the different type of FFA modulate gut microbiota is yet poor elucidate and there is a lack of studies regard to this. Fatty acids may act in cell membrane, interfere with energy production, inhibit enzymatic activities, impair nutrient absorption and generate toxic compounds to cells, leading to growth inhibition or even bacterial death. The beneficial effect of the consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on microbiota, unlike n-6 PUFA and saturated fatty acids has been suggested. n-3 PUFA consumption promotes desirable changes on obese intestinal microbiota making it similar to that of normal weight individuals. More studies are needed to better understand the effect of CLA on microbiota and host health. Long term human controlled clinical trials must be conducted to allow us to understand the complex interaction between dietary fat, intestinal microbiota and obesity.
Effects of inorganic nitrate and nitrite consumption on cognitive function and cerebral blood flow: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-10 Tom Clifford, Abrar Babateen, Oliver M. Shannon, Tess Capper, Ammar Ashor, Blossom Stephan, Louise Robinson, John P. O'Hara, John C. Mathers, Emma Stevenson, Mario Siervo
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials examining the effect of inorganic nitrate or nitrite supplementation on cognitive function (CF) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Two databases (PubMed, Embase) were searched for articles from inception until May 2017. Inclusion criteria were: randomized clinical trials; participants >18 years old; trials comparing a nitrate/nitrite intervention with a control. Thirteen and nine trials were included in the meta-analysis to assess CF and CBF, respectively. Random-effects models were used and the effect size described as standardized mean differences (SMDs). A total of 297 participants (median of 23 per trial) were included for CF; 163 participants (median of 16 per trial) were included for CBF. Nitrate/nitrite supplementation did not influence CF (SMD +0.06, 95% CI: -0.06, 0.18, P = 0.32) or CBF under resting (SMD +0.14, 95% CI: -0.13, 0.41, P = 0.31), or stimulated conditions (SMD + 0.23, 95% CI: -0.11, 0.56, P = 0.19). The meta-regression showed an inverse association between duration of the intervention and CBF (P = 0.02) but no influence of age, BMI or dose (P < 0.05). Nitrate and nitrite supplementation did not modify CBF or CF. Further trials employing larger samples sizes and interventions with longer duration are warranted.
Biomarker of long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake and breast cancer: Accumulative evidence from an updated meta-analysis of epidemiological studies Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Bo Yang, Xiao L. Ren, Zhi Y. Wang, Liang Wang, Feng Zhao, Xiao J. Guo, Duo Li
Objective: We aimed to summarize the up-to-date epidemiology evidence on biomarkers of long-chain (LC) n-3 fatty acid (FA) intake in relation to breast cancer (BC).
Early-life food nutrition, microbiota maturation and immune development shape life-long health Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Xiaoli Zhou, Lina Du, Ronghua Shi, Zhidong Chen, Yiming Zhou, Zongjie Li
The current knowledge about early-life nutrition and environmental factors that affect the interaction between the symbiotic microbiota and the host immune system has demonstrated novel regulatory target for treating allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and metabolic syndrome. Various kinds of food nutrients (such as dietary fiber, starch, polyphenols and proteins) can provide energy resources for both intestinal microbiota and the host. The indigestible food components are fermented by the indigenous gut microbiota to produce diverse metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids, bile acids and trimethylamine-N-oxide, which can regulate the host metabolized physiology, immunity homeostasis and health state. Therefore it is commonly believed early-life perturbation of the microbial community structure and the dietary nutrition interference on the child mucosal immunity contribute to the whole life susceptibility to chronic diseases. In all, the combined interrelationship between food ingredients nutrition, intestinal microbiota configurations and host system immunity provides new therapeutic targets to treat various kinds of pathogenic inflammations and chronic diseases.
Bioactivities, biosynthesis and biotechnological production of phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Min Shi, Fenfen Huang, Changping Deng, Yao Wang, Guoyin Kai
Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen in Chinese), is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant, which is used as not only human medicine but also health-promotion food. Danshen has been extensively used for the treatment of various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. As a major group of bioactive constituents from S. miltiorrhiza, water-soluble phenolic acids such as salvianolic acid B possessed good bioactivities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and other health-promoting activities. It is of significance to improve the production of phenolic acids by modern biotechnology approaches to meet the increasing market demand. Significant progresses have been made in understanding the biosynthetic pathway and regulation mechanism of phenolic acids in S.miltiorrhiza, which will facilitate the process of targeted metabolic engineering or synthetic biology. Furthermore, multiple biotechnology methods such as in vitro culture, elicitation, hairy roots, endophytic fungi and bioreactors have been also used to obtain pharmaceutically active phenolic acids from S. miltiorrhiza. In this review, recent advances in bioactivities, biosynthetic pathway and biotechnological production of phenolic acid ingredients were summarized and future prospective was also discussed.
Bio-based edible coatings for the preservation of fishery products: A Review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Dawei Yu, Joe M. Regenstein, Wenshui Xia
The popularity of preprocessed fresh fishery products such as fillets and peeled shrimps is growing in today s market due to their convenience for subsequent processing and cooking. However, fishery products are highly perishable because of the combined actions of biochemical reactions and microbial metabolism. Various methods have been proposed to address this problem. Among these methods, bio-based edible coating has been highlighted as a promising solution. This review updates and summarizes the recent literature on the application of coatings for the preservation of fishery products including the aspects of coating carriers, composite natural preservatives and coating methods, and a discussion of the protective effects based on microbial, physicochemical and sensorial evaluations. Moreover, some challenges and future research directions regarding optimization of formulas and exploration of mechanisms of coating are also discussed. Given consumer demand for fresh fishery products with long shelf life, edible coatings that are environmentally friendly and effective alternative will be used to extend the shelf life of fishery products.
A critical review on anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of dietary resistant starch Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Maninder Meenu, Baojun Xu
“Diabesity” is the term to illustrate the interdependent relationship between obesity and diabetes. About 80% of the diabetic patients are diagnosed with obesity. Diabesity can be prevented by dietary interventions, especially by incorporating sufficient amount of resistant starch (RS). In the past few decades, RS has inspired the researchers due to its various health benefits. Differing from digestible starch, RS remains undigested in the small intestine, but in the large intestine, it is subjected to fermentation. This review intends to encapsulate the current information related to the dietary RS on diabetes and obesity. RS attenuate hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic and hyperlipidemic response in various subjects by restricting gluconeogenesis, bolstering glycogenesis, maintaining glucose and lipid homeostasis and ameliorating pancreatic dysfunction. Various food products were fortified with RS to enhance its dietary intake and were found to exhibit positive impact on human and animal models. This review identified and summarized the research gaps in the available literature.
Using power ultrasound to accelerate food freezing processes: Effects on freezing efficiency and food microstructure Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-06-21 Peizhi Zhang, Zhiwei Zhu, Da-Wen Sun
Freezing is an effective way of food preservation. However, traditional freezing methods have the disadvantages of low freezing efficiency and generation of large ice crystals, leading to possible damage of food quality. Power ultrasound assisted freezing as a novel technique can effectively reduce the adverse effects during freezing process. This paper gives an overview on recent researches of power ultrasound technique to accelerate the food freezing processes and illustrates the main principles of power ultrasound assisted freezing. The effects of power ultrasound on liquid food, model solid food as well as fruit and vegetables are discussed, respectively, from the aspects of increasing freezing rate and improving microstructure. It is shown that ultrasound assisted freezing can effectively improve the freezing efficiency and promote the formation of small and evenly distributed ice crystals, resulting in better food quality. Different inherent properties of food samples affect the effectiveness of ultrasound application and optimum ultrasound parameters depend on the nature of the samples. The application of ultrasound to the food industry is more likely on certain types of food products and more efforts are still needed to realize the industrial translation of laboratory results.
