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  • Heterologous and High Production of Ergothioneine in Escherichia coli
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-15
    Ryo Osawa, Tomoyuki Kamide, Yasuharu Satoh, Yusuke Kawano, Iwao Ohtsu, Tohru Dairi
    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Analysis of the pH Dependent Fe(III) Ion Chelating Activity of Anthocyanin Extracted from Black Soybean [Glycine max (L.)Merr.] Coats
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-15
    Yanli Xie, Xiaolu Zhu, Yuan Li, Cheng Wang

    The Fe(III) chelating activity of anthocyanin extracted from black soybean coats was investigated at pH 3.0, 5.0, 6.5, 7.0 and 7.4 with fluorescence spectroscopy and microscale thermophoresis (MST). Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) was determined to be 98% of the total anthocyanin by HPLC. The binding affinity (Ka) exhibited significant pH-dependent behavior; Ka was 9.7167, 1.0837, 1.4284, 5.4550 and 3.0269×104 M-1 at pH 3.0, 5.0, 6.5, 7.0 and 7.4, respectively (p<0.05). The MST data showed that ΔG<0 and ΔH<0, demonstrating that chelation is spontaneous and exothermic. Since both ΔH and ΔS<0, the chelation involves hydrogen bonds and/or van der Waals forces for pH 3.0, 5.0 and 6.5. Electrostatic interactions contributed to chelation at pH 7.0 and 7.4 with ΔH<0 and ΔS>0. By forming chelates, C3G improved the solubility of Fe(III) at pH 6.5, 7.0 and 7.4 to enhance the ferric ion bioavailability, excepting for aggregation was observed at pH 5.0.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Extracellular Enzyme Composition and Functional Characteristics of Aspergillus niger An-76 Induced by Food Processing Byproducts and Based on Integrated Functional-omics
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-15
    Lin Liu, Weili Gong, Xiaomeng Sun, Guanjun Chen, Lushan Wang

    Byproducts of food processing can be utilized for the production of high-value-added enzyme cocktails. In this study, we utilized integrated functional-omics technology to analyze composition and functional characteristics of extracellular enzymes produced by Aspergillus niger grown on food processing byproducts. The results showed that oligosaccharides constituted by arabinose, xylose, and glucose in wheat bran were able to efficiently induce the production of extracellular enzymes of A. niger. Compared with other substrates, wheat bran was more effective at inducing the secretion of β-glucosidases from GH1 and GH3 families, as well as >50% of proteases from A1-family aspartic proteases. Compared with proteins induced by single wheat bran or soybean dregs, the protein yield induced by their mixture was doubled, and the time required to reach peak enzyme activity was shortened by 25%. This study provided a technical platform for the complex formulation of various substrates and functional analysis of extracellular enzymes.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Development of yam dioscorin-loaded nanoparticles for paracellular transport across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Hung-Ling Hsieh, Chia-Hung Lee, Kuo-Chih Lin

    Dioscorins, the major storage proteins of yam tubers, exert immunomodulatory activities. To improve the oral bioavailability of dioscorins in the intestine, recombinant dioscorin (rDioscorin) was coated with trimethyl chitosan (TMC) and tripolyphosphate (TPP), resulting in the formation of TMC-rDio-TPP nanoparticles (NPs). The loading capacity and entrapment efficiency of rDioscorin in the NPs were 26+0.7% and 61+1.4%, respectively. The NPs demonstrated a substantial release profile in the pH environment of the jejunum. The rDioscorin released from the NPs stimulated proliferation and phagocytosis of the macrophage RAW264.7 and activated the gene expression of IL-1β and IL-6. Incubation of the NPs in the Caco-2 cell monolayer led to a 5.2-fold increase of Papp compared with rDioscorin alone, suggesting that rDioscorin, with the assistance of TMC, can be promptly transported across the intestinal epithelia. These results demonstrate that the TMC-rDio-TPP NPs can be utilized for elucidating the immunopharmacological effects of dioscorins through oral delivery.

    更新日期:2018-01-13
  • Urinary methyleugenol-deoxyadenosine adduct as potential biomarker of methyleugenol exposure in rats
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Yukun Feng, Saide Wang, Hui Wang, Ying Peng, Jiang Zheng

    Methyleugenol (ME), a natural ingredient of several herbs and spices used in the human diet, is hepatocarcinogenic in rodents. Following metabolic activation to reactive carbocation intermediate, ME can bind covalently to DNA, which is directly associated with its carcinogenicity. In this work, a non-invasive approach to determine ME exposure was established by monitoring urinary ME-dA adduct. The developed method entails liquid-liquid extraction enrichment of the urinary ME-dA, incorporation of deuterated ME-dA as internal standard, and analysis by liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Male rats (10-12 weeks, 180-200 g) were treated (p.o.) with ME, and ME-dA was excreted in urine in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The noninvasive approach enabled us to successfully determine exposure to ME-containing herbs and spices. These results suggest that ME-dA can potentially serve as an effective biomarker of ME exposure in rats. It is expected that the developed approach of detecting urinary ME-dA will facilitate the investigation of ME carcinogenesis.

    更新日期:2018-01-13
  • Metabolic analysis reveals altered long-chain fatty acid metabolism in the host by Huanglongbing disease
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Joon Hyuk Suh, Yue Niu, Zhibin Wang, Fred G. Gmitter Jr., Yu Wang

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is the presumed causal agent of Huanglongbing, one of the most destructive diseases in citrus. However, the lipid metabolism component of host response to this pathogen has not been investigated well. Here, metabolic profiling of a variety of long-chain fatty acids and their oxidation products was firstly performed to elucidate altered host metabolic responses of disease. Fatty acid signals were found to decrease obviously in response to disease regardless of cultivar. Several lipid oxidation products strongly correlated with those fatty acids were also consistently reduced in the diseased group. Using a series of statistical methods and metabolic pathway mapping, we found significant markers contributing to the pathological symptoms, and identified their internal relationships and metabolic network. Our findings suggest that the infection of CLas may cause the altered metabolism of long-chain fatty acids, possibly leading to manipulation of the host’s defense derived from fatty acids.

