Prevention of 7-ketocholesterol-induced side effects by natural compounds Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-16 Fatiha Brahmi, Anne Vejux, Randa Sghaier, Amira Zarrouk, Thomas Nury, Wiem Meddeb, Leila Rezig, Amira Namsi, Khouloud Sassi, Aline Yammine, Iham Badreddine, Dominique Vervandier-Fasseur, Khodir Madani, Lila Boulekbache-Makhlouf, Boubker Nasser, Gérard Lizard
Cholesterol oxidation products, also named oxysterols, can be formed either by cholesterol auto-oxidation, enzymatically or both. Among these oxysterols, 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) is mainly formed during radical attacks that take place on the carbon 7 of cholesterol. As increased levels of 7KC have been found in the tissues, plasma and/or cerebrospinal fluid of patients with major diseases, especially age-related diseases (cardiovascular diseases, eye diseases, neurodegenerative diseases), some cancers, and chronic inflammatory diseases, it is suspected that 7KC, could contribute to their development. Since 7KC, provided by the diet or endogenously formed, is not or little efficiently metabolized, except in hepatic cells, its cellular accumulation can trigger numerous side effects including oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death. To counteract 7KC-induced side effects, it is necessary to characterize the metabolic pathways activated by this oxysterol to identify potential targets for cytoprotection and geroprotection. Currently, several natural compounds (tocopherols, fatty acids, polyphenols, etc) or mixtures of compounds (oils) used in traditional medicine are able to inhibit the deleterious effects of 7KC. The different molecules identified could be valued in different ways (functional foods, recombinant molecules, theranostic) to prevent or treat diseases associated with 7KC.
Anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-oxidative activity of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains: A review of mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-16 Adriana Nowak, Anna Paliwoda, Janusz Błasiak
Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains, their isolated constituents and substances that they secrete exert various anti-cancer actions, resulting from their anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-oxidant properties. They can express and secrete anti-oxidant enzymes, bind reactive oxygen species, release small molecular weight anti-oxidants and chelate transition metals, preventing detrimental actions of many carcinogens. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium can interact with proteins regulating the cell cycle inhibiting proliferation of cancer cells, which often are intrinsically resistant to apoptosis. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can break this resistance through activation of pro-caspases and downregulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax proteins. Anti-cancer effects of these bacteria can be also associated with their multi-pathways action in the microbiota. However, exact mechanism of their anti-cancer action is poorly known and needs further studies, which are justified by the important role of these bacteria in cancer biology as well as their potential preventive and therapeutic use.
Paper-based lateral flow strip assay for the detection of foodborne pathogens: principles, applications, technological challenges and opportunities Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-12 Ke Luo, Hae-Yeong Kim, Mi-Hwa Oh, Young-Rok Kim
As a representative colorimetic biosnesor, paper-based LFSA have emerged as a promising and robust tool that can easily and instansly detect the presence of target biological components in food sample. Recently, LFSAs have gained a considerable attention as an alternative method for rapid diagnosis of foodborne pathogens to the conventional culture-based assays such as plate counting and PCR. One major drawback of the current LFSAs for the detection of pathogenic bacteria is the low sensitivity, limiting its practical applications in POCT. Not like many other protein-based biomarkers that are present in nM or pM range, the number of pathogenic bacteria that cause disease can be as low as few CFU/ml. Here, we review current advances in LFSAs for the detection of pathogenic bacteria in terms of chromatic agents and analyte types. Furthermore, recent approaches for signal enhancement and modifications of the LFSA architecture for multiplex detection of pathogenic bacteria are included in this review, together with the advantages and limitations of each techniques. Finally, the technological challenges and future prospect of LFSA-based POCT for the detection of pathogenic bacteria are discussed.
Thermal processing food-related toxicants: a review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-12 Agnieszka Koszucka, Adriana Nowak
Heterocyclic aromatic amines, acrylamide, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, furan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrosamines, acrolein, chloropropanols and chloroesters are generated toxicants formed in some foodstuffs, mainly starchy and protein-rich food during thermal treatment such as frying, roasting and baking. The formation of these chemical compounds is associated with development of aromas, colors and flavors. One of the challenges facing the food industry today is to minimize these toxicants without adversely affecting the positive attributes of thermal processing. To achieve this objective, it is essential to have a detailed understanding of the mechanism of formation of these toxicants in processed foods. All reviewed toxicants in that paper are classified as probable, possible or potential human carcinogens and have been proven to be carcinogenic in animal studies. The purpose of that review is to summarize some of the most frequent occurring heat-generated food toxicants during conventional heating, their metabolism and carcinogenicity. Moreover, conventional and microwave heating were also compared as two different heat treatment methods, especially how they change food chemical composition and which thermal food toxicants are formed during specific method.
Molecular techniques reveal more secrets of fermented foods Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-08 Aly Farag El Sheikha, Dian-Ming Hu
Fermented foods were likely to have been the first among all types of processed foods consumed by human beings. The role that fermented food plays is not only related to the development of civilizations and cultural relationships between countries but also related to the nutritional importance of its population. Of course, the early manufacturers of fermented foods didn’t take into account the advantages of modern sciences, because enzymes and microorganisms were discovered just 150-200 years ago. For that reason, we can conclude why the ancient fermentation techniques were known to philosophers and alchemists, but not to biologists. It demonstrated that the fermentation mechanisms involved many secrets still undiscovered. Recently, applications of molecular techniques for analyzing and study the fermented foods have been explored. In this review, we provide answers with a critical vision to many questions for understanding the role of molecular techniques to discover the secrets of fermented foods such as how to evaluate the traditional fermented foods? Why using molecular techniques to study the fermented foods not else? Is the future will carry to us a boom in molecular technologies contribute to the detection of more secrets of the fermented food?
Application of different nanocarriers for encapsulation of curcumin Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-04 Zahra Rafiee, Mohammad Nejatian, Marjan Daeihamed, Seid Mahdi Jafari
Curcumin is the main polyphenol of the curcuminoid class of turmeric, a well-known spice belonging to the ginger family. In addition to its common applications like coloring and antioxidant agent as food additives, it has a broad range of favorable biological functions, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic activities, and anti-cancer potentials against various cancers. However, curcumin suffers from some limitations including short shelf life due to its poor chemical stability, low bioavailability due to its poor absorption, low water solubility, rapid metabolism and rapid systemic elimination. Nanoencapsulaion has been addressed as an innovative and emerging technology for resolving these shortcomings. In this review, the different delivery systems used for loading of curcumin have been considered and explained including lipid-based, chemical polymer and biopolymer-based, nature-inspired, special equipment-based and surfactant-based techniques. Also, implications of nanoencapsulated curcumin in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic uses are discussed. In this sense, the relevant recent studies in the past few years along with upcoming challenges have been covered. Although incorporation of curcumin into nanocarriers can be a possible solution to overcome its inherent constraints, there are some rational concerns about their toxicological safety once they enter into the biological paths. Therefore, future investigations could focus on assessment of their biological fate during digestion and absorption within human body.
Novel technologies in utilization of byproducts of animal food processing: a review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-04 Xu Shen, Min Zhang, Bhesh Bhandari, Zhongxue Gao
China is one of the countries with most abundant livestock and poultry resources in the world. The average annual growth rate of output value of livestock and poultry industry reaches 13%, and the output value of livestock and poultry industry accounts for more than 35% of total agricultural output. A large number of byproducts are produced in animal slaughtering and processing operations. If livestock and poultry byproducts are effectively utilized, this will make a huge contribution to GDP. At the same time, aquaculture is China's pillar industry. During fish processing, a large number of byproducts (including fish heads, fish skins, fish bones, fish scales, and viscera) are produced, which weighs approximately 40-55% of the raw fish. The byproducts of freshwater fish are more than 2.5 million tons per annum, most of which are not used. The effective use of byproducts has a direct influence on China's economic and environmental pollution. The nonuse or underutilization of byproducts not only leads to loss of potential revenue, but also results in to an increase in these products and their disposal costs. This paper makes a comprehensive review of the research progress of animal byproduct utilization to date, and aims to provide reference for the utilization and research of animal byproducts.
