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  • Alterations in phenolic compound levels and antioxidant activity in response to cooking technique effects: A meta-analytic investigation
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-07-05
    Daniella Murador, Anna Rafaela Braga, Diogo Da Cunha, Veridiana De Rosso

    The aim of this study was to review prior studies that have evaluated the effects of cooking techniques on polyphenol levels and antioxidant activity in vegetables and to release a meta-analysis of the findings. Meta-analysis with a random effect model was conducted using the weighted response ratios (R*) that were calculated for each experiment. Baking (R* = 0.51), blanching (R* = 0.94), boiling (R* = 0.62), microwaving (R* = 0.54) and pressure cooking (R* = 0.47) techniques precipitated significant reductions in the polyphenol levels. Significant decreases in the antioxidant activity levels were noted after baking (R* = 0.45) and boiling (R* = 0.76), while significant increases were observed after frying (R* = 2.26) and steaming (R* = 1.52).

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Critical review of methods for risk ranking of food-related hazards, based on risks for human health
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    H. J. Van der Fels-Klerx, E. D. Van Asselt, M. Raley, M. Poulsen, H. Korsgaard, L. Bredsdorff, M. Nauta, M. D'agostino, D. Coles, H. J. P. Marvin, L. J. Frewer

    This study aimed to critically review methods for ranking risks related to food safety and dietary hazards on the basis of their anticipated human health impacts. A literature review was performed to identify and characterize methods for risk ranking from the fields of food, environmental science and socio-economic sciences. The review used a predefined search protocol, and covered the bibliographic databases Scopus, CAB Abstracts, Web of Sciences, and PubMed over the period 1993–2013.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • A review of the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in taste receptors, eating behaviors, and health
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-07-21
    Elie Chamoun, David M. Mutch, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Andrea C. Buchholz, Alison M. Duncan, Lawrence L. Spriet, Jess Haines, David W. L. Ma, on behalf of the Guelph Family Health Study

    Food preferences and dietary habits are heavily influenced by taste perception. There is growing interest in characterizing taste preferences based on genetic variation. Genetic differences in the ability to perceive key tastes may impact eating behavior and nutritional intake. Therefore, increased understanding of taste biology and genetics may lead to new personalized strategies, which may prevent or influence the trajectory of chronic disease risk. Recent advances show that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CD36 fat taste receptor are linked to differences in fat perception, fat preference, and chronic-disease biomarkers. Genetic variation in the sweet taste receptor T1R2 has been shown to alter sweet taste preferences, eating behaviors, and risk of dental caries. Polymorphisms in the bitter taste receptor T2R38 have been shown to influence taste for brassica vegetables. Individuals that intensely taste the bitterness of brassica vegetables (“supertasters”) may avoid vegetable consumption and compensate by increasing their consumption of sweet and fatty foods, which may increase risk for chronic disease. Emerging evidence also suggests that the role of genetics in taste perception may be more impactful in children due to the lack of cultural influence compared to adults. This review examines the current knowledge of SNPs in taste receptors associated with fat, sweet, bitter, umami, and salt taste modalities and their contributions to food preferences, and chronic disease. Overall, these SNPs demonstrate the potential to influence food preferences and consequently health.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Maillard reaction in food allergy: Pros and cons
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-07-11
    Rinkesh Kumar Gupta, Kriti Gupta, Akanksha Sharma, Mukul Das, Irfan Ahmad Ansari, Premendra D. Dwivedi

    Food allergens have a notable potential to induce various health concerns in susceptible individuals. The majority of allergenic foods are usually subjected to thermal processing prior to their consumption. However, during thermal processing and long storage of foods, Maillard reaction (MR) often takes place. The MR is a non-enzymatic glycation reaction between the carbonyl group of reducing sugars and compounds having free amino groups. MR may sometimes be beneficial by damaging epitope of allergens and reducing allergenic potential, while exacerbation in allergic reactions may also occur due to changes in the motifs of epitopes or neoallergen generation. Apart from these modulations, non-enzymatic glycation can also modify the food protein(s) with various type of advance glycation end products (AGEs) such as Nϵ-(carboxymethyl-)lysine (CML), pentosidine, pyrraline, and methylglyoxal-H1 derived from MR. These Maillard products may act as immunogen by inducing the activation and proliferation of various immune cells. Literature is available to understand pathogenesis of glycation in the context of various diseases but there is hardly any review that can provide a thorough insight on the impact of glycation in food allergy. Therefore, present review explores the pathogenesis with special reference to food allergy caused by non-enzymatic glycation as well as AGEs.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Potential of rooibos, its major C-glucosyl flavonoids, and Z-2-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-phenylpropenoic acid in prevention of metabolic syndrome
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-02
    Christo J. F. Muller, Christiaan J. Malherbe, Nireshni Chellan, Kazumi Yagasaki, Yutaka Miura, Elizabeth Joubert

    Risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) cluster together and are termed the metabolic syndrome. Key factors driving the metabolic syndrome are inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin resistance (IR), and obesity. IR is defined as the impairment of insulin to achieve its physiological effects, resulting in glucose and lipid metabolic dysfunction in tissues such as muscle, fat, kidney, liver, and pancreatic β-cells. The potential of rooibos extract and its major C-glucosyl flavonoids, in particular aspalathin, a C-glucoside dihydrochalcone, as well as the phenolic precursor, Z-2-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-phenylpropenoic acid, to prevent the metabolic syndrome, will be highlighted. The mechanisms whereby these phenolic compounds elicit positive effects on inflammation, cellular oxidative stress and transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism will be discussed in terms of their potential in ameliorating features of the metabolic syndrome and the development of serious metabolic disease. An overview of the phenolic composition of rooibos and the changes during processing will provide relevant background on this herbal tea, while a discussion of the bioavailability of the major rooibos C-glucosyl flavonoids will give insight into a key aspect of the bioefficacy of rooibos.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Red meat, diseases, and healthy alternatives: A critical review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-28
    Cem Ekmekcioglu, Peter Wallner, Michael Kundi, Ulli Weisz, Willi Haas, Hans-Peter Hutter

    Meat is an important food for human nutrition, by especially providing high-quality protein and also some essential micronutrients, in front iron, zinc, and vitamin B12. However, a high intake of red and processed meat is associated with an increased risk for diseases, especially type 2 diabetes and colorectal cancer, as several epidemiological studies and meta-analyses have shown. This review summarizes meta-analyses of publications studying the association between red and processed meat intake and type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, colorectal and other cancers, and all-cause mortality. Various potential mechanisms involved in the increased disease risk are discussed. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of healthy alternatives for meat, like fish, nuts, vegetables and fruits, pulses and legumes, whole grains, and dairy products are reviewed by including selected papers and recent meta-analyses.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Dietary patterns and the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and neurodegenerative diseases
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-07-05
    Alexander Medina-Remón, Richard Kirwan, Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós, Ramón Estruch