    更新日期:2018-01-13
  • Production of Antifungal p-Aminobenzoic Acid in Lysobacter antibioticus OH13
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Pedro Laborda, Yangyang Zhao, Jun Ling, Rongxian Hou, Fengquan Liu
    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Gama-aminobutyric Acid Enriched Rice Bran Diet Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Balances Energy Expenditure via Modification of Gut Microbiota and SCFAs
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Xu Si, Wenting Shang, Zhongkai Zhou, Guanghou Shui, Sin Man Lam, Christopher L. Blanchard, Padraig Strappe

    In this study, gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) enriched rice bran (ERB) was supplemented to obese rats to investigate the attenuation of metabolic syndromes induced by high-fat diet. ERB-containing diet stimulated butyrate and propionate production by promoting Anaerostipes, Anaerostipes sp. and associated synthesizing enzymes. This altered SCFA distribution further enhanced circulatory levels of leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1, controlling food intake by down-regulating orexigenic factors. Together with the enhanced fatty acid β-oxidation highlighted by Prkaa2, Ppara, Scd1 expression via AMPK signaling pathway and Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease pathway, energy expenditure was positively modulated. Serum lipid compositions showed ERB supplement exhibited a more efficient effect on lowering serum sphingolipids, which was closely associated with status of insulin resistance. Consistently, genes of Ppp2r3b and Prkcg, involved in the function of ceramides in blocking insulin action were also down-regulated following ERB intervention. Enriched GABA and phenolic acids were supposed to be responsible for the health-beneficial effects.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • One-step bioconversion of fatty acids into C8–C9 volatile aroma compounds by a multifunctional lipoxygenase cloned from Pyropia haitanensis
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Zhu-Jun Zhu, Hai-Min Chen, Juanjuan Chen, Rui Yang, Xiao-Jun Yan

    The multifunctional lipoxygenase PhLOX cloned from Pyropia haitanensis was expressed in E. coli with 24.4 mg•L−1 yield. PhLOX could catalyze the one-step bioconversion of C18–C22 fatty acids into C8–C9 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), displaying higher catalytic efficiency for eicosenoic and docosenoic acids than for octadecenoic acids. C20:5 was the most suitable substrate among the tested fatty acids. The C8–C9 VOCs were generated in good yields from fatty acids, e.g., 2E-nonenal from C20:4, and 2E,6Z-nonadienal from C20:5. Hydrolyzed oils were also tested as substrates. The reactions mainly generated 2E,4E-pentadienal, 2E-octenal, and 2E,4E-octadienal from hydrolyzed sunflower seed oil, corn oil, and fish oil, respectively. PhLOX showed good stability after storage at 4 °C for two weeks and broad tolerance to pH and temperature. These desirable properties of PhLOX make it a promising novel biocatalyst for the industrial production of volatile aroma compounds.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • 更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Bioaccumulation of CeO2 Nanoparticles by Earthworms in Biochar-Amended Soil: A Synchrotron Microspectroscopy Study
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Alia D. Servin, Hiram Castillo-Michel, Jose A. Hernandez-Viezcas, Wout De Nolf, Roberto De La Torre-Roche, Luca Pagano, Joseph Pignatello, Minori Uchimiya, Jorge Gardea-Torresdey, Jason C. White
    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Covalent immobilization of cellulase using magnetic poly(ionic liquid) support; improvement of the enzyme activity and stability
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Seyed Hassan Hosseini, Seyedeh Ameneh Hosseini, Nasrin Zohreh, Mahshid Yaghoubi, Ali Pourjavadi

    A magnetic nanocomposite was prepared by entrapment of Fe3O4 nanoparticles into the cross-linked ionic liquid/epoxy type polymer. The resulting support was used for covalent immobilization cellulase through the reaction with epoxy groups. The ionic surface of the support improved the adsorption of enzyme and a large amount of enzyme (106.1 mg/g) was loaded onto the support surface. The effect of the presence of ionic monomer and covalent binding of enzyme was also investigated. The structures of supports were characterized by various instruments such as FT-IR, TGA, VSM, XRD, TEM, SEM and DLS. The activity and stability of immobilized cellulase were investigated in the prepared supports. The results showed that the ionic surface and covalent binding of enzyme onto the support improved the activity, thermal stability and reusability of cellulase compared to free cellulase.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • HRMAS NMR and MRI spectroscopies distinguish metabolome and structural properties of maize seeds from plants treated with different fertilizers and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Pierluigi Mazzei, Vincenza Cozzolino, Alessandro Piccolo

    Both High-Resolution Magic-Angle-Spinning (HRMAS) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) NMR spectroscopies were applied here to identify the changes of metabolome, morphology and structural properties induced in seeds (caryopses) of maize plants grown at field level under either mineral or compost fertilization in combination with the inoculation by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF). The metabolome of intact caryopses was examined by HRMAS-NMR, while the morphological aspects, endosperm properties and seed water distribution were investigated by MRI. Principal Component Analysis was applied to evaluate 1H CPMG (Carr-Purcel-Meiboom-Gill) HRMAS spectra as well as several MRI-derived parameters (T1, T2 and self-diffusion coefficients) of intact maize caryopses. PCA score-plots from spectral results indicated that both seeds metabolome and structural properties depended on the specific field treatment undergone by maize plants. Our findings show that a combination of multivariate statistical analyses with advanced and non-destructive NMR techniques, such as HRMAS and MRI, enable the evaluation of the effects induced on maize caryopses by different fertilization and management practices at field level. The spectroscopic approach adopted here may become useful for the objective appraisal of the quality of seeds produced under a sustainable agriculture.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Different proteomic processes related to the cultivar-dependent cadmium accumulation of Amaranthus gangeticus
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Chun-Tao He, Yihui Zhou, Ying-Ying Huang, Hui-Ling Fu, Xue-Song Wang, Fei-Yue Gong, Xiao Tan, Zhongyi Yang