Methods of extraction, separation, purification, structural characterization for polysaccharides from aquatic animals and their major pharmacological activities Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-04 Qingping Xiong, Zhuoyue Song, Weihui Hu, Jian Liang, Yi Jing, Lian He, Song Huang, Xiaoli Wang, Shaozhen Hou, Tingting Xu, Jing Chen, Danyan Zhang, Yingying Shi, Hailun Li, Shijie Li
The further development of fishery resources is a hotspot in the development of the fishery industry. However, how to develop aquatic animal resources deeply is a key point to be solved in the fishery industry. Over the past decades, numerous aquatic animals have gained great attention in the development and utilization of their bioactive molecules which are of therapeutic applications as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Recent research revealed that aquatic animals are composed of many vital moieties, such as polysaccharides and proteins, which provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. In particular, aquatic animal polysaccharides are gaining worldwide popularity owing to their high content, ease of extraction, specific structure, few side effects, prominent therapeutic potential and incorporation in functional foods and dietary supplements. Thus, tremendous research on the isolation, identification and bioactivities of polysaccharides has been carried out. This review presents comprehensive viewpoints on extraction, separation, purification, structural characterization and bioactivity of various polysaccharides from aquatic animals, such as sea cucumber, abalone, oyster and mussels. In addition, this review profiled a brief knowledge on both current challenges and future scope in aquatic animal polysaccharides field. The review will be a direction of deep processing in fishery resources, which is a hotspot, but technical bottleneck. Furthermore, the review could be served as a useful reference material for further investigation, production and application of polysaccharides from aquatic animals in functional foods and therapeutic agents.
Traditional and modern uses of onion bulb (Allium cepa L.): a systematic review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-04 Joaheer D. Teshika, Aumeeruddy M. Zakariyyah, Toorabally Zaynab, Gokhan Zengin, Kannan RR Rengasamy, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Mahomoodally M. Fawzi
Onion, (Allium cepa L.), is one of the most consumed and grown vegetable crops in the world. Onion bulb, with its characteristic flavor, is the third most essential horticultural spice with a substantial commercial value. Apart from its culinary virtues, A. cepa is also used traditionally for its medicinal virtues in a plethora of indigenous cultures. Several publications have been produced in an endeavor to validate such traditional claims. Nonetheless, there is still a dearth of up-to-date, detailed compilation, and critical analysis of the traditional and ethnopharmacological propensities of A. cepa. The present review, therefore, aims to systematically review published literature on the traditional uses, pharmacological properties, and phytochemical composition of A. cepa. A. cepa was found to possess a panoply of bioactive compounds and numerous pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic, anti-hypertensive, and immunoprotective effects. Although a large number of in vitro and in vivo studies have been conducted, several limitations and research gaps have been identified which need to be addressed in future studies.
Cheesomics: the future pathway to understanding cheese flavour and quality Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-04 Roya Afshari, Christopher J. Pillidge, Daniel A. Dias, A. Mark Osborn, Harsharn Gill
Cheese is a fermented dairy product, harboring diverse microbial communities (microbiota) that change over time and vary depending on the type of cheese and their respective starter and adjunct cultures. These microorganisms play a crucial role in determining the flavor, quality and safety of the final product. Exploring the composition of cheese microbiota and the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in cheese ripening has been the subject of many studies. Recent advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) methods and the development of sophisticated bioinformatics tools have provided deeper insights into the composition and potential functionality of cheese microbiota far beyond the information provided by culture-dependent methods. These advances, which include rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metagenomics, have been complemented and expanded in recent years by the application of metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics. This paper reviews studies in which application of these meta-omics technologies has led to a better understanding of the microbial composition and functionality of cheese and highlights opportunities by which the integration of outputs from diverse multi-omics analytical platforms (cheesomics) could be used in the future to advance our knowledge of the cheese ripening process and identify biomarkers for predicting cheese flavor, quality, texture and safety, and bioactive metabolites with potential to influence human health.
Recent advances in banana (musa spp.) biofortification to alleviate vitamin A deficiency Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-04 Delphine Amah, Angeline van Biljon, Allan Brown, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Rony Swennen, Maryke Labuschagne
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is one of the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies that disproportionately affects low income populations in developing countries. Traditional breeding and modern biotechnology have significant potential to enhance micronutrient bioavailability in crops through biofortification. Bananas (Musa spp.) are economically important fruit crops grown throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world where VAD is most prevalent. Some banana genotypes are rich in provitamin A carotenoids (pVACs), providing an opportunity to use bananas as a readily available vehicle for provitamin A delivery. This review summarizes the progress made in carotenoid research in bananas relative to banana diversity and the use of conventional breeding and transgenic approaches aimed at banana biofortification to address vitamin A deficiency. Existing reports on sampling strategies, pVAC retention and bioavailability are also evaluated as essential components for a successful banana biofortification effort. The wide variability of pVACs reported in banana cultivars coupled with recent advances in unraveling the diversity and genetic improvement of this globally important but often-neglected staple fruit crop underscores their importance in biofortification schemes.
3D food printing: main components selection by considering rheological properties Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-04 Hao Jiang, Luyao Zheng, Yanhui Zou, Zhaobin Tong, Shiyao Han, Shaojin Wang
3D printing, also referred to as additive manufacturing, offers a wide range of new processing possibilities to the food industry. This technology allows a layer by layer (bottom to top) printing of predefined slices of designed and desired objects. 3D printing potentially allows rapid manufacturing of complex objects, which are unhindered by design complexity, thus providing substantial liberty to create new and untested geometric shapes. In terms of food manufacturing, the potential that 3D food printing technologies can bring may revolutionize certain aspects of food manufacturing, providing the convenience of low-cost customized fabrication and even tailored nutrition control. The most common materials suitable for 3D food printing are carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber and functional components. In the present study, the characteristics of raw materials or additives used during 3D printing, and requirements for estimating and improving their printing performance and self-supporting ability in extrusion-based printing regarding rheological characteristics of 3D food printing materials are reviewed. As an innovative process, 3D food printing may induce a revolution in certain areas of food manufacturing.
Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and dietary fructose in relation to risk of gout and hyperuricemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-02 Soraiya Ebrahimpour-koujan, Parvane Saneei, Bagher Larijani, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh
Background: Findings on the association of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) and fructose intakes with gout and hyperuricemia have been conflicting.
Understanding the biosyntheses and stress response mechanisms of aroma compounds in tea (Camellia sinensis) to safely and effectively improve tea aroma Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-02 Lanting Zeng, Naoharu Watanabe, Ziyin Yang
Metabolite formation is a biochemical and physiological feature of plants developed as an environmental response during the evolutionary process. These metabolites help defend plants against environmental stresses, but are also important quality components in crops. Utilizing the stress response to improve natural quality components in plants has attracted increasing research interest. Tea, which is processed by the tender shoots or leaves of tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze), is the second most popular beverage worldwide after water. Aroma is an important factor affecting tea character and quality. The defense responses of tea leaves against various stresses during preharvest (tea growth process) and postharvest (tea manufacturing) processing can result in aroma formation. Herein, we summarize recent investigations into the biosyntheses of several characteristic aroma compounds prevalent in teas and derived from volatile fatty acid derivatives, terpenes, and phenylpropanoids/benzenoids. Several key aroma synthetic genes from tea leaves have been isolated, cloned, sequenced, and functionally characterized. Biotic stress (such as tea green leafhopper attack) and abiotic stress (such as light, temperature, and wounding) could enhance the expression of aroma synthetic genes, resulting in the abundant accumulation of characteristic aroma compounds in tea leaves. Understanding the specific relationships between characteristic aroma compounds and stresses is key to improving tea quality safely and effectively.