Neuro-nutrients as anti-alzheimer's disease agents: A critical review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-06-21 Sunil K. Ravi, Ramesh B. Narasingappa, Bruno Vincent
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a massive neuronal death causing memory loss, cognitive impairment and behavioral alteration that ultimately lead to dementia and death. AD is a multi-factorial pathology controlled by molecular events such as oxidative stress, protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuro inflammation. Nowadays, there is no efficient disease-modifying treatment for AD and epidemiological studies have suggested that diet and nutrition have a significant impact on the development of this disorder. Indeed, some nutrients can protect all kind of cells, including neurons. As prevention is better than cure, life style improvement, with a special emphasis on diet, should seriously be considered as an anti-AD track and intake of nutrients promoting neuronal health is the need of the hour. Diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols and vitamins have been shown to protect against AD, whereas saturated fatty acids-containing diets deprived of polyphenols promote the development of the disease. Thus, Mediterranean diets, mainly composed of fruits, vegetables and omega-3 fatty acids, stand as valuable, mild and preventive anti-AD agents. This review focuses on our current knowledge in the field and how one can fight this devastating neurodegenerative disorder through the simple proper modification of our life style.
Materials Properties of Printable Edible Inks and Printing Parameters Optimization during 3D Printing: a review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Chunyan Feng, Min Zhang, Bhesh Bhandari
Background: Interest in additive manufacture has grown significantly in recent years, driving a need for printable materials that can sustain high strains and still fulfill their function in applications such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine field, food engineering and field of aerospace, etc. As an emerging and promising technology, 3Dprinting has attracted more and more attention with fast manipulation, reduce production cost, customize geometry, increase competitiveness and advantages in many hot research areas. Many researchers have done a lot of investigations on printable materials, ranging from a single material to composite material. Main content: This review focuses on the contents of printable edible inks. It also gathers and analyzes information on the effects of printable edible ink material properties on 3D print accuracy. In addition, it discusses the impact of printing parameters on accurate printing, and puts forward current challenges and recommendations for future research and development.
Sensory analysis and aroma compounds of buckwheat containing products—a review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-07-07 Małgorzata Starowicz, Georgios Koutsidis, Henryk Zieliński
Buckwheat is a rich source of starch, proteins, minerals and antioxidants, and as such has become a popular functional ingredient incorporated in diverse recipes/products with particular use in the gluten free market. Due to the absence of gluten, application of buckwheat or buckwheat derived ingredients in this particular food sector has increased significantly over recent years with many buckwheat-based products appearing globally.
Alternative yeasts for winemaking: Saccharomyces non-cerevisiae and its hybrids Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-12 Roberto Pérez-Torrado, Eladio Barrio, Amparo Querol
Wine fermentation has not significantly changed since ancient times and the most traditional aspects are seen by the market as elements that uplift wine nuances and quality. In recent years, new trends have emerged from the sector in line with consumer preferences, and due to the effects of global climate change on grape ripening. In the first cases, the consumers are looking for wines with less ethanol and fruitier aromas and in the second cases the wineries want to reduce the wine alcohol levels and/or astringency. New yeast starters of alternative Saccharomyces species and their hybrids can help to solve some problems that wineries face. In this article we review several physiological and genetic aspects of S. uvarum and S. kudriavzevii and the hybrids, which are especially relevant during the winemaking process, such as their good fermentative capabilities at low temperatures, resulting in wines with lower alcohol and higher glycerol amounts.
Metabolomics-assisted biotechnological interventions for developing plant-based functional foods and nutraceuticals Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-07-21 Arun Kumar, Kareem A. Mosa, Liyao Ji, Udaykumar Kage, Dhananjay Dhokane, Shailesh Karre, Deepa Madalageri, Neemisha Pathania
Today, the dramatic changes in types of food consumed have led to an increased burden of chronic diseases. Therefore, the emphasis of food research is not only to ensure quality food that can supply adequate nutrients to prevent nutrition related diseases, but also to ensure overall physical and mental-health. This has led to the concept of functional foods and nutraceuticals (FFNs), which can be ideally produced and delivered through plants. Metabolomics can help in getting the most relevant functional information, and thus has been considered the greatest –OMICS technology to date. However, metabolomics has not been exploited to the best potential in plant sciences. The technology can be leveraged to identify the health promoting compounds and metabolites that can be used for the development of FFNs. This article reviews (i) plant-based FFNs-related metabolites and their health benefits; (ii) use of different analytic platforms for targeted and non-targeted metabolite profiling along with experimental considerations; (iii) exploitation of metabolomics to develop FFNs in plants using various biotechnological tools; and (iv) potential use of metabolomics in plant breeding. We have also provided some insights into integration of metabolomics with latest genome editing tools for metabolic pathway regulation in plants.
Interactions between cell wall polysaccharides and polyphenols Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-07-05 Fan Zhu
In plant-based food systems such as fruits, vegetables, and cereals, cell wall polysaccharides and polyphenols co-exist and commonly interact during processing and digestion. The noncovalent interactions between cell wall polysaccharides and polyphenols may greatly influence the physicochemical and nutritional properties of foods. The affinity of cell wall polysaccharides with polyphenols depends on both endogenous and exogenous factors. The endogenous factors include the structures, compositions, and concentrations of both polysaccharides and polyphenols, and the exogenous factors are the environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, ionic strength, and the presence of other components (e.g., protein). Diverse methods used to directly characterize the interactions include NMR spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, confocal microscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, molecular dynamics simulation, and so on. The un-bound polyphenols are quantified by liquid chromatography or spectrophotometry after dialysis or centrifugation. The adsorption of polyphenols by polysaccharides is mostly driven by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding, and can be described by various isothermal models such as Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Quality attributes of various food and beverage products (e.g., wine) can be significantly affected by polysaccharide–polyphenol interactions. Nutritionally, the interactions play an important role in the digestive tract of humans for the metabolism of both polyphenols and polysaccharides.
Thermodynamics, transport phenomena, and electrochemistry of external field-assisted nonthermal food technologies Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-02 N. N. Misra, Alex Martynenko, Farid Chemat, Larysa Paniwnyk, Francisco J. Barba, Anet Režek Jambrak
Interest in the development and adoption of nonthermal technologies is burgeoning within the food and bioprocess industry, the associated research community, and among the consumers. This is evident from not only the success of some innovative nonthermal technologies at industrial scale, but also from the increasing number of publications dealing with these topics, a growing demand for foods processed by nonthermal technologies and use of natural ingredients. A notable feature of the nonthermal technologies such as cold plasma, electrohydrodynamic processing, pulsed electric fields, and ultrasound is the involvement of external fields, either electric or sound. Therefore, it merits to study the fundamentals of these technologies and the associated phenomenon with a unified approach. In this review, we revisit the fundamental physical and chemical phenomena governing the selected technologies, highlight similarities, and contrasts, describe few successful applications, and finally, identify the gaps in research.