    Abstract: To deal with the Cd-contaminant of agricultural soil, pollution-safe cultivar (PSC) is developed to minimize Cd accumulation risk in crops. The present study aimed to investigate the different proteomic responses related to Cd accumulation in different tissue between two Amaranthus gangeticus cultivars, Pen and Nan. Significant higher Cd accumulation in Pen than in Nan was unraveled, especially in shoot. The proportions of soluble Cd in root and stem of Nan were significantly lower than those of Pen, implying lower Cd transportation from root to shoot in Nan. Higher contents of NaCl-extracted Cd in Pen than in Nan were probably attributed to the enhancement of GSH related metabolism in Pen, which activated the transportation of Cd from root to shoot. Alteration of other proteins involved in Cd detoxification also demonstrated that Pen had exhibited stronger tolerance than Nan in dealing with Cd stress. Thus, differences in the proteomic processes associated with biochemical differences between the two typical cultivars suggested a cultivar-dependent capacity of Cd tolerance and accumulation in amaranth for the first time.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Microbial biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles in different culture media
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Ke Luo, Samuel Jung, Kyu-Hwan Park, Young-Rok Kim

    Microbial biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles has been extensively studied for the applications in biomedical sciences and engineering. However, the mechanism for their synthesis through microorganism is not completely understood. In this study, several culture media were investigated for their roles in the microbial biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The size and morphology of the synthesized AgNPs were analyzed by UV–Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, TEM, and DLS. The results demonstrated that nutrient broth (NB) and Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) among tested media effectively reduced silver ions to form AgNPs with different particle size and shape. Although the involved microorganism enhanced the reduction of silver ions, the size and shape of the particles were shown to mainly depend on the culture media. Our findings suggest that the growth media of bacterial culture play an important role in the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles with regard to their size and shape. We believe our findings would provide useful information for further exploration of microbial biosynthesis of AgNPs and their biomedical applications.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Rhubarb supplementation promotes intestinal mucosal innate immune homeostasis through modulating intestinal epithelial microbiota in goat kids
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Jinzhen Jiao, Jian Wu, Min Wang, Chuanshe Zhou, Rong-Zhen Zhong, Zhi-Liang Tan

    The abuse and misuse of antibiotics in livestock production pose a potential health risk globally. Rhubarb can serve as a potential alternative to antibiotics, and several studies have looked into its anti-cancer, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to test the effects of rhubarb supplementation to the diet of young ruminants on innate immune function and epithelial microbiota in the small intestine. Goat kids were fed with a control diet supplemented with or without rhubarb (1.25% DM), and were slaughtered at d 50 and 60 of age. Results showed that the supplementation of rhubarb increased ileal villus height (P = 0.036), increased jejujal and ileal anti-inflammatory IL-10 production (P < 0.05), increased jejunal and ileal Claudin-1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.05), and decreased ileal pro-inflammatory IL-1β production (P < 0.05). These changes in innate immune function were accompanied by shifts in ileal epithelial bacterial ecosystem in favor of Blautia, Clostridium, Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas, and with a decline in the relative abundance of Staphylococcus (P < 0.001) when rhubarb was supplemented. Additionally, age also affected (P < 0.05) crypt depth, cytokine production, Claudin-1 expression and relative abundances of specific genera in epithelial bacteria. Collectively, the supplementation of rhubarb could enhance host mucosal innate immune homeostasis by modulating intestinal epithelial microbiota during early stages of animal development.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Akt Serine/Threonine Kinase 1 Regulates De Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis through mTOR/SREBP1 Axis in Dairy Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Tianying Zhang, Jiangtao Huang, Yongqing Yi, Xueying Zhang, Juan J. Loor, Yanhong Cao, Huaiping Shi, Jun Luo

    Akt serine/threonine kinase acts as a central mediator in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, regulating a series of biological processes. In lipid metabolism, Akt activation regulates a series of gene expressions, including genes related to intracellular fatty acid synthesis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of Akt in dairy goat mammary lipid metabolism have not been elaborated. In this study, the coding sequences of goat Akt1 gene were cloned and analyzed. Gene expression of Akt1 in different lactation stages was also investigated. For In vitro studies, a eukaryotic expression vector of Akt1 was constructed and transfected to goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs), and specific inhibitors of Akt/mTOR signaling were applied to GMECs. Results showed that Akt1 protein was highly conserved, and its mRNA was highly expressed in mid-lactation. In vitro studies indicated that Akt1 phosphorylation activated mTOR and subsequently enhanced sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), thus increased intracellular triacylglycerol content. Inhibition of Akt/mTOR signaling down-regulated the gene expression of lipogenic genes. Overall, Akt1 plays an important role in regulating de novo fatty acid synthesis in goat mammary epithelial cells, and this process may probably be through mTOR/SREBP1 axis.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • IgY reduces AFB1-induced cytotoxicity, cellular dysfunction, and genotoxicity in human L-02 hepatocytes and Swan 71 trophoblasts
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Taotao Qiu, Xing Shen, Zhen Tian, Riming Huang, Xiangmei Li, Juan Wang, Rong Wang, Yuanming Sun, Yiguo Jiang, Huidong Zhang, Hongtao Lei