Recent advancements in the application of non-thermal plasma technology for the seafood industry Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-02 Piotr Kulawik, Brijesh Kumar Tiwari
Non-thermal plasma (NTP) is one of the most promising minimal processing methods for the food industry. However up until recently there are limited studies which would report the application and effect of NTP on processed seafood. The objective of this review is to highlight the recent findings and advancements in the application of NTP within the fish and other seafood industry, including direct application of fresh and dried fish and seafood with as well as indirect application of plasma activated water and seafood industry wastewater purification. The article also summarizes the effect of plasma treatment on microbiological quality, physicochemical and sensory properties and oxidation rate of treated fish and seafood. NTP has high potential to be used within various fields of seafood industry. It is especially effective in treatment of dried seafood products, but the use of plasma activated water during various processing steps such as seafood washing could be also beneficial. Moreover NTP could also be used as a cost effective and environmentally friendly method for seafood wastewater purification.
Dietary intake of anthocyanins and risk of cardiovascular disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-02 Rachel Kimble, Karen M. Keane, John K. Lodge, Glyn Howatson
Accumulating evidence suggests flavonoid intake is associated with reduced risk of non-communicable diseases. We aimed to systematically determine and quantify the potential association between dietary anthocyanin intake and risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A systematic literature search of studies reporting anthocyanin intake and risk of fatal or nonfatal CVD was performed using SCOPUS, MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. The relative risk (RR) or hazard ratio (HR) of highest category of anthocyanin foods were pooled in a random-effects meta-analysis. Subgroup analysis were conducted to determine possible sources of heterogeneity. The meta-analysis suggested intake of dietary anthocyanins and reduced risk of CHD (RR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.99; I2 = 12.0, Ph = 0.337) and CVD mortality (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.87, 0.97; I2 = 0.0, Ph = 0.584). However, there was no relationship between the intake of these compounds and reduced risk of MI, stroke or total CVD. Subgroup analysis determined reduced risk of CHD and CVD mortality was more prominent for anthocyanidin intake, as opposed to anthocyanin or berries. Our systematic review and meta-analysis provides evidence that anthocyanins, specifically anthocyanidins, reduce the risk of CHD and CVD mortality. Further randomized controlled trials on anthocyanin intake and CVD risk factors are needed to support these findings.
Innovative processing techniques for altering the physicochemical properties of wholegrain brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) – opportunities for enhancing food quality and health attributes Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-02 Qiang Xia, Brian D. Green, Zhenzhou Zhu, Yunfei Li, Seyed Mohammad Taghi Gharibzahedi, Shahin Roohinejad, Francisco J. Barba
Rice is a globally important staple consumed by billions of people, and recently there has been considerable interest in promoting the consumption of wholegrain brown rice (WBR) due to its obvious advantages over polished rice in metabolically protective activities. This work highlights the effects of innovative processing technologies on the quality and functional properties of WBR in comparison with traditional approaches; and it is aimed at establishing a quantitative and/or qualitative link between physicochemical changes and high-efficient processing methods. Compared with thermal treatments, applications of innovative nonthermal techniques, such as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), pulsed electric fields (PEF), ultrasound and cold plasma, are not limited to modifying physicochemical properties of WBR grains, since improvements in nutritional and functional components as well as a reduction in anti-nutritional factors can also be achieved through inducing related biochemical transformation. Much information about processing methods and parameters which influence WBR quality changes has been obtained, but simultaneously achieving the product stabilization and functionality of processed WBR grains requires a comprehensive evaluation of all the quality changes induced by different processing procedures as well as quantitative insights into the relationship between the changes and processing variables.
The success and the challenge of all-trans retinoic acid in the treatment of cancer Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-02 Xiaoling Ni, Guohua Hu, Xun Cai
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), an active metabolite of vitamin A, plays important roles in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, apoptosis, and embryonic development. The effects of ATRA are mediated by nuclear retinoid receptors as well as non-genomic signal pathway, such as MAPK and PKA. The great success of differentiation therapy with ATRA in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) not only improved the prognosis of APL but also spurred the studies of ATRA in the treatment of other tumors. Since the genetic and physiopathological simplicity of APL is not common in human malignancies, the combination of ATRA with other agents (chemotherapy, epigenetic modifiers, and arsenic trioxide, etc) had been extensively investigated in a variety of tumors. In this review, we will discuss in details about ATRA and its role in cancer treatment.
Intestinal in vitro cell culture models and their potential to study the effect of food components on intestinal inflammation Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-10-02 Maria del Carmen Ponce de León-Rodríguez, Jean-Pierre Guyot, Caroline Laurent-Babot
Cell cultures are widely used in pharmaceutical, medical, food/nutrition and biological sciences. In food and nutrition science, intestinal cell culture models of human origin are attracting increasing interest but are still rarely used in investigations of the effects of bioactive food compounds on intestinal inflammation. However, such in vitro models would, among other benefits, limit the use of in vivo models and could provide new molecular data.
Effects of EPA and DHA on blood pressure and inflammatory factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 Xiao-fei Guo, Ke-lei Li, Jiao-mei Li, Duo Li
The present study aimed to clarify whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have differential effects on blood pressure and inflammatory mediators. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and Scopus updated to Apr. 2018. The mean changes in risk factors of chronic diseases were calculated as weighted mean difference (WMD) by using a random-effects model. Twenty randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. The summary estimate showed that EPA intervention significantly reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) (-2.6 mmHg; 95%confident interval (CI): -4.6, -0.5 mmHg), especially in subjects with dyslipidemia (-3.8 mmHg; 95%CI: -6.7, -0.8 mmHg). The pooled effect indicated that supplemental DHA exerted a significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in subjects with dyslipidemia (-3.1 mmHg; 95%CI: -5.9, -0.2 mmHg). Both EPA (-0.56 mg/L; 95%CI: -1.13, 0.00) and DHA (-0.5 mg/L; 95%CI: -1.0, -0.03) significantly reduced the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), respectively, especially in subjects with dyslipidemia and higher baseline CRP concentrations. Given that limited trials have focused on EPA or DHA intervention on concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, further RCTs should be explored on these inflammatory factors. The present meta-analysis provides substantial evidence that EPA and DHA have independent (blood pressure) and shared (CRP concentration) effects on risk factors of chronic diseases, and high-quality RCTs with multi-center and large simple-size should be performed to confirm the present findings.
A systematic review on nanoencapsulation of food bioactive ingredients and nutraceuticals by various nanocarriers Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-06-08 Elham Assadpour, Seid Mahdi Jafari
Today, there is an ever-growing interest on natural food ingredients both by consumers and producers in the food industry. In fact, people are looking for those products in the market which are free from artificial and synthetic additives and can promote their health. These food bioactive ingredients should be formulated in such a way that protects them against harsh process and environmental conditions and safely could be delivered to the target organs and cells. Nanoencapsulation is a perfect strategy for this situation and there have been many studies in recent years for nanoencapsulation of food components and nutraceuticals by different technologies. In this review paper, our main goal is firstly to have an overview of nanoencapsulation techniques applicable to food ingredients in a systematic classification, i.e., lipid-based nanocarriers, nature-inspired nanocarriers, special-equipment-based nanocarriers, biopolymer nanocarriers, and other miscellaneous nanocarriers. Then, application of these cutting-edge nanocarriers for different nutraceuticals including phenolic compounds and antioxidants, natural food colorants, antimicrobial agents and essential oils, vitamins, minerals, flavors, fish oils and essential fatty acids will be discussed along with presenting some examples in each field.
Novel approaches for chemical and microbiological shelf life extension of cereal crops Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-09-21 Marcus Schmidt, Emanuele Zannini, Kieran M. Lynch, Elke K. Arendt
Economic losses due to post-harvest fungal spoilage and mycotoxin contamination of cereal crops is a frequently encountered issue. Typically, chemical preservatives are used to reduce the initial microbial load and the environmental conditions during storage are controlled to prevent microbial growth. However, in recent years the consumers’ desire for more naturally produced foods containing less chemical preservatives has grown increasingly stronger. This article reviews the latest advances in terms of novel approaches for chemical decontamination, namely application cold atmospheric pressure plasma and electrolyzed water, and their suitability for preservation of stored cereal crops. In addition, the alternative use of bio-preservatives, such as starter cultures or purified antimicrobial compounds, to prevent the growth of spoilage organisms or remove in-field accumulated mycotoxins is evaluated. All treatments assessed here show potential for inhibition of microbial spoilage. However, each method encounters draw-backs, making industrial application difficult. Even under optimized processing conditions, it is unlikely that one single treatment can reduce the natural microbial load sufficiently. It is evident that future research needs to examine the combined application of several treatments to exploit their synergistic properties. This would enable sufficient reduction in the microbial load and ensure microbiological safety of cereal crops during long-term storage.
