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  • Synchronization of coupled optical microresonators
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-10-08
    Jae K. Jang, Alexander Klenner, Xingchen Ji, Yoshitomo Okawachi, Michal Lipson, Alexander L. Gaeta

    The phenomenon of synchronization occurs universally across the natural sciences and provides critical insight into the behaviour of coupled nonlinear dynamical systems. It also offers a powerful approach to robust frequency or temporal locking in diverse applications including communications, superconductors and photonics. Here, we report the experimental synchronization of two coupled soliton mode-locked chip-based frequency combs separated over distances of 20 m. We show that such a system obeys the universal Kuramoto model for synchronization and that the cavity solitons from the microresonators can be coherently combined, which overcomes the fundamental power limit of microresonator-based combs. This study could significantly expand the applications of microresonator combs, and with its capability for massive integration it offers a chip-based photonic platform for exploring complex nonlinear systems.

    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • Linear frequency conversion via sudden merging of meta-atoms in time-variant metasurfaces
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-10-08
    Kanghee Lee, Jaehyeon Son, Jagang Park, Byungsoo Kang, Wonju Jeon, Fabian Rotermund, Bumki Min

    The energy of an electromagnetic wave is converted as the wave passes through a temporal boundary. Thus, effective temporal control of the medium is critical for frequency conversion. Here, we propose rapidly time-variant metasurfaces as a frequency-converting platform and experimentally demonstrate their efficacy at terahertz frequencies. The proposed metasurface is designed for the sudden merging of two distinct metallic meta-atoms into a single one upon ultrafast optical excitation. This sudden merging creates a spectrally designed temporal boundary on the metasurface, by which the frequency conversion can be achieved and engineered. Interestingly, the time delay between the abrupt temporal boundary and the input terahertz pulse is found to be strongly related to the phase of the converted wave as well as its amplitude. As the proposed scheme does not rely on the nonlinearity, it may be particularly advantageous for the frequency conversion of waves with weak intensities.

    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • Nanophotonic optical gyroscope with reciprocal sensitivity enhancement
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-10-08
    Parham P. Khial, Alexander D. White, Ali Hajimiri

    Nanophotonic optical gyroscope with reciprocal sensitivity enhancementNanophotonic optical gyroscope with reciprocal sensitivity enhancement, Published online: 08 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0266-5An integrated silicon photonic optical gyroscope achieves two orders of magnitude size reduction and a factor of thirty better phase-shift sensitivity using reciprocal sensitivity enhancement.

    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • Anion-exchange red perovskite quantum dots with ammonium iodine salts for highly efficient light-emitting devices
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-10-01
    Takayuki Chiba, Yukihiro Hayashi, Hinako Ebe, Keigo Hoshi, Jun Sato, Shugo Sato, Yong-Jin Pu, Satoru Ohisa, Junji Kido

    Perovskite quantum dots have significant potential for light-emitting devices because of their high colour purity and colour tunability in the visible spectrum. Here, we report highly efficient red perovskite quantum dot-based light-emitting devices. The quantum dots were fabricated by anion exchange from pristine CsPbBr3 using halide-anion-containing alkyl ammonium and aryl ammonium salts. Anion-exchange quantum dots based on ammonium iodine salts exhibited a strong redshift from green emission to a deep-red emission at 649 nm as well as higher photoluminescence quantum yields. Furthermore, the quantum dot-based light-emitting device with the alkyl ammonium iodine salt exhibited an external quantum efficiency of 21.3% and high colour purity, with Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage coordinates of (0.72, 0.28), while the light-emitting device with the aryl ammonium iodine salt showed an external quantum efficiency of 14.1%. Finally, the operational stability of the latter was 36 times higher because the surface ligand density of the corresponding quantum dots was lower.

