Research advances on structural characterization of resistant starch and its structure-physiological function relationship: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-02 Zhen Ma, Joyce I. Boye
Resistant starch (RS) is defined as the fraction of starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine due to either difficult enzyme/starch contact or to the strength of the crystalline regions formed both in native starch and in those retrograded starch. RS occurs naturally in some foods, and some may be generated in others as the results of several processing conditions. Varieties of techniques have been employed to obtain structural characteristics of RS such as their crystallinity, structural order, chain-length distribution and conformation, helicity, and double-helical structures. These structures play an important role in determining the physiological properties of RS such as their prebiotic and hypoglycaemic properties. However, such topic on structural characterization of RS and their structure-physiological function relationship have not been reviewed in previous literatures. Therefore, this review focuses on the past and current achievements of research on structural characterizations of a range of RS prepared from different sources of native starches as a result of a variety of processing conditions. The potential relationships between the structure and the physiological properties of RS, which is of paramount importance for the furtherance understanding and application of RS, are also reviewed in this study.
State of art of nanotechnology applications in the meat chain: A qualitative synthesis Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-28 Simone Belluco, Federica Gallocchio, Carmen Losasso, Antonia Ricci
Background: Nanotechnology is a promising area in industry with a broad range of applications including in the agri-food sector. Several studies have investigated the potential benefits deriving from use of nanomaterials in the context of the whole food chain drawing scenarios of benefits but also potential for concerns. Among the agri-food sector, animal production has potential for nanomaterial application but also for safety concerns due to the possibility of nanomaterial accumulation along the farm-to-fork path.
Cereal starch nanoparticles—A prospective food additive: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-28 Jashandeep Kaur, Gurkirat Kaur, Savita Sharma, Kiran Jeet
Starch is one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature and is typically isolated from plants in the form of micro-scale granules. Raw starch has limited applications due to its innate disadvantages such as poor solubility in cold water, tendency to retrograde and high viscosity once it is gelatinized. Therefore, some degree of modification is required to enhance its functionality. Starch nanoparticle is one of the products of such modification. Chemical, enzymatic, and physical treatments are used for the preparation of starch nanoparticles and to study their granular and molecular structures. Characterization of starch nanoparticles on the size distribution, crystalline structure, and physical properties in relation to the starch sources and preparation methods can be done using various characterization tools e.g. Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Florescence Microscopy, etc. Starch nanoparticles can be used as a food additive as it has adverse range of uses in food such as emulsion stabilizer, fat replacer, Thickener, or rheology modifier etc.
Influence of factors on release of antimicrobials from antimicrobial packaging materials Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-07-21 Yu-Mei Wu, Zhi-Wei Wang, Chang-Ying Hu, Cristina Nerín
Antimicrobial packaging materials (films or coatings) (APMs) have aroused great interest among the scientists or the experts specialized in material science, food science, packaging engineering, biology and chemistry. APMs have been used to package the food, such as dairy products, poultry, meat (e.g., beef), salmon muscle, pastry dough, fresh pasta, bakery products, fruits, vegetables and beverages. Some materials have been already commercialized. The ability of APMs to extend the shelf-life of the food depends on the release rate of the antimicrobials (AMs) from the materials to the food. The optimum rate is defined as target release rate (TRR). To achieve TRR, the influencing factors of the release rate should be considered. Herein we reviewed for the first time these factors and their influence on the release. These factors mainly include the AMs, food (or food simulant), packaging materials, the interactions among them, the temperature and environmental relative humidity (RH).
Biomarkers of dairy fat intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: A systematic review and meta analysis of prospective studies Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-07-05 Jingjing Liang, Quan Zhou, William Kwame Amakye, Yixiang Su, Zheqing Zhang
Background: Circulating biomarkers of dairy fat provide objective measures of dairy fat intake and facilitate conclusions relevant to populations with different diets and susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases (CVD).
Histamine food poisonings: A systematic review and meta-analysis Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-02 Fabio M. Colombo, Patrizia Cattaneo, Enrica Confalonieri, Cristian Bernardi
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the mean of histamine concentration in food poisoning.
Impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolites produced during fermentation on bread quality parameters: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-12 Mareile Heitmann, Emanuele Zannini, Elke Arendt
Although bread making with the use of Baker's yeast has a long tradition in human history, little attention has been paid to the connection between yeast addition and the final bread quality. Nowadays, bakers mainly use different flour additives such as enzymes (amylases, hemicellulases, and proteases) to change and improve dough properties and/or bread quality. Another strategy is the use of modified industrial Baker's yeast. To date, there is no yeast strain used in the baking industry, which is genetically modified, despite some studies demonstrating that the application of recombinant DNA technology is a possibility for improved strains suitable for baking. However, due to the fact that the majority of consumers in Europe highly reject the use of genetically modified microorganisms in the production of food, other strategies to improve bread quality must be investigated. Such a strategy would be a reconsideration of the selection of yeast strains used for the baking process. Next to the common criteria, the requirement for adequate gas production, more attention should be paid on how yeast impacts flavor, shelf life, color, and the nutritional value of baked products, in a similar way to which yeast strains are selected in the wine and brewing industries.
A critical review on hepatoprotective effects of bioactive food components Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-02 Kumar Ganesan, Muthukumaran Jayachandran, Baojun Xu
Background: Bioactive food components are nonessential biomolecules, which help to give beneficial effects to human being against several diseases. Natural bioactive food components derived from plants and animals, such as phytosterols, carotenoids, polyphenols and fatty acids, have been proposed as valuable substitutions for anticipation and management of hepatotoxic effects and its chronic complications based on in vitro and in vivo studies.
The more effective treatment of atrial fibrillation applying the natural compounds; as NADPH oxidase and ion channel inhibitors Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-10-17 Samira Barangi, A. Wallace Hayes, Gholamreza Karimi
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia that occurs because of several different risk factors, e.g., valvular heart disease, coronary artery disease, age ≥75 years, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. One key risk factor that results in AF, is oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that there is a correlation between oxidative processes and the genesis of AF. Oxidative stress occurs when the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase due to excessive activity of enzymes including NADPH oxidase (NOX) and xanthine oxidase; or its degradation decrease by dysfunctional antioxidant enzyme systems, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Afterwards, elevated ROS may shift ion channel activity to increase AF susceptibility.
Does cocoa/dark chocolate supplementation have favorable effect on body weight, body mass index and waist circumference? A systematic review, meta-analysis and dose-response of randomized clinical trials Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-04-12 Hamed Kord-Varkaneh, Ehsan Ghaedi, Ali Nazary-Vanani, Hamed Mohammadi, Sakineh Shab-Bidar
Background: Cocoa and dark chocolate (DC) have been reported to be effective for health promotion; however the exact effect of cocoa/DC on anthropometric measures have not been yet defined. Methods: A comprehensive search to identify randomized clinical trials investigating the impact of cocoa/DC on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) was performed up to December 2017. A meta-analysis of eligible studies was performed using random effects model to estimate pooled effect size. Fractional polynominal modeling was used to explore dose-response relationships. Results: A total of 35 RCTs investigated the effects of cocoa/DC on weight, BMI and WC were included. Meta-analysis did not suggest any significant effect of cocoa/DC supplementation on body weight (−0.108 kg, 95% CI −0.262, 0.046 P = 0.168), BMI (−0.014 kg/m2 95% CI −0.105, 0.077, P: 0.759,) and WC (0.025 cm 95% CI −0.083, 0.129, P = 0.640). Subgroup analysis revealed that that weight and BMI were reduced with cocoa/DC supplementation ≥ 30 g chocolate per day in trials between 4-8 weeks. Cocoa/DC consumption resulted in WC reduction in non-linear fashion (r = 0.042, P-nonlinearity = 0.008).Conclusion: Cocoa/DC supplementation does not reduce anthropometric measures significantly. However subgroup analysis regarding dose (≥ 30 g/day) and duration (between 4 to 8 weeks) revealed significant reduction of body weight and BMI.