Physiological protection of probiotic microcapsules by coatings Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-13 Philippe E. Ramos, Miguel A. Cerqueira, José A. Teixeira, António A. Vicente
Nowadays, food and nutrition have a greater impact in people's concerns, with the awareness that nutrition have a direct impact in health and wellbeing. Probiotics have an important role in this topic and consumers are starting to really understand their potential in health, leading to an increasing interest of the companies to their commercial use in foods. However, there are several limitations to the use of probiotics in foods and beverages, being one of them their efficiency (directly associated to their survival rate) upon ingestion.
Diet effects in the asthma treatment: A systematic review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-12 Gabriele Carra Forte, Daniela Terezinha Richter da Silva, Maria Luiza Hennemann, Roberta Aquiar Sarmento, Jussara Carnevale Almeida, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin
Introduction: Obesity in asthmatic patients has important relationships with asthma control, pulmonary function, and quality of life. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on the effect of diet on asthma management in adults. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Scopus (January 1948–October 2014) for randomized clinical trials that evaluated the effects of diet in adults with asthma. Results: Of 12,215 studies identified, 21 were included. A reduction in weight of at least 7.5% from baseline as a result of caloric restriction can be beneficial for improving disease control, quality of life, and pulmonary function in obese patients with asthma. A dietary pattern rich in foods with potential antioxidant effect had an impact in improving asthma control, but with little clinical significance. Studies involving antioxidant supplementation showed improvements in asthma control with magnesium supplementation and less decline in lung function with vitamin C supplementation. Studies of fatty acid supplementation demonstrated effects on weight loss and improvement of asthma control and lung function. Studies of supplementation with propolis and caffeine reported significant increases in FEV1. Conversely, studies of high dietary salt intake reported greater declines in lung function. Conclusions: The evidence shows that, for obese adults with asthma, the best dietary intervention seems to be caloric restriction, regardless of specific dietary components.
True morels (Morchella)—nutritional and phytochemical composition, health benefits and flavor: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-07-21 Zipora Tietel, Segula Masaphy
Morels are edible mushrooms appreciated worldwide for their savory flavor. Morels have been in use in traditional medicine for centuries, due to their health-related benefits, and current research demonstrated their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory bioactivities, in addition to immunostimulatory and anti-tumor properties. In spite of the high demand for morels and their increasing economic importance, their cultivation is limited, and they are either used as wild harvested or fermented in culture, for consumption as a functional food and for food-flavoring. Morel's health benefits were attributed mainly to polysaccharides as the active compounds, and to various phytochemicals, mainly phenolic compounds, tocopherols, ascorbic acid and vitamin D. Morel's nutritional composition was reported, including sugar, amino acid, fatty and organic acid and mineral profile. Information regarding Morel's flavor is limited, and while some of their taste attributes have been described, including the role of umami taste, details about their volatile aroma profile are scarce, and it was reported to include eight carbon volatiles, the main aroma volatiles typical to most mushrooms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review presenting morels' nutritional and phytochemical composition, health benefits and flavor, and we will review the available information in current literature regarding these aspects in light of morels phenotypic plasticity.
Potential applications of luminescent molecular rotors in food science and engineering Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-08-22 Fatemah M. Alhassawi, Maria G. Corradini, Michael A. Rogers, Richard D. Ludescher
Fluorescent molecular rotors (MRs) are compounds whose emission is modulated by segmental mobility; photoexcitation generates a locally excited (LE), planar state that can relax either by radiative decay (emission of a photon) or by formation of a twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state that can relax nonradiatively due to internal rotation. If the local environment around the probe allows for rapid internal rotation in the excited state, fast non-radiative decay can either effectively quench the fluorescence or generate a second, red-shifted emission band. Conversely, any environmental restriction to twisting in the excited state due to free volume, crowding or viscosity, slows rotational relaxation and promotes fluorescence emission from the LE state. The environmental sensitivity of MRs has been exploited extensively in biological applications to sense microviscosity in biofluids, the stability and physical state of biomembranes, and conformational changes in macromolecules. The application of MRs in food research, however, has been only marginally explored. In this review, we summarize the main characteristics of fluorescent MRs, their current applications in biological research and their current and potential applications as sensors of physical properties in food science and engineering.
The role of nonfat ingredients on confectionery fat crystallization Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-08-10 Ryan West, Dérick Rousseau
Confections such as chocolate and biscuit fillings are composed of a continuous fat phase that contains dispersed nonfat ingredients such as sugar and cocoa powder. Research on fat crystallization and rheology in confections often extrapolates crystallization and textural properties from bulk to mixed systems while overlooking the important role of composition or particle interactions. For example, in chocolate processing the fat phase aids dispersed phase lubrication and fluidity whereas the dispersed particles assist in fat crystallization by providing many nucleation sites. In confections with a high dispersed phase volume fraction, fat crystallization may be hindered due to reduced triacyglycerol mobility, confinement, and increased tortuosity. This is further complicated in systems with slow crystallizing fats such as palm oil whose crystallization is exceptionally sensitive to composition and processing. This review breaks down the physical chemistry of fat-based confections and discusses the impact of different nonfat ingredients towards fat crystallization and rheology. The behavior of palm oil is further highlighted as it is becoming increasingly popular as a confectionery ingredient. Lastly, ingredient-ingredient interactions and their role in fat crystallization are described along with force spectroscopy as a novel tool to characterize such phenomena. Force spectroscopy utilizes atomic force microscopy to measure intermolecular forces as a function of distance but remains largely unexplored in the area of food science.
n-3 Ingestion may modulate the severity of periodontal disease? Systematic review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-07-05 Diana Vilela Azzi, Jesús Alfonso Sánchez Viafara, Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo, Renato Ribeiro Lima, Leandro Silva Marques, Luciano J. Pereira
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of n-3 ingestion on periodontal disease. Besides, we also investigated the relationship between plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and/or aracdonic acid (AA), and periodontal disease. An electronic search was performed in several databases with the following keywords: “n-3,” DHA, EPA and polynsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in combination with the term “periodontal disease” (PD). Only studies conducted with humans, involving clinical parameters of PD assessment and use of n-3 were selected, without restriction to the date of publication. The search has returned 1368 articles, 11 of which were selected. The results were separated according to the type of n-3 ingestion: supplementation or n-3 content in normal diet. In the studies where n-3 has been supplemented, there was no significant difference in the clinical severity of PD compared to the control subjects. However, in patients where levels of n-3 were evaluated in a usual diet, a lower disease severity was reported. We have detected a preventive effect related to plasma levels of EPA and DHA against PD progression. Thus, n-3 ingestion may beneficially interfere in PD progression, depending on the duration and dosage of consumption.