    更新日期:2018-10-02
  • Spatial multiplexing of soliton microcombs
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-10-01
    E. Lucas, G. Lihachev, R. Bouchand, N. G. Pavlov, A. S. Raja, M. Karpov, M. L. Gorodetsky, T. J. Kippenberg

    Dual-comb interferometry utilizes two optical frequency combs to map the optical field’s spectrum to a radio-frequency signal without using moving parts, allowing improved speed and accuracy. However, the method is compounded by the complexity and demanding stability associated with operating multiple laser frequency combs. To overcome these challenges, we demonstrate simultaneous generation of multiple frequency combs from a single optical microresonator and a single continuous-wave laser. Similar to space-division multiplexing, we generate several dissipative Kerr soliton states—circulating solitonic pulses driven by a continuous-wave laser—in different spatial (or polarization) modes of a MgF2 microresonator. Up to three distinct combs are produced simultaneously, featuring excellent mutual coherence and substantial repetition rate differences, useful for fast acquisition and efficient rejection of soliton intermodulation products. Dual-comb spectroscopy with amplitude and phase retrieval, as well as optical sampling of a breathing soliton, is realized with the free-running system. Compatibility with photonic-integrated resonators could enable the deployment of dual- and triple-comb-based methods to applications where they remained impractical with current technology.

    更新日期:2018-10-02
  • Non-reciprocal modulation via acousto-optics
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-09-27
    Alexander Yu. Petrov

    Non-reciprocal modulation via acousto-opticsNon-reciprocal modulation via acousto-optics, Published online: 27 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0264-7An acoustic wave can induce non-reciprocal light modulation in a silicon waveguide. Now, the acoustic wave has been induced optically in a neighbouring silicon waveguide, opening the way for a silicon-based optical isolator.

    更新日期:2018-09-28
  • Visible to THz
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-09-27
    David F. P. Pile

    Visible to THzVisible to THz, Published online: 27 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0271-8Visible to THz

    更新日期:2018-09-28
  • Interband cascade laser
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-09-27
    Oliver Graydon

    Interband cascade laserInterband cascade laser, Published online: 27 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0274-5Interband cascade laser

    更新日期:2018-09-28
  • A new dimension for nonlinear photonic crystals
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-09-27
    Shay Keren-Zur, Tal Ellenbogen

    A new dimension for nonlinear photonic crystalsA new dimension for nonlinear photonic crystals, Published online: 27 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0262-9The first three-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals have been constructed thanks to the use of femtosecond laser writing in quadratic nonlinear materials.

    更新日期:2018-09-28
  • Intelligent learning with light
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-09-27
    Rachel Won

    Intelligent learning with lightIntelligent learning with light, Published online: 27 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0265-6Artificial intelligence looks poised to drive the development of software and hardware platforms in the coming decades. In photonics, it is already proving invaluable and is having an impact in the areas of imaging, sensing and communications.

    更新日期:2018-09-28
  • Watching plasma birth
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-09-27
    Noriaki Horiuchi

    Watching plasma birthWatching plasma birth, Published online: 27 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0272-7Watching plasma birth

    更新日期:2018-09-28
  • Fabric optoelectronics
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-09-27
    Noriaki Horiuchi

    Fabric optoelectronicsFabric optoelectronics, Published online: 27 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0268-3Fabric optoelectronics

    更新日期:2018-09-28
  • On our bookshelf
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-09-27
    Rachel Won

    On our bookshelfOn our bookshelf, Published online: 27 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0263-8On our bookshelf

    更新日期:2018-09-28
  • Silicon–plasmonic integrated circuits for terahertz signal generation and coherent detection
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    T. Harter, S. Muehlbrandt, S. Ummethala, A. Schmid, S. Nellen, L. Hahn, W. Freude, C. Koos

    Optoelectronic signal processing offers great potential for generation and detection of ultra-broadband waveforms in the terahertz range (so-called T-waves). However, fabrication of the underlying devices still relies on complex processes using dedicated III–V semiconductor substrates. This severely restricts the application potential of current T-wave transmitters and receivers and impedes co-integration of these devices with advanced photonic signal processing circuits. Here, we demonstrate that these limitations can be overcome by plasmonic internal-photoemission detectors (PIPEDs). PIPEDs can be realized on the silicon photonic platform, which allows exploiting the enormous opportunities of the associated device portfolio. In our experiments, we demonstrate both T-wave signal generation and coherent detection at frequencies up to 1 THz. To prove the viability of our concept, we monolithically integrate PIPED transmitters and receivers on a common silicon chip and use them to measure the complex transfer impedance of an integrated T-wave device.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Silicon photonics targets terahertz region
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Guillaume Ducournau