Sour Cherry By-products: Compositions, Functional Properties and Recovery Potentials – A Review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-09-20 Fatih Mehmet Yılmaz, Ahmet Görgüç, Mehmet Karaaslan, Hasan Vardin, Seda Ersus Bilek, Özge Uygun, Cavit Bircan
Sour (tart) cherry is an industrial fruit where a considerable amount of by-products remain after processing. Sour cherry by-products consist of pomace (skin and flesh) and seeds (pit, stone) which remain after the fruit juice and IQF processes. Sour cherry pomace is characterized with a high content of phenolic compounds and the seed constitutes a high oil yield with beneficial effects on human health because of their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. There has been a great interest in sour cherry by-products due to the increasing production rate of sour cherry worldwide and the increasing efforts on seeking bioactive compounds from natural sources as functional food. Thus, there have been a number of studies regarding the sour cherry pomace and sour cherry seed, especially in the last five years. The present review summarizes the chemical, biological, functional, and technological properties of the sour cherry pomace and sour cherry seed with their current and potential applications.
Developments of mathematical models for simulating vacuum cooling processes for food products – a review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-09-19 Zhiwei Zhu, Ying Li, Da-Wen Sun, Hsiao-Wen Wang
Vacuum cooling is a rapid cooling method widely used in cooling some food products. Simulating the vacuum cooling process with mathematical models helps to acquire a more intuitive understanding and optimize the whole cooling process. However, there is no review summarizing the mathematical models of vacuum cooling. In this review, heat and mass transfer process during vacuum cooling, types of mathematical models for vacuum cooling, and numerical methods including finite difference method, finite element method and finite volume method used for process simulation are introduced in details. The food products used in numerical simulation study of vacuum cooling generally include liquid food, vegetables and cooked meat. The ranges of application of various numerical methods are also discussed. Moreover, heat and mass transfer coefficients have a great influence on the accuracy of the model, and are generally provided by the literature. The investigations presented in this review invariably demonstrate that mathematical modeling can provide good prediction of key information of vacuum cooling process, and has a great potential to improve vacuum cooling process in the food industry. However, more efforts are still needed to realize the industrial translation of laboratory results.
Biomedical applications of Aloe vera Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-09-13 Yan Gao, Kit Ieng Kuok, Ying Jin, Ruibing Wang
Over the last centuries, Aloe vera, a plant species belonging to the genus Aloe, have been extensively studied for various therapeutic activities, including anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-cancer activity, as well as immunoregulative and hepatoprotective properties, although some of these claimed efficacies are controversial as demonstrated by some of the recent studies. In spite of the intensive historic and recent use of this herb and its extracts in various areas, a well-balanced, systematic review seems crucial in order to gain in-depth comprehensive knowledge about this plant and to reflect and revive the use of Aloe vera in biomedical sciences. This review will focus on summarization of the pharmacological activities and clinical studies of Aloe and various extracts, as well as its extensive application in food chemistry, and will also discuss the future prospects of biomedical applications of this herb.
Bioactive edible films for food applications: mechanisms of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-09-10 Nasreddine Benbettaïeb, Frédéric Debeaufort, Thomas Karbowiak
In order to improve the quality of food and to extend their shelf life, a new generation of active edible films is being especially intended after the incorporation of organic acids, enzymes, antimicrobial proteins, phenolic compounds, or other functional ingredients such as probiotics, flavors, vitamins and nutraceuticals. These active compounds have different mechanisms of action related to their structure, their concentration, the nature of micro-organism targeted, the process of encapsulation or incorporation in the biopolymer film-networks. The application of the active films by direct contact or indirect contact via the head space also affects the bioactivity of these compounds. This article critically reviews the published work on active edible-films and their applications for food preservation. The classes of active compounds and their action mechanisms are firstly discussed. Then, an extended overview on their effect on model food (simulants) or on real food during storage was also addressed. Edible films offer two main advantages over the direct incorporation of the antimicrobial or antioxidant agents into the bulk food: 1) to control the diffusion of active compounds at the surface of the food and 2) to reduce the amount of preservatives added in the food.
Effects of protein oxidation on the texture and water-holding of meat: a review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-09-10 Yulong Bao, Per Ertbjerg
Protein oxidation readily occurs in postmortem muscle during storage and processing. Over the past decade new analytical methods have been developed and new aspects of protein oxidation in meat have been studied, such as the reaction mechanism, and impacts on eating quality and nutritional value. It is now evident that amino acid side chains in myofibrillar proteins undergoes modifications due to oxidative stress. In turn this will lead to formation of new protein-protein cross-links in structural proteins, however, also the overall level of fixed-charge groups attached to the peptide backbones is modified. Meat texture and water-holding are important quality attributes and they are affected by the oxidation of structural proteins. Different mechanisms have been suggested to explain the oxidation-induced quality changes, focusing mainly on reduced proteolysis and formation of cross-links. This review explores the current understanding of protein oxidation in fresh meat in relation to texture and water-holding. The consequences of protein oxidation at molecular level in relation to oxidation-induced cross-linking and changes in net charges of myofibrillar proteins, and the impacts on texture and water-holding are discussed.
Roles for endothelial zinc homeostasis in vascular physiology and coronary artery disease Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-09-10 P. D. Zalewski, J. F. Beltrame, A. A. Wawer, A. I. Abdo, C. Murgia
The discovery of the roles of nitric oxide (NO) in cardiovascular signaling has led to a revolution in the understanding of cardiovascular disease. A new perspective to this story involving zinc (Zn) is emerging. Zn and its associated Zn transporter proteins are important for the integrity and functions of both the large conduit vessels and the microvascular resistance vessels. The Zn and NO pathways are tightly coordinated. Zn ions are required for the dimerization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and subsequent generation of NO while generation of NO leads to a rapid mobilization of endothelial Zn stores. Labile Zn may mediate important downstream actions of NO including vascular cytoprotection and vasodilation. Several vascular disease risk factors (including aging, smoking and diabetes) interfere with Zn homeostatic mechanisms and both hypozincaemia and Zn transporter protein abnormalities are linked to atherosclerosis and microvascular disease. Some vegetarian diets and long-term use of certain anti-hypertensives may also impact on Zn status. The available evidence supports the existence of a Zn regulatory pathway in the vascular wall that is coupled to the generation and actions of NO and which is compromised in Zn deficiency with consequent implications for the pathogenesis and therapy of vascular disease.
Controversy on the correlation of red and processed meat consumption with colorectal cancer risk: an Asian perspective Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-09-10 Sun Jin Hur, Cheorun Jo, Yohan Yoon, Jong Youn Jeong, Keun Taik Lee
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between meat intake and colorectal cancer risk from an Asian, particularly Korean, perspective. A report by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published in 2015 concluded that intake of processed and red meat increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. We conducted an in-depth analysis of prospective, retrospective, case-control and cohort studies, systematic review articles, and IARC monograph reports, which revealed that the IARC/WHO report weighted the results of studies based in Western countries more and that the correlation between intake of processed meat products and colorectal cancer incidence in Asians is not clearly supported. Among 73 epidemiological studies, approximately 76% were conducted in Western countries, whereas only 15% of studies were conducted in Asia. Furthermore, most studies conducted in Asia showed that processed meat consumption is not related to the onset of cancer. Moreover, there have been no reports showing significant correlation between various factors that directly or indirectly affect colorectal cancer incidence, including processed meat products types, raw meat types, or cooking methods. Further epidemiological studies taking each country’s food culture into consideration are required to reliably elucidate the effects of processed meat product intake, especially on cancer incidence.