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) causes hepatotoxic, genotoxic, and immuno¬toxic effects in a variety of species. Although various neutralizing agents of AFB1 toxicity have been studied, the egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) detoxification of small molecular toxins and the mechanisms underlying such effects have not yet been reported. In this investigation, anti-AFB1 IgY against AFB1 was successfully raised, and a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established with a sensitive half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50, 2.4 ng/mL) and dynamic working range (0.13–43.0 ng/mL). The anti-AFB1 IgY obtained reduced AFB1-induced cytotoxicity, cellular dysfunction, and genotoxicity by protecting cells against apoptotic body formation and DNA strand breaks, preventing G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, reducing AFB1-DNA adduct and ROS production, and maintaining cell migration and invasion and the mitochondrial membrane potential. Anti-AFB1 IgY significantly inhibited the AFB1-induced expression of proteins related to antioxidative, pro-apoptotic, and anti-apoptotic processes in a strong dose-dependent manner. These experiments demonstrated that the anti-AFB1 IgY-bound AFB1 could not enter cells. This is the first time that IgY has been found to reduce the effects of small molecular toxins, which will be beneficial for the development of antibodies as detoxication agents.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Liquid Chromatography High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry Identifies the Glycation Sites of Bovine Serum Albumin Induced by d-Ribose with Ultrasonic Treatment
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Nanhai Zhang, Zongcai Tu, Hui Wang, Guangxian Liu, Zhenxing Wang, Tao Huang, Xu Qin, Xing Xie, A’mei Wang
    更新日期:2018-01-11
  • Variability in Foliar Ellagitannins of Hippophaë rhamnoides L. and Identification of a New Ellagitannin, Hippophaenin C
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Jussi Suvanto, Petri Tähtinen, Saku Valkamaa, Marica T. Engström, Maarit Karonen, Juha-Pekka Salminen
    更新日期:2018-01-11
  • 更新日期:2018-01-11
  • Altered Serum Metabolite Profiling and Relevant Pathways Analysis in Rats Stimulated by Honeybee venom: A New Insight into Allergy to Honeybee Venom
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Yazhou Zhao, Jianmei Zhang, Yanping Chen, Zhiguo Li, Hongyi Nie, Wenjun Peng, Songkun Su

    To improve our understanding of the disturbed metabolic pathways and cellular responses triggered by honeybee venom stimulation, we compared the changes in serum metabolites rats, either stimulated or not by honeybee venom by performing 1H NMR spectrometry-based metabonomics to identify potential biomarkers. In this study, 65 metabolites were structurally confirmed and quantified and the following results were obtained. Firstly, by pattern recognition analysis, 14 metabolites were selected as potential biomarkers 3 hrs after venom stimulation. Secondly, metabolic pathway analysis showed that methane metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism were affected. Finally, the time-dependent metabolic modifications indicated that rats could recover without medical treatment 24 hrs after venom stimulation. In summary, this new insight into the changes in serum metabolites in rats after honeybee venom stimulation has enhanced our understanding of the organism’s response to honeybee venom.

    更新日期:2018-01-11
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  • 更新日期:2018-01-11
  • Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Disease: A Condensed Review of Epidemiological Evidence and Mechanisms
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Esther López-García
    更新日期:2018-01-11
  • In Vitro Digestibility of Rapeseed and Bovine Whey Protein Mixtures
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Marcel Skejovic Joehnke, Alina Rehder, Susanne Sørensen, Charlotte Bjergegaard, Jens Christian Sørensen, Keld Ejdrup Markedal
    更新日期:2018-01-11
  • 更新日期:2018-01-11
  • 更新日期:2018-01-10
  • 更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Neuroprotective Effect of Hydroxytyrosol in Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy: Relationship with Cardiovascular Biomarkers
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    José Antonio González-Correa, María Dolores Rodríguez-Pérez, Lucía Márquez-Estrada, Juan Antonio López-Villodres, José Julio Reyes, Guillermo Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Juan Fernández-Bolaños, José Pedro De La Cruz
    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Induced high-yield production of zeaxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene by a mutant of Chlorella zofingiensis
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Weiping Huang, Yan Lin, Mingxia He, Yuhao Gong, Junchao Huang

    Natural resources of zeaxanthin are extremely limited. A Chlorella zofingiensis mutant (CZ-bkt1), which could accumulate high amounts of zeaxanthin, was generated and characterized. CZ-bkt1 was achieved by treating the algal cells with a chemical mutagen followed by a colour-based colony screening approach. CZ-bkt1 was found to consist of a dysfunctional carotenoid ketolase, leading to the accumulation of zeaxanthin rather than its downstream ketocarotenoid astaxanthin. Light irradiation, glucose, NaCl, and nitrogen deficiency all induced CZ-bkt1 to accumulate zeaxanthin. CZ-bkt1 accumulated zeaxanthin up to 7.00±0.82 mg/g when induced by high light irradiation and nitrogen deficiency, and 36.79±2.23 mg/L by additional feeding with glucose. Furthermore, in addition to zeaxanthin, CZ-bkt1 also accumulated high amounts of β-carotene (7.18±0.72 mg/g or 34.64±1.39 mg/L) and lutein (13.81±1.23 mg/g or 33.97±2.61 mg/L). CZ-bkt1 is the sole species up to date with the ability to accumulate high amounts of the three carotenoids that are essential for human health.

    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Variable Temperature Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging System as a Novel Technique for In Situ Monitoring of Food Phase Transition
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
    Yukun Song, Shasha Cheng, Huihui Wang, Bei-Wei Zhu, Dayong Zhou, Peiqiang Yang, Mingqian Tan
    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Utilization of a genome-edited tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) with high gamma aminobutyric acid content in hybrid breeding
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
    Jeongeun Lee, Satoko Nonaka, Mariko Takayama, Hiroshi Ezura

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is non-proteogenic amino acid with health-promoting functions. Although tomato fruits have a relatively high GABA content compared with other crops, levels must be further increased to effectively confer the health-promoting functions. In this study, we evaluated the potential of the genome-edited tomato as a breeding material for producing high-GABA hybrid tomatoes. Hybrid lines were produced by crossing the genome-edited tomato with a pure line tomato cultivar, ‘Aichi First’, and were evaluated for GABA accumulation and other fruit traits. The hybrid lines showed high GABA accumulation in the fruits, which was sufficiently high for expecting health-promoting functions and had minimal effects on other fruit traits, suggesting that the high GABA is a dominant trait and that the genome-edited tomato would be useful as a parental line of hybrid cultivars. These results also indicate that genome editing technology is useful for the rapid breeding of high-GABA hybrid tomato cultivars.