    Silicon photonics targets terahertz regionSilicon photonics targets terahertz region, Published online: 24 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0242-0The achievement of plasmonic-enhanced silicon-based terahertz emitters and detectors brings hope for the realization of integrated circuits that bring together electronics, photonics and terahertz functions on a single chip.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Coherent extreme-ultraviolet emission generated through frustrated tunnelling ionization
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Hyeok Yun, Je Hoi Mun, Sung In Hwang, Seung Beom Park, Igor A. Ivanov, Chang Hee Nam, Kyung Taec Kim

    Coherent extreme-ultraviolet emission can be obtained through high-harmonic generation and multiphoton excitation from atoms exposed to a strong laser field. We report the generation of a new kind of coherent extreme-ultraviolet emission from He atoms excited by intense few-cycle laser pulses. An atom can be excited after tunnelling in a strong laser field, in the process known as frustrated tunnelling ionization (FTI). We find that excitation through FTI leads to coherent extreme-ultraviolet emission, and its intensity strongly depends on the ellipticity and carrier-envelope phase of the laser pulses. Additionally, the propagation direction of the emission can be coherently controlled by employing the attosecond lighthouse technique. This coherent control of tunnelling and recombination dynamics, which has provided the fundamental basis of attosecond physics, promises the utilization of FTI emission as a coherent light source and offers new opportunities in ultrafast spectroscopy.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Non-reciprocal interband Brillouin modulation
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    Eric A. Kittlaus, Nils T. Otterstrom, Prashanta Kharel, Shai Gertler, Peter T. Rakich

    Non-reciprocal light propagation is essential to control optical crosstalk and back-scatter in photonic systems. However, realizing high-fidelity non-reciprocity in low-loss integrated photonic circuits remains challenging. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a form of non-local acousto-optic light scattering to produce non-reciprocal single-sideband modulation and mode conversion in an integrated silicon photonic platform. In this system, a travelling-wave acoustic phonon driven by optical forces in a silicon waveguide spatiotemporally modulates light in a separate waveguide through linear interband Brillouin scattering. This process extends narrowband optomechanics-based schemes for non-reciprocity to travelling-wave physics, enabling large operation bandwidths of more than 125 GHz and up to 38 dB of non-reciprocal contrast between forward- and backward-propagating optical waves. The modulator operation wavelength is tunable over a 35-nm range by varying the optical drive wavelength. Such travelling-wave acousto-optic interactions provide a promising path toward the realization of broadband, low-loss isolators and circulators within integrated photonics.

    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Author Correction: Gate-tunable third-order nonlinear optical response of massless Dirac fermions in graphene
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-09-07
    Tao Jiang, Di Huang, Jinluo Cheng, Xiaodong Fan, Zhihong Zhang, Yuwei Shan, Yangfan Yi, Yunyun Dai, Lei Shi, Kaihui Liu, Changgan Zeng, Jian Zi, J. E. Sipe, Yuen-Ron Shen, Wei-Tao Liu, Shiwei Wu

    Author Correction: Gate-tunable third-order nonlinear optical response of massless Dirac fermions in grapheneAuthor Correction: Gate-tunable third-order nonlinear optical response of massless Dirac fermions in graphene, Published online: 07 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0258-5Author Correction: Gate-tunable third-order nonlinear optical response of massless Dirac fermions in graphene

    更新日期:2018-09-09
  • Terahertz dynamics of electron–vibron coupling in single molecules with tunable electrostatic potential
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-09-03
    Shaoqing Du, Kenji Yoshida, Ya Zhang, Ikutaro Hamada, Kazuhiko Hirakawa

    Clarifying electronic and vibronic properties at the individual molecule level provides key insights for future chemistry, nanoelectronics and quantum information technologies. However, information obtained by conventional single-molecule transport measurements is based on time-averaged properties. Here, we report on terahertz (THz) spectroscopy of single fullerene molecules by using a single-molecule transistor geometry. From the time-domain THz autocorrelation measurements, we obtained THz spectra associated with the THz-induced centre-of-mass oscillation of the molecules. The observed spectra reflect the potential profile experienced by the molecule on the metal surface when the number of electrons on the molecule fluctuates by one during the single-electron tunnelling process. Such an ultra-high sensitivity to the electronic/vibronic structures of a single molecule on the addition/removal of a single electron has been achieved as a result of using THz spectroscopy in the single-molecule transistor geometry. This scheme provides an opportunity to investigate the ultrafast THz dynamics of subnanometre-scale systems.