The food matrix: implications in processing, nutrition and health Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-09-10 José Miguel Aguilera
The concept of food matrix has received much attention lately in reference to its effects on food processing, nutrition and health. However, the term matrix is used vaguely by food and nutrition scientists, often as synonymous of the food itself or its microstructure. This review analyses the concept of food matrix and proposes a classification for the major types of matrices found in foods. The food matrix may be viewed as a physical domain that contains and/or interacts with specific constituents of a food (e.g., a nutrient) providing functionalities and behaviors which are different from those exhibited by the components in isolation or a free state. The effect of the food matrix (FM-effect) is discussed in reference to food processing, oral processing and flavor perception, satiation and satiety, and digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. The FM-effect has also implications in nutrition, food allergies and food intolerances, and in the quality and relevance of results of analytical techniques. The role of the food matrix in the design of healthy foods is also discussed.
Overview of pharmacological activities of Andrographis paniculata and its major compound andrographolide Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-09-10 Yan Dai, Shao-Ru Chen, Ling Chai, Jing Zhao, Yitao Wang, Ying Wang
Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) is a medicinal plant traditionally used as anti-inflammation and anti-bacteria herb. Andrographolide, the major active component of A. paniculata, exhibits diverse pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetes, and other activities. In this article, we comprehensively review the therapeutic potential of A. paniculata and andrographolide focusing on the mechanisms of action and clinical application. We systemically discuss the structure-activity relationship of andrographolide and derivatives. Despite the various pharmacological activities and formula of A. paniculata and andrographolide, we propose further development of more structural derivatives of andrographolide with reduced toxicity and increased therapeutic efficacy is still needed for the clinical application of this ancient mighty herb and its major component.
Processing methods for reducing alpha-galactosides in pulses Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-09-10 Praveena Thirunathan, Annamalai Manickavasagan
Pulses are an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber and are consumed around the world. Their consumption has been recommended as part of a healthy diet. However, they contain various antinutrients such as tannins and trypsin inhibitors, as well as indigestible carbohydrates called alpha-galactosides. These oligosaccharides are fermented by the microorganisms in the gut, producing gas and causing flatulence in healthy individuals. While this flatulence is undesirable (and results in their low acceptance in the Western diet), alpha-galactosides have also been hypothesized to increase susceptibility to bowel diseases, and their presence in the gut worsens the symptoms of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The elimination of alpha-galactosides by breeding is difficult as they play a vital role in maintaining seed viability through periods of drought and cold. There is a critical need to evaluate the various post-harvest processing methods, and their effect on alpha-galactoside removal to facilitate commercialization. This paper reviews the effectiveness of methods and processing conditions in alpha-galactoside removal from a variety of pulses.
Probiotics interaction with foodborne pathogens: a potential alternative to antibiotics and future challenges Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-09-05 Murphy Lam Yim Wan, Stephen J. Forsythe, Hani El-Nezami
Antibiotics are a key tool used nowadays in health care industry to fight against bacterial infections; however, repeated antibiotic use or misuses, have led to bacterial resistance, causing significant threats for many people with common bacterial infections. The use of probiotics to enhance gastrointestinal health has been proposed for many years. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the use of probiotic bacteria as alternatives for antibiotics for preventing or treating various intestinal infections. Several important underlying mechanisms responsible for the antagonistic effects of probiotics on different microorganisms include: (1) competitive exclusion for adhesion sites and nutritional sources; (2) secretion of antimicrobial substances; (3) enhancement of intestinal barrier function; and (4) immunomodulation. However, their mode of action is not very well understood and therefore a clearer understanding of these mechanisms is necessitated. This will enable appropriate probiotic strains to be selected for particular applications and may reveal new probiotic functions. The goal of this review was to highlight some studies from literature describing the probiotic interaction with several major foodborne pathogens, as well as explore the mechanisms for such probiotic-pathogen interaction. The review will conclude by presenting future perspective and challenges of probiotic application in food products.
Staphylococcal enterotoxins and enterotoxin-like toxins with special reference to dairy products: An overview Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-02 Noreddine Benkerroum
Staphylococcal Enterotoxins (SEs) have been raising health concerns for food safety due to their association with staphylococcal foodborne poisoning (SFP). As superantigens, they also cause the life threatening toxic shock syndrome (TSS), the transmission of which via food cannot be ruled out despite the lack of epidemiological evidence. To date, at least 23 of these exotoxins are known and separated into SEs and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin-like (SEl) depending on whether or not they invoke emesis. This work presents an up-to-date overview on the presently known SEs/SEls from the perspective of their classification, pathogenesis, and genetic organisation. The incidence of these toxins in dairy products, the risk this poses to the public health, and possible control means are also reviewed.
Pickering emulsions in foods - opportunities and limitations Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-10-30 Christina Linke, Stephan Drusch
In order to critically discuss the potential of Pickering-type emulsions in food applications this review provides the theoretical background of the stabilizing mechanisms, the resulting requirements for particles to stabilize these systems and the limitations resulting from these fundamental considerations. Food grade particle systems investigated in the past are presented. It becomes obvious that with a proper choice of a particle type, oil-in-water as well as water-in-oil emulsions can be achieved. For highly viscous products, products with a high internal phase volume and foams Pickering particles offer alternatives to commonly used surfactants. Pickering emulsions might be able to offer new approaches for fat reduction as well as encapsulation and sustained release of active ingredients. Nevertheless, a major part of successful systems have been achieved with silica or modified silica particles, which is not in line with the consumer demand for clean label, natural systems or not even food grade. However, the intriguing possibilities motivate and justify future research on the identification of new suitable ingredients, improvement of existing formulations and identification of new fields of application.
Hazardous properties and toxicological update of mercury: From fish food to human health safety perspective Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-02 Charles Odilichukwu R. Okpala, Giacomo Sardo, Sergio Vitale, Gioacchino Bono, Augustine Arukwe
The mercury (Hg) poisoning of Minamata Bay of Japan widely activated a global attention to Hg toxicity and its potential consequences to the aquatic ecosystem and human health. This has resulted to an increased need for a dynamic assembly, contextualization, and quantification of both the current state-of-the-art and approaches for understanding the cause-and-effect relationships of Hg exposure. Thus, the objective of this present review is to provide both hazardous toxic properties and toxicological update of Hg, focusing on how it ultimately affects the aquatic biota to potentially produce human health effects. Primarily, we discussed processes that relate to Hg exposure, including immunological aspects and risk assessment, vulnerability, toxicokinetics, and toxicodynamics, using edible fish, swordfish (Xiphias gladius), as a model. In addition, we summarized available information about Hg concentration limits set by different governmental agencies, as recognized by national and international standardization authorities.
Prevention of fungal spoilage in food products using natural compounds: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-07-05 Susana Ribes, Ana Fuentes, Pau Talens, Jose Manuel Barat
The kingdom Fungi is the most important group of microorganism contaminating food commodities, and chemical additives are commonly used in the food industry to prevent fungal spoilage. However, the increasing consumer concern about synthetic additives has led to their substitution by natural compounds in foods. The current review provides an overview of using natural agents isolated from different sources (plants, animals, and microorganisms) as promising antifungal compounds, including information about their mechanism of action and their use in foods to preserve and prolong shelf life. Compounds derived from plants, chitosan, lactoferrin, and biocontrol agents (lactic acid bacteria, antagonistic yeast, and their metabolites) are able to control the decay caused by fungi in a wide variety of foods. Several strategies are employed to reduce the drawbacks of some antifungal agents, like their incorporation into oil-in-water emulsions and nanoemulsions, edible films and active packaging, and their combination with other natural preservatives. These strategies facilitate the addition of volatile agents into food products and, improve their antifungal effectiveness. Moreover, biological agents have been investigated as one of the most promising options in the control of postharvest decay. Numerous mechanisms of action have been elucidated and different approaches have been studied to enhance their antifungal effectiveness.
Extremozymes from metagenome: Potential applications in food processing Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-12 Mahejibin Khan, T. A. Sathya
The long-established use of enzymes for food processing and product formulation has resulted in an increased enzyme market compounding to 7.0% annual growth rate. Advancements in molecular biology and recognition that enzymes with specific properties have application for industrial production of infant, baby and functional foods boosted research toward sourcing the genes of microorganisms for enzymes with distinctive properties. In this regard, functional metagenomics for extremozymes has gained attention on the premise that such enzymes can catalyze specific reactions. Hence, metagenomics that can isolate functional genes of unculturable extremophilic microorganisms has expanded attention as a promising tool. Developments in this field of research in relation to food sector are reviewed.