Curcuminoids from Curcuma Longa: New adjuvants for the treatment of crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis? Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-04-12 Fernando Cunha Neto, Ledyane Taynara Marton, Sâmylla Vaz de Marqui, Tainah Aparecida Lima, Sandra Maria Barbalho
Crohn's Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC) result from an overreaction of the bowel to multifactorial stimuli leading to discomfort, pain, and it is associated with high morbidity and lethality. The medications commonly used are expensive and associated with multiple side effects. Curcuma longa exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions and has shown positive effects on CD and UC treatment, possibly due to the presence of curcuminoids. The objective of this review was to evaluate the role of curcuminoids in the treatment of IBD. A search for articles associating curcuminoids and CD and UC was performed using MEDLINE–PubMed. It has been found that curcumin can reduce oxidative stress and inhibit the migration of neutrophils and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the intestine. It may also improve micro and macroscopic lesions, prevent apoptosis of intestinal cells and also induce the restoration of the mitogen-activated protein kinase immune reaction. As the incidence of CD and UC is growing in many populations, there is an urgency to find an appropriate and accessible therapeutic approach to improve quality of life of patients. The use of curcumin is cheap, efficient and associated with no side effects, and may become an alternative to the IBD treatment.
Antihypertensive activity of fish protein hydrolysates and its peptides Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-04-05 Yathisha U.G., Ishani Bhat, Iddya Karunasagar, Mamatha B.S.
The rising interest to utilize nutritionally exorbitant fish proteins has instigated research activities in fish waste utilization. The development of newer technologies to utilize fish waste has fostered use of bioactive value-added products for specific health benefits. Enzymatically obtained Fish Protein Hydrolysate (FPH) is a rich source of biologically active peptides possessing anti-oxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial and anti-hypertensive activity. Isolating natural remedies to combat alarming negative consequences of synthetic drugs has been the new trend in current research promoting identification of antihypertensive peptides from FPH. In this review, we aim to culminate data available to produce antihypertensive peptides from FPH, its composition and potential to be used as a therapeutic agent. These purified peptides are known to be rich in arginine, valine and leucine. Reports reveal peptides with low molecular weight (<1 kDa) and shorter chain length (<20 amino acids) exhibited higher antihypertensive activity. As these peptides have proven Angiotensin Converting Enzyme – I inhibitory activity in vitro and in vivo, their potential to be used as antihypertensive drugs is outrageous. However, current focus on research in the field of molecular docking is necessary to have improved understanding of interaction of the peptides with the enzyme.
Electrolyte minerals intake and cardiovascular health Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-04-04 Noushin Mohammadifard, Carolyn Gotay, Karin H. Humphries, Andrew Ignaszewski, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
Appropriate intake of micronutrient, such as electrolyte minerals is critical for the well-being of the cardiovascular health system. However, there are some debates regarding the impacts of dietary and/or supplemental intake of these minerals, on the risk of cardiovascular events and associated risk factors. High sodium intake is adversely associated with the risk of hypertension. Although many reports refered to the positive association of Na intake and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, however, other studies indicated that low Na intake is related to higher risk of all-cause mortality and HF-related events. By contrast, dietary potassium, magnesium and calcium have an inverse correlation with cardiovascular events and risk factors, especially with blood pressure. There are some controversies about cardiovascular effects and all-cause mortality of high Ca intake, including no effect, preventive or adverse effect with or without vitamin D. Calcium supplementation might be beneficial for prevention of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality only in individuals with low intake. Moreover, calcium intake showed a J- or U-shaped association with the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Due to the controversies of the effect of electrolyte minerals especially sodium and calcium intake on cardiovascular events, large scale, well-designed long-term randomized clinical trials are required to evaluate the effect of minerals intake on cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In this review, we discuss the role of dietary and or supplemental sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, in cardiovascular health, as well as their clinical applications, benefits, and risks for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, in general population.
Genetic bases of the nutritional approach to migraine Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-04-03 Maria Laura De Marchis, Fiorella Guadagni, Erica Silvestris, Domenica Lovero, David Della-Morte, Patrizia Ferroni, Piero Barbanti, Raffaele Palmirotta
Migraine is a common multifactorial and polygenic neurological disabling disorder characterized by a genetic background and associated to environmental, hormonal and food stimulations. A large series of evidence suggest a strong correlation between nutrition and migraine and indicates several commonly foods, food additives and beverages that may be involved in the mechanisms triggering the headache attack in migraine-susceptible persons. There are foods and drinks, or ingredients of the same, that can trigger the migraine crisis as well as some foods play a protective function depending on the specific genetic sensitivity of the subject. The recent biotechnological advances have enhanced the identification of some genetic factors involved in onset diseases and the identification of sequence variants of genes responsible for the individual sensitivity to migraine trigger-foods. Therefore many studies are aimed at the analysis of polymorphisms of genes coding for the enzymes involved in the metabolism of food factors in order to clarify the different ways in which people respond to foods based on their genetic constitution.
Advances in techniques for reducing cholesterol in egg yolk: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-04-03 Gema Puertas, Manuel Vázquez
Eggs are highly nutritious food whose high cholesterol content has been always an inconvenience due to concerns about the relationship between dietary cholesterol and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk. As this remains uncertain, low cholesterol intake is recommended. This review deals with the techniques employed to reduce the cholesterol content in egg yolk once the egg is shelled. There are four main techniques: i) solvent extraction, ii) fractionation by centrifugation, iii) cholesterol chelates or adsorbents and iv) cholesterol biotransformation. Analyse of techniques, descriptions and recent advances are included in this review. Solvent extraction and cholesterol biotransformation allow to reduce up to 94.7% and 93.4%, respectively. However, both methods have not been scaled up due to food safety and economic reasons. Nowadays, fractionation by centrifugation and cholesterol chelates are the only feasible methods with industrial applications, obtaining up to 82% and 99%, respectively. Fractionation method can be considered the best because no substances are added.
Sugar reduction without compromising sensory perception. An impossible dream? Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-03-30 Scott C. Hutchings, Julia Y. Q. Low, Russell S. J. Keast
Sugar reduction is a major technical challenge for the food industry to address in response to public health concerns regarding the amount of added sugars in foods. This paper reviews sweet taste perception, sensory methods to evaluate sugar reduction and the merits of different techniques available to reduce sugar content. The use of sugar substitutes (non-nutritive sweeteners, sugar alcohols, and fibres) can achieve the greatest magnitude of sugar and energy reduction, however bitter side tastes and varying temporal sweet profiles are common issues. The use of multisensory integration principles (particularly aroma) can be an effective approach to reduce sugar content, however the magnitude of sugar reduction is small. Innovation in food structure (modifying the sucrose distribution, serum release and fracture mechanics) offers a new way to reduce sugar without significant changes in food composition, however may be difficult to implement in food produced on a large scale. Gradual sugar reduction presents difficulties for food companies from a sales perspective if acceptability is compromised. Ultimately, a holistic approach where food manufacturers integrate a range of these techniques is likely to provide the best progress. However, substantial reduction of sugar in processed foods without compromising sensory properties may be an impossible dream.
Technologies for enhancement of bioactive components and potential health benefits of cereal and cereal-based foods: Research advances and application challenges Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Ahmed S. M. Saleh, Peng Wang, Na Wang, Shu Yang, Zhigang Xiao
Cereal grains are a major source of human food and their production has steadily been increased during the last several decades to meet the demand of our increasing world population. The modernized society and the expansion of the cereal food industry created a need for highly efficient processing technologies, especially flour production. Earlier scientific research efforts have led to the invention of the modern steel roller mill, and the refined flour of wheat has become a basic component in most of cereal-based foods such as breads and pastries because of the unique functionality of wheat protein. On the other hand, epidemiological studies have found that consumption of whole cereal grains was health beneficial. The health benefit of whole cereal grain is attributed to the combined effects of micronutrients, phytochemicals, and dietary fibre, which are mainly located in the outer bran layer and the germ. However, the removal of bran and germ from cereal grains during polishing and milling results in refined flour and food products with lower bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents than those from whole grain. Also, the level of bioactive compounds in cereal food is influenced by other food preparation procedures such as baking, cooking, extrusion, and puffing. Therefore, food scientists and nutritionists are searching for strategies and processing technologies to enhance the content and bioavailability of nutrients, bioactive compounds, and dietary fibre of cereal foods. The objective of this article was to review the research advances on technologies for the enhancement of bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents of cereal and cereal-based foods. Bioactivities or biological effects of enhanced cereal and cereal-based foods are presented. Challenges facing the application of the proposed technologies in the food industry are also discussed.