    更新日期:2018-09-04
  • Quantum technologies with optically interfaced solid-state spins
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-08-29
    David D. Awschalom, Ronald Hanson, Jörg Wrachtrup, Brian B. Zhou

    Spins of impurities in solids provide a unique architecture to realize quantum technologies. A quantum register of electron and nearby nuclear spins in the lattice encompasses high-fidelity state manipulation and readout, long-lived quantum memory, and long-distance transmission of quantum states by optical transitions that coherently connect spins and photons. These features, combined with solid-state device engineering, establish impurity spins as promising resources for quantum networks, information processing and sensing. Focusing on optical methods for the access and connectivity of single spins, we review recent progress in impurity systems such as colour centres in diamond and silicon carbide, rare-earth ions in solids and donors in silicon. We project a possible path to chip-scale quantum technologies through sustained advances in nanofabrication, quantum control and materials engineering.

    更新日期:2018-08-30
  • A nano shell game
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-08-29
    John Ballato

    A nano shell gameA nano shell game, Published online: 29 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0244-yIndividual, light-emitting nanoparticles offer many opportunities for early disease detection. Now, advances towards greatly enhanced brightness are being made using core–multi-shell architectures.

    更新日期:2018-08-30
  • Wire-bonding assembly
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-08-29
    Rachel Won

    Wire-bonding assemblyWire-bonding assembly, Published online: 29 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0251-zWire-bonding assembly

    更新日期:2018-08-30
  • Slow and steady
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-08-29
    David F. P. Pile

    Slow and steadySlow and steady, Published online: 29 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0248-7Slow and steady

    更新日期:2018-08-30
  • Folding photography in the time domain
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-08-29
    Sylvain Gigan

    Folding photography in the time domainFolding photography in the time domain, Published online: 29 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0245-xExploiting an optical cavity that folds space in time in a conventional lens design provides a novel route for time-resolved imaging and depth sensing.

    更新日期:2018-08-30
  • On-demand display
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-08-29
    Rachel Won

    On-demand displayOn-demand display, Published online: 29 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0252-yOn-demand display

    更新日期:2018-08-30
  • Solid-state success
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-08-29
    Noriaki Horiuchi

    Solid-state successSolid-state success, Published online: 29 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0249-6Solid-state success

    更新日期:2018-08-30
  • Tunable circuits
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-08-29
    Rachel Won

    Tunable circuitsTunable circuits, Published online: 29 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0250-0Tunable circuits

    更新日期:2018-08-30
  • Manipulation of polarizations for broadband terahertz waves emitted from laser plasma filaments
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Zhelin Zhang, Yanping Chen, Sen Cui, Feng He, Min Chen, Zhen Zhang, Jin Yu, Liming Chen, Zhengming Sheng, Jie Zhang

    Polarization control of broadband terahertz waves is essential for applications in many areas, such as materials science, medical and biological diagnostics, near-field communications and public securities. Conventional methods for polarization control are limited to narrow bandwidth and often with low efficiency. Here, based on theoretical and experimental studies, we demonstrate that the two-colour laser scheme in gas plasma can provide effective control of elliptically polarized terahertz waves, including their ellipticity, azimuthal angle and chirality. This is achieved with a circularly polarized laser at the fundamental frequency and its linearly polarized second harmonic, a controlled phase difference between these two laser components, as well as a suitable length of the laser plasma filament. Flexible control of ellipticity and azimuthal angle is demonstrated with our theoretical model and systematic experiments. This offers a unique and flexible technique on the polarization control of broadband terahertz radiation suitable for a wide range of applications.