Cruciferous vegetables and colorectal cancer prevention through microRNA regulation: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-12 Jeong Hoon Pan, Breann Abernathy, Young Jun Kim, Jin Hyup Lee, Jun Ho Kim, Eui Cheol Shin, Jae Kyeom Kim
Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may lower colorectal cancer risk. In particular, a number of in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that cruciferous vegetables and their active compounds elicit chemopreventive potency through multiple mechanisms. However, it is relatively unexplored whether these vegetables modulate the risk of cancer development through epigenetic mechanisms including noncoding RNAs. Therefore, the objective of the present review is to report and discuss existing evidence with regards to modulation of microRNAs (miRNAs), one variety of noncoding RNAs, by cruciferous vegetables and their chemo-preventive effects against colorectal cancers. As results, it seems clear, considering accumulating evidence regarding their interactions with cancer related genes and relevant signaling pathways, that miRNA modulation via cruciferous vegetables is an attractive target for the prevention of colorectal cancer. In addition, miRNAs have been characterized as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and utilized in cancer therapeutics. Thus, it is very possible that natural agents (not limited to those in cruciferous vegetables) enhance cancer therapeutic efficacy and elicit chemopreventive effects through modulating key miRNAs.
Do marine algal polyphenols have antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic or anti-inflammatory effects in humans? A systematic review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-07-05 Margaret Murray, Aimee L. Dordevic, Maxine P. Bonham, Lisa Ryan
Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Marine algal polyphenols have potential to reduce the risk of these conditions, however, little is known about their impact in humans. This systematic review investigates the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects of marine polyphenols in humans. Scopus, Medline, PsychInfo, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched in November 2016. Eligible studies included (1) human adults, (2) marine polyphenol intervention, (3) blood lipid, glucose, insulin or inflammatory marker outcomes, and (4) were a randomized-controlled trial. One postprandial cross-over trial and four parallel design trials were included involving 271 adults. Analysis across studies was performed using Cohen's d effect sizes. Supplementation with polyphenol-rich extracts had small-to-medium positive effects on fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol; however, there is inadequate evidence as yet to confirm if these are consistent effects. Further randomized-controlled trials should investigate polyphenols from Ecklonia cava and other macroalgal sources, to determine if there is a role for marine polyphenols in reducing the risk factors of chronic disease in humans.
Dietary compounds as modulators of metals and metalloids toxicity Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-07-07 Carlos Jadán-Piedra, Gabriela Matuoka Chiocchetti, María Jesús Clemente, Dinoraz Vélez, Vicenta Devesa
A large part of the population is exposed to metals and metalloids through the diet. Most of the in vivo studies on its toxicokinetics and toxicity are conducted by means of exposure through drinking water or by intragastric or intraperitoneal administration of aqueous standards, and therefore they do not consider the effect of the food matrix on the exposure. Numerous studies show that some components of the diet can modulate the toxicity of these food contaminants, reducing their effect on a systemic level. Part of this protective role may be due to a reduction of intestinal absorption and subsequent tissue accumulation of the toxic element, although it may also be a consequence of their ability to counteract the toxicity directly by their antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory activity, among other factors. The present review provides a compilation of existing information about the effect that certain components of the diet have on the toxicokinetics and toxicity of the metals and metalloids of greatest toxicological importance that are present in food (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury), and of their most toxic chemical species.
Metabolic effects of aspartame in adulthood: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-08-18 Natalia Cardoso Santos, Laiza Magalhaes de Araujo, Graziela De Luca Canto, Eliete Neves Silva Guerra, Michella Soares Coelho, Maria de Fatima Borin
Data about harms or benefits associated with the consumption of aspartame, a nonnutritive sweetener worldwide consumed, are still controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials aimed to assess the effect of aspartame consumption on metabolic parameters related to diabetes and obesity. The search was performed on Cochrane, LILACS, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science databases, and on a gray literature using Open Grey, Google Scholar, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. Searches across all databases were conducted from the earliest available date up to April 13, 2016, without date and language restrictions. Pooled mean differences were calculated using a random or fixed-effects model for heterogeneous and homogenous studies, respectively. Twenty-nine articles were included in qualitative synthesis and twelve, presenting numeric results, were used in meta-analysis. Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L), insulin levels (μU/mL), total cholesterol (mmol/L), triglycerides concentrations (mmol/L), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mmol/L), body weight (kg), and energy intake (MJ) were considered as the main outcomes in subjects that consumed aspartame, and results were presented as mean difference; % confidence interval, range. Aspartame consumption was not associated with alterations on blood glucose levels compared to control (−0.03 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.21 to 0.14) or to sucrose (0.31 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.05 to 0.67) and on insulin levels compared to control (0.13 μU/mL; 95% CI, −0.69 to 0.95) or to sucrose (2.54 μU/mL; 95% CI, −6.29 to 11.37). Total cholesterol was not affected by aspartame consumption compared to control (−0.02 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.31 to 0.27) or to sucrose (−0.24 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.89 to 0.42). Triglycerides concentrations were not affected by aspartame consumption compared to control (0.00 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.04 to 0.05) or to sucrose (0.00 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.09 to 0.09). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol serum levels were higher on aspartame compared to control (−0.03 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.06 to −0.01) and lower on aspartame compared to sucrose (0.05 mmol/L; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.09). Body weight did not change after aspartame consumption compared to control (5.00 kg; 95% CI, −1.56 to 11.56) or to sucrose (3.78 kg; 95% CI, −2.18 to 9.74). Energy intake was not altered by aspartame consumption compared to control (−0.49 MJ; 95% CI, −1.21 to 0.22) or to sucrose (−0.17 MJ; 95% CI, −2.03 to 1.69). Data concerning effects of aspartame on main metabolic variables associated to diabetes and obesity do not support a beneficial related to its consumption.
Secondary metabolism in Penicillium expansum: Emphasis on recent advances in patulin research Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-06-02 Joanna Tannous, Nancy P. Keller, Ali Atoui, André El Khoury, Roger Lteif, Isabelle P. Oswald, Olivier Puel
The plant pathogenic fungus Penicillium expansum is a major concern of the global food industry due to its wide occurrence and ability to produce various mycotoxins, of which the most significant is patulin. Relatively less highlighted in the literature, in comparison with the other food-borne mycotoxins, patulin is one of the main factors in economic losses of vegetables and fruits. Otherwise, patulin is a health hazard which results in both short-term and long-term risks. This review includes knowledge on the biosynthetic mechanisms used for secondary metabolite production in P. expansum, with special emphasis on patulin biosynthesis. The abiotic factors triggering the production of patulin and the strategies developed to reduce or prevent the contamination by this mycotoxin are comprehensively discussed. The database presented in this review would be useful for the prioritization and development of future research.
Influence of physical and biological variability and solution methods in fruit and vegetable quality nondestructive inspection by using imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy techniques: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-07-05 Baohua Zhang, Dejian Dai, Jichao Huang, Jun Zhou, Qifa Gui, Fang Dai
Over the past decades, imaging and spectroscopy techniques have been rapidly developing and widely applied in nondestructive fruit and vegetable quality assessment. The physical properties (including size, shape, color, position, and temperature) and biological properties (including cultivar, season, maturity level and geographical origin) of fruits and vegetables vary from one to another. A great variety of physical and biological properties of agricultural products influence the optical propagation properties and interaction behaviors with incident light, thus decreasing the quality inspection accuracy. Many attempts have been made in image correction and spectral compensation methods to improve the inspection accuracy. This paper gives a detailed summary about influence of physical and biological variability, as well as the correction and compensation methods for eliminating or reducing the effects in fruit and vegetable quality nondestructive inspection by using imaging and spectroscopy techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of the solution methods are discussed and summarized. Additionally, the future challenges and potential trends are also reported.