    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Analysis of the Effects of δ-Tocopherol (δ-TOH) on RAW264.7 and K562 Cells Based on 1H-NMR Metabonomics
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
    Yang Lu, Hui Li, Yue Geng

    δ-Tocopherol (δ-TOH) is a form of vitamin E with higher bioactivity. In this study, we studied the bioactivity of δ-TOH using the IC50 of δ-TOH on RAW264.7 (80 μM) and K562 (110 μM) cells. We compared the differential metabolites from the cell lines with and without δ-TOH treatment by 1H-NMR metabonomics analysis. It was found that δ-TOH affected the protein biosynthesis, betaine metabolism, and urea cycle in various ways in both cell lines. Metabolic levels of the cell lines were changed after treatment with δ-TOH as differential metabolites were produced. The betaine level in RAW264.7 cells was reduced significantly while the L-lactic acid level in K562 cells was significantly enhanced. The metabolic changes might contribute to the switch of the respiration pattern from aerobic respiration to anaerobic respiration in K562 cell. These results are helpful in a further understanding of the sub-toxicity of δ-TOH.

    更新日期:2018-01-09
  • Grape berry acclimation to excessive solar irradiance leads to repartitioning between major flavonoid groups
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
    Noam Reshef, Nurit Agam, Aaron Fait

    Warm viticulture regions are associated with inferior wines, resulting from the interaction between microclimate and fruit biochemistry. Solar irradiance triggers biosynthetic processes in the fruit, and dominates its thermal balance. Therefore, deciphering its impact on fruit metabolism is pivotal to develop strategies for fruit protection, and ameliorate its quality traits. Here, we modified light quality and intensity in the fruit-zone and integrated micrometeorology with grape and wine metabolomics, allowing a complete assessment, from field to bottle. We analyzed the dynamics of fruit's adaptation to altered conditions during ripening, and constructed temporal-based metabolic networks. Micrometeorological modifications shifted the balance between the major flavonoids, associating increased solar exposure with lower levels of anthocyanins and flavna-3-ols, and higher flavonols. Differences were fixed from two weeks post-veraison until harvest, suggesting a controlled acclimation response rather than external modulation. Differences in grape composition manifested in the wine, and resulted in higher color intensity and improved wine hue, under partial shading.

    更新日期:2018-01-09
  • Flavor and Acceptance of Roasted California Almonds During Accelerated Storage
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
    Lillian May Franklin, Ellena S King, Dawn Chapman, Nadia K. Byrnes, Alyson Elayne Mitchell

    Monitoring oxidative flavor changes in almonds is only possible if the chemical and sensory profile during roasting and storage is first established. Herein almonds roasted at two different temperatures (115 and 152 °C) were stored at 39 °C for 0 to 12 months and were analyzed by Headspace Solid-phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS), descriptive analysis and consumer hedonic analysis. Volatile profiles, descriptive sensory profiles and consumer hedonic scores were analyzed for predictive relationships. Descriptive attributes involving Roasted and Nutty, as well as consumer liking were highest in fresh almonds, while flavors typically associated with oxidative rancidity such as Cardboard, Painty/Solvent, Soapy, and Total Oxidized increased during storage. Compounds most important for predicting rancidity-related attributes were lipid oxidation products, including pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, and octanal. Consumer liking was best predicted by similar compounds to those predicting Clean Nutty flavor, including Maillard reaction products, such as 2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylpyrazine and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine.

    更新日期:2018-01-09
  • Identification of Metabolism and Excretion Differences of Procymidone between Rats and Humans Using Chimeric Mice: Implications for Differential Developmental Toxicity
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
    Jun Abe, Yoshitaka Tomigahara, Hirokazu Tarui, Rie Omori, Satoshi Kawamura

    A metabolite of procymidone, Hydroxylated-PCM, causes rat-specific developmental toxicity due to higher exposure to it in rats than in rabbits or monkeys. When procymidone was administered to chimeric mice with rat or human hepatocytes, the plasma level of Hydroxylated-PCM was higher than that of procymidone in rat chimeric mice, and the metabolic profile of procymidone in intact rats was well reproduced in rat chimeric mice. In human chimeric mice, the plasma level of Hydroxylated-PCM was less, resulting in a much lower exposure. The main excretion route of Hydroxylated-PCM-glucuronide was bile (the point that Hydroxylated-PCM enters the enterohepatic circulation) in rat chimeric mice, and urine in human chimeric mice. These data suggest that humans, in contrast to rats, extensively form the glucuronide and excrete it in urine, as do rabbits and monkeys. Overall, procymidone’s potential for causing teratogenicity in humans must be low compared to that in rats.

    更新日期:2018-01-09
  • Condensed tannins from longan bark as inhibitor of tyrosinase: structure, activity, and mechanism
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
    Qian Huang, Mei-Zhen Lin, Wei Ming Chai, Chong Ou-Yang, Wen-Yang Huang, Ying-Xia Wang, Kai-Li Xu, Hui-Ling Feng

    In this study, the content, structure, anti-tyrosinase activity and mechanism of longan bark condensed tannins were evaluated. The findings obtained from mass spectrometry demonstrated that longan bark condensed tannins were mixtures of procyanidins, propelargonidins, prodelphinidins, and their acyl derivatives (galloyl and p-hydroxybenzoate). The enzyme analysis indicated that these mixtures were efficient, reversible, and mixed (competitive is dominant) inhibitor of tyrosinase. What’s more, the mixtures showed good inhibitions on proliferation, intracellular enzyme activity and melanogenesis of mouse melanoma cells (B16 ). From molecular docking, the results showed the interactions between inhibitors and tyrosinase were driven by hydrogen bond, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, high levels of total phenolic and extractable condensed tannins suggested that longan bark might be a good source of tyrosinase inhibitor. This study would offer theoretical basis for the development of longan bark condensed tannins as novel food preservative and medicine of skin diseases.