    Diet and lifestyle play a significant role in the development chronic diseases; however the full complexity of this relationship is not yet understood. Dietary pattern investigation, which reflects the complexity of dietary intake, has emerged as an alternative and complementary approach for examining the association between diet and chronic diseases. Literature on this association has largely focused on individual nutrients, with conflicting outcomes, but individuals consume a combination of foods from many groups that form dietary patterns. Our objective was to systematically review the current findings on the effects of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. In this review, we describe and discuss the relationships between dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean, the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension, Prudent, Seventh-day Adventists, and Western, with risk of obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and neurodegenearive diseases. Evidence is increasing from both observational and clinical studies that plant-based dietary patterns, which are rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, are valuable in preventing various chronic diseases, whereas a diet high in red and processed meat, refined grains and added sugar seems to increase said risk. Dietary pattern analysis might be especially valuable to the development and evaluation of food-based dietary guidelines.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Nanomaterials in food and agriculture: An overview on their safety concerns and regulatory issues
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-07-11
    Aditi Jain, Shivendu Ranjan, Nandita Dasgupta, Chidambaram Ramalingam

    Nanotechnology has seen exponential growth in last decade due to its unique physicochemical properties; however, the risk associated with this emerging technology has withdrawn ample attention in the past decade. Nanotoxicity is majorly contributed to the small size and large surface area of nanomaterials, which allow easy dispersion and invasion of anatomical barriers in human body. Unique physio-chemical properties of nanoparticles make the investigation of their toxic consequences intricate and challenging. This makes it important to have an in-depth knowledge of different mechanisms involved in nanomaterials's action and toxicity. Nano-toxicity has various effects on human health and diseases as they can easily enter into the humans via different routes, mainly respiratory, dermal, and gastrointestinal routes. This also limits the use of nanomaterials as therapeutic and diagnostic tools. This review focuses on the nanomaterial–cell interactions leading to toxicological responses. Different mechanisms involved in nanoparticle-mediated toxicity with the main focus on oxidative stress, genotoxic, and carcinogenic potential has also been discussed. Different methods and techniques used for the characterization of nanomaterials in food and other biological matrices have also been discussed in detail. Nano-toxicity on different organs—with the major focus on the cardiac and respiratory system—have been discussed. Conclusively, the risk management of nanotoxicity is also summarized. This review provides a better understanding of the current scenario of the nanotoxicology, disease progression due to nanomaterials, and their use in the food industry and medical therapeutics. Briefly, the required rules, regulations, and the need of policy makers has been discussed critically.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment of horticultural produce: Effects on microbial safety and produce quality–A review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-28
    Ulrike Praeger, Werner B. Herppich, Karin Hassenberg

    Microbial load on fresh fruit and vegetables causes decay and losses after harvest and may lead to foodborne illness in case of contamination with human pathogens on raw consumed produces. Washing with tap water only marginally reduces microorganisms attached to produce surfaces. Chlorine is widely used for decontamination on fresh horticultural produces. However, due to harmful by-products and the questionable efficacy it has become increasingly challenged. During the last 20 years, the interest to study ClO2 treatments as an alternative sanitation agent for industrially prepared fresh produce has largely increased. For a wide range of commodities, the application of gaseous ClO2 has meanwhile been investigated. In addition, since several years, the interest in aqueous ClO2 treatments has further risen because of the better manageability in postharvest processing lines compared to gaseous application. This article critically evaluated the effects of postharvest application of aqueous ClO2, either alone or in combination with other treatments, on microbial loads for various horticultural produces. In laboratory investigations, application of aqueous ClO2 at concentrations between 3 and 100 ppm effectively reduced counts of natural or inoculated microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, and mold) in the range of 1 and 5 log. However, various effects of ClO2 treatments on produce quality have been described. These mainly comprise implication on sensory and visual attributes. In this context, there is increasing focus on the potential impacts of aqueous ClO2 on relevant nutritional components of produces such as organic acids or phenolic substances.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • A comprehensive overview on the micro- and nano-technological encapsulation advances for enhancing the chemical stability and bioavailability of carotenoids
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-07-05
    Christos Soukoulis, Torsten Bohn

    Carotenoids are lipophilic secondary plant compounds, and their consumption within fruits and vegetables has been positively correlated with a decreased risk of developing several chronic diseases. However, their bioavailability is often compromised due to incomplete release from the food matrix, poor solubility and potential degradation during digestion. In addition, carotenoids in food products are prone to oxidative degradation, not only lowering the nutritional value of the product but also triggering other quality deteriorative changes, such as formation of lipid pro-oxidants (free radicals), development of discolorations or off-flavor defects. Encapsulation refers to a physicochemical process, aiming to entrap an active substance in structurally engineered micro- or nano-systems, in order to develop an effective thermodynamical and physical barrier against deteriorative environmental conditions, such as water vapor, oxygen, light, enzymes or pH. In this context, encapsulation of carotenoids has shown to be a very effective strategy to improve their chemical stability under common processing conditions including storage. In addition, encapsulation may also enhance bioavailability (via influencing bioaccessibility and absorption) of lipophilic bioactives, via modulating their release kinetics from the carrier system, solubility and interfacial properties. In the present paper, it is aimed to present the state of the art of carotenoid microencapsulation in order to enhance storability and bioavailability alike.

    更新日期:2017-12-27
  • Inventory on the dietary assessment tools available and needed in africa: a prerequisite for setting up a common methodological research infrastructure for nutritional surveillance, research, and prevention of diet-related non-communicable diseases
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-02
    Pedro T. Pisa, Edwige Landais, Barrie Margetts, Hester H. Vorster, Christine M. Friedenreich, Inge Huybrechts, Yves Martin-prevel, Francesco Branca, Warren T. K. Lee, Catherine Leclercq, Johann Jerling, Francis Zotor, Paul Amuna, Ayoub Al Jawaldeh, Olaide Ruth Aderibigbe, Waliou Hounkpatin Amoussa, Cheryl A. M. Anderson, Hajer Aounallah-Skhiri, Madjid Atek, Chakare Benhura, Jephat Chifamba, Namukolo Covic, Omar Dary, Hélène Delisle, Jalila El Ati, Asmaa El Hamdouchi, Karima El Rhazi, Mieke Faber, Alexander Kalimbira, Liisa Korkalo, Annamarie Kruger, James Ledo, Tatenda Machiweni, Carol Mahachi, Nonsikelelo Mathe, Alex Mokori, Claire Mouquet-rivier, Catherine Mutie, Hilde Liisa Nashandi, Shane A. Norris, Oluseye Olusegun Onabanjo, Zo Rambeloson, Foudjo Brice U. Saha, Kingsley Ikechukwu Ubaoji, Sahar Zaghloul, Nadia Slimani

    Objective: To carry out an inventory on the availability, challenges, and needs of dietary assessment (DA) methods in Africa as a pre-requisite to provide evidence, and set directions (strategies) for implementing common dietary methods and support web-research infrastructure across countries. Methods: The inventory was performed within the framework of the “Africa's Study on Physical Activity and Dietary Assessment Methods” (AS-PADAM) project. It involves international institutional and African networks. An inventory questionnaire was developed and disseminated through the networks. Eighteen countries responded to the dietary inventory questionnaire. Results: Various DA tools were reported in Africa; 24-Hour Dietary Recall and Food Frequency Questionnaire were the most commonly used tools. Few tools were validated and tested for reliability. Face-to-face interview was the common method of administration. No computerized software or other new (web) technologies were reported. No tools were standardized across countries. Conclusions: The lack of comparable DA methods across represented countries is a major obstacle to implement comprehensive and joint nutrition-related programmes for surveillance, programme evaluation, research, and prevention. There is a need to develop new or adapt existing DA methods across countries by employing related research infrastructure that has been validated and standardized in other settings, with the view to standardizing methods for wider use.