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Polarization-resolved black phosphorus/molybdenum disulfide mid-wave infrared photodiodes with high detectivity at room temperature
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    James Bullock, Matin Amani, Joy Cho, Yu-Ze Chen, Geun Ho Ahn, Valerio Adinolfi, Vivek Raj Shrestha, Yang Gao, Kenneth B. Crozier, Yu-Lun Chueh, Ali Javey

    Infrared photodetectors are currently subject to a rapidly expanding application space, with an increasing demand for compact, sensitive and inexpensive detectors. Despite continued advancement, technological factors limit the widespread usage of such detectors, specifically, the need for cooling and the high costs associated with processing of iii–v/ii–vi semiconductors. Here, black phosphorous (bP)/MoS2 heterojunction photodiodes are explored as mid-wave infrared (MWIR) detectors. Although previous studies have demonstrated photodiodes using bP, here we significantly improve the performance, showing that such devices can be competitive with conventional MWIR photodetectors. By optimizing the device structure and light management, we demonstrate a two-terminal device that achieves room-temperature external quantum efficiencies (ηe) of 35% and specific detectivities (D*) as high as 1.1 × 1010 cm Hz1/2 W−1 in the MWIR region. Furthermore, by leveraging the anisotropic optical properties of bP we demonstrate the first bias-selectable polarization-resolved photodetector that operates without the need for external optics.

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Tackling standardization in fluorescence molecular imaging
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-08-20
    Maximillian Koch, Panagiotis Symvoulidis, Vasilis Ntziachristos

    The emerging clinical use of targeted fluorescent agents heralds a shift in intraoperative imaging practices that overcome the limitations of human vision. However, in contrast to established radiological methods, no appropriate performance specifications and standards have been established in fluorescence molecular imaging. Moreover, the dependence of fluorescence signals on many experimental parameters and the use of wavelengths ranging from the visible to short-wave infrared (400–1,700 nm) complicate quality control in fluorescence molecular imaging. Here, we discuss the experimental parameters that critically affect fluorescence molecular imaging accuracy, and introduce the concept of high-fidelity fluorescence imaging as a means for ensuring reliable reproduction of fluorescence biodistribution in tissue.

    更新日期:2018-08-20
  • Experimental demonstration of a three-dimensional lithium niobate nonlinear photonic crystal
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-08-20
    Dunzhao Wei, Chaowei Wang, Huijun Wang, Xiaopeng Hu, Dan Wei, Xinyuan Fang, Yong Zhang, Dong Wu, Yanlei Hu, Jiawen Li, Shining Zhu, Min Xiao

    A nonlinear photonic crystal (NPC)1 possesses space-dependent second-order nonlinear coefficients, which can effectively control nonlinear optical interactions through quasi-phase matching2. Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) crystal is one of the most popular materials from which to fabricate NPC structures because of its excellent nonlinear optical properties3,4,5. One- and two-dimensional LiNbO3 NPCs have been widely utilized in laser frequency conversion6,7, spatial light modulation8,9,10,11,12 and nonlinear optical imaging13,14. However, limited by traditional poling methods, the experimental realization of three-dimensional (3D) NPCs remains one of the greatest challenges in the field of nonlinear optics1,15. Here, we present an experimental demonstration of a 3D LiNbO3 NPC by using a femtosecond laser to selectively erase the nonlinear coefficients in a LiNbO3 crystal16,17. The effective conversion efficiency is comparable to that of typical quasi-phase-matching processes. Such a 3D LiNbO3 NPC provides a promising platform for future nonlinear optical studies based on its unique ability to control nonlinear interacting waves in 3D configuration.