    更新日期:2018-01-09
  • Simulated Digestion and Fermentation in vitro by Human Gut Microbiota of Polysaccharides from Bee Collected Pollen of Chinese Wolfberry
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
    Wangting Zhou, Yamei Yan, Jia Mi, hongcheng zhang, Lu Lu, Qing Luo, Xiaoying Li, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Youlong Cao

    Digestion and fermentation in vitro of polysaccharides from bee collected pollen of Chinese wolfberry (WBPPS) were investigated in the present study. It was found that WBPPS was mainly consisted of mannose, ribose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 0.38: 0.09: 0.17: 0.64: 0.22: 0.67: 0.08: 1.03, respectively. WBPPS was not affected by human saliva. The fraction A (molecular weight 1340 kDa) of WBPPS was not broken down in simulated gastric and small intestinal juices, while the small fraction B (molecular weight 523 kDa) of WBPPS was degraded. Moreover, fermentation in vitro revealed that WBPPS could significantly enhance the production of short-chain fatty acids and modulate gut microbiota composition, via increasing the relative abundances of genera Prevotella, Dialister, Megamonas, Faecalibacterium, Alloprevotella and decreasing the numbers of genera Bacteroides, Clostridium XlVa, Parabacteroides, Escherichia/Shigella, Phascolarctobacterium, Parasutterella, Clostridium sensu stricto and Fusobacterium.

    更新日期:2018-01-09
  • Efficient biosynthesis of natural yellow pigments by Monascus purpureus in a novel integrated fermentation system
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
    Jun Lv, Gao-Fei Qian, Lei Chen, Huan Liu, Hai-Xiao Xu, Gan-Rong Xu, Bo-Bo Zhang, Chan Zhang

    Due to the increasing demand for healthy and safe food, Monascus spp. have gained much attention as a sustainable source of natural food colorant. In this study, a novel integrated fermentation system consisting of surfactant and in situ extractant was established for efficiently producing yellow pigments by M. purpureus sjs-6. The maximum production of Monascus yellow pigment (669.2 U/mL) was obtained when 40% soybean oil (as extractant) was supplied at the beginning and 5 g/L Span-80 (as surfactant) was supplied at the 72th h, resulting in production 27.8 times of that of the control. Critical factors such as alleviating the product inhibition, increasing the membrane permeability, changing the hyphal morphology and influencing the cell activity have been suggested as the underlying mechanisms. This system is of great significance for the bioprocess which suffered product inhibition and it can serve as a promising step for enhancing the yield of hydrophobic metabolites.

    更新日期:2018-01-09
  • Overexpression of the Anthocyanidin Synthase Gene in Strawberry Enhances Antioxidant Capacity and Cytotoxic Effects on Human Hepatic Cancer Cells
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    Francesca Giampieri, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Tamara Y. Forbes-Hernandez, Luca Mazzoni, Franco Capocasa, Silvia Sabbadini, Josè M. Alvarez-Suarez, Sadia Afrin, Carlo Rosati, Tiziana Pandolfini, Barbara Molesini, José F. Sánchez-Sevilla, Iraida Amaya, Bruno Mezzetti, Maurizio Battino
    更新日期:2018-01-09
  • Yeast β-Glucan Suppresses the Chronic Inflammation and Improves the Microenvironment in Adipose Tissues of ob/ob Mice
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    Yan Cao, Ying Sun, Siwei Zou, Bingchao Duan, Mengying Sun, Xiaojuan Xu
    更新日期:2018-01-09
  • 更新日期:2018-01-08
  • Comparison of Adaptive Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Sulforaphane and its Interconversion Product Erucin in in Vitro and in Vivo Models of Parkinson’s Disease
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-07
    Fabiana Morroni, Giulia Sita, Alice Djemil, Massimo D'Amico, Letizia Pruccoli, Giorgio Forti, Patrizia Hrelia, Andrea Tarozzi

    Several studies suggest that an increase of glutathione (GSH) through activation of the transcriptional nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) in the dopaminergic neurons may be a promising neuroprotective strategy in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Among Nrf2 activators, isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SFN), derived from precursor glucosinolate present in Brassica vegetables, has gained attention as a potential neuroprotective compound. Bioavailability studies also suggest the contribution of SFN metabolites, including erucin (ERN), to the neuroprotective effects of SFN. Therefore, we compared the in vitro neuroprotective effects of SFN and ERN at the same dose level (5 µM) and oxidative treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in SH-SY5Y cells. The pre-treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with SFN recorded a higher (p<0.05) active nuclear Nrf2 protein (12.0±0.4 vs. 8.0±0.2 fold increase), mRNA Nrf2 (2.0±0.3 vs. 1.4±0.1 fold increase), total GSH (384.0±9.0 vs. 256.0±8.0 µM) levels and resistance to neuronal apoptosis elicited by 6-OHDA compared to ERN. By contrast, the simultaneous treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with either SFN or ERN and 6-OHDA recorded similar neuroprotective effects with both the isothiocyanates (Nrf2 protein 2.2±0.2 vs. 2.1±0.1 and mRNA Nrf2 2.1±0.3 vs. 1.9±0.2 fold increase; total GSH 384.0±4.8 vs. 352.0±6.4 µM). Finally, in vitro finding was confirmed in a 6-OHDA-PD mouse model. The metabolic oxidation of ERN to SFN could account for their similar neuroprotective effects in vivo, raising the possibility of using vegetables containing a precursor of ERN for systemic antioxidant benefits in a similar manner to SFN.

    更新日期:2018-01-07
  • Immunomodulatory activity of docosahexenoic acid on RAW264.7 cells activa-tion through GPR120-mediated signaling pathway
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-07
    Lirong Han, Jun Yu, Yuanyuan Chen, Dai Cheng, Xu Wang, Chunling Wang

    In this study, we elucidated the immunomodulatory activity of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on protein expression in RAW264.7 cells and its molecular mechanism. The results showed that the proliferation index of RAW264.7 cells at 48 hours was about 173.03±7.82% after the treatment of 2.4 μM DHA. DHA could activate RAW264.7 cells by the G-protein coupled cell membrane receptor GPR120- C-Raf- Mito-gen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) - nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 pathway. In addition, 2.4 μM of DHA could significantly increase (P<0.01) the mRNA and protein expression of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS), which is consistent with the result of the NO release. ELISA results revealed that DHA could enhance the protein expression of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-γ and TGF-β. These results indicated that the immunomodulatory mechanism of RAW264.7 cells by DHA was associated with the release of NO and cytokines by stimulating the GPR120, C-Raf and MAPKs to NF-κB p65 pathway.