    更新日期:2017-12-27
  • Omega-3 fatty acids – A review of existing and innovative delivery methods
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-08-10
    K. E. Lane, E. J. Derbyshire

    Omega-3 fatty acids are generally under-consumed in Western diets; a factor that may largely be attributed to low intake of oily fish. Although supplementation strategies offer one approach in terms of improving blood fatty acid levels, rates of compliance are generally low due to difficulties in swallowing capsules, or unfavorable aftertastes. Consequently, new approaches, including food-based strategies, may be an alternative approach to improving omega-3 status and the health of public sectors. This paper sets out to discuss and review how the use of novel food vehicle and delivery advancements may be used to improve omega-3 status, which may have wider benefits for public health and well-being.

    更新日期:2017-12-27
  • Phaseolus vulgaris lectins: A systematic review of characteristics and health implications
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-07-11
    Shudong He, Benjamin K. Simpson, Hanju Sun, Michael O. Ngadi, Ying Ma, Tiemin Huang

    Legume lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-immune origin. Significant amounts of lectins have been found in Phaseolus vulgaris beans as far back as in the last century; however, many questions about their potential biological roles still remain obscure. Studies have shown that lectins are anti-nutritional factors that can cause intestinal disorders. Owing to their ability to act as toxic allergens and hemagglutinins, the Phaseolus vulgaris lectins are of grave concern for human health and safety. Nonetheless, their potential beneficial health effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV), anti-microbial infection, preventing mucosal atrophy, reducing type 2 diabetes and obesity, promoting nutrients absorption and targeting drugs, are of immense interest. The significance of Phaseolus vulgaris lectins in biological researches and the potential biomedical applications have placed tremendous emphasis on the development of purification strategies to obtain the protein in pure and stable forms. These purification strategies entail considerations such as effects of proteolysis, heating, gamma radiation, and high-hydrostatic-pressure that can have crucial outcomes in either eliminating or improving bioactivities of the lectins. Thus, up-to-date research findings of Phaseolus vulgaris lectins on different aspects such as anti-nutritional and health impacts, purification strategies and novel processing trends, are systematically reviewed.

    更新日期:2017-12-27
  • Advanced molecular diagnostic techniques for detection of food-borne pathogens: Current applications and future challenges
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-07-11
    S. Umesha, H. M. Manukumar

    The elimination of disease-causing microbes from the food supply is a primary goal and this review deals with the overall techniques available for detection of food-borne pathogens. Now-a-days conventional methods are replaced by advanced methods like Biosensors, Nucleic Acid-based Tests (NAT), and different PCR-based techniques used in molecular biology to identify specific pathogens. Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., and pathogens are detected in contaminated food items that cause always diseases in human in any one or the other way. Identification of food-borne pathogens in a short period of time is still a challenge to the scientific field in general and food technology in particular. The low level of food contamination by major pathogens requires specific sensitive detection platforms and the present area of hot research looking forward to new nanomolecular techniques for nanomaterials, make them suitable for the development of assays with high sensitivity, response time, and portability. With the sound of these, we attempt to highlight a comprehensive overview about food-borne pathogen detection by rapid, sensitive, accurate, and cost affordable in situ analytical methods from conventional methods to recent molecular approaches for advanced food and microbiology research.

    更新日期:2017-12-27
  • Therapeutic potential of dairy bioactive peptides: A contemporary perspective
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-28
    Saira Sultan, Nuzhat Huma, Masood Sadiq Butt, Muhammad Aleem, Munawar Abbas

    Dairy products are associated with numerous health benefits. These are a good source of nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein (bioactive peptides), lipids, minerals, and vitamins, which are essential for growth, development, and maintenance of the human body. Accordingly, dairy bioactive peptides are one of the targeted compounds present in different dairy products. Dairy bioactive compounds can be classified as antihypertensive, anti-oxidative, immmunomodulant, anti-mutagenic, antimicrobial, opoid, anti-thrombotic, anti-obesity, and mineral-binding agents, depending upon biological functions. These bioactive peptides can easily be produced by enzymatic hydrolysis, and during fermentation and gastrointestinal digestion. For this reason, fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, cheese, and sour milk, are gaining popularity worldwide, and are considered excellent source of dairy peptides. Furthermore, fermented and non-fermented dairy products are associated with lower risks of hypertension, coagulopathy, stroke, and cancer insurgences. The current review article is an attempt to disseminate general information about dairy peptides and their health claims to scientists, allied stakeholders, and, certainly, readers.

    更新日期:2017-12-27
  • The effect of dietary intake of sesame (Sesamumindicum L.) derivatives related to the lipid profile and blood pressure: A systematic review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-28
    Carolina Alves Cardoso, Gláucia Maria Moraes de Oliveira, Luciana de Almeida Vittori Gouveia, Annie Seixas Bello Moreira, Glorimar Rosa

    In this systematic review, we discuss the scientific evidence about the effect of dietary intake of seeds and sesame derivatives on lipid profile and blood pressure (BP) of hypertensive and dyslipidemic individuals. Clinical trials published in English, Portuguese or Spanish were searched on the following databases: Lilacs, PubMed, Isi Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Trip Data Base and Scielo. The bibliographic search period was started in September 2013 and ended in January 2014. The biases of risk analysis were carried out considering 6 of the 8 criteria of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1. Of the 7 clinical trials included, five evaluating individuals with hypertension observed a significant reduction in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure. The two articles that evaluated individuals with dyslipidemia showed improvement in lipid profile. The mechanisms of action are still being studied. Regarding the bias risk analysis, clinical trials included showed few descriptions of the methods applied. There are few studies about sesame ingestion, and it was observed high risk for bias in the selected studies. More standardized methods with attention to the design of studies are needed to improve the level of the evidence.

    更新日期:2017-12-27
  • Public health risks and benefits associated with breast milk and infant formula consumption
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-02
    Géraldine Boué, Enda Cummins, Sandrine Guillou, Jean-Philippe Antignac, Bruno Le Bizec, Jeanne-Marie Membré

    The safety and quality of infant milk, whether it is breast milk (BM) or infant formula (IF), are a major concern for parents and public health authorities. BM is recommended as the gold standard at WHO level. However, nowadays IF appears as an essential alternative in Western countries, challenging producers to optimize nutritional quality and safety of IF. The aim of the present article is to give an overview on the assessment and comparison of risks and benefits associated with BM and IF consumption. To date, this intensively debated subject has been mainly investigated. It has been shown that both diets could be sources of beneficial health effects in terms of nutrition and also risks in terms of chemical safety. Moreover, microbiologists have demonstrated that IF consumption can cause illness due to product contamination or inappropriate milk preparation. The article concludes on the bottlenecks and gaps that should be investigated to further progress the quantification of the impact of early diet on infant health. Performing a multi-disciplinary risk-benefit assessment with DALY as endpoint might be a future option to help prioritize management options.

    更新日期:2017-12-27
  • Impact of potato processing on nutrients, phytochemicals, and human health
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-07-11
    Amber N. Furrer, Mohammad Chegeni, Mario G. Ferruzzi

    Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) are an important global crop that can be transformed into many products impacting several health dimensions ranging from undernutrition, food security and disease prevention to issues of overnutrition including obesity, diabetes, heart disease. Processed potato products are typically categorized as high fat and sodium foods, as well as being classified as a significant source of carbohydrate, in the form of starch. Conversely, potato products are less known for their contribution of key micronutrients (vitamin C, potassium, magnesium), fiber, and phytochemicals (phenolics and carotenoids). More recent insight into the nutritional value of potatoes and the potential of potato phytochemicals to modulate oxidative and inflammatory stress as well as the potential to alter glycemic response has resulted in increased interest in strategies to improve and leverage the nutritional quality of processed potatoes. This review summarizes critical information on nutritional profiles of potatoes and their processed products and describes the state of the science relative to the influence of in-home and common commercial processing on nutritional quality and potential impacts on human health.