    更新日期:2018-08-20
  • Large-scale silicon quantum photonics implementing arbitrary two-qubit processing
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-08-20
    Xiaogang Qiang, Xiaoqi Zhou, Jianwei Wang, Callum M. Wilkes, Thomas Loke, Sean O’Gara, Laurent Kling, Graham D. Marshall, Raffaele Santagati, Timothy C. Ralph, Jingbo B. Wang, Jeremy L. O’Brien, Mark G. Thompson, Jonathan C. F. Matthews

    Photonics is a promising platform for implementing universal quantum information processing. Its main challenges include precise control of massive circuits of linear optical components and effective implementation of entangling operations on photons. By using large-scale silicon photonic circuits to implement an extension of the linear combination of quantum operators scheme, we realize a fully programmable two-qubit quantum processor, enabling universal two-qubit quantum information processing in optics. The quantum processor is fabricated with mature CMOS-compatible processing and comprises more than 200 photonic components. We programmed the device to implement 98 different two-qubit unitary operations (with an average quantum process fidelity of 93.2 ± 4.5%), a two-qubit quantum approximate optimization algorithm, and efficient simulation of Szegedy directed quantum walks. This fosters further use of the linear-combination architecture with silicon photonics for future photonic quantum processors.

    更新日期:2018-08-20
  • Spin control in reduced-dimensional chiral perovskites
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-08-13
    Guankui Long, Chongyun Jiang, Randy Sabatini, Zhenyu Yang, Mingyang Wei, Li Na Quan, Qiuming Liang, Abdullah Rasmita, Mikhail Askerka, Grant Walters, Xiwen Gong, Jun Xing, Xinglin Wen, Rafael Quintero-Bermudez, Haifeng Yuan, Guichuan Xing, X. Renshaw Wang, Datong Song, Oleksandr Voznyy, Mingtao Zhang, Sjoerd Hoogland, Weibo Gao, Qihua Xiong, Edward H. Sargent

    Hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites exhibit strong spin–orbit coupling1, spin-dependent optical selection rules2,3 and large Rashba splitting4,5,6,7,8. These characteristics make them promising candidates for spintronic devices9 with photonic interfaces. Here we report that spin polarization in perovskites can be controlled through chemical design as well as by a magnetic field. We obtain both spin-polarized photon absorption and spin-polarized photoluminescence in reduced-dimensional chiral perovskites through combined strategies of chirality transfer and energy funnelling. A 3% spin-polarized photoluminescence is observed even in the absence of an applied external magnetic field owing to the different emission rates of σ+ and σ− polarized photoluminescence. Three-dimensional perovskites achieve a comparable degree of photoluminescence polarization only under an external magnetic field of 5 T. Our findings pave the way for chiral perovskites as powerful spintronic materials.

    更新日期:2018-08-14
  • Photography optics in the time dimension
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-08-13
    Barmak Heshmat, Matthew Tancik, Guy Satat, Ramesh Raskar

    Ultrafast sensors and depth cameras are key enablers for imaging through complex geometries, through scattering, and beyond the line of sight. However, despite accelerating advances in imaging electronics and imaging applications, the optics of such cameras have been inherited from conventional low-speed photography cameras. This has limited ultrafast cameras and their applications to the design constraints of conventional optics. Here, we exploit time as an extra dimension in the optical design and demonstrate that by folding large spaces in time using time-resolved cavities, one can enable new camera capabilities without losing the targeted information. We demonstrate lens tube compression by an order of magnitude, together with ultrafast multi-zoom imaging and ultrafast multispectral imaging by time-folding the optical path at different regions of the imaging optics. Considering the vast variety of designs that could emerge by time-folding conventional imaging optics, we expect this technique to have a broad impact on time-resolved imaging and depth-sensing optics.

    更新日期:2018-08-14
  • Single upconversion nanoparticle imaging at sub-10 W cm−2 irradiance
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-08-06
    Qian Liu, Yunxiang Zhang, Chunte Sam Peng, Tianshe Yang, Lydia-Marie Joubert, Steven Chu

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are promising single-molecule probes given their non-blinking, photobleaching-resistant luminescence on infrared excitation. However, the weak luminescence of sub-50 nm UCNPs limits their single-particle detection to above 10 kW cm−2, which is impractical for live cell imaging. Here, we systematically characterize single-particle luminescence for UCNPs with various formulations over a 106 variation in incident power, down to 8 W cm−2. A core–shell–shell (CSS) structure (NaYF4@NaYb1−xF4:Erx@NaYF4) is shown to be significantly brighter than the commonly used NaY0.78F4:Yb0.2Er0.02. At 8 W cm−2, the 8% Er3+ CSS particles exhibit a 150-fold enhancement given their high sensitizer Yb3+ content and the presence of an inert shell to prevent energy migration to defects. Moreover, we reveal power-dependent luminescence enhancement from the inert shell, which explains the discrepancy in enhancement factors reported by ensemble and previous single-particle measurements. These brighter probes open the possibility of cellular and single-molecule tracking at low irradiance.