Understanding the potential benefits of thyme and its derived products for food industry and consumer health: From extraction of value-added compounds to the evaluation of bioaccessibility, bioavailability, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-06-14 Jose M. Lorenzo, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Mohsen Gavahian, Krystian Marszałek, Ismail Eş, Paulo E. S. Munekata, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira, Francisco J. Barba
Natural bioactive compounds isolated from several aromatic plants have been studied for centuries due to their unique characteristics that carry great importance in food, and pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. For instance, several beneficial activities have been attributed to some specific compounds found in Thymus such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiseptic properties. Moreover, these compounds are classified as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) which means they can be used as an ingrident of may food producs. Conventional extraction processes of these compounds and their derived forms from thyme leaves are well established. Hoewever, they present some important drawbacks such as long extraction time, low yield, high solvent consumption and degradation thermolabile compounds. Therefore, innovative extraction techniques such as ultrasound, microwave, enzyme, ohmic and heat-assisted methods can be useful strategies to enhance the exytraction yield and to reduce processing temperature, extraction time, and energy and solvent consumption. Furthermore, bioaccessibility and bioavailability aspects of these bioactive compounds as well as their metabolic fates are crucial for developing novel functional foods. Additionally, immobilization methods to improve stability, solubility, and the overall bioavailability of these valuable compounds are necessary for their commercial applications. This review aims to give an overall perspective of innovative extraction techniques to extract the targeted compounds with anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Moreover, the bioaccessi-bility and bioavailability of these compounds before and after processing discussed. In addition, some of the most important characteristics of thyme and their derived products discussed in this paper.
The influences of thermal processing on phytochemicals and possible routes to the discovery of new phytochemical conjugates Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-06-14 Fai-Chu Wong, Tsun-Thai Chai, Jianbo Xiao
In our diets, many of the consumed foods are subjected to various forms of heating and thermal processing. Besides enhancing the taste, texture, and aroma of the foods, heating helps to sterilize and facilitate food storage. On the other hand, heating and thermal processing are frequently reported during the preparation of various traditional herbal medicines. In this review, we intend to highlight works by various research groups which reported on changes in phytochemicals and bioactivities, following thermal processing of selected plant-derived foods and herbal medicines. Relevant cases from plant-derived foods (garlic, coffee, cocoa, barley) and traditional herbal medicines (Panax ginseng, Polygonum multiforum, Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, Angelica sinensis Radix) will be presented in this review. Additionally, related works using pure phytochemical compounds will also be highlighted. In some of these cases, the amazing formation of new compounds were being reported. Maillard reaction could be concluded as the predominant pathway leading to the formation of new conjugates, along with other possibilities being suggested (degradation, transglycosylation, deglycosylation and dehydration). With collective efforts from all researchers, it is hoped that more details will be revealed and lead to the possible discovery of new, heat-mediated phytochemical conjugates.
Amalgamation of polyphenols and probiotics induce health promotion Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-06-11 Arpita Banerjee, Pubali Dhar
The residing microbiome with its vast repertoire of genes provide distinctive properties to the host by which they can degrade and utilise nutrients that otherwise pass the gastro-intestinal tract unchanged. The polyphenols in our diet have selective growth promoting effects which is of utmost importance as the state of good health has been linked to dominance of particular microbial genera. The polyphenols in native form might more skilfully exert anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties but in a living system it is the microbial derivatives of polyphenol that play a key role in determining health outcome. This two way interaction has invoked great interest among researchers who have commenced several clinical surveys and numerous studies in in-vitro, simulated environment and living systems to find out in detail about the biomolecules involved in such interaction along with their subsequent physiological benefits. In this review, we have thoroughly discussed these studies to develop a fair idea on how the amalgamation of probiotics and polyphenol has an immense potential as an adjuvant therapeutic for disease prevention as well as treatment.
Connection of inherent structure with nutrient profiles and bioavailability of different co-products and by-products after processing using advanced grading and vibrational molecular spectroscopy Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-06-11 Aya Ismael, Victor H. Guevara-Oquendo, Basim Refat, Huihua Zhang, Peiqiang Yu
This study aims to reveal connection and implication of molecular structure with nutrient profiles, utilization and bioavailability of both conventional and new co-products from bio-energy and bio-oil processing using grading and vibrational molecular spectroscopy with chemometics including univariate and multivariate techniques. The study focused on strategies to improve the utilization of the conventional and new co-products through chemical and heat processing treatments as well as the relationship of the molecular structural changes to nutrient bioavailability. The updated methods advanced molecular spectroscopy techniques with grading NIR, Globar FTIR, ATR-FTIR and Synchrotron SRFTIRM to study feed molecular structures were reviewed. This study provides an insight and a new approach on how to use grading and vibrational molecular spectroscopy to study molecular chemistry and molecular structure and molecular nutrition interaction.
Membrane-based technologies for meeting the recovery of biologically active compounds from foods and their by-products Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-06-08 Roberto Castro-Muñoz, Carmela Conidi, Alfredo Cassano
To date, according to the latest literature inputs, membranes-based technologies (microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration) have demonstrated to meet the recovery of biologically active compounds, mainly phenolic compounds and their derivatives, from agro-food products and by-products. The goal of this paper is to provide a critical overview of the on ongoing development works aimed at improving the separation, fractionation and concentration of phenolic compounds and their derivatives from their original sources. The literature data are analyzed and discussed in relation to separation processes, molecule properties, membrane characteristics and key factors affecting the performance of such technologies. Technological advances and improvements over conventional technologies, as well as critical aspects to be further investigated are highlighted and discussed. Finally, a critical outlook about the current status for a large-scale application and the role of these processes from an environmental viewpoint is provided.
Interface-related attributes of the Maillard reaction-born glycoproteins Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-12 Mehri Karbasi, Ashkan Madadlou
Interfacial behavior of proteins which is a chief parameter to their emulsifying and foaming properties can be tailored through the Maillard reaction. The reaction can increase protein solubility at isoelectric point and ought to be controlled for example by high pressure processing to suppress melanoidins formation. Branched and long saccharides bring considerable steric hindrance which is associated with their site of conjugation to proteins. Conjugation with high molecular weight polysaccharides (such as 440 kDa dextran) may indeed increase the thickness of globular proteins interfacial film up to approximately 25 nm. However, an overly long saccharide can shield protein charge and slow down the electrophoretic mobility of conjugate. Maillard conjugation may decrease the diffusion rate of proteins to interface, allowing further unfolding at interface. As well, it can increase desorption iteration of proteins from interface. In addition to tempering proteins adsorption to interface, Maillard conjugation influences the rheology of protein membranes. Oligosaccharides (especially at higher glycation degrees) decrease the elastic modulus and Huggins constant of protein film; whereas, monosaccharides yield a more elastic interface. Accordingly, glycation of random coil proteins has been exploited to stiffen the corresponding interfacial membrane. Partial hydrolysis of proteins accompanied with anti-solvent-triggered nanoparticulation either before or after conjugation is a feasible way to enhance their emulsifying activity.
Effects of prenatal iron status on child neurodevelopment and behavior: A systematic review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-12 Lucía Iglesias, Josefa Canals, Victoria Arija
Iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia are the main worldwide nutritional disorders. A good level of prenatal iron is essential for the correct child neurodevelopment but this association has been poorly investigated. To gather the scientific evidence on the relation between prenatal iron status and child neurodevelopment. To emphasize the importance of personalize the dose and type of supplementation. Wide search strategy was performed in electronic databases for English language articles with no limitations as regards the language or date of publication. Additional studies were selected by hand search. The inclusion criteria were pregnant women without high-risk pregnancy and their children as study population and neurodevelopment as the main outcome. Six RCTs and 13 observational studies were included. The majority concluded that deficit or excess iron during pregnancy injures the mental and psychomotor development of child. Other authors found no association of low iron level with troubles in neurodevelopment, recommended multi-micronutrients instead of iron alone and/or showed inconsistent results. Both iron deficiency as its excess are harmful for the child neurodevelopment. The prenatal iron supplementation should be adjusted for each woman, taking into account the iron stores, some genetic mutation and other health habits.