    更新日期:2017-12-27
  • The nutritional property of endosperm starch and its contribution to the health benefits of whole grain foods
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-02-06
    Genyi Zhang, Bruce R. Hamaker

    Purported health benefits of whole grain foods in lowering risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer are supported by epidemiological studies and scientific researches. Bioactive components including dietary fibers, phytochemicals, and various micronutrients present in the bran and germ are commonly considered as the basis for such benefits. Endosperm starch, as the major constituent of whole grains providing glucose to the body, has been less investigated regarding its nutritional property and contribution to the value of whole grain foods. Nutritional quality of starch is associated with its rate of digestion and glucose absorption. In whole grain foods, starch digestion and glucose delivery may vary depending on the form in which the food is delivered, some with starch being rapidly and others slowly digested. Furthermore, there are other inherent factors in whole grain products, such as phenolic compounds and dietary fibers, that may moderate glycemic profiles. A good understanding of the nutritional properties of whole grain starch is important to the development of food processing technologies to maximize their health benefits.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Biotechnological potential of microbial inulinases: Recent perspective
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-03-10
    Hemant Kumar Rawat, Hemant Soni, Helen Treichel, Naveen Kango

    Among microbial enzymes, inulinases or fructo-furanosylhydrolases have received considerable attention in the past decade, and as a result, a variety of applications based on enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin have been documented. Inulinases are employed for generation of fructose and inulo-oligosaccharides (IOS) in a single-step reaction with specificity. The high fructose syrup can be biotransformed into value-added products such as ethanol, single cell protein, while IOS are indicated in nutraceutical industry as prebiotic. Myriad microorganisms produce inulinases, and a number of exo- and endo-inulinases have been characterized and expressed in heterologous hosts. Initially, predominated by Aspergilli, Penicillia, and some yeasts (Kluyveromyces spp.), the list of prominent inulinase producers has gradually expanded and now includes extremophilic prokaryotes and marine-derived microorganisms producing robust inulinases. The present paper summarizes important developments about microbial inulinases and their applications made in the last decade.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Regulation of the intestinal tight junction by natural polyphenols: A mechanistic perspective
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-03-23
    Guan Yang, Shima Bibi, Min Du, Takuya Suzuki, Mei-Jun Zhu

    Impairment of the epithelial barrier function is closely linked to the pathogenesis of various gastrointestinal diseases, food allergies, type I diabetes, and other systematic diseases. Plant-derived polyphenols are natural secondary metabolites and exert various physiological benefits, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-aging effects. Recent studies also show the role of plant polyphenols in regulation of the intestinal barrier and prevention of intestinal inflammatory diseases. Here we summarize the regulatory pathways and mediators linking polyphenols to their beneficial effects on tight junction and gut epithelial barrier functions, and provide useful information about using polyphenols as nutraceuticals for intestinal diseases.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Purification and bioactivities of phycocyanin
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-05-12
    Ping Yu, Yunting Wu, Guangwei Wang, Tianmei Jia, Yishu Zhang

    Phycocyanin is an important light-harvesting pigment antenna protein in cyanobacteria, rhodophyta, cryptophyta, and glaucophyta, with a variety of bioactivities. The introduction of purification and bioactivities of phycocyanin contributes to a significant improvement in developing it into final processed products. In fact, the knowledge of phycocyanin has experienced a rapid increase in the past 20 years, and has promoted the relevant technological revolution with a decisive contribution to final application. The purpose of this review is to critically introduce the present knowledge of purification and bioactivities of phycocyanin, and to illustrate main problems and prospects.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Current knowledge of vitamin D in dogs
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-05-12
    Nicole Weidner, Adronie Verbrugghe

    There is emerging interest in linking vitamin D status to physiological health and disease states in the dog, as evidenced by the recent increase in publications in this area. This research has most likely been spurred by the studies exploring vitamin D and disease in humans. However, there are important differences in vitamin D intake and metabolism between humans and dogs that should be accounted for. The understanding of basic vitamin D metabolism and the relationship between vitamin D intake and vitamin D status in dogs remains even more limited than current knowledge in humans. This review will summarize current knowledge of vitamin D in the dog, including metabolism and dietary recommendations. Emphasis is placed on the limitations to current knowledge. Studies investigating links between vitamin D and disease will be discussed in light of this knowledge. Suggestions for future research, including the development of reference ranges to define blood vitamin D sufficiency, are provided.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Enzymatic browning in avocado (Persea americana) revisited: History, advances, and future perspectives
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-05-12
    Lea Toledo, Carolina Aguirre

    Considering nearly 80 years of research regarding one of the enzymes responsible for catalyzing the formation of pigments in higher animals, plants, fungi and bacteria, this review will focus on collecting and categorizing the existing information about polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in fruits, with particular emphasis on the information in relation to avocado, which is one of the hardiest species in terms of inactivation, has documented dual activity (EC 1.14.18.1/EC 1.10.3.1), and represents one of the oldest challenges for food science research and fruit processors.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • An alternative allergen risk management approach
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-05-31
    Louise Manning, Jan Mei Soon

    Protein components in food can trigger immune-mediated response in susceptible individuals. International law requires risk assessment to be undertaken by competent individuals to minimize food safety risk to consumers. Historically, allergen control legislation has been food-focused and on the requirement for on pack labeling, and the need for formal food recalls in the event of misleading or inappropriate labeling. In order to develop a mechanism for decision makers when assessing allergenic risk from plant-derived materials, the aim of this research was to consider a more holistic risk assessment method whereby rather than just using the food-based approach, an additive element in terms of considering the families of proteins is included. This approach reflects the need for food professionals to fully understand the role of proteins in triggering an allergic response to plant material and the health risk to individuals who show cross-reactivity to such proteins.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • An overview of the effect of probiotics and exercise on mood and associated health conditions
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-05-31
    Marie Clare Grant, Julien S Baker

    The present paper provides a review of the current knowledge relating to the health benefits of probiotics, specially focused on the effects they may have together with physical exercise on mood disorders and related chronic medical conditions.With both these conditions being a substantial contributor to the global disease burden, any alternative therapy must be considered. Probiotics influence the gut microbiota through a complex network of events which can influence mechanisms leading to development of mood disorders such as depression and anxiety. Similarly, through a complex interaction between psychological and neurobiological mechanisms, exercise has been found to play a key role in mood enhancement.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Lactic acid fermentation as a tool for increasing the folate content of foods
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-06-28
    Fabien Saubade, Youna M. Hemery, Jean-Pierre Guyot, Christèle Humblot

    Folate is an essential micronutrient involved in numerous vital biological reactions. The dietary consumption of naturally occurring vitamin B9 is often inadequate in many countries, and supplementation or fortification programs (using synthetic folic acid) are implemented to alleviate folate deficiency. Other food-based alternatives are possible, such as the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to synthesize folate during fermentation. Many studies have been conducted on this topic, and promising results were reported for some fermented dairy products. However, in other studies, folate consumption by LAB or rather low folate production were observed, resulting in fermented foods that may not significantly contribute to the recommended B9 intake. In addition, the optimum conditions for folate biosynthesis by LAB are still not clear. The aim of this review was thus to (i) clarify the ability of LAB to produce folate in food products, (ii) check if the production of folate by LAB in various fermented foods is sufficient to meet human vitamin B9 requirements and (iii) suggest ways to optimize folate production by LAB in fermented food products.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Anti-cancer properties and mechanisms of action of thymoquinone, the major active ingredient of Nigella sativa
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-01-31
    Amin F. Majdalawieh, Muneera W. Fayyad, Gheyath K. Nasrallah