Traditional consumption of and rearing edible insects in Africa, Asia and Europe Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Dele Raheem, Conrado Carrascosa, Oluwatoyin Bolanle Oluwole, Maaike Nieuwland, Ariana Saraiva, Rafael Millán, António Raposo
The traditional consumption of edible insects is common in one third of the world's population, mostly in Latin America, Africa and Asia. There are over one thousand identified species of insects eaten in some stage of their life cycle; and they play important roles in ensuring food security. The most common way to collect insects are from the wild, which is seasonal with limited availability and has an increasing demand resulting in a disruption to the ecosystem. There is a growing interest shown in rearing insects for commercial purposes, and an industrial scale production will be required to ensure steady supplies. Industrial production will need to take into account the living environment of insects, the nutritional composition of their feed and the overall efficiency of the production system. We provide a short overview on the consumption of and rearing insects in Africa, Asia and Europe. For Africa, a snapshot is given for Nigeria, Ghana, Central African Republic, Kenya and Uganda, while the following countries are reported for Asia: China, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Thailand and Vietnam. In addition, a list of insect species with the highest potential for food and feed in the European Union is provided with some reference to The Netherlands and Finland. The review concludes that there is need to better understand the rearing and farming procedures that will yield high quality edible insects in Africa, Asia and Europe.
Multiple layers and conjugate materials for food emulsion stabilization Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-12 S. Sivapratha, Preetam Sarkar
A single emulsifier material is seldom sufficient to cater to the requirements of complex emulsion-based food formulations that have to function over a wide range of pH, ionic strength, storage time, and temperature. Food emulsions have to be designed to satisfy several requirements for use which could be achieved by combining the beneficial properties of multiple emulsifiers. The present article reviews novel biological materials that are used to design oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. More specifically, the major focus is to discuss (o/w) interfaces stabilized by multiple biopolymers. Prevalent ways by which two or more emulsifiers could be combined is by (i) forming multi-layered emulsions and (ii) conjugation of two compounds of beneficial traits. Multilayer emulsions make use of a combination of protein, phospholipids, and carbohydrates to stabilize (o/w) interfaces. On the other hand, covalent bonding between a protein and polysaccharide is induced to form a single entity known as conjugate that is superior to the individual biopolymers in terms of emulsion stability. Therefore, properties required to maintain emulsion stability such as surface activity, solubility, steric and electrostatic repulsion, and antioxidant effects from two different hydrocolloids could be integrated.
Natural antioxidant polyphenols on inflammation management: Anti-glycation activity vs metalloproteinases inhibition Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-12 Lucia Crascì, Maria Rosaria Lauro, Giovanni Puglisi, Annamaria Panico
The diet polyphenols are a secondary metabolites of plants able to act on inflammation process. Their anti-inflammatory activity is articulated through several mechanisms that are related to their antioxidative and radical scavengers properties. Our work is focused on a novel approach to inflammatory disease management, based on anti-glycative and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) inhibition effects, as a connected phenomena. To better understand these correlation, polyphenols Structure–Activity Relationship (SAR) studies were also reported. The antioxidant polyphenols inhibit the AGEs at different levels of the glycation process in the following ways: (1) prevention of Amadori adduct oxidation; (2) trapping reactive dycarbonyl compounds; (3) attenuation of receptor for AGEs (RAGE) expression. Moreover, several flavonoids with radical scavenging property showed also MMPs inhibition interact directly with MMPs or indirectly via radical scavengers and AGEs reduction. The essential polyphenols features involved in these mechanisms are C2-C3 double bond and number and position of hydroxyl, glycosyl and O-methyl groups. These factors induce a change in molecular planarity interfering with the hydrogen bond formation, electron delocalization and metal ion chelation. In particular, C2-C3 double bond improve the antioxidant and MMPs inhibition, while the hydroxylation, glycosylation and methylation induce a positive and negative correlation, respectively.
Dietary total antioxidant capacity as a tool in health outcomes in middle-aged and older adults: A systematic review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-12 Mary Anne Nascimento-Souza, Pedro Gontijo Paiva, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro
The dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been a useful tool in epidemiological studies. To assess whether the TAC is associated with chronic diseases in middle-aged and older adults carried out a systematic review of articles indexed in MEDLINE and Science Direct. Of the 104 articles found, nine were included to meet the inclusion criteria. There was variation among the items on the sample size, sample origin, use of statistical tests, analysis of different outcomes and the use of assays to evaluate the TAC, which brought limitations to the comparability of results on the association of TAC with the outcomes of interest. However, in six studies we found an inverse association between TAC and the risk of chronic diseases, showing that this method has great potential for clinical applications and public health.
Factors affecting the ortho- and retronasal perception of flavors: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-07-05 Erin M. Goldberg, Kun Wang, Jessica Goldberg, Michel Aliani
Flavor perception is a highly individual sensation, and is impacted by a number of factors. Olfaction is a critical element in fully experiencing flavor. In this review, we explore the differences between orthonasal (sniff) versus retronasal (mouth) olfaction, and provide a comprehensive summary of recent publications in this arena. Here we explore the complexities of flavor perception, including the role that select flavors and media have on identification and localization. We also discuss some common neural imaging techniques used in this field, as odorants activate different neural responses in diverse areas of the brain, as well as the different stimulation patterns derived from perceiving food and nonfood related odorants. The information provided will be useful for sensory scientists and industry alike for the development of novel food and beverages that positively impact the consumer experience.
Absorption, metabolism, anti-cancer effect and molecular targets of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG): An updated review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-02 Ren-You Gan, Hua-Bin Li, Zhong-Quan Sui, Harold Corke
Green tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world, especially in Asian countries. Consumption of green tea has been demonstrated to possess many health benefits, which mainly attributed to the main bioactive compound epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a flavone-3-ol polyphenol, in green tea. EGCG is mainly absorbed in the intestine, and gut microbiota play a critical role in its metabolism prior to absorption. EGCG exhibits versatile bioactivities, with its anti-cancer effect most attracting due to the cancer preventive effect of green tea consumption, and a great number of studies intensively investigated its anti-cancer effect. In this review, we therefore, first stated the absorption and metabolism process of EGCG, and then summarized its anti-cancer effect in vitro and in vivo, including its manifold anti-cancer actions and mechanisms, especially its anti-cancer stem cell effect, and next highlighted its various molecular targets involved in cancer inhibition. Finally, the anti-cancer effect of EGCG analogs and nanoparticles, as well as the potential cancer promoting effect of EGCG were also discussed. Understanding of the absorption, metabolism, anti-cancer effect and molecular targets of EGCG can be of importance to better utilize it as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent.
New phytochemicals as potential human anti-aging compounds: Reality, promise, and challenges Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-28 Rúbia C. G. Corrêa, Rosane M. Peralta, Charles W. I. Haminiuk, Giselle Maria Maciel, Adelar Bracht, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira
Aging is an inevitable process influenced by genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Indirect evidence shows that several phytochemicals can have anti-aging capabilities, although direct evidence in this field is still limited. This report aims to provide a critical review on aspects related to the use of novel phytochemicals as anti-aging agents, to discuss the obstacles found when performing most anti-aging study protocols in humans, and to analyze future perspectives. In addition to the extensively studied resveratrol, epicatechin, quercetin, and curcumin, new phytochemicals have been reported to act as anti-aging agents, such as the amino acid L-theanine isolated from green tea, and the lignans arctigenin and matairesinol isolated from Arctium lappa seeds. Furthermore, this review discusses the application of several new extracts rich in phytochemicals with potential use in anti-aging therapies. Finally, this review also discusses the most important biomarkers to test anti-aging interventions, the necessity of conducting epidemiological studies and the need of clinical trials with adequate study protocols for humans.