Status of pulse milling processes and technologies: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-02 Rajesh Kumar Vishwakarma, Uma Shanker Shivhare, Ram Kishore Gupta, Deep Narayan Yadav, Arvind Jaiswal, Priyanka Prasad
Pulses are essential component of the human diet in the underdeveloped and the developing countries. Pulse milling mainly focuses on complete removal of the hull with minimum generation of powder, broken, and in certain cases dehulled split formation. Physical and mechanical properties of different pulses are described and their role in dehulling is discussed in this review. The review discusses nature of gums that binds hull and cotyledons together and their effect on milling characteristics. Pitting operation is performed for all pulses prior to the pretreatment for better dehulling. Various pretreatment processes (soaking, edible oils, chemicals, enzymes, hydrothermal) developed to loosen the bond are examined for their dehulling efficacy from commercial application viewpoint. Dependence of dehulling characteristics of different pulses on size, shape, variety, grain hardness, and moisture content are discussed. Most of the machines developed for pulses dehulling in India are abrasion based emery-cylinder concave system. The studies done for optimization of different pretreatment process conditions are also reviewed. The losses taking place in the form of broken and powder during pulse milling are described. Methods for performance evaluation of the pulse dehulling system are reviewed and expressions are suggested for proper evaluation. This review gives complete overview of the processes and technological status of pulse milling in present context.
Immunomodulating peptides for food allergy prevention and treatment Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-10-04 Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo, Rosina López-Fandiño
Among the most promising strategies currently assayed against IgE-mediated allergic diseases stands the possibility of using immunomodulating peptides to induce oral tolerance toward offending food allergens or even to prevent allergic sensitization. This review focuses on the beneficial effects of food derived immunomodulating peptides on food allergy, which can be directly exerted in the intestinal tract or once being absorbed through the intestinal epithelial barrier to interact with immune cells. Food peptides influence intestinal homeostasis by maintaining and reinforcing barrier function or affecting intestinal cell-signalling to nearby immune cells and mucus secretion. In addition, they can stimulate cells of the innate and adaptive immune system while supressing inflammatory responses. Peptides represent an attractive alternative to whole allergens to enhance the safety and efficacy of immunotherapy treatments. The conclusions drawn from curative and preventive experiments in murine models are promising, although there is a need for more pre-clinical studies to further explore the immunomodulating strategy and its mechanisms and for a deeper knowledge of the peptide sequence and structural requirements that determine the immunoregulatory function.
“The safety of sodium reduction in the food supply: A cross-discipline balancing act”—Workshop proceedings Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-05-17 Christine Taylor, Michael Doyle, Densie Webb
This workshop, jointly presented by the ILSI North America Technical Committees on Food Microbiology and Sodium, aimed to provide greater knowledge and appreciation of the opportunities and challenges facing the food industry in answering the public health community's call to reduce sodium levels in the food supply. One major challenge is finding effective substitutes for the various antimicrobial and functional roles that sodium plays across different food categories. Sodium plays a critical role in retarding the growth of pathogens and food spoilage bacteria. Moreover, taste is an important factor for consumers when they choose food products, and the flavor changes that occur when salt is reduced or replaced must be considered and ingredients and processes adjusted accordingly. The workshop provided a platform for a multidisciplinary discussion among the microbiology, food science, nutrition, and public health communities to share progress and propose solutions, including the formation of public-private partnerships, to develop coordinated and comprehensive strategies. This paper provides an overview of the issues raised, rather than a specific summary of workshop discussions. The Food and Drug Administration's Draft Guidance for Industry on voluntary sodium reduction and the 2015 US Dietary Guidelines for Americans were released subsequent to the workshop and are also discussed.
The importance of lactic acid bacteria for the prevention of bacterial growth and their biogenic amines formation: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-12 Fatih Özogul, Imen Hamed
Foodborne pathogens (FBP) represent an important threat to the consumers' health as they are able to cause different foodborne diseases. In order to eliminate the potential risk of those pathogens, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have received a great attention in the food biotechnology sector since they play an essential function to prevent bacterial growth and reduce the biogenic amines (BAs) formation. The foodborne illnesses (diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, etc.) caused by those microbial pathogens is due to various reasons, one of them is related to the decarboxylation of available amino acids that lead to BAs production. The formation of BAs by pathogens in foods can cause the deterioration of their nutritional and sensory qualities. BAs formation can also have toxicological impacts and lead to different types of intoxications. The growth of FBP and their BAs production should be monitored and prevented to avoid such problems. LAB is capable of improving food safety by preventing foods spoilage and extending their shelf-life. LAB are utilized by the food industries to produce fermented products with their antibacterial effects as bio-preservative agents to extent their storage period and preserve their nutritive and gustative characteristics. Besides their contribution to the flavor for fermented foods, LAB secretes various antimicrobial substances including organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, and bacteriocins. Consequently, in this paper, the impact of LAB on the growth of FBP and their BAs formation in food has been reviewed extensively.
Dietary interventions to contrast the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy: A critical survey of new data Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-13 Stefano Menini, Carla Iacobini, Giuseppe Pugliese, Carlo Pesce
This article is a critical overview of recent contributions on the dietary corrections and the foods that have been claimed to delay or hinder the onset of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and its progression to end-stage renal disease. Innovative dietary and behavioral approaches to the prevention and therapy of DN appear to be the most captivating in consideration of the rather well-established protocols for glucose and blood pressure control in use. In addition to restricted caloric intake to contrast obesity and the metabolic syndrome, adjustments in the patient's macronutrients intake, and in particular some degree of reduction in protein, have been long considered in the prevention of DN progression. More recently, the focus has shifted to the source of proteins and the content of glycotoxins in the diet as well as to the role of specific micronutrients. Few clinical trials have specifically addressed the role of those micronutrients associated with diet proteins that show the most protective effect against DN. Research on clinical outcome and mechanisms of action of such micronutrients appears the most promising in order to develop both effective intervention on nutritional education of the patient and selection of functional foods capable of contrasting the onset and progression of DN.
The impact of the postharvest environment on the viability and virulence of decay fungi Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-12 Jia Liu, Yuan Sui, Michael Wisniewski, Zhigang Xie, Yiqing Liu, Yuming You, Xiaojing Zhang, Zhiqiang Sun, Wenhua Li, Yan Li, Qi Wang
Postharvest decay of fruits, vegetables, and grains by fungal pathogens causes significant economic losses. Infected produce presents a potential health risk since some decay fungi produce mycotoxins that are hazardous to human health. Infections are the result of the interplay between host resistance and pathogen virulence. Both of these processes, however, are significantly impacted by environmental factors, such as temperature, UV, oxidative stress, and water activity. In the present review, the impact of various physical postharvest treatments (e.g., heat and UV) on the viability and virulence of postharvest pathogens is reviewed and discussed. Oxidative injury, protein impairment, and cell wall degradation have all been proposed as the mechanisms by which these abiotic stresses reduce fungal viability and pathogenicity. The response of decay fungi to pH and the ability of pathogens to modulate the pH of the host environment also affect pathogenicity. The effects of the manipulation of the postharvest environment by ethylene, natural edible coatings, and controlled atmosphere storage on fungal viability are also discussed. Lastly, avenues of future research are proposed.