    Over the past two decades, studies have documented the wide-range anti-cancer effects of Nigella sativa, known as black seed or black cumin. Thymoquinone (TQ), its major active ingredient, has also been extensively studied and reported to possess potent anti-cancer properties. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the findings related to the anti-cancer activity of TQ. The review focuses on analyzing experimental studies performed using different in vitro and in vivo models to identify the anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-oxidant, cytotoxic, anti-metastatic, and NK-dependent cytotoxic effects exerted by TQ. In addition, we pinpoint the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects and the signal transduction pathways implicated by TQ. Our analysis show that p53, NF-κB, PPARγ, STAT3, MAPK, and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways are among the most significant pathways through which TQ mediates its anti-cancer activity. Experimental findings and recent advances in the field highlight TQ as an effective therapeutic agent for the suppression of tumor development, growth and metastasis for a wide range of tumors.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Dietary fats and F2-isoprostanes: A review of the clinical evidence
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-07-20
    Marine S. Da Silva, Jean-François Bilodeau, Pierre Julien, Iwona Rudkowska

    Evidence supports that a high dietary fat intake increases oxidative stress and the risk of diet-induced metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. F2-isoprostanes (F2-isoP) are formed by the non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid and are widely used as reliable biomarkers of oxidative stress in clinical studies. Dietary fats may influence F2-isoP levels, as they (1) are metabolic substrates for their formation, (2) modify the lipid composition of tissues, and (3) affect the plasma lipoprotein concentrations which are involved in F2-isoP transport. This review examined the latest clinical evidence on how dietary fats can affect blood circulation and excretion of F2-isoP in individuals with healthy or deteriorated metabolic profiles. Clinical studies reported that saturated or monounsaturated fat-rich diets did not affect F2-isoP levels in adults with healthy or deteriorated metabolic profiles. Though, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased F2-isoP levels in numerous studies, whereas trans-fatty acids raised F2-isoP excretion. Yet, the reported heterogeneous results reveal important considerations, such as the health status of the participants, the biological fluids used to determine F2-isoP, the analytical methods employed and the specific F2-isoP isomers detected. Therefore, future clinical studies should be designed in order to consider these issues in the studies of the effects of fat intake on oxidative stress.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Are school meals a viable and sustainable tool to improve the healthiness and sustainability of children´s diet and food consumption? A cross-national comparative perspective
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-08-10
    Marije Oostindjer, Jessica Aschemann-Witzel, Qing Wang, Silje Elisabeth Skuland, Bjørg Egelandsdal, Gro V. Amdam, Alexander Schjøll, Mark C. Pachucki, Paul Rozin, Jarrett Stein, Valerie Lengard Almli, Ellen Van Kleef

    There is little agreement among governments, institutions, scientists and food activists as to how to best tackle the challenging issues of health and sustainability in the food sector. This essay discusses the potential of school meals as a platform to promote healthy and sustainable food behavior. School meal programs are of particular interest for improving public diet because they reach children at a population scale across socio-economic classes and for over a decade of their lives, and because food habits of children are more malleable than those of adults. Current research on the history and health implications of school meal programs is reviewed in a cross-national comparative framework, and arguments explored that speak for the need of a new developmental phase of school meals as an integrative learning platform for healthy and sustainable food behavior. Nutritional, social, practical, educational, economical, political, and cultural perspectives and challenges linked to the implementation of healthy and sustainable school meals are discussed. Finally, the need for long-term interventions and evaluations is highlighted and new research directions are proposed.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Effect of vitamin K in bone metabolism and vascular calcification: A review of mechanisms of action and evidences
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-07-20
    Julia Khéde Dourado Villa, Marisa Alves Nogueira Diaz, Virgínia Ramos Pizziolo, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino

    Osteoporosis is a public health concern associated with an increased risk of bone fractures and vascular calcification. Vitamin K presents unique benefits on these issues, although understudied. The two main forms of vitamin K are phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and menaquinone (vitamin K2). In this study, it was especially investigated the action of vitamin K2 in bones and vessels. Vitamin K2 has shown to stimulate bone formation by promoting osteoblast differentiation and carboxylation of osteocalcin, and increasing alkaline phosphatase, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth differentiation factor-15, and stanniocalcin 2 levels. Furthermore, vitamin K2 reduces the pro-apoptotic proteins Fas and Bax in osteoblasts, and decreases osteoclast differentiation by increasing osteoprotegerin and reducing the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand. In blood vessels, vitamin K2 reduces the formation of hydroxyapatite, through the carboxylation of matrix Gla protein and Gla rich protein, inhibits the apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells, by increasing growth arrest-specific gene 6, and reduces the transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells to osteoblasts. The commonly used dosage of vitamin K2 in human studies is 45 mg/day and its application can be an interesting strategy in benefitting bone and vascular health, especially to osteoporotic post-menopausal women.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Impact of human Campylobacter infections in Southeast Asia: The contribution of the poultry sector
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-12-21
    Jayasekara Mudiyanselage Krishanthi Jayarukshi Kumari Premarathne, Dilan Amila Satharasinghe, John Tang Yew Huat, Dayang Fredalina Basri, Yaya Rukayadi, Yoshitsugu Nakaguchi, Mitsuaki Nishibuchi, Son Radu

    Campylobacter is globally recognized as a major cause of foodborne infection in humans, whilst the development of antimicrobial resistance and the possibility of repelling therapy increase the threat to public health. Poultry is the most frequent source of Campylobacter infection in humans, and southeast Asia is a global leader in poultry production, consumption, and exports. Though three of the world's top 20 most populated countries are located in southeast Asia, the true burden of Campylobacter infection in the region has not been fully elucidated. Based on published data, Campylobacter has been reported in humans, animals, and food commodities in the region. To our knowledge, this study is the first to review the status of human Campylobacter infection in southeast Asia and to discuss future perspectives. Gaining insight into the true burden of the infection and prevalence levels of Campylobacter spp. in the southeast Asian region is essential to ensuring global and regional food safety through facilitating improvements in surveillance systems, food safety regulations, and mitigation strategies.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Short chain and polyunsaturated fatty acids in host gut health and foodborne bacterial pathogen inhibition
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-07-20
    Mengfei Peng, Debabrata Biswas

    As a major source of microbes and their numerous beneficial effects, the gut microflora/microbiome is intimately linked to human health and disease. The exclusion of enteric pathogens by these commensal microbes partially depends upon the production of bioactive compounds such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These key intestinal microbial byproducts are crucial to the maintenance of a healthy gut microbial community. Moreover, SCFAs and PUFAs play multiple critical roles in host defense and immunity, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammation, and anti-oxidant activities, as well as out-competition of enteric bacterial pathogens. In this review article, we hereby aim to highlight the importance of SCFAs and PUFAs and the microbes involved in production of these beneficial intestinal components, and their biological functions, specifically as to their immunomodulation and interactions with enteric bacterial pathogens. Finally, we also advance potential applications of these fatty acids with regards to food safety and human gut health.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Optimal nutrition in lactating women and its effect on later health of offspring: A systematic review of current evidence and recommendations (EarlyNutrition project)
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-04-29
    Marita de Waard, Brigitte Brands, Stefanie M. P. Kouwenhoven, Joaquim Calvo Lerma, Paula Crespo-Escobar, Berthold Koletzko, Bartlomiej M. Zalewski, Johannes B. van Goudoever