Bioactive compounds as an alternative for drug co-therapy: Overcoming challenges in cardiovascular disease prevention Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-12 Bianca Scolaro, Hellen Soo Jin Kim, Inar Alves de Castro
Different pharmacological interventions have been applied with success to reduce the progression of atherosclerosis. However, many patients are not good responders or must interrupt treatment due to adverse effects. Bioactive compounds such as omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA), plant sterol esters (PSE) and phenolic compounds (PHC) are natural molecules with great potential to reduce the atherosclerosis burden by reducing inflammation, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and oxidative stress, respectively. Although their physiological effects on biomarkers are much lower than those expected by drugs used for the same purpose, bioactive compounds can easily be incorporated into the daily diet and present no adverse effects. However, little is known about the combination of n-3 FA, PSE, PHC, and drugs in atherosclerosis progression. This review article summarizes potential effects of co-therapies involving n-3 FA, PSE, and PHC combined with major hypolipidemic drugs on atherosclerosis biomarkers and clinical outcomes. Evidence of additive and/or complementary effects regarding drugs action reveals possible roles for bioactive compounds in disease management. Pharmaceutical companies, physicians, and food scientists should be prepared to better understand this type of interaction and its consequences in terms of efficacy and life quality.
The “Food Polymer Science” approach to the practice of industrial R&D, leading to patent estates based on fundamental starch science and technology Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-07-21 Louise Slade, Harry Levine
This article reviews the application of the “Food Polymer Science” approach to the practice of industrial R&D, leading to patent estates based on fundamental starch science and technology. The areas of patents and patented technologies reviewed here include: (a) soft-from-the-freezer ice creams and freezer-storage-stable frozen bread dough products, based on “cryostabilization technology” of frozen foods, utilizing commercial starch hydrolysis products (SHPs); (b) glassy-matrix encapsulation technology for flavors and other volatiles, based on structure-function relationships for commercial SHPs; (c) production of stabilized whole-grain wheat flours for biscuit products, based on the application of “solvent retention capacity” technology to develop flours with reduced damaged starch; (d) production of improved-quality, low-moisture cookies and crackers, based on pentosanase enzyme technology; (e) production of “baked-not-fried,” chip-like, starch-based snack products, based on the use of commercial modified-starch ingredients with selected functionality; (f) accelerated staling of a starch-based food product from baked bread crumb, based on the kinetics of starch retrogradation, treated as a crystallization process for a partially crystalline glassy polymer system; and (g) a process for producing an enzyme-resistant starch, for use as a reduced-calorie flour replacer in a wide range of grain-based food products, including cookies, extruded expanded snacks, and breakfast cereals.
Micronization and nanosizing of particles for an enhanced quality of food: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-12 Tong Chen, Min Zhang, Bhesh Bhandari, Zaixing Yang
Size reduction to micron to nanosize range is rapidly developing technology applied to foods in the recent decades. This article reviews the particle size reducing technologies for solid particulate and liquid materials. For solid particulate materials, the jet milling, ball milling and colloid milling are mainly used. For liquid materials, primarily the high pressure homogenization, ultrasonic homogenization and microfluidization technologies are used. Due to the reduction in particle size, micron- and nanotechnology significantly enhance the physico-chemical and functional characteristics of food materials, resulting in the improvement of food quality.
How dietary intake has been assessed in African countries? A systematic review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-28 Catarina Vila-Real, Ana Pimenta-Martins, Ana Maria Gomes, Elisabete Pinto, Ndegwa Henry Maina
Background: Dietary patterns are often considered as one of the main causes of non-communicable diseases worldwide. It is of utmost importance to study dietary habits in developing countries since this work is scarce.
Mucus and microbiota as emerging players in gut nanotoxicology: The example of dietary silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-12 Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Bernard Despax, Patrice Raynaud, Eric Houdeau, Muriel Thomas
Given the growing use of nanotechnology in many common consumer products, including foods, evaluation of the consequences of chronic exposure to nanoparticles in humans has become a major public health issue. The oral route of exposure has been poorly explored, despite the presence of a fraction of nanosized particles in certain food additives/supplements and the incorporation of such particles into packaging in contact with foods. After their ingestion, these nanoparticles pass through the digestive tract, where they may undergo physicochemical transformations, with consequences for the luminal environment, before crossing the epithelial barrier to reach the systemic compartment. In this review, we consider two examples, nanosilver and nanotitanium dioxide. Despite the specific features of these particles and the differences between them, both display a close relationship between physicochemical reactivity and bioavailability/biopersistence in the gastrointestinal tract. Few studies have focused on the interactions of nanoparticles of silver or titanium dioxide with the microbiota and mucus. However, the microbiota and mucus play key roles in intestinal homeostasis and host health and are undoubtedly involved in controlling the distribution of nanoparticles in the systemic compartment.
Computer simulation for improving radio frequency (RF) heating uniformity of food products: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-02 Zhi Huang, Francesco Marra, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, Shaojin Wang
Radio frequency (RF) heating has great potential for achieving rapid and volumetric heating in foods, providing safe and high-quality food products due to deep penetration depth, moisture self-balance effects, and leaving no chemical residues. However, the nonuniform heating problem (usually resulting in hot and cold spots in the heated product) needs to be resolved. The inhomogeneous temperature distribution not only affects the quality of the food but also raises the issue of food safety when the microorganisms or insects may not be controlled in the cold spots. The mathematical modeling for RF heating processes has been extensively studied in a wide variety of agricultural products recently. This paper presents a comprehensive review of recent progresses in computer simulation for RF heating uniformity improvement and the offered solutions to reduce the heating nonuniformity. It provides a brief introduction on the basic principle of RF heating technology, analyzes the applications of numerical simulation, and discusses the factors influencing the RF heating uniformity and the possible methods to improve heating uniformity. Mathematical modeling improves the understanding of RF heating of food and is essential to optimize the RF treatment protocol for pasteurization and disinfestation applications. Recommendations for future research have been proposed to further improve the accuracy of numerical models, by covering both heat and mass transfers in the model, validating these models with sample movement and mixing, and identifying the important model parameters by sensitivity analysis.
Implications of recent research on microstructure modifications, through heat-related processing and trait alteration to bio-functions, molecular thermal stability and mobility, metabolic characteristics and nutrition in cool-climate cereal grains and other types of seeds with advanced molecular techniques Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Yuguang Ying, Huihua Zhang, Peiqiang Yu
The cutting-edge synchrotron radiation based and globar-sourced vibrational infrared microspectroscopy have recently been developed. These novel techniques are able to reveal structure features at cellular and molecular levels with the tested tissues being intact. However, to date, the advanced techniques are unfamiliar or unknown to food and feed scientists and have not been used to study the molecular structure changes in cool-climate cereal grain seeds and other types of bio-oil and bioenergy seeds. This article aims to provide some recent research in cool-climate cereal grains and other types of seeds on molecular structures and metabolic characteristics of carbohydrate and protein, and implication of microstructure modification through heat-related processing and trait alteration to bio-functions, molecular thermal stability and mobility, and nutrition with advanced molecular techniques- synchrotron radiation based and globar-sourced vibrational infrared microspectroscopy in the areas of (1) Inherent microstructure of cereal grain seeds; (2) The nutritional values of cereal grains; (3) Impact and modification of heat-related processing to cereal grain; (4) Conventional nutrition evaluation methodology; (5) Synchrotron radiation-based and globar-sourced vibrational (micro)-spectroscopy for molecular structure study and molecular thermal stability and mobility, and (6) Recent molecular spectroscopic technique applications in research on raw, traits altered and processed cool-climate cereal grains and other types of seeds. The information described in this article gives better insights of research progress and update in cool-climate cereal grains and other seeds with advanced molecular techniques.