The effects of food essential oils on cardiovascular diseases: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-07-05 Sania Saljoughian, Shahin Roohinejad, Alaa El-Din A. Bekhit, Ralf Greiner, Alireza Omidizadeh, Nooshin Nikmaram, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah
Essential oils (EO) are complex secondary metabolites, which are produced by aromatic plants and identified by their powerful odors. Present studies on EO and their isolated ingredients have drawn the attention of researchers to screen these natural products and evaluate their effect on the cardiovascular system. Some EO, and their active ingredients, have been reported to improve the cardiovascular system significantly by affecting vaso-relaxation, and decreasing the heart rate and exert a hypotension activity. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the role of EO and their main active components in promoting the health of the cardiovascular system. The objective of this review is to highlight the current state of knowledge on the functional role of EO extracted from plants for reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and their mechanisms of action. Research on EO has the potential to identify new bioactive compounds and formulate new functional products for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as arterial hypertension, angina pectoris, heart failure, and myocardial infarction.
Does coffee consumption alter plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations? A systematic review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-08-24 Peter Penson, Maria-Corina Serban, Sorin Ursoniu, Maciej Banach, for the Lipid and Blood Pressure Meta-analysis Collaboration (LBPMC) Group
Coffee consumption alters plasma lipid and cholesterol concentrations, however, its effects on lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) have received little study. The aim of this PRISMA compliant systematic review was to examine the role of coffee on serum Lp(a).
Recent advancements in lateral flow immunoassays: A journey for toxin detection in food Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-07-21 Pranav Tripathi, Neha Upadhyay, Seema Nara
Biotechnology embraces various physical and chemical phenomena toward advancement of health diagnostics. Toward such advancement, detection of toxins plays an important role. Toxins produce severe health impacts on consumption with high mortality associated in acute cases. The most prominent route of infection and intoxication is through food matrices. Therefore, rapid detection of toxins at low concentrations is the need of modern diagnostics. Lateral flow immunoassays are one of the emergent and popularly used rapid detection technology developed for detecting various kinds of analytes. This review thus focuses on recent advancements in lateral flow immunoassays for detecting different toxins in agricultural food. Appropriate emphasis was given on how the labels, recognition elements, or detection strategy has laid an impact on improvement in immunochromatographic assays for toxins. The paper also discusses the gradual change in sensitivities and specificities of assays in accordance with the method of food processing used. The review concludes with the major challenges faced by this technology and provides an outlook and insight of ideas to improve it in the future.
Gene editing and genetic engineering approaches for advanced probiotics: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-07-21 Ruby Yadav, Vishal Kumar, Mehak Baweja, Pratyoosh Shukla
The applications of probiotics are significant and thus resulted in need of genome analysis of probiotic strains. Various omics methods and systems biology approaches enables us to understand and optimize the metabolic processes. These techniques have increased the researcher's attention towards gut microbiome and provided a new source for the revelation of uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways which enables novel metabolic engineering approaches. In recent years, the broad and quantitative analysis of modified strains relies on systems biology tools such as in silico design which are commonly used methods for improving strain performance. The genetic manipulation of probiotic microorganisms is crucial for defining their role in intestinal microbiota and exploring their beneficial properties. This review describes an overview of gene editing and systems biology approaches, highlighting the advent of omics methods which allows the study of new routes for studying probiotic bacteria. We have also summarized gene editing tools like TALEN, ZFNs and CRISPR-Cas that edits or cleave the specific target DNA. Furthermore, in this review an overview of proposed design of advanced customized probiotic is also hypothesized to improvise the probiotics.
Implementation of chemometrics in quality evaluation of food and beverages Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-07-21 Magdalena Efenberger-Szmechtyk, Agnieszka Nowak, Dorota Kregiel
Conventional methods for food quality evaluation based on chemical or microbiological analysis followed by traditional univariate statistics such as ANOVA are considered insufficient for some purposes. More sophisticated instrumental methods including spectroscopy and chromatography, in combination with multivariate analysis—chemometrics, can be used to determine food authenticity, identify adulterations or mislabeling and determine food safety. The purpose of this review is to present the current state of knowledge on the use of chemometric tools for evaluating quality of food products of animal and plant origin and beverages. The article describes applications of several multivariate techniques in food and beverages research, showing their role in adulteration detection, authentication, quality control, differentiation of samples and comparing their classification and prediction ability.
Balanced diets in food systems: Emerging trends and challenges for human health Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-06-05 Lakhsmi Sammugam, Visweswara Rao Pasupuleti
Processed foods, generally known as modified raw foods produced by innovative processing technologies alters the food constituents such natural enzymes, fatty acids, micronutrients, macronutrients and vitamins. In contrast to fresh and unprocessed foods, processed foods are guaranteed to be safer, imperishable, long lasting and consist high level of nutrients bioactivity. Currently, the evolution in food processing technologies is necessary to face food security and safety, nutrition demand, its availability and also other global challenges in the food system. In this scenario, this review consists of information on two food processing technologies, which effects on processed foods before and after processing and the impact of food products on human health. It is also very well established that understanding the type and structure of foods to be processed can assist food processing industries towards advancement of novel food products. In connection with this fact, the present article also discusses the emerging trends and possible modifications in food processing technologies with the combination of conventional and modern techniques to get the suitable nutritional and safety qualities in food.
Physical and nutritional conditions for optimized production of bacteriocins by lactic acid bacteria – A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-06-05 Thiago Sidooski, Adriano Brandelli, Sávio Leandro Bertoli, Carolina Krebs de Souza, Lisiane Fernandes de Carvalho
There has been an increasing debate about the use of synthetic chemical compounds and the consequences of their use in food preservation. In this context, the utilization of some natural compounds produced by bacteria, showing an inhibitory effect against microorganisms associated with food contamination, have gained attention as preservation technology. In order to improve the production and yield costs of bacteriocins, detailed studies are necessary to determine the conditions that allow an optimized production and extraction of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this context, this article aims to discuss the information regarding the main factors that influence bacteriocin production by LAB. The biosynthesis of bacteriocins can be influenced by various culture conditions, such as the composition of the medium, pH, temperature and growth kinetics of the microorganisms. One of the limiting factors for the use of bacteriocins on a large scale in food preservation is the economic factor. In order for the production costs of bacteriocins to be reduced, making them attractive, it is necessary to know the optimum parameters of production, thus maximizing productivity and making costs more attractive.
Potential efficacy of processing technologies for mitigating crustacean allergenicity Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-05-31 Mati Ullah Khan, Ishfaq Ahmed, Hong Lin, Zhenxing Li, Joana Costa, Isabel Mafra, Yan Chen, Yong-Ning Wu
Crustacean allergy has become a growing food safety concern at a global scale. In the past decades, various food processing approaches have been employed to develop food products with reduced allergenic potential. Thermal treatment can dramatically influence the allergenicity of crustaceans by either reducing or enhancing their allergenic potential. Maillard reaction, enzymatic and acid treatments have shown to be promising in mitigating crustacean allergenicity. Recently, novel processing technologies, namely high-pressure processing, high-intensity ultrasound, irradiation, pulsed ultraviolet light and hurdle technology have attracted special attention from the researchers and the food industry professionals owing to their benefits over the conventional methods. In this context, this review paper provides an updated overview of the current knowledge on how different food processing methods induce structural changes of crustacean allergens and, subsequently, influence their allergenic potential. Data on prevalence and clinical relevance of crustacean allergy are presented, as well as, the molecular characterization of crustacean allergens and the main analytical methods for their detection in processed foods.