ATPS: “Aqueous two-phase system” as the “answer to protein separation” for protein-processing food industry Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-16 Bilal Muhammad Khan, Kit-Leong Cheong, Yang Liu
Every individual needs food for its nutritional value and flavor while the economic growth of a nation depends on a thriving profit-generating industry. The food industry caters to both needs in an efficient manner. Proteins can rightly be considered as the driving force behind the overwhelming success of this industry. However, purification of proteins is not an easy undertaking due to their intricate nature while presently employed procedures for this purpose, regrettably, are both costly, and labor- and time-intensive in addition to being unsettling on proteins structural conformity. ATPS has accumulated a lot of interest from the scientific community due to its mild operating conditions, high recovery yield, ease of scaling it up, and its cost-effective and environment friendly nature. This review tries to amass some accounts concerning the utility of ATPS for the separation and purification of proteins. Some auspicious clues in this regard can be witnessed along with a few loopholes which need to be addressed before this technique can truly demonstrate its potential vis-à-vis industrial protein purification. Overall, a polymer – salt (citrates in particular) ATPS with an added inert supplementary salt can be regarded as a better option for purifying proteins.
Impact of gut microbiota on neurological diseases: Diet composition and novel treatments Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-12 Ana Larroya-García, Diana Navas-Carrillo, Esteban Orenes-Piñero
Gut microbiota has significant effects on the structure and function of the enteric and central nervous system including human behaviour and brain regulation. Herein, we analyze the role of this intestinal ecosystem, the effects of dietary changes and the administration of nutritional supplements, such as probiotics, prebiotics, or fecal transplantation in neuropsychiatric disorders. Numerous factors have been highlighted to influence gut microbiota composition, including genetics, health status, mode of birth delivery and environment. However, diet composition and nutritional status has been repeatedly shown to be one of the most critical modifiable factors of this ecosystem. A comprehensively analysis of the microbiome-intestine-brain axis has been performed, including the impact of intestinal bacteria in alterations in the nervous, immune and endocrine systems and their metabolites. Finally, we discuss the latest literature examining the effects of diet composition, nutritional status and microbiota alterations in several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism, anxiety, depression, Alzheimer's disease and anorexia nervosa.
Extrusion processing of raw food materials and by-products: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-12 Vivian Offiah, Vassilis Kontogiorgos, Kolawole O. Falade
Extrusion technology has rapidly transformed the food industry with its numerous advantages over other processing methods. It offers a platform for processing different products from various food groups by modifying minor or major ingredients and processing conditions. Although cereals occupy a large portion of the extruded foods market, several other types of raw materials have been used. Extrusion processing of various food groups, including cereals and pseudo cereals, roots and tubers, pulses and oilseeds, fruits and vegetables, and animal products, as well as structural and nutritional changes in these food matrices are reviewed. Value addition by extrusion to food processing wastes and by-products from fruits and vegetables, dairy, meat and seafood, cereals and residues from starch, syrup and alcohol production, and oilseed processing are also discussed. Extrusion presents an economical technology for incorporating food processing residues and by-products back into the food stream. In contemporary scenarios, rising demand for extruded products with functional ingredients, attributed to evolving lifestyles and preferences, have led to innovations in the form, texture, color and content of extruded products. Information presented in this review would be of importance to processors and researchers as they seek to enhance nutritional quality and delivery of extruded products.
Modulation of gastrointestinal barrier and nutrient transport function in farm animals by natural plant bioactive compounds – A comprehensive review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-12 Amlan Kumar Patra, Salah Amasheh, Jörg Rudolf Aschenbach
The use of antibiotics in diets has been restricted in several countries as a precautionary measure to avoid development of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic microorganisms. This regulation promoted the exploration of natural plant bioactive compounds (PBCs) as feed additives to improve productivity, welfare and health of livestock and poultry. Along with several beneficial attributes of PBCs, including antimicrobial, antioxidant and various pharmacological effects, they also improve barrier function and nutrient transport in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This comprehensive review discusses the effects of different PBCs on the integrity, nutrient transport and permeability of GI epithelia and their mechanism of actions. Dietary PBCs influence the maintenance and enhancement of GI integrity via a number of mechanisms including altered signaling pathways and expression of several tight junction proteins (claudins, occludin, and zonula occludens proteins), altered expression of various cytokines, chemokines, complement components and their transcription factors, goblet cell abundance and mucin gene expression, and the modulation of the cellular immune system. They also affect nutrient transporter gene expression and active absorption of nutrients, minerals and ammonia. One intriguing perspective is to select an effective dose at which a specific PBC could improve GI barrier function and nutrient absorption. The effective doses and clear-cut molecular mechanisms for PBCs are yet to be elucidated to understand discrepant observations among different studies and to improve the targeted biotechnological and pharmaceutical uses of PBCs in farm animals. The latter will also enable a more successful use of such PBCs in humans.
Changes in conformation and quality of vegetable protein during texturization process by extrusion Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-12 Jinchuang Zhang, Li Liu, Hongzhi Liu, Ashton Yoon, Syed S. H. Rizvi, Qiang Wang
Texturized Vegetable Protein (TVP), as the meat analogues, has aroused the attention due to the advantages of health and nutrition. During the extrusion process of TVP, under the comprehensive effects of temperature, shear force, and pressure, complex conformational changes and molecular interactions amongst protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and other components occur, which determine the quality of TVP. Control of the extrusion process is still a big challenge. Therefore, this review summarized the development and current status of food extrusion technology for the production of TVP and gave detailed descriptions about the conformational changes of the main components during the extrusion process, focusing on the effects of barrel temperature, moisture content, feed rate and screw speed on TVP quality. Lastly, we discussed the approaches to characterize the extrusion process and proposed a new system analysis model.
Dietary fat and gut microbiota: mechanisms involved in obesity control Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 Olívia Gonçalves Leão Coelho, Flávia Galvão Cândido, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
Obesity is a serious global health problem that is directly related to various morbidities manifestation. Intestinal dysbiosis has been implicated on obesity pathogenesis. Diet composition can alter gut microbiota, regardless of energy intake. Dietary fatty acids quality may affect gut microbiota composition, which in turn may affect host metabolic health. The mechanisms by which the different type of FFA modulate gut microbiota is yet poor elucidate and there is a lack of studies regard to this. Fatty acids may act in cell membrane, interfere with energy production, inhibit enzymatic activities, impair nutrient absorption and generate toxic compounds to cells, leading to growth inhibition or even bacterial death. The beneficial effect of the consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on microbiota, unlike n-6 PUFA and saturated fatty acids has been suggested. n-3 PUFA consumption promotes desirable changes on obese intestinal microbiota making it similar to that of normal weight individuals. More studies are needed to better understand the effect of CLA on microbiota and host health. Long term human controlled clinical trials must be conducted to allow us to understand the complex interaction between dietary fat, intestinal microbiota and obesity.
Effects of inorganic nitrate and nitrite consumption on cognitive function and cerebral blood flow: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-10 Tom Clifford, Abrar Babateen, Oliver M. Shannon, Tess Capper, Ammar Ashor, Blossom Stephan, Louise Robinson, John P. O'Hara, John C. Mathers, Emma Stevenson, Mario Siervo
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials examining the effect of inorganic nitrate or nitrite supplementation on cognitive function (CF) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Two databases (PubMed, Embase) were searched for articles from inception until May 2017. Inclusion criteria were: randomized clinical trials; participants >18 years old; trials comparing a nitrate/nitrite intervention with a control. Thirteen and nine trials were included in the meta-analysis to assess CF and CBF, respectively. Random-effects models were used and the effect size described as standardized mean differences (SMDs). A total of 297 participants (median of 23 per trial) were included for CF; 163 participants (median of 16 per trial) were included for CBF. Nitrate/nitrite supplementation did not influence CF (SMD +0.06, 95% CI: -0.06, 0.18, P = 0.32) or CBF under resting (SMD +0.14, 95% CI: -0.13, 0.41, P = 0.31), or stimulated conditions (SMD + 0.23, 95% CI: -0.11, 0.56, P = 0.19). The meta-regression showed an inverse association between duration of the intervention and CBF (P = 0.02) but no influence of age, BMI or dose (P < 0.05). Nitrate and nitrite supplementation did not modify CBF or CF. Further trials employing larger samples sizes and interventions with longer duration are warranted.