Coenzyme Q10: From bench to clinic in aging diseases, a translational review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Francisco M. Gutierrez-Mariscal, Elena M. Yubero-Serrano, Jose M. Villalba, Jose Lopez-Miranda
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a ubiquitous molecule present in all eukaryotic organisms whose principal role in the cell is related to its participation in the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. CoQ10 plays a major role in the control of cell redox status, and both the amount and functionality of this molecule have been related to the regulation of reactive oxygen species generation. Numerous reports can be found discussing the implications of CoQ10 supplementation in human studies and clinical trials related to aging. However, few reviews have made an updating through the translational point of view to integrate both basic and clinical aspects. The aim of this paper is to review our current knowledge from CoQ10 implications at biochemical and physiological level, in order to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in its application in clinical practice. Although the importance of CoQ10 has been mainly attributed to its role as an agent for energy transduction in mitochondria, new functions for CoQ10 have been described in the recent past years, including anti-inflammatory effects, gene expression regulation and lipid bilayer membranes stabilization, which explain its involvement in aging and age-related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, renal failure and neurodegenerative diseases.
Fish consumption and cardiovascular disease related biomarkers: A review of clinical trials Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Filio Petsini, Elizabeth Fragopoulou, Smaragdi Antonopoulou
The purpose of this review is to collect and compare fish intervention studies. Prospective studies have outlined the beneficial effect of frequent fish consumption on cardiovascular incidents that is attributed to n-3 fatty acids incorporated in fish, mainly eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. This outcome triggered clinical trials to examine the effect of either fish intake or consumption of n-3 fatty acids via capsules on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The absence of a recent review focusing on clinical trials regarding fish intake and not n-3 fatty acids supplements rendered necessary the composition of this article. In total, 28 studies on healthy volunteers were found to meet the inclusion criteria. With EPA and DHA intake varying between 0.03 to 5 g per day, biomarkers, such as triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein and platelet aggregation, tended to ameliorate when daily intake exceeded 1 g per day, while the most common inflammatory marker, C-reactive protein, was not affected. In all, fish consumption gives promising results; yet fish micronutrients, total diet fat, as well as other dietary habits may also affect biomarkers. Therefore, all these factors should be considered in future clinical trials in order for one to draw more reliable conclusions.
Recent developments in the food quality detected by non-invasive nuclear magnetic resonance technology Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Kai Fan, Min Zhang
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a rapid, accurate and non-invasive technology and widely used to detect the quality of food, particularly to fruits and vegetables, meat and aquatic products. This review is a survey of recent developments in experimental results for the quality of food on various NMR technologies in processing and storage over the past decade. Following a discussion of the quality discrimination and classification of food, analysis of food compositions and detection of physical, chemical, structural and microbiological properties of food are outlined. Owing to high cost, low detection limit and sensitivity, the professional knowledge involved and the safety issues related to the maintenance of the magnetic field, so far the practical applications are limited to detect small range of food. In order to promote applications for a broader range of foods further research and development efforts are needed to overcome the limitations of NMR in the detection process. The needs and opportunities for future research and developments are outlined.
MicroRNAs as molecular targets of quercetin and its derivatives underlying their biological effects: A preclinical strategy Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Dan Wang, Dongxiao Sun-Waterhouse, Feng Li, Li Xin, Dapeng Li
Quercetin is a well-known flavonoid naturally occurring in most of the plant foods and is often found in the human diet. It can act as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, and plays significant roles in the prevention of various chronic diseases. Recent findings revealed that quercetin could affect metabolic traits by regulating certain transcription factors or key proteins involved in cellular signal pathways and influencing the expression of functional genes along with related regulatory pathway(s), and that microRNAs (miRNAs) circulate in body fluids and are involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing and regulation of gene expression in various biological processes including development, proliferation, metabolism and inflammation. This article reviews the studies into the molecular pathways underlying the beneficial bioactivities of quercetin and its derivatives, and the modulatory effects of miRNAs by quercetin and its derivatives on miRNAs-mediated cellular processes. MicroRNAs as molecular targets of quercetin and its derivatives and as predictive biomarkers for early diagnosis of the outcome of quercetin-rich diets are highlighted. Current limitations and future directions of research on the impact and associated mechanism(s) of the synergies between quercetin species and other co-existing nutrients/bioactives on the expression of miRNAs as well as the roles of miRNAs in overall nutritional control are critically discussed.
Understanding functionality of sucrose in biscuits for reformulation purposes Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 R. G. M. van der Sman, S. Renzetti
We review the functionality of sucrose during the manufacture of biscuits from the perspective of sugar replacement. Besides to providing sweetness, sucrose has important functionalities concerning structure and texture formation. These functionalities also need to be mimicked in reformulated biscuits. First, we review the hypotheses concerning the development of structure and texture of biscuits during manufacturing, which are conveniently summarized in a qualitative way using the Complex Dispersed Systems methodology. Subsequently, we represent the changes of the state of the biscuit during manufacturing in the supplemented state diagram, which indicates the important phase transitions occurring during mixing and baking. We propose that when reformulated biscuits follow similar paths in the state diagram, similar structures and textures can be obtained. Physical theories exist for predicting these phase transitions for existing sucrose-rich biscuits and also reformulated biscuits containing extensive sweeteners as sugar replacers. More accurate predictions of structure and texture can be eventually obtained if they are combined with computational models, including heat and moisture transfer.
Epidemiology of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in a population in a sunny country: Geospatial meta-analysis in Brazil Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Marcos Pereira-Santos, José Yure Gomes dos Santos, Gisele Queiroz Carvalho, Djanilson Barbosa dos Santos, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira
Studies conducted among populations of tropical countries have reported high prevalences of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Information resulting from meta-analyses on the spatial distribution of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in tropical countries is still rare. The aim of this review was investigated the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among the Brazilian population. Observational studies were searched in eight electronically databases. Additionally, theses and dissertations and abstracts were screened. Details on study design, methods, population, mean and data on serum concentrations of vitamin D in different age groups in Brazil were extracted. Data were pooled using a random-effects model and choropleth maps were created based on the geopolitical regions of the country. 72 published paper met the inclusion criteria. The mean vitamin D concentration among the Brazilian population between 2000 and 2017 of 67.65 nmol/L (95% CI: 65.91, 69.38 nmol/L).The prevalences of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were 28.16% (95% CI: 23.90, 32.40) and 45.26% (95% CI: 35.82, 54.71), respectively, for the Brazilian population. The highest prevalence of deficiency were observed in the southern and southeastern regions and the highest occurrence of vitamin D insufficiency was among the populations of the southeastern and northeastern regions. Finally, there are high prevalence of inadequate vitamin D concentrations among the population, regardless of age group in Brazil. The development of vitamin D food fortification policies in needs to be cautious and carefully planned.
Highly fluorescent gold nanoclusters stabilized by food proteins: From preparation to application in detection of food contaminants and bioactive nutrients Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-02 Changan Li, Hai Chen, Bin Chen, Guanghua Zhao
Applications of nanotechnology in food have rapidly increased in the past decades. Ultra-small gold nanoclusters (Au NCs), composed of several to roughly a hundred atoms, represent a kind of novel nanomaterials. The Au NCs directed by food proteins have drawn considerable research attention due to their environment-friendly preparation, strong fluorescence, excellent photo-stability, and favorable biocompatibility. These interesting protein–Au hybrids have opened up a new area at the nano-bio-food interface, not only did they provide the missing link between single metal atoms and plasmonic metal nanoparticles, but also developed the hybrid system between biomacromolecule and inorganic ions. In this review, we highlighted the synthesis strategies and optical properties of the Au NCs stabilized by typical food proteins as well as their applications in detection of food contaminants or bioactive nutrients. In addition, we discussed current challenges and future development in food proteins- directed gold nanoclusters for size-controlled synthesis and multifunctional applications.