    Background: EarlyNutrition (www.project-earlynutrition.eu) is an international research consortium investigating the effects of early nutrition on metabolic programming. Objective: To summarize current evidence and standards, recommendations, guidelines, and regulations on nutrition or supplements in lactating women with emphasis placed on long-term health effects in offspring, including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, or glucose intolerance. Methods: Medline, Embase, selected databases and websites were searched for documents published between 2010 and 2015. Results: Thirteen documents met the inclusion criteria. Effects of maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) supplementation on overweight/obesity or hypertension in offspring were assessed in 10 studies. One study described the effect of maternal vitamin D supplementation on overweight/obesity, and the remaining 2 studies assessed the effects of maternal probiotic/synbiotic supplementation during lactation on overweight/obesity or metabolic syndrome in their infants. Forty-one documents contained dietary recommendations on various macro- and micronutrients for lactating women, but without consideration of our long-term health outcomes in infants. Conclusion: Literature on nutrition of lactating women and its effect on their infants' later health with respect to metabolic programming outcomes appeared to be scarce, and focused mostly on supplementation of LC-PUFA's. No recent guidelines or recommendations were available, highlighting the significant research gaps regarding this topic.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Processing effects on tree nut allergens: A review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-05-12
    Sai Kranthi Vanga, Vijaya Raghavan

    “Tree nut” is a broad term for classification of nuts that include cashews, almonds, hazelnuts, etc. Reports of mild to adverse immune reactions following the consumption of these nuts has been on a rise in recent years. Currently, about 1.2–2% of the world's population suffer from sensitivity to tree nuts. The only solution is complete abstinence from the allergy causing tree nut which is not feasible in most cases due to issues like cross contamination or their presence in the form of hidden ingredients in processed foods. Various studies have shown that food processing can effectively vary the secondary structures of the allergenic protein which in turn influences their functional properties. But, the impact of these processing methods on tree nuts allergens is mixed. This review gives an update on the recent findings on how conventional and novel processing methods influence the tree nut allergens.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
  • Dietary protein oxidation: A silent threat to human health?
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-04-29
    M. Estévez, C. Luna

    Protein oxidation has become a topic of great scientific interest in the field of food science and nutrition. Food proteins are known to be preferential targets of radical species, and protein oxidation has relevant consequences on protein functionality and food quality. Current trends in this field call attention to the nutritional and health dimensions of oxidized foods. Both lipid and protein oxidation products are accumulated in food during processing and storage and also upon food intake during the subsequent digestion phases. The gastrointestinal tract and internal organs are exposed to the cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of these species. While the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of particular dietary lipid oxidation products is well known, the impact of dietary oxidized proteins on human health has been largely ignored. The well-established association between in vivo protein oxidation and aging and age-related diseases urges scientists to investigate the contribution of dietary protein oxidation to particular pathological conditions. Recent reports indicate the involvement of dietary protein oxidation species on particular health disorders, which emphasizes the link between dietary and in vivo protein oxidation.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
  • Rice bran nutraceutics: A comprehensive review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-03-25
    Muhammad Sohail, Allah Rakha, Masood Sadiq Butt, Muhammad Jawad Iqbal, Summer Rashid

    Agro-industry yields ample quantity of several byproducts with considerable importance. These byproducts are mostly under-utilized, often used as animal feed or rejected as waste; hence their true potential is not harnessed. The use of such superfluous resources is of not only economic significance but also a form of commercial recycling. Rice bran is an important byproduct of rice milling industry with a global potential of 29.3 million tons annually. It is gaining great attention of the researchers due to its nutrient-rich composition, easy availability, low cost, high antioxidant potential, and promising effects against several metabolic ailments. Bioactive components of rice bran, mainly γ-oryzanol, have been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, anti-diabetic, and anti-cancer activities. Rice bran oil contains appreciable quantities of bioactive components and has attained the status of “Heart oil” due to its cardiac-friendly chemical profile. Nutraceutics have successfully been extracted from rice bran using several extraction techniques such as solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, microwave-, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Current paper is an attempt to highlight bioactive moieties of rice bran along with their extraction technologies and health benefits.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
  • Effect of thermal treatments on the degradation of antibiotic residues in food
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-04-06
    Lei Tian, Salma Khalil, Stéphane Bayen

    The thermal stability of antibiotics commonly detected in food is reviewed. To quantify degradation, 2 major techniques have been reported: liquid chromatography-based methods and microbiological tests. As the degradation products may also display some antimicrobial activity, microbiological tests may not be considered accurate analytical methods for quantifying antibiotic residues' degradation. Degradation percentages are summarized for different antibiotics and for various media (water, oil, milk, and animal tissues). Studies presented in the literature confirm that the thermal degradation of β-lactams, quinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines can be described using a first-order kinetic model. Degradation rates, k, derived for this model for liquid matrix (water) at 100 °C, followed the general trend amongst antibiotic classes: β-lactams = tetracyclines (most heat-labile) > lincomycin > amphenicols > sulfonamides > oxfendazole > levamisole (most heat-stable). Although thermal processing results in a decrease in the concentration of parent antibiotic residues, degradation by-products have not been properly characterized to date. As some of these products were shown to be hazardous, further investigation is needed to determine their impact on food safety and human health. It is therefore currently difficult to definitively conclude whether or not antibiotic degradation during food processing is necessarily beneficial in terms of food safety.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
  • Ugly but tasty: A systematic review of possible human and animal health risks related to entomophagy
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-03-23
    Marco Testa, Michela Stillo, Giulia Maffei, Violetta Andriolo, Paolo Gardois, Carla Maria Zotti

    Background: According to many recent studies, the use of insects as food seems to be convenient, sustainable, economical and healthy. The objective of this study is to analyze the possible effects of insect consumption on human and animal health. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed using the PubMed, Scopus and CAB databases. Results: Of the 6026 items initially retrieved, 70 were eligible for inclusion; 40 studies analyzed the use of insects in human foods or drugs, while 30 analyzed the use of insects in animal feed. In humans, the most commonly analyzed risks are nutrient malabsorption, growth alteration, chemical and microbiological contamination and allergy risk. Studies of animals focus on growth alteration, nutrient malabsorption and hematic and qualitative meat alteration. Conclusion: In recent years, researchers have shifted their focus from the possible use of edible insects in animal feed to their use as possible nutrient sources for humans. The results suggest that, if properly treated and preserved, products derived from insects are safe and efficient sources of nutrients for animals. Further studies are needed to evaluate the possible effects of prolonged insect consumption on human health.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
  • Quantifiable risk–benefit assessment of micronutrients: From theory to practice
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-05-17
    Lisette Krul, Bas H. A. Kremer, Niels B. Lucas Luijckx, Winfried R. Leeman