    更新日期:2018-08-06
  • Three-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal in ferroelectric barium calcium titanate
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-08-06
    Tianxiang Xu, Krzysztof Switkowski, Xin Chen, Shan Liu, Kaloian Koynov, Haohai Yu, Huaijin Zhang, Jiyang Wang, Yan Sheng, Wieslaw Krolikowski

    The performance of many optical devices based on frequency conversion critically depends on spatial modulation of the nonlinear optical response of materials. This modulation ensures efficient energy exchange between optical waves at different frequencies via quasi-phase matching1. In general, quasi-phase-matching structures, also known as nonlinear photonic crystals2,3,4, offer a variety of properties and functionalities that cannot be obtained in uniform nonlinear crystals5,6,7,8,9. So far, nonlinear photonic crystals have been restricted to one- or two-dimensional geometries owing to a lack of fabrication technologies capable of three-dimensional (3D) nonlinearity engineering. Here, we provide an experimental example of a 3D nonlinear photonic crystal, fabricated in ferroelectric barium calcium titanate, by applying an ultrafast light domain inversion approach. The resulting full flexibility of 3D nonlinearity modulation enables phase matching of nonlinear processes along an arbitrary direction, thereby removing constraints imposed by low-dimensional structures.

    更新日期:2018-08-06
  • Nano-optic endoscope for high-resolution optical coherence tomography in vivo
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-07-30
    Hamid Pahlevaninezhad, Mohammadreza Khorasaninejad, Yao-Wei Huang, Zhujun Shi, Lida P. Hariri, David C. Adams, Vivien Ding, Alexander Zhu, Cheng-Wei Qiu, Federico Capasso, Melissa J. Suter

    Acquisition of high-resolution images from within internal organs using endoscopic optical imaging has numerous clinical applications. However, difficulties associated with optical aberrations and the trade-off between transverse resolution and depth of focus significantly limit the scope of applications. Here, we integrate a metalens, with the ability to modify the phase of incident light at subwavelength level, into the design of an endoscopic optical coherence tomography catheter (termed nano-optic endoscope) to achieve near diffraction-limited imaging through negating non-chromatic aberrations. Remarkably, the tailored chromatic dispersion of the metalens in the context of spectral interferometry is utilized to maintain high-resolution imaging beyond the input field Rayleigh range, easing the trade-off between transverse resolution and depth of focus. We demonstrate endoscopic imaging in resected human lung specimens and in sheep airways in vivo. The combination of the superior resolution and higher imaging depth of focus of the nano-optic endoscope is likely to increase the clinical utility of endoscopic optical imaging.

    更新日期:2018-07-31
  • Light–valley interactions in 2D semiconductors
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-07-27
    Kin Fai Mak, Di Xiao, Jie Shan

    The emergence of two-dimensional Dirac materials, particularly transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), has reinvigorated interest in valleytronics, which utilizes the electronic valley degree of freedom for information storage and processing. Here, we review the basic valley-dependent properties and their experimental demonstrations in single-layer semiconductor TMDs with an emphasis on the effects of band topology and light–valley interactions. We also provide a brief summary of the recent advances on controlling the valley degree of freedom in TMDs with light and other means for potential applications.

    更新日期:2018-07-27
  • Spin control of macroscopic objects
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-07-27
    Jorge Olmos-Trigo, Juan José Sáenz

    Spin control of macroscopic objects Spin control of macroscopic objects, Published online: 27 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0223-3 Spin-dependent lateral optical forces, 100,000 times larger than those reported so far, can lead to displacements of centimetre-sized objects observable by the naked eye.