The influence of demographic, physical, behavioral, and dietary factors on hemoglobin adduct levels of acrylamide and glycidamide in the general U.S. population Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-09-28 Tina J. Duke, Peter S. Ruestow, Gary M. Marsh
Purpose: This study aims to better understand the individual characteristics and dietary factors that affect the relationship between estimated consumption of acrylamide and measured acrylamide hemoglobin adduct levels (HbAA) and glycidamide hemoglobin adduct levels (HbGA). Methods: Acrylamide levels in individual food items, estimated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, were linked to data collected in the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between estimated consumption of acrylamide and HbAA. Results: A significant association between acrylamide intake and HbAA was observed, after adjustment for gender, race/ethnicity, smoking status, age, and BMI (R2 = 0.34). Across quartiles of acrylamide consumption, HbAA and HbGA levels increased monotonically. Among nonsmokers, an evaluation of three heavily consumed, high AA concentration foods showed a positive trend between the consumed amount of fried potatoes and HbAA in children, adolescents, and adults. A significant positive trend between the consumed amount of potato chips or coffee was indicated in adolescents, adults, and seniors. Conclusions: Consumption of some individual foods affects HbAA concentrations more strongly and in an age-dependent manner. Our results suggest that effective dietary guidelines for controlling acrylamide intake should be subpopulation specific.
Predictive modeling of microbial single cells: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-28 Tian Ding, Xin-Yu Liao, Qing-Li Dong, Xiao-Ting Xuan, Shi-Guo Chen, Xing-Qian Ye, Dong-Hong Liu
In practice, food products tend to be contaminated with food-borne pathogens at a low inoculum level. However, the huge potential risk cannot be ignored because microbes may initiate high-speed growth suitable conditions during the food chain, such as transportation or storage. Thus, it is important to perform predictive modeling of microbial single cells. Several key aspects of microbial single-cell modeling are covered in this review. First, based on previous studies, the techniques of microbial single-cell data acquisition and growth data collection are presented in detail. In addition, the sources of microbial single-cell variability are also summarized. Due to model microbial growth, traditional deterministic mathematical models have been developed. However, most models fail to make accurate predictions at low cell numbers or at the single-cell level due to high cell-to-cell heterogeneity. Stochastic models have been a subject of great interest; and these models take into consideration the variability in microbial single-cell behavior.
Antioxidative and antibacterial peptides derived from bovine milk proteins Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-07-11 B. N. P. Sah, T. Vasiljevic, S. McKechnie, O. N. Donkor
The search for alternative preservatives is on the rise due to safety issues linked with the application of synthetic antioxidants and the extensive increase in bacterial resistance to several conventional antibiotics. Therefore, the quest for finding suitable alternatives including bioactive peptides has received attention. This article reports a comprehensive insight concerning antioxidative and antibacterial peptides derived from milk proteins, a prolific source of peptides having various bioactivities. Caseins and whey proteins have also been evaluated for antioxidative and antibacterial potential using the BIOPEP database. A notable number of potentially active peptides are present in milk proteins. Technological approaches are here reported for the production of these peptides. The findings of this review show potentiality of utilizing dairy derived antioxidative and antibacterial peptides in the development of a superior alternative to the current generation of preservatives and therapeutic agents, as well as a functional ingredient in dietetic or pharmaceutical applications.
A living model for obesity and aging research: Caenorhabditis elegans Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-07-20 Peiyi Shen, Yiren Yue, Yeonhwa Park
Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a free-living nematode that has been extensively utilized as an animal model for research involving aging and neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, etc. Compared with traditional animal models, this small nematode possesses many benefits, such as small body size, short lifespan, completely sequenced genome, and more than 65% of the genes associated with human disease. All these characteristics make this organism an ideal living system for obesity and aging studies. This review gives a brief introduction of C. elegans as an animal model, highlights some advantages of research using this model and describes methods to evaluate the effect of treatments on obesity and aging of this organism.
Vitamin D and its impact on maternal-fetal outcomes in pregnancy: A critical review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-28 Shreya Agarwal, Oormila Kovilam, Devendra K. Agrawal
The role of vitamin D beyond its classical function in calcium homeostasis has been of significant interest in recent years. There has been expanding research on the pleiotropic role of vitamin D in pregnancy and the implications of its deficiency on maternal-fetal outcomes. Several studies have associated low maternal vitamin D status to adverse outcomes in pregnancy, including preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm births, low birth weight, and others. Several randomized controlled clinical trials of Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy have also been conducted. Though some of the studies found improvement in pregnancy outcomes with vitamin D supplementation, others have not shown any association. In this article, we have critically reviewed the observational and interventional studies, published primarily within the past two years (January 2014 to February 2016) on the influence of vitamin D deficiency on pregnancy and the impact of its supplementation. The potential underlying mechanisms of vitamin D in regulating each of the outcomes have also been discussed.
Emulsion design for the delivery of β-carotene in complex food systems Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-29 Like Mao, Di Wang, Fuguo Liu, Yanxiang Gao
β-Carotene has been widely investigated both in the industry and academia, due to its unique bioactive attributes as an antioxidant and pro-vitamin A. Many attempts were made to design delivery systems for β-carotene to improve its dispersant state and chemical stability, and finally to enhance the functionality. Different types of oil-in-water emulsions were proved to be effective delivery systems for lipophilic bioactive ingredients, and intensive studies were performed on β-carotene emulsions in the last decade. Emulsions are thermodynamically unstable, and emulsions with intact structures are preferable in delivering β-carotene during processing and storage. β-Carotene in emulsions with smaller particle size has poor stability, and protein-type emulsifiers and additional antioxidants are effective in protecting β-carotene from degradation. Recent development in the design of protein-polyphenol conjugates has provided a novel approach to improve the stability of β-carotene emulsions. When β-carotene is consumed, its bioaccessibility is highly influenced by the digestion of lipids, and β-carotene in smaller oil droplets containing long-chain fatty acids has a higher bioaccessibility. In order to better deliver β-carotene in complex food products, some novel emulsions with tailor-made structures have been developed, e.g., multilayer emulsions, solid lipid particles, Pickering emulsions. This review summarizes the updated understanding of emulsion-based delivery systems for β-carotene, and how emulsions can be better designed to fulfill the benefits of β-carotene in functional foods.
A systematic review on phenolic compounds in Passiflora plants: Exploring biodiversity for food, nutrition, and popular medicine Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-28 Izabel Lucena Gadioli, Marcela de Sá Barreto da Cunha, Mariana Veras Oliveira de Carvalho, Ana Maria Costa, Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira Pineli
Passiflora plants are strategic in the context of biodiversity for food and nutrition. We applied the procedures of a systematic review protocol to study the state of the art on identification of phenolic compounds from Passiflora plants. An automated literature search was conducted using six databases and a combination of seven keywords. All the analytical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methods were included. The studies were classified according to their method of identification, phenolic classes, and method of extraction. In total, 8,592 abstracts were found, from which 122 studies were selected for complete reading and 82 were selected for further analysis. Techniques of extraction, evaluated parts of the plant and methods of identification were systematized. Studies with leaves were most conspicuous (54.4%), 34 species of Passiflora were evaluated and orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin were commonly found structures. A High Performance Liquid Chromatography-diode array detector was the technique most applied, with which the same structures were identified all through the studies, although other unknown structures were detected, but not elucidated. The use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Mass Spectrometry, which are more sensitive techniques, needs to be intensified, to identify other unconventional compounds detected in Passiflora, to enhance the comprehension of the bioactive compounds in these plants.