    The EU Food Supplements Directive (2002/46/EC) mandates the determination of both maximum and minimum permitted levels (MPLs) for micronutrients. In order to determine MPLs which are feasible for particular population groups, a scientific approach should be used in which risk of high intake, risk of inadequacy and benefits are assessed in an integrated way taking all available data and severity and incidence of effect into account. In 2004, Renwick et al. (ILSI Europe) published a scientifically valid, flexible and pragmatic basis for a risk–benefit approach, which has been further developed here to make it a practical and quantifiable approach to be used by risk managers. The applicability of the approach is demonstrated using demo cases on iron and folate. The proposed approach has the capacity to utilize all relevant data available, including data from human studies, bioavailability data showing variability between specific forms of micronutrients and, in the case of animal studies, data on species comparability. The approach is therefore both practical and flexible, making it well suited to risk managers tasked with determining safe intake levels for micronutrients in different forms and for particular population groups.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
  • Metal(loid) contamination in seafood products
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-04-06
    Gabriela Chiocchetti, Carlos Jadán-Piedra, Dinoraz Vélez, Vicenta Devesa

    Seafood products are important sources of proteins, polyunsaturated lipids and phospholipids, and also of numerous micronutrients (vitamins and minerals). However, they may also present chemical contaminants that can constitute a health risk and that must be considered when evaluating the risk/benefit associated with consumption of this group of foods. Toxic metals and metalloids in seafood, such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and lead (Pb), are subjected to legislative control in order to provide the consumer with safe seafood. This review provides an exhaustive survey of the occurrence of these toxic metal(loid)s in seafood products, and of the risk resulting from their consumption. Consideration is given to aspects related to speciation, food processing, and bioavailability, which are key factors in evaluating the risk associated with the presence of these toxic trace elements in seafood products.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
  • The vicious cycle of vitamin a deficiency: A review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-04-29
    Elina Manusevich Wiseman, Shimrit Bar-El Dadon, Ram Reifen

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a serious and widespread public health problem and the leading cause of preventable blindness in young children. It is also associated with increased rates of death from severe infections, especially in developing countries. Over the past 35 years, researchers have examined the numerous activities of vitamin A in different tissues of the human body. VAD can lead to a series of ocular symptoms, anemia, and weak resistance to infection, which can increase the severity of infectious diseases and the risk of death. Cell development, vision, growth, and normal metabolism are among the vital processes that are insufficiently supported in the presence of VAD. VAD leads to impaired tissue function especially during the developmental periods of infancy, childhood, pregnancy, and lactation. We describe a multidirectional model of VAD that demonstrates how VAD can have progressive, negative effects on vital processes of the human body throughout the life cycle. This model starts with impaired intake and its link to decreased absorption and digestion and includes outcomes such as malnutrition, inflammation, and improper growth processes, including possible mechanisms. Together, these clinical and biochemical manifestations contribute to the vicious cycle of VAD.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
  • Effect of processing on nutritive values of milk protein
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-04-06
    Sanket G. Borad, Anuj Kumar, Ashish K. Singh

    Milk is an essential source of nutritionally excellent quality protein in human, particularly in vegan diet. Before consumption, milk is invariably processed depending upon final product requirement. This processing may alter the nutritive value of protein in a significant manner. The processing operations like thermal treatment, chemical treatment, biochemical processing, physical treatments, nonconventional treatments, etc. may exert positive or negative influence on nutritional quality of milk proteins. On one side, processing enhances the nutritive and therapeutic values of protein while on other side intermediate or end products generated during protein reactions may cause toxicity and/or antigenicity upon consumption at elevated level. The review discusses the changes occurring in nutritive quality of milk proteins under the influence of various processing operations.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
  • Taste loss in the elderly: Possible implications for dietary habits
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-04-29
    Giuseppe Sergi, Giulia Bano, Simona Pizzato, Nicola Veronese, Enzo Manzato

    Aging may coincide with a declining gustatory function that can affect dietary intake and ultimately have negative health consequences. Taste loss is caused by physiological changes and worsened by events often associated with aging, such as polypharmacy and chronic disease. The most pronounced increase in elderly people's detection threshold has been observed for sour and bitter tastes, but their perception of salty, sweet, and umami tastes also seems to decline with age. It has often been suggested that elderly people who lose their sense of taste may eat less food or choose stronger flavors, but the literature has revealed a more complicated picture: taste loss does not appear to make elderly people prefer stronger flavors, but nutrition surveys have pointed to a greater consumption of sweet and salty foods.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
  • Ferritin cage for encapsulation and delivery of bioactive nutrients: From structure, property to applications
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-03-16
    Jiachen Zang, Hai Chen, Guanghua Zhao, Fudi Wang, Fazheng Ren

    Ferritin is a class of naturally occurring iron storage proteins, which is distributed widely in animal, plant, and bacteria. It usually consists of 24 subunits that form a hollow protein shell with high symmetry. One holoferritin molecule can store up to 4500 iron atom within its inner cavity, and it becomes apoferritin upon removal of iron from the cavity. Recently, scientists have subverted these nature functions and used reversibly self-assembled property of apoferritin cage controlled by pH for the encapsulation and delivery of bioactive nutrients or anticancer drug. In all these cases, the ferritin cages shield their cargo from the influence of external conditions and provide a controlled microenvironment. More importantly, upon encapsulation, ferritin shell greatly improved the water solubility, thermal stability, photostability, and cellular uptake activity of these small bioactive compounds. This review aims to highlight recent advances in applications of ferritin cage as a novel vehicle in the field of food science and nutrition. Future outlooks are highlighted with the aim to suggest a research line to follow for further studies.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
  • High γ-aminobutyric acid production from lactic acid bacteria: Emphasis on Lactobacillus brevis as a functional dairy starter
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-03-15
    Qinglong Wu, Nagendra P. Shah

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and GABA-rich foods have shown anti-hypertensive and anti-depressant activities as the major functions in humans and animals. Hence, high GABA-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) could be used as functional starters for manufacturing novel fermented dairy foods. Glutamic acid decarboxylases (GADs) from LAB are highly conserved at the species level based on the phylogenetic tree of GADs from LAB. Moreover, two functionally distinct GADs and one intact gad operon were observed in all the completely sequenced Lactobacillus brevis strains suggesting its common capability to synthesize GABA. Difficulties and strategies for the manufacture of GABA-rich fermented dairy foods have been discussed and proposed, respectively. In addition, a genetic survey on the sequenced LAB strains demonstrated the absence of cell envelope proteinases in the majority of LAB including Lb. brevis, which diminishes their cell viabilities in milk environments due to their non-proteolytic nature. Thus, several strategies have been proposed to overcome the non-proteolytic nature of Lb. brevis in order to produce GABA-rich dairy foods.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
  • Riboflavin and health: A review of recent human research
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-03-30
    Kiran Thakur, Sudhir Kumar Tomar, Ashish Kumar Singh, Surajit Mandal, Sumit Arora

    There has lately been a renewed interest in Riboflavin owing to insight into its recognition as an essential component of cellular biochemistry. The knowledge of the mechanisms and regulation of intestinal absorption of riboflavin and its health implications has significantly been expanded in recent years. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the importance of riboflavin, its absorption and metabolism in health and diseased conditions, its deficiency and its association with various health diseases, and metabolic disorders. Efforts have been made to review the available information in literature on the relationship between riboflavin and various clinical abnormalities. The role of riboflavin has also been dealt in the prevention of a wide array of health diseases like migraine, anemia, cancer, hyperglycemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and oxidative stress directly or indirectly. The riboflavin deficiency has profound effect on iron absorption, metabolism of tryptophan, mitochondrial dysfunction, gastrointestinal tract, brain dysfunction, and metabolism of other vitamins as well as is associated with skin disorders. Toxicological and photosensitizing properties of riboflavin make it suitable for biological use, such as virus inactivation, excellent photosensitizer, and promising adjuvant in chemo radiotherapy in cancer treatment. A number of recent studies have indicated and highlighted the cellular processes and biological effects associated with riboflavin supplementation in metabolic diseases. Overall, a deeper understanding of these emerging roles of riboflavin intake is essential to design better therapies for future.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
  • Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: A systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-02-06
    Monica Dinu, Rosanna Abbate, Gian Franco Gensini, Alessandro Casini, Francesco Sofi