Protective roles of flavonoids and flavonoid-rich plant extracts against urolithiasis: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-05-31 Xiangquan Zeng, Yu Xi, Weibo Jiang
In the urinary system, urolithiasis is the third prevalent disorder which causes severe pain in individuals. Urinary stones are composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate in approximately 80% of patients. Although various drugs and surgery operations are used to treat the disease, side effects of drugs and the high recurrence after therapy in patients cannot be ignored. Flavonoids are a large group of plant polyphenols with presumed beneficial effects on several common diseases. Whereas, a very few have reached clinical use. The results of recent studies have shown that the plant flavonoids could effectively inhibit the formation of CaOx stones in vitro and in vivo, correlating with their diuretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial properties and other protective effects. Thus, the flavonoids or flavonoid-rich plant extracts endowed with anti-urolithiasis activities and probable mechanisms of actions were reviewed. In addition, we also put forward some issues needed to be concerned in future investigations as well as offered prospects and challenges for developing the plant flavonoids into drugs for stone prevention.
Dehydrated foods: Are they microbiologically safe? Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Bimal Chitrakar, Min Zhang, Benu Adhikari
Dried foods are low water activity foods with water activity ranging from 0.03 to 0.7. They are commonly misconstrued to be inherently safe from food borne pathogenic bacteria. However, there are many reported cases where many food borne illnesses were caused by the consumption of dried foods contaminated with Salmonella spp., Cronobacter spp., Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli. In this work, we have systematically reviewed the literature dealing with the effect of drying/dehydration on the survival of pathogenic microorganisms with special focus on Salmonella spp. We have also reviewed and synthesized the literature dealing with the effect of drying process on microorganisms in dried vegetables, meat, fish, spices, mushroom and powdered foods. This review concludes that dried foods are not inherently safe microbiologically and required other hurdles to achieve microbial safety.
Recent developments of artificial intelligence in drying of fresh food: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Qing Sun, Min Zhang, Arun S. Mujumdar
Intellectualization is an important direction of drying development and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have been widely used to solve problems of nonlinear function approximation, pattern detection, data interpretation, optimization, simulation, diagnosis, control, data sorting, clustering, and noise reduction in different food drying technologies due to the advantages of self-learning ability, adaptive ability, strong fault tolerance and high degree robustness to map the nonlinear structures of arbitrarily complex and dynamic phenomena. This article presents a comprehensive review on intelligent drying technologies and their applications. The paper starts with the introduction of basic theoretical knowledge of ANN, fuzzy logic and expert system. Then, we summarize the AI application of modeling, predicting, and optimization of heat and mass transfer, thermodynamic performance parameters, and quality indicators as well as physiochemical properties of dried products in artificial biomimetic technology (electronic nose, computer vision) and different conventional drying technologies. Furthermore, opportunities and limitations of AI technique in drying are also outlined to provide more ideas for researchers in this area.
Meat, eggs, full-fat dairy, and nutritional boogeymen: Does the way in which animals are raised affect health differently in humans? Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-05-18 Christopher P. Haskins, George Henderson, Colin E. Champ
Background: Food recommendations to improve cancer prevention are generally based on epidemiologic data and remain inconsistent. These epidemiologic studies, while controversial, have generally produced results that caution against the consumption of high-fat foods, including eggs, red meat, and full-fat dairy, such as butter and cheese. Yet, limited data exist assessing the quality of individual sources of these foods and the effect each has after its consumption. This study set out to assess the impact sources of food within the same groups from animals raised differently on variables associated with health in human studies. Methods and Materials: A search was conducted through MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed. In total, twenty-nine studies met inclusion criteria, measuring physiologic changes in humans after consuming animal products following animal diet manipulation. A meta-analysis was attempted to assess the differences between the cohorts in these studies, but was aborted due to poor study quality, vast differences in study design, and a limited number of studies. Results: Studies varied by animal, animal diet manipulation, food product, and overall design. Significant differences were present between groups eating the same food (cheese, beef, eggs, and butter) from animals raised differently, including levels of: conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids (alpha linoleic acid [ALA], docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], and eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]), and inflammatory factors (triacyl glycerol [TAG], interleukin-6 [IL-6], interleukin-8 [IL-8], tumor necrosis factor [TNF], and C-reactive protein [CRP]). Lipid levels were minimally affected. Conclusions: This work highlights differences in human health markers after consumption of the same foods from animals raised differently. Overall, lipid levels remained relatively neutral, but significant changes in inflammatory and other serum markers and phospholipids were present. Future studies and dietary recommendations should consider how animals are raised, as this can produce different effects on health markers.
Edible insects – defining knowledge gaps in biological and ethical considerations of entomophagy Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Isabella Pali-Schöll, Regina Binder, Yves Moens, Friedrich Polesny, Susana Monsó
While seeking novel food sources to feed the increasing population of the globe, several alternatives have been discussed, including algae, fungi or in vitro meat. The increasingly propagated usage of farmed insects for human nutrition raises issues regarding food safety, consumer information and animal protection. In line with law, insects like any other animals must not be reared or manipulated in a way that inflicts unnecessary pain, distress or harm on them. Currently, there is a great need for research in the area of insect welfare, especially regarding species-specific needs, health, farming systems and humane methods of killing. Recent results from neurophysiological, neuroanatomical and behavioral sciences prompt caution when denying consciousness and therefore the likelihood of presence of pain and suffering or something closely related to it to insects. From an animal protection point of view, these issues should be satisfyingly solved before propagating and establishing intensive husbandry systems for insects as a new type of mini-livestock factory farming.
Dietary intervention and health in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: A systematic review of the evidence Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Marília Cristina Santos de Medeiros, Jussara Cristina Alves Medeiros, Humberto Jefferson de Medeiros, José Carlos Gomes de Carvalho Leitão, Maria Irany Knackfuss
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the scientific evidence of dietary intervention, either through diet or supplementation, and its effects on the health of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods: Literature searches were conducted using Scopus, PubMed, BioMed Central and Science Direct databases. The terms used for the search were diet, nutritional support, nutrition therapy and systemic lupus erythematosus. Results: Eleven studies with interventions related to supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D and turmeric, as well as changes in diet composition, such as low glycaemic index diet were identified. Conclusions: The studies evidenced that omega-3 supplementation reduced inflammation, disease activity, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress; vitamin D supplementation increased serum levels, reduced inflammatory and hemostatic markers; turmeric supplementation reduced proteinuria, hematuria and systolic blood pressure; and low glycaemic index diet caused weight loss and reduced fatigue.