Active and intelligent packaging: The indication of quality and safety Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-06-28 Theeranun Janjarasskul, Panuwat Suppakul
The food industry has been under growing pressure to feed an exponentially increasing world population and challenged to meet rigorous food safety law and regulation. The plethora of media consumption has provoked consumer demand for safe, sustainable, organic, and wholesome products with “clean” labels. The application of active and intelligent packaging has been commercially adopted by food and pharmaceutical industries as a solution for the future for extending shelf life and simplifying production processes; facilitating complex distribution logistics; reducing, if not eliminating the need for preservatives in food formulations; enabling restricted food packaging applications; providing convenience, improving quality, variety and marketing features; as well as providing essential information to ensure consumer safety. This chapter reviews innovations of active and intelligent packaging which advance packaging technology through both scavenging and releasing systems for shelf life extension, and through diagnostic and identification systems for communicating quality, tracking and brand protection.
Olive oil authentication: A comparative analysis of regulatory frameworks with especial emphasis on quality and authenticity indices, and recent analytical techniques developed for their assessment. A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-07-21 Aadil Bajoub, Alessandra Bendini, Alberto Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alegría Carrasco-Pancorbo
Over the last decades, olive oil quality and authenticity control has become an issue of great importance to consumers, suppliers, retailers, and regulators in both traditional and emerging olive oil producing countries, mainly due to the increasing worldwide popularity and the trade globalization of this product. Thus, in order to ensure olive oil authentication, various national and international laws and regulations have been adopted, although some of them are actually causing an enormous debate about the risk that they can represent for the harmonization of international olive oil trade standards. Within this context, this review was designed to provide a critical overview and comparative analysis of selected regulatory frameworks for olive oil authentication, with special emphasis on the quality and purity criteria considered by these regulation systems, their thresholds and the analytical methods employed for monitoring them. To complete the general overview, recent analytical advances to overcome drawbacks and limitations of the official methods to evaluate olive oil quality and to determine possible adulterations were reviewed. Furthermore, the latest trends on analytical approaches to assess the olive oil geographical and varietal origin traceability were also examined.
Multi-scale model of food drying: Current status and challenges Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2017-07-05 M. M. Rahman, Mohammad U. H. Joardder, M. I. H. Khan, Nghia Duc Pham, M. A. Karim
For a long time, food engineers have been trying to describe the physical phenomena that occur during food processing especially drying. Physics-based theoretical modeling is an important tool for the food engineers to reduce the hurdles of experimentation. Drying of food is a multi-physics phenomenon such as coupled heat and mass transfer. Moreover, food structure is multi-scale in nature, and the microstructural features play a great role in the food processing specially in drying. Previously simple macroscopic model was used to describe the drying phenomena which can give a little description about the smaller scale. The multiscale modeling technique can handle all the phenomena that occur during drying. In this special kind of modeling approach, the single scale models from bigger to smaller scales are interconnected. With the help of multiscale modeling framework, the transport process associated with drying can be studied on a smaller scale and the resulting information can be transferred to the bigger scale. This article is devoted to discussing the state of the art multi-scale modeling, its prospect and challenges in the field of drying technology. This article has also given some directions to how to overcome the challenges for successful implementation of multi-scale modeling.
Influence of food structure on dairy protein, lipid and calcium bioavailability: A narrative review of evidence Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Anthony Fardet, Didier Dupont, Laurie-Eve Rioux, Sylvie L. Turgeon
Beyond nutrient composition matrix plays an important role on food health potential, notably acting on the kinetics of nutrient release, and finally on their bioavailability. This is particularly true for dairy products that present both solid (cheeses), semi-solid (yogurts) and liquid (milks) matrices. The main objective of this narrative review has been to synthesize available data in relation with the impact of physical structure of main dairy matrices on nutrient bio-accessibility, bioavailability and metabolic effects, in vitro, in animals and in humans. Focus has been made on dairy nutrients the most studied, i.e., proteins, lipids and calcium. Data collected show different kinetics of bioavailability of amino acids, fatty acids and calcium according to the physicochemical parameters of these matrices, including compactness, hardness, elasticity, protein/lipid ratio, P/Ca ratio, effect of ferments, size of fat globules, and possibly other qualitative parameters yet to be discovered. This could be of great interest for the development of innovative dairy products for older populations, sometimes in protein denutrition or with poor dentition, involving the development of dairy matrices with optimized metabolic effects by playing on gastric retention time and thus on the kinetics of release of the amino acids within bloodstream.
Comparison of blood lipid-lowering effects of olive oil and other plant oils: A systematic review and meta‐analysis of 27 randomized placebo‐controlled clinical trials Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Saeed Ghobadi, Zahra Hassanzadeh-Rostami, Fatemeh Mohammadian, Arash Nikfetrat, negar Ghasemifard, Hamidreza Raeisi Dehkordi, Shiva Faghih
Objective: We aim to report a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on effects of olive oil consumption compared with other plant oils on blood lipids.
Chemical compounds and mechanisms involved in the formation and stabilization of foam in sparkling wines Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Belinda Kemp, Bruna Condé, Sandrine Jégou, Kate Howell, Yann Vasserot, Richard Marchal
The visual properties of sparkling wine including foam and bubbles are an indicator of sparkling wine quality. Foam properties, particularly foam height (FH) and foam stability (TS), are significantly influenced by the chemical composition of the wine. This review investigates our current knowledge of specific chemical compounds and, the mechanisms by which they influence the foam properties of sparkling wines. Grape and yeast proteins, amino acids, polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, organic acids, fatty acids, ethanol and sugar are examined with respect to their contribution to foam characteristics in sparkling wines made with the Traditional, Transfer, and Charmat and carbonation methods. Contradictory results have been identified that appear to be due to the analytical methods used to measure and quantify compounds and foam. Biopolymer complexes are discussed and absent knowledge with regards to thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs), polysaccharides, amino acids, oak-derived phenolic compounds and organic acids are identified. Future research is also likely to concentrate on visual analysis of sparkling wines by in-depth imaging analysis and specific sensory analysis techniques.
Carbon dots: Principles and their applications in food quality and safety detection Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Jia-Huan Qu, Qingyi Wei, Da-Wen Sun
In the past ten years, as a novel and prospective nanomaterials, carbon dots have acquired tremendous attention for their unique optical and physicochemical properties, high compatibility and low cost, as well as great potential in sensing area. This review aims to present the current detecting principles based on carbon dots and other nano biological technologies, involving fluorescence quenching and recovery mechanisms. The synthetic and modificatory approaches in making carbon dots including top-down and bottom-up methods, as well as surface passivation and heteroatom doping ways are introduced. Their applications in food area, concerning detection of nutrients, restricted or banned substances as well as foodborne pathogenic bacteria and the toxins secreted are discussed. Finally, the difficulties to be overcome or problems to be solved are presented, and other novel techniques to combine with carbon dots to obtain more stable and specific nanosensors in various fields are proposed. Although carbon dots based sensors have shown the potential in sensing aspect of food area, as food samples are complex in compositions that may cause interferences, more novel techniques are needed to combine with carbon dots to develop sensitive and specific sensing probes.
Exploration of collagen recovered from animal by-products as a precursor of bioactive peptides: Successes and challenges Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Yu Fu, Margrethe Therkildsen, Rotimi E. Aluko, René Lametsch
A large amount of food-grade animal by-products is annually produced during industrial processing and they are normally utilized as animal feed or other low-value purposes. These by-products are good sources of valuable proteins, including collagen or gelatin. The revalorization of collagen may lead to development of a high benefit-to-cost ratio. In this review, the major approaches for generation of collagen peptides with a wide variety of bioactivities were summarized, including antihypertensive, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities, and beneficial effects on bone, joint and skin health. The biological potentials of collagen peptides and their bioavailability were reviewed. Moreover, the unique advantages of collagen peptides over other therapeutic peptides were highlighted. In addition, the current challenges for development of collagen peptides as functional food ingredients were also discussed. This article discusses the opportunity to utilize collagen peptides as high value-added bio-functional ingredients in the food industry.