    更新日期:2018-07-27
  • Cherenkov detector
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-07-27
    Noriaki Horiuchi

    Cherenkov detector Cherenkov detector, Published online: 27 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0228-y Cherenkov detector

    更新日期:2018-07-27
  • Metasurface mixer
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-07-27
    Rachel Won

    Metasurface mixer Metasurface mixer, Published online: 27 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0230-4 Metasurface mixer

    更新日期:2018-07-27
  • LiDAR drives forwards
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-07-27

    LiDAR drives forwards LiDAR drives forwards, Published online: 27 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0235-z The race to develop self-driving cars means that optical LiDAR is forecast to become a US$5 billion market within 5 years. Photonics start-ups in the area are finding themselves at the centre of a frenzy of acquisition and investment.

    更新日期:2018-07-27
  • The heat is on
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-07-27
    Rachel Won

    The heat is on The heat is on, Published online: 27 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0226-0 The generation of hot electrons in plasmonic nanostructures is of scientific and technological interest, putting the community under pressure to better understand the hot-electron mechanisms and to increase the light conversion efficiency of plasmonic nanosystems for chemical reactions and photodetection.

    更新日期:2018-07-27
  • Adaptive infrared camouflage
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-07-27
    Oliver Graydon

    Adaptive infrared camouflage Adaptive infrared camouflage, Published online: 27 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0233-1 Adaptive infrared camouflage

    更新日期:2018-07-27
  • On our bookshelf
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-07-27
    Rachel Won

    On our bookshelf On our bookshelf, Published online: 27 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0219-z On our bookshelf

    更新日期:2018-07-27
  • Efficient light generation from enhanced inelastic electron tunnelling
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-07-23
    Haoliang Qian, Su-Wen Hsu, Kargal Gurunatha, Conor T. Riley, Jie Zhao, Dylan Lu, Andrea R. Tao, Zhaowei Liu

    Light emission from biased tunnel junctions has recently gained much attention owing to its unique potential to create ultracompact optical sources with terahertz modulation bandwidth1,2,3,4,5. The emission originates from an inelastic electron tunnelling process in which electronic energy is transferred to surface plasmon polaritons and subsequently converted to radiation photons by an optical antenna. Because most of the electrons tunnel elastically, the emission efficiency is typically about 10−5–10−4. Here, we demonstrate efficient light generation from enhanced inelastic tunnelling using nanocrystals assembled into metal–insulator–metal junctions. The colour of the emitted light is determined by the optical antenna and thus can be tuned by the geometry of the junction structures. The efficiency of far-field free-space light generation reaches ~2%, showing an improvement of two orders of magnitude over previous work3,4. This brings on-chip ultrafast and ultracompact light sources one step closer to reality.

    更新日期:2018-07-24
  • Publisher Correction: Control of semiconductor emitter frequency by increasing polariton momenta
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-07-16
    Yaniv Kurman, Nicholas Rivera, Thomas Christensen, Shai Tsesses, Meir Orenstein, Marin Soljačić, John D. Joannopoulos, Ido Kaminer

    Publisher Correction: Control of semiconductor emitter frequency by increasing polariton momenta Publisher Correction: Control of semiconductor emitter frequency by increasing polariton momenta, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0214-4 Publisher Correction: Control of semiconductor emitter frequency by increasing polariton momenta

    更新日期:2018-07-18
  • A phonon laser operating at an exceptional point
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-07-09
    Jing Zhang, Bo Peng, Şahin Kaya Özdemir, Kevin Pichler, Dmitry O. Krimer, Guangming Zhao, Franco Nori, Yu-xi Liu, Stefan Rotter, Lan Yang

    Non-Hermitian physical systems have attracted considerable attention lately for their unconventional behaviour around exceptional points (EPs)—spectral singularities at which eigenvalues and eigenvectors coalesce. In particular, many new EP-related concepts such as unidirectional lasing and invisibility, as well as chiral transmission, have been realized. Given the progress in understanding the physics of EPs in various photonic structures, it is surprising that one of the oldest theoretical predictions associated with them, a remarkable broadening of the laser linewidth at an EP, has been probed only indirectly so far. Here, we fill this gap by steering a phonon laser through an EP in a compound