    更新日期:2018-01-07
  • Rice Bioactive Peptide Binding with TLR4 To Overcome H2O2-Induced Injury in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells through NF-κB Signaling
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Ying Liang, Qinlu Lin, Ping Huang, Yuqian Wang, Jiajia Li, Lin Zhang, Jianzhong Cao
    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Nanosensing of Pesticides by Zinc Oxide Quantum Dot: An Optical and Electrochemical Approach for the Detection of Pesticides in Water
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Dibakar Sahoo, Abhishek Mandal, Tapas Mitra, Kaushik Chakraborty, Munmun Bardhan, Anjan Kumar Dasgupta
    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Modulation of the Fecal Microbiota in Sprague-Dawley Rats Using Genetically Modified and Isogenic Corn Lines
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Penggao Li, Chun Yang, Rong Yue, Yaping Zhen, Qin Zhuo, Jianhua Piao, Xiaoguang Yang, Rong Xiao
    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Difference in Binding of Long- and Medium- Chain Fatty Acids with Serum Albumin: the Role of Macromolecular Crowding Effect
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Tian-Tian Zhu, Yan Zhang, Xing-An Luo, Shen-Zhi Wang, Ming-Qiang Jia, Zhongxiu Chen

    Fatty acids (FAs) are transported by serum albumin in plasma. Studies have been undertaken to address the binding of MCFAs or LCFAs to human plasma albumin (HPA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) by characterizing the binding affinities. Previous research on FA binding to serum albumin was usually performed in dilute solutions that are not sufficiently concentrated for interpretation the significance of the results under normal physiological conditions. How macromolecular crowded media affect fatty acids and bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding remains unknown. In this paper, we investigated the mechanism of FA-BSA binding in a polyethylene glycol crowding environment by using thermodynamic and spectroscopic methods. Molecular crowding increased the binding constant for saturated medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) but significantly decreased the binding constant for unsaturated long-chain FAs. The binding sites tended to increase in all the cases. Further investigation revealed that crowding media might loosen the structure of BSA, facilitating MCFA-BSA binding. This research is useful for understanding the transportation of FAs by BSA under physiological conditions and may also help to control digestion by the eventual incorporation of macromolecular crowding agents into food formulations.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Comparative Analysis of Small-Molecule Diffusivity in Different Fat Crystal Network
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Xiuhang Chai, Zong Meng, Peirang Cao, Jiang Jiang, Yuanfa Liu

    Oil migration and fat recrystallization in fat-structured food materials can result in significant deterioration in food quality. Consequently, it is important to monitor and quantify the diffusivities of the migrants in fat crystal network. The diffusion coefficients of Nile red dye in liquid oils through fully hydrogenated palm kernel oil (FHPKO) / triolein (OOO) and fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSO) / triolein (OOO) systems were evaluated by the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) method. The effective diffusion coefficients (Deff) and mobile fraction (Mf) increased with the decrease of solid fat contents (SFC), with the changes of microstructure from more densely to slightly larger packed clusters for both FHPKO/OOO and FHSO/OOO systems. In addition, microstructural parameters of these systems were estimated by the image analysis. The results showed that the diffusion of dye and liquid oil was affected by the microstructure. The higher Deff was associated with lower fractal dimensions, lager crystal thickness, and larger average particle sizes. Finally, higher-permeability coefficients were calculated according to the Darcy’s Law and it was significantly correlated to the Deff.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • The Chemical Reaction of Glutathione and trans-2-Hexenal in Grape Juice Media to Form Wine Aroma Precursors: The Impact of pH, Temperature, and Sulfur Dioxide
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Andrew C. Clark, Rebecca C. Deed

    The aldehyde 3-S-glutathionylhexanal is an intermediate which is produced during the formation of the wine aroma precursor 3-S-glutathionylhexanol, after the reaction of glutathione with trans-2-hexenal. This study was conducted to assess whether the chemical, as opposed to the enzymatic, production of 3-S-glutathionylhexanal could occur at a significant rate in grape juice. LC-MS/MS was used in low- and high-resolution modes, in combination with functional group derivatization, to identify and quantitate products. In comparison to cysteine, glutathione was found to induce less cyclized products on reaction with trans-2-alkenals and be more reactive to hydrogen sulfite. The zero-order rates for 3-S-glutathionylhexanal formation in model grape juice were 1.08±0.08 and 0.45±0.05 mg/(L.day) glutathione equivalents at 25 and 13 °C, respectively, and the reaction rate increased 3-fold by increasing the pH from 3.2 to 3.8. 3-S-Glutathionylhexanal was detected in all five white grape juices examined. The concentration of the aldehyde could be increased by up to 10-fold after being released from hydrogen sulfite, demonstrating a potentially novel source for the production of varietal thiol aroma compounds in wine.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Tunable d-limonene permeability in starch-based nanocomposite films reinforced by cellulose nanocrystals
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Siyuan Liu, Xiaoxi Li, Ling Chen, Lin Li, Bing Li, Jie Zhu