Lifestyle genomics and the metabolic syndrome: A review of genetic variants that influence response to diet and exercise interventions Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Peri H. Fenwick, Khursheed Jeejeebhoy, Rupinder Dhaliwal, Dawna Royall, Paula Brauer, Angelo Tremblay, Doug Klein, David M. Mutch
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises a cluster of risk factors that includes central obesity, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose homeostasis and hypertension. Individuals with MetS have elevated risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease; thus placing significant burdens on social and healthcare systems. Lifestyle interventions (comprised of diet, exercise or a combination of both) are routinely recommended as the first line of treatment for MetS. Only a proportion of people respond, and it has been assumed that psychological and social aspects primarily account for these differences. However, the etiology of MetS is multifactorial and stems, in part, on a person's genetic make-up. Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with the various components of MetS, and several of these SNPs have been shown to modify a person's response to lifestyle interventions. Consequently, genetic variants can influence the extent to which a person responds to changes in diet and/or exercise. The goal of this review is to highlight SNPs reported to influence the magnitude of change in body weight, dyslipidemia, glucose homeostasis and blood pressure during lifestyle interventions aimed at improving MetS components. Knowledge regarding these genetic variants and their ability to modulate a person's response will provide additional context for improving the effectiveness of personalized lifestyle interventions that aim to reduce the risks associated with MetS.
How does high DHA fish oil affect health? A systematic review of evidence Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Samaneh Ghasemi Fard, Fenglei Wang, Andrew J. Sinclair, Glenn Elliott, Giovanni M. Turchini
The health benefits of fish oil, and its omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content, have attracted much scientific attention in the last four decades. Fish oils that contain higher amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) than docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), in a distinctive ratio of 18/12, are typically the most abundantly available and are commonly studied. Although the two fatty acids have traditionally been considered together, as though they were one entity, different physiological effects of EPA and DHA have recently been reported. New oils containing a higher quantity of DHA compared with EPA, such as fractionated and concentrated fish oil, tuna oil, calamari oil and microalgae oil, are increasingly becoming available on the market, and other oils, including those extracted from genetically modified oilseed crops, soon to come. This systematic review focuses on the effects of high DHA fish oils on various human health conditions, such as the heart and cardiovascular system, the brain and visual function, inflammation and immune function and growth/Body Mass Index. Although inconclusive results were reported in several instances, and inconsistent outcomes observed in others, current data provides substantiated evidence in support of DHA being a beneficial bioactive compound for heart, cardiovascular and brain function, with different, and at times complementary, effects compared with EPA. DHA has also been reported to be effective in slowing the rate of cognitive decline, while its possible effects on depression disorders are still unclear. Interestingly, gender- and age- specific divergent roles for DHA have also been reported. This review provides a comprehensive collection of evidence and a critical summary of the documented physiological effects of high DHA fish oils for human health.
Enhancing Food Processing by Pulsed and High Voltage Electric Fields: Principles and Applications Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Qijun Wang, Yifei Li, Da-Wen Sun, Zhiwei Zhu
Improvements in living standards result in a growing demand for food with high quality attributes including freshness, nutrition and safety. However, current industrial processing methods rely on traditional thermal and chemical methods, such as sterilization and solvent extraction, which could induce negative effects on food quality and safety. The electric fields (EFs) involving pulsed electric fields (PEFs) and high voltage electric fields (HVEFs) have been studied and developed for assisting and enhancing various food processes. In this review, the principles and applications of pulsed and high voltage electric fields are described in details for a range of food processes, including microbial inactivation, component extraction, and winemaking, thawing and drying, freezing and enzymatic inactivation. Moreover, the advantages and limitations of electric field related technologies are discussed to foresee future developments in the food industry.
Atrial fibrillation and its complications in arterial hypertension: The potential preventive role of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 GianLuca Colussi, Cristiana Catena, Valentina Fagotto, Daniele Darsiè, Gabriele Brosolo, Nicole Bertin, Leonardo A. Sechi
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of arrhythmia in the general population with a prevalence that reaches one third of patients with arterial hypertension. Several risk factors frequently associated with hypertension predispose the myocardium to AF by inducing atrial inflammation and fibrosis and altering atrial electrical and mechanical characteristics. AF influences the quality of life of hypertensive patients since it increases incidence of stroke and other thromboembolic events, and mortality. Polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ω-3 family (ω-3 PUFA) have been demonstrated to be beneficial in cardiovascular disease prevention by reducing plasma lipids and blood pressure levels and decreasing the risk of sudden death. These fatty acids can act as potent anti-inflammatory and anti-arrhythmic agents. Many studies have investigated a possible preventive effect of ω-3 PUFA on incident AF reporting contradictory results. This article overviews the evidence currently available on this important topic and provides some conclusive remarks on the possibility that these fatty acids could be beneficial in hypertensive patients.
Bioactive peptides from selected latin american food crops – A nutraceutical and molecular approach Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-02-26 Domancar Orona-Tamayo, María Elena Valverde, Octavio Paredes-López
This review reported an updated survey on the molecular functional properties of bioactive peptides derived from different Latin American ancient grains such as Maize, common Bean, Amaranth, Quinoa and Chia seeds. Seed storage proteins ecrypt in their sequences diverse peptides associated with a wide range of beneficial effects on the human health and the most studied are antihypertensive, anti-cholesterolemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. Additionally, in the last decades molecular properties have been also used for their characterization to understand their activities and it makes them highly attractive to be incorporated into food formulations and to complement or replace some conventional cereal grains. Due to the nutraceutical effects, today, these seeds are one of the main gastronomic trends of consumption worldwide due to their nutritional benefits and are part of the shopping lists of many people, among them vegetarians, vegans, celiacs or lovers of raw food. These seeds are a legacy of pre-Columbian civilizations reason why in our time they are considered as “Superfoods of the Gods”, “The pre-hispanic superfoods of the future” and “The new golden seeds of the XXI century”.
Prevention and treatment effects of edible berries for three deadly diseases: Cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-02-26 Hua Yang, Tiantian Tian, Dianhui Wu, Dejun Guo, Jian Lu
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and diabetes are serious threat to human health and more and more aroused people's attention. It is important to find the safe and effective prevention and treatment methods for the three deadly diseases. At present, a generally attention in the possible positive effects of edible berries for the three deadly diseases has been noted. Berry phytochemical compounds regulate different signaling pathways about cell survival, growth and differentiation. They contribute to the prevention and treatment of CVD, cancer and diabetes. This article reviews previous experimental evidence, several common berry phytochemical compounds and their possible mechanisms involved in three deadly diseases were summarized.
Influence of functional food components on gut health Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.077) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Murphy L. Y. Wan, K. H. Ling, Hani El-Nezami, M. F. Wang
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) lining the gastrointestinal tract establish a barrier between external environments and the internal milieu. An intact intestinal barrier maintains gut health and overall good health of the body by preventing from tissue injury, pathogen infection and disease development. When the intestinal barrier function is compromised, bacterial translocation can occur. Our gut microbiota also plays a fundamentally important role in health, for example, by maintaining intestinal barrier integrity, metabolism and modulating the immune system, etc. Any disruption of gut microbiota composition (also termed dysbiosis) can lead to various pathological conditions. In short, intestinal barrier and gut microbiota are two crucial factors affecting gut health. The gastrointestinal tract is a complex environment exposed to many dietary components and commensal bacteria. Dietary components are increasingly recognized to play various beneficial roles beyond basic nutrition, resulting in the development of the functional food concepts. Various dietary modifiers, including the consumption of live bacteria (probiotics) and ingestible food constituents such as prebiotics, as well as polyphenols or synbiotics (combinations of probiotics and prebiotics) are the most well characterized dietary bioactive compounds and have been demonstrated to beneficially impact the gut health and the overall well-being of the host. In this review we depict the roles of intestinal epithelium and gut microbiota in mucosal defence responses and the influence of certain functional food components on the modulation of gut health, with a particular focus on probiotics, prebiotics and polyphenols.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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