    Background: Beneficial effects of vegetarian and vegan diets on health outcomes have been supposed in previous studies. Objectives: Aim of this study was to clarify the association between vegetarian, vegan diets, risk factors for chronic diseases, risk of all-cause mortality, incidence, and mortality from cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, total cancer and specific type of cancer (colorectal, breast, prostate and lung), through meta-analysis. Methods: A comprehensive search of Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar was conducted. Results: Eighty-six cross-sectional and 10 cohort prospective studies were included. The overall analysis among cross-sectional studies reported significant reduced levels of body mass index, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and glucose levels in vegetarians and vegans versus omnivores. With regard to prospective cohort studies, the analysis showed a significant reduced risk of incidence and/or mortality from ischemic heart disease (RR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.82) and incidence of total cancer (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.87 to 0.98) but not of total cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, all-cause mortality and mortality from cancer. No significant association was evidenced when specific types of cancer were analyzed. The analysis conducted among vegans reported significant association with the risk of incidence from total cancer (RR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.95), despite obtained only in a limited number of studies. Conclusions: This comprehensive meta-analysis reports a significant protective effect of a vegetarian diet versus the incidence and/or mortality from ischemic heart disease (−25%) and incidence from total cancer (−8%). Vegan diet conferred a significant reduced risk (−15%) of incidence from total cancer.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
  • A systematic review of lactoferrin use in dermatology
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-02-08
    Lauren A. Hassoun, Raja K. Sivamani

    Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein widely present in mammalian secretions and possesses documented protective effects, including antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. While its therapeutic use is being investigated for a myriad of diseases, there is increasing interest in its application for skin disease. Our objective was to systematically review the clinical evidence for the use and efficacy of lactoferrin for the treatment of dermatological conditions. Pubmed and Embase databases were searched for clinical studies evaluating lactoferrin for dermatological conditions. A total of six studies were reviewed. Of the current clinical trials, there is encouraging evidence to suggest that lactoferrin may be beneficial in acne, psoriasis, and diabetic ulcerations. Although the current evidence is promising, further research is necessary to establish lactoferrin as complementary therapy in the clinical setting.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
  • Recent developments in novel freezing and thawing technologies applied to foods
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-02-06
    Xiao-Fei Wu, Min Zhang, Benu Adhikari, Jincai Sun

    This article reviews the recent developments in novel freezing and thawing technologies applied to foods. These novel technologies improve the quality of frozen and thawed foods and are energy efficient. The novel technologies applied to freezing include pulsed electric field pre-treatment, ultra-low temperature, ultra-rapid freezing, ultra-high pressure and ultrasound. The novel technologies applied to thawing include ultra-high pressure, ultrasound, high voltage electrostatic field (HVEF), and radio frequency. Ultra-low temperature and ultra-rapid freezing promote the formation and uniform distribution of small ice crystals throughout frozen foods. Ultra-high pressure and ultrasound assisted freezing are non-thermal methods and shorten the freezing time and improve product quality. Ultra-high pressure and HVEF thawing generate high heat transfer rates and accelerate the thawing process. Ultrasound and radio frequency thawing can facilitate thawing process by volumetrically generating heat within frozen foods. It is anticipated that these novel technologies will be increasingly used in food industries in the future.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids and type 2 diabetes: Impact on the glycemic control mechanism
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-02-06
    Olívia Gonçalves Leão Coelho, Bárbara Pereira da Silva, Daniela Mayumi Usuda Prado Rocha, Lílian Lelis Lopes, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas

    There is a growing mortality related to co-morbidities associated with diabetes mellitus. Intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been associated with low cardiometabolic risk and reduction of inflammatory process. The objective of this paper is to review the impact of PUFA intake on glycemic control in diabetic patients as well as to elucidate the possible mechanisms involved. Medline/PubMed electronic database was searched to identify studies published within last five years regarding the effect of PUFA intake on glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetics. The search terms used were “polyunsaturated fatty acid(s),” “PUFA,” and “diabetes.” We included only interventional studies that assessed the effects of PUFA intake on glucose metabolism – fasting glucose, serum insulin, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR assessment– in type 2 diabetics. Initially, 48 articles were identified, of which one was not available and 41 did not match the inclusion criteria. Within the selected studies, three articles showed an improvement in fasting blood glucose, two showed an increase in fasting glycemia, and there was no effect of intervention in one article only. Based on the analyzed clinical interventional studies, supplementation of 0.42–5.2-g PUFA/day for at least eight weeks may become an alternative treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly in Asian subjects.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
  • The therapeutic potential of plant flavonoids on rheumatoid arthritis
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2016-11-22
    Samuel D. Hughes, Natkunam Ketheesan, Nagaraja Haleagrahara

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune condition that mainly affects peripheral joints. Although immunosuppressive drugs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to treat this condition, these drugs have severe side effects. Flavonoids are the most abundant phenolic compounds which exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Many bioactive flavonoids have powerful anti-inflammatory effects. However, a very few have reached clinical use. Dietary flavonoids have been reported to control joint inflammation and alleviate arthritis symptoms in both human RA and animal models of arthritis. There is little scientific evidence about their mechanism of actions in RA. We review the therapeutic effects of different groups of flavonoids belonging to the most common and abundant groups on RA. In particular, the probable mechanisms of major flavonoids on cells and chemical messengers involved in the inflammatory signaling components of RA are discussed in detail.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
  • Molecular targets of dietary phytochemicals for possible prevention and therapy of uterine fibroids: Focus on fibrosis
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-13
    Md Soriful Islam, Most Mauluda Akhtar, James H. Segars, Mario Castellucci, Pasquapina Ciarmela

    Uterine fibroids (myomas or leiomyomas) are common benign tumors of reproductive aged women. Fibroids are clinically apparent in 20–50% of women, and cause abnormal uterine bleeding, abdominal pain and discomfort, pregnancy complications and infertility. Unfortunately, limited numbers of medical treatment are available but no effective preventive strategies exist. Moreover, the benefits of medical treatments are tempered by lack of efficacy or serious adverse side effects. Fibrosis has recently been recognized as a key pathological event in leiomyoma development and growth. It is defined by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM plays important role in making bulk structure of leiomyoma, and ECM-rich rigid structure is believed to be a cause of abnormal bleeding and pelvic pain/pressure. Dietary phytochemicals are known to regulate fibrotic process in different biological systems, and being considered as potential tool to manage human health. At present, very few dietary phytochemicals have been studied in uterine leiomyoma, and they are mostly known for their antiproliferative effects. Therefore, in this review, our aim was to introduce some dietary phytochemicals that could target fibrotic processes in leiomyoma. Thus, this review could serve as useful resource to develop antifibrotic drugs for possible prevention and treatment of uterine fibroids.

    更新日期:2017-06-26
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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