Capsaicin and capsiate could be appropriate agents for treatment of obesity: A meta-analysis of human studies Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-12 Csaba Zsiborás, Róbert Mátics, Péter Hegyi, Márta Balaskó, Erika Pétervári, Imre Szabó, Patrícia Sarlós, Alexandra Mikó, Judit Tenk, Ildikó Rostás, Dániel Pécsi, András Garami, Zoltán Rumbus, Orsolya Huszár, Margit Solymár
Consumption of capsaicin or its nonpungent analogues, capsinoids has been reported to affect energy expenditure and fat oxidation, although available data are still controversial. The aim of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis regarding the effects of these substances on energy expenditure and respiratory quotient, with special emphasis on the role of body mass index (BMI) of the participants. Medical databases were systematically searched for papers. Of the 627 trials identified, 9 provided results suitable to be included in analysis. Data analysis showed that after ingestion of capsaicin or capsinoids the energy expenditure increased (245 kJ/day, 58.56 kcal/day, p = 0.030) and the respiratory quotient decreased (by 0.216; p = 0.031) indicating a rise in fat oxidation. Studies with mean BMI of the participants below 25 kg/m2 failed to report any effect of capsaicin or capsinoids on the energy expenditure (p = 0.718) or on the respiratory quotient (p = 0.444), but studies with mean BMI exceeding 25 kg/m2 demonstrated an increase in energy expenditure (292 kJ/day, 69.79 kcal/day, p = 0.023) and a marked decrease in respiratory quotient (−0.257, p = 0.036). Our data clearly suggest that capsaicin or capsiate could be a new therapeutic approach in obesity promoting a negative energy balance and increased fat oxidation.
Resveratrol as an anti-cancer agent: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-07-21 Abdur Rauf, Muhammad Imran, Masood Sadiq Butt, Muhammad Nadeem, Dennis G. Peters, Mohammad S. Mubarak
Owing to their antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity, grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are the archetypal paradigms of fruits used not only for nutritional purposes, but also for exclusive therapeutics. Grapes are a prominent and promising source of phytochemicals, especially resveratrol, a phytoalexin antioxidant found in red grapes which has both chemopreventive and therapeutic effects against various ailments. Resveratrol's role in reducing different human cancers, including breast, cervical, uterine, blood, kidney, liver, eye, bladder, thyroid, esophageal, prostate, brain, lung, skin, gastric, colon, head and neck, bone, ovarian, and cervical, has been reviewed. This review covers the literature that deals with the anti-cancer mechanism of resveratrol with special reference to antioxidant potential. Furthermore, this article summarizes the literature pertaining to resveratrol as an anti-cancer agent.
Research progress in tofu processing: From raw materials to processing conditions Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-02 Qing Zhang, Chenzhi Wang, Bokang Li, Lin Li, Derong Lin, Hong Chen, Yaowen Liu, Suqing Li, Wen Qin, Jiang Liu, Weiguo Liu, Wenyu Yang
As a traditional soybean product with good quality and a healthy food with many functional components, tofu is increasingly consumed in people's daily life. Traditional tofu processing consists of numerous steps, including the soaking and grinding of soybean seeds, heating of the soybean slurry, filtering, and addition of coagulants, and others. The properties of soybean seeds, processing scale, soaking and heating conditions, type and concentration of coagulant, and other factors collectively impact the processing steps and the final tofu quality. The generation of whole soybean tofu with more nutritive value comparing with traditional tofu has been successfully reported by several studies. As one of the most important functional component, isoflavones and their presence in tofu are also influenced by the above-mentioned factors, which influence the nutritive value of tofu. Research investigating the influence of tofu processing conditions on the quality and isoflavone profiles of tofu are the subject of this review. Issues that should be further studied to investigate the influence of processing conditions on the quality and nutritive value of tofu are also introduced.
Bioactive whey peptide particles: An emerging class of nutraceutical carriers Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-08 Ashkan Madadlou, Alireza Abbaspourrad
Whey-based diets have been linked with prolonged life expectancy and improved physical performance. These observations based on numerous clinical and simulated studies are attributed to diverse biological activities of whey peptides. Recently, bioactive whey peptides were exploited for enveloping nutraceuticals and drugs in view of fabricating capsules that the carrier matrix is also bioactive.
Modeling the degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-02 Micha Peleg, Mark D. Normand, William R. Dixon, Timothy R. Goulette
Most published reports on ascorbic acid (AA) degradation during food storage and heat preservation suggest that it follows first-order kinetics. Deviations from this pattern include Weibullian decay, and exponential drop approaching finite nonzero retention. Almost invariably, the degradation rate constant's temperature-dependence followed the Arrhenius equation, and hence the simpler exponential model too. A formula and freely downloadable interactive Wolfram Demonstration to convert the Arrhenius model's energy of activation, Ea, to the exponential model's c parameter, or vice versa, are provided. The AA's isothermal and non-isothermal degradation can be simulated with freely downloadable interactive Wolfram Demonstrations in which the model's parameters can be entered and modified by moving sliders on the screen. Where the degradation is known a priori to follow first or other fixed order kinetics, one can use the endpoints method, and in principle the successive points method too, to estimate the reaction's kinetic parameters from considerably fewer AA concentration determinations than in the traditional manner. Freeware to do the calculations by either method has been recently made available on the Internet. Once obtained in this way, the kinetic parameters can be used to reconstruct the entire degradation curves and predict those at different temperature profiles, isothermal or dynamic. Comparison of the predicted concentration ratios with experimental ones offers a way to validate or refute the kinetic model and the assumptions on which it is based.
Gelatin controversies in food, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products: Authentication methods, current status, and future challenges Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-07-05 Md. Eaqub Ali, Sharmin Sultana, Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid, M. A. Motalib Hossain, Wageeh A. Yehya, Md. Abdul Kader, Suresh K. Bhargava
Gelatin is a highly purified animal protein of pig, cow, and fish origins and is extensively used in food, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. However, the acceptability of gelatin products greatly depends on the animal sources of the gelatin. Porcine and bovine gelatins have attractive features but limited acceptance because of religious prohibitions and potential zoonotic threats, whereas fish gelatin is welcomed in all religions and cultures. Thus, source authentication is a must for gelatin products but it is greatly challenging due to the breakdown of both protein and DNA biomarkers in processed gelatins. Therefore, several methods have been proposed for gelatin identification, but a comprehensive and systematic document that includes all of the techniques does not exist. This up-to-date review addresses this research gap and presents, in an accessible format, the major gelatin source authentication techniques, which are primarily nucleic acid and protein based. Instead of presenting these methods in paragraph form which needs much attention in reading, the major methods are schematically depicted, and their comparative features are tabulated. Future technologies are forecasted, and challenges are outlined. Overall, this review paper has the merit to serve as a reference guide for the production and application of gelatin in academia and industry and will act as a platform for the development of improved methods for gelatin authentication.
Seafood allergen-induced hypersensitivity at the microbiota-mucosal site: Implications for prospective probiotic use in allergic response regulation Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-02 Linglin Fu, Chong Wang, Yanbo Wang
Food allergy is a serious disease worldwide; it can significantly lower the standard of living of affected individuals and may be life-threatening. In particular, hypersensitivity to seafood has been increasing in recent years owing to rising consumption. The mucosal immune system plays a critical role in the onset of seafood allergy and other allergic diseases. Recently, experimental and clinical evidence has shown that probiotics significantly modulate immune responses and thus suppress allergic reactions. Therefore, in this review, we summarized the basic knowledge of seafood allergy, the mucosal immune system, and probiotic activities. We also reviewed the critical immune factors involved in allergic reactions, as well as the potential mechanism and the potential use of probiotics to ameliorate seafood allergy. The elucidation of these topics may help us to develop preventive and therapeutic approaches for seafood allergy and other immune disorders in the future.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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