Biomarker of long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake and breast cancer: Accumulative evidence from an updated meta-analysis of epidemiological studies Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Bo Yang, Xiao L. Ren, Zhi Y. Wang, Liang Wang, Feng Zhao, Xiao J. Guo, Duo Li
Objective: We aimed to summarize the up-to-date epidemiology evidence on biomarkers of long-chain (LC) n-3 fatty acid (FA) intake in relation to breast cancer (BC).
Early-life food nutrition, microbiota maturation and immune development shape life-long health Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Xiaoli Zhou, Lina Du, Ronghua Shi, Zhidong Chen, Yiming Zhou, Zongjie Li
The current knowledge about early-life nutrition and environmental factors that affect the interaction between the symbiotic microbiota and the host immune system has demonstrated novel regulatory target for treating allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and metabolic syndrome. Various kinds of food nutrients (such as dietary fiber, starch, polyphenols and proteins) can provide energy resources for both intestinal microbiota and the host. The indigestible food components are fermented by the indigenous gut microbiota to produce diverse metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids, bile acids and trimethylamine-N-oxide, which can regulate the host metabolized physiology, immunity homeostasis and health state. Therefore it is commonly believed early-life perturbation of the microbial community structure and the dietary nutrition interference on the child mucosal immunity contribute to the whole life susceptibility to chronic diseases. In all, the combined interrelationship between food ingredients nutrition, intestinal microbiota configurations and host system immunity provides new therapeutic targets to treat various kinds of pathogenic inflammations and chronic diseases.
Bioactivities, biosynthesis and biotechnological production of phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Min Shi, Fenfen Huang, Changping Deng, Yao Wang, Guoyin Kai
Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen in Chinese), is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant, which is used as not only human medicine but also health-promotion food. Danshen has been extensively used for the treatment of various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. As a major group of bioactive constituents from S. miltiorrhiza, water-soluble phenolic acids such as salvianolic acid B possessed good bioactivities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and other health-promoting activities. It is of significance to improve the production of phenolic acids by modern biotechnology approaches to meet the increasing market demand. Significant progresses have been made in understanding the biosynthetic pathway and regulation mechanism of phenolic acids in S.miltiorrhiza, which will facilitate the process of targeted metabolic engineering or synthetic biology. Furthermore, multiple biotechnology methods such as in vitro culture, elicitation, hairy roots, endophytic fungi and bioreactors have been also used to obtain pharmaceutically active phenolic acids from S. miltiorrhiza. In this review, recent advances in bioactivities, biosynthetic pathway and biotechnological production of phenolic acid ingredients were summarized and future prospective was also discussed.
Bio-based edible coatings for the preservation of fishery products: A Review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Dawei Yu, Joe M. Regenstein, Wenshui Xia
The popularity of preprocessed fresh fishery products such as fillets and peeled shrimps is growing in today s market due to their convenience for subsequent processing and cooking. However, fishery products are highly perishable because of the combined actions of biochemical reactions and microbial metabolism. Various methods have been proposed to address this problem. Among these methods, bio-based edible coating has been highlighted as a promising solution. This review updates and summarizes the recent literature on the application of coatings for the preservation of fishery products including the aspects of coating carriers, composite natural preservatives and coating methods, and a discussion of the protective effects based on microbial, physicochemical and sensorial evaluations. Moreover, some challenges and future research directions regarding optimization of formulas and exploration of mechanisms of coating are also discussed. Given consumer demand for fresh fishery products with long shelf life, edible coatings that are environmentally friendly and effective alternative will be used to extend the shelf life of fishery products.
A critical review on anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of dietary resistant starch Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Maninder Meenu, Baojun Xu
“Diabesity” is the term to illustrate the interdependent relationship between obesity and diabetes. About 80% of the diabetic patients are diagnosed with obesity. Diabesity can be prevented by dietary interventions, especially by incorporating sufficient amount of resistant starch (RS). In the past few decades, RS has inspired the researchers due to its various health benefits. Differing from digestible starch, RS remains undigested in the small intestine, but in the large intestine, it is subjected to fermentation. This review intends to encapsulate the current information related to the dietary RS on diabetes and obesity. RS attenuate hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic and hyperlipidemic response in various subjects by restricting gluconeogenesis, bolstering glycogenesis, maintaining glucose and lipid homeostasis and ameliorating pancreatic dysfunction. Various food products were fortified with RS to enhance its dietary intake and were found to exhibit positive impact on human and animal models. This review identified and summarized the research gaps in the available literature.
Using power ultrasound to accelerate food freezing processes: Effects on freezing efficiency and food microstructure Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-06-21 Peizhi Zhang, Zhiwei Zhu, Da-Wen Sun
Freezing is an effective way of food preservation. However, traditional freezing methods have the disadvantages of low freezing efficiency and generation of large ice crystals, leading to possible damage of food quality. Power ultrasound assisted freezing as a novel technique can effectively reduce the adverse effects during freezing process. This paper gives an overview on recent researches of power ultrasound technique to accelerate the food freezing processes and illustrates the main principles of power ultrasound assisted freezing. The effects of power ultrasound on liquid food, model solid food as well as fruit and vegetables are discussed, respectively, from the aspects of increasing freezing rate and improving microstructure. It is shown that ultrasound assisted freezing can effectively improve the freezing efficiency and promote the formation of small and evenly distributed ice crystals, resulting in better food quality. Different inherent properties of food samples affect the effectiveness of ultrasound application and optimum ultrasound parameters depend on the nature of the samples. The application of ultrasound to the food industry is more likely on certain types of food products and more efforts are still needed to realize the industrial translation of laboratory results.
Neuro-nutrients as anti-alzheimer's disease agents: A critical review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-06-21 Sunil K. Ravi, Ramesh B. Narasingappa, Bruno Vincent
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a massive neuronal death causing memory loss, cognitive impairment and behavioral alteration that ultimately lead to dementia and death. AD is a multi-factorial pathology controlled by molecular events such as oxidative stress, protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuro inflammation. Nowadays, there is no efficient disease-modifying treatment for AD and epidemiological studies have suggested that diet and nutrition have a significant impact on the development of this disorder. Indeed, some nutrients can protect all kind of cells, including neurons. As prevention is better than cure, life style improvement, with a special emphasis on diet, should seriously be considered as an anti-AD track and intake of nutrients promoting neuronal health is the need of the hour. Diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols and vitamins have been shown to protect against AD, whereas saturated fatty acids-containing diets deprived of polyphenols promote the development of the disease. Thus, Mediterranean diets, mainly composed of fruits, vegetables and omega-3 fatty acids, stand as valuable, mild and preventive anti-AD agents. This review focuses on our current knowledge in the field and how one can fight this devastating neurodegenerative disorder through the simple proper modification of our life style.
Materials Properties of Printable Edible Inks and Printing Parameters Optimization during 3D Printing: a review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Chunyan Feng, Min Zhang, Bhesh Bhandari
Background: Interest in additive manufacture has grown significantly in recent years, driving a need for printable materials that can sustain high strains and still fulfill their function in applications such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine field, food engineering and field of aerospace, etc. As an emerging and promising technology, 3Dprinting has attracted more and more attention with fast manipulation, reduce production cost, customize geometry, increase competitiveness and advantages in many hot research areas. Many researchers have done a lot of investigations on printable materials, ranging from a single material to composite material. Main content: This review focuses on the contents of printable edible inks. It also gathers and analyzes information on the effects of printable edible ink material properties on 3D print accuracy. In addition, it discusses the impact of printing parameters on accurate printing, and puts forward current challenges and recommendations for future research and development.
Sensory analysis and aroma compounds of buckwheat containing products—a review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.015) Pub Date : 2017-07-07 Małgorzata Starowicz, Georgios Koutsidis, Henryk Zieliński
Buckwheat is a rich source of starch, proteins, minerals and antioxidants, and as such has become a popular functional ingredient incorporated in diverse recipes/products with particular use in the gluten free market. Due to the absence of gluten, application of buckwheat or buckwheat derived ingredients in this particular food sector has increased significantly over recent years with many buckwheat-based products appearing globally.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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