    In order to control d-limonene permeability, the cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were used to regulate starch-based film multi-scale structures. The effect of sphere-like cellulose nanocrystal (CS) and rod-like cellulose nanocrystal (CR) on starch molecular interaction, short-range molecular conformation, crystalline structure and micro-ordered aggregated region structure were systematically discussed. CNC aspect ratio and content were proved to be independent variables to control d-limonene permeability via film structures regulation. New hydrogen bonding formation and increased hydroxypropyl starch (HPS) relative crystallinity could be the reason for the lower d-limonene permeability compared with tortuous path model approximation. More hydrogen bonding formation, higher HPS relative crystallinity and larger size of micro-ordered aggregated region in CS0.5 and CR2 could explain the lower d-limonene permeability than CS2 and CR0.5, respectively. This study provided a new sight for the control of the flavor release from starch-based films which favored its application in biodegradable food packaging and flavor encapsulation.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Isolation, Structural Elucidation, and Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Steroidal Glycosides from Polygonatum odoratum
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Qingbo Liu, Wei Li, Kazuya Nagata, Hongwei Fu, Shunpei Okada, Ikumi Tanabe, Yumi Kobori, Koji Higai, Wada Norie, Tatsunori Sasaki, Yoshihisa Asada, Huanxin Zhao, Hong Bai, Kazuo Koike
    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Emerging Chitosan-Based Films for Food Packaging Applications
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Hongxia Wang, Jun Qian, Fuyuan Ding
    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Preparation of an environmentally friendly formulation of the insecticide nicotine hydrochloride through encapsulation in chitosan/tripolyphosphate nanoparticles
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Ying Yang, Jiagao Cheng, Vasil M Garamus, Na Li, aihua Zou

    Insecticide nicotine hydrochloride (NCT) was formulated as nanoparticles composed of chitosan (CS) and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) to undermine its adverse impacts on human health and reinforce its physicochemical stability. The study investigated the preparation and characterization of chitosan /tripolyphosphate nanoparticles (CS/TPP NPs) with good encapsulation efficiency (55%), uniform morphology, physicochemical stability (45d) through dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements. A bioassay against Musca domestica NCT CS/TPP NPs exhibited good bioactivity and thermal stability. The monovalent salt’s (NaCl) effect on manipulating the formation and size distribution of ionically cross-linked nanoparticles was demonstrated as well. The formulation of NCT CS/TPP NPs could be a utility candidate in public health and agriculture. Keywords: nicotine; chitosan; sodium tripolyphosphate; ionic gelification; monovalent salt effect; environmentally safe formulations

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • The retention of CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) on the root epidermis of woody plant and its implications by benzo[a]pyrene: Evidences from the in situ synchronous nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectra method
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Ruilong Li, Haifeng Sun, Shaopeng Wang, Yinghui Wang, Kefu Yu

    The retention of CdS/ZnS QDs on the epidermis has been confirmed to be one of core procedures during root uptake process. However, the retention mechanisms of QDs on the epidermis of woody plant were poorly understood for lacking of appropriate QDs quantitative method. In this study, a novel method for in situ determination of CdS/ZnS QDs retained on the root epidermis was established using synchronous nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. No correlations between Kf values of Oleylamine-CdS/ZnS QDs retained on the epidermal tissues and the surface/bulk composition of mangrove root were observed (p> 0.05) due to the existence of endocytosis mechanisms during the QDs uptake processes. Moreover, the difference of the CdS/ZnS QDs in water and further translocated to xylem/phloem of root rather than the combination with cell wall/membranes were the predominant reason that caused the Kf values follow the sequence of PEG-COOH-CdS/ZnS QDs < PEG-NH2-CdS/ZnS QDs << Oleylamine-CdS/ZnS QDs.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Characterization of the structural and colloidal properties of α-lactalbumin/chitosan complexes as a function of heating
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Quanyang Li, zhengtao zhao

    This research investigated the interaction between α-lactalbumin (α-la) and chitosan at different temperatures. Chitosan was added to α-la solution (5 g L-1) to achieve different α-la/chitosan ratios: 8:1, 5:1 and 2:1, which were then subjected to different heating temperatures (20, 70 and 90 oC). The results indicated that low amount of chitosan (8:1) precipitated α-la molecules. Increasing chitosan to ratio of 5:1 resulted in exposure of the internal structure of α-la, and those formed complexes had high turbidity and average size which were decreased by increasing temperature. Further increase of chitosan to ratio of 2:1 protected the internal structure of α-la molecules. All samples exhibited similar adsorption behavior at the air/water interface but the presence of chitosan significantly increased film elasticity. The produced complexes can be regarded as functional ingredients, which can be used as emulsifying agent and delivery material to control the release of bioactive compounds.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • An Efficient Strategy Based on Liquid-liquid Extraction with Three-phase Solvent System and High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography for Rapid Enrichment and Separation of Epimers of Minor Bufadienolide from Toad Meat
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Denglang Zou, Xuelin Zhu, Fan Zhang, Yurong Du, Jianbin Ma, Renwang Jiang

    This study presents an efficient strategy based on liquid-liquid extraction with three-phase solvent system and high speed counter-current chromatography for rapid enrichment and separation of epimers of minor bufadienolide from toad meat. The reflux extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology firstly and a novel three-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/methyl acetate/acetonitrile/water (3:6:5:5, v/v) was developed for liquid-liquid extraction of the crude extract. This integrative extraction process could enrich minor bufadienolide from complex matrix efficiently and minimize the loss of minor targets induced by repeated extraction with different kinds of organic solvent occurred in the classical liquid two-phase extraction. As a result, four epimers of minor bufadienolide were greatly enriched in the middle phase and total content of these epimers of minor bufadienolide was increased from 3.25 % to 46.23 %. Then, the enriched four epimers were separated by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of cholroform/methanol/water (4:2:2, v/v) successfully. Furthermore, we tested Na+, K+- ATPase inhibitory effect of the four epimers. 3β-isomers of bufadienolide showed stronger (>8-fold) inhibitory activity than 3α-isomers. The characterization of minor bufadienolide in toad meat and their significant difference of inhibitory effect on NKA would promote the further quantitative analysis and safety evaluation of toad meat as a food source.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Spermidine-Activated Satellite Cells Are Associated with Hypoacetylation in ACVR2B and Smad3 Binding to Myogenic Genes in Mice
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Luchu Zhang, Huiying Gong, Qinwei Sun, Ruqian Zhao, Yimin Jia
    更新日期:2018-01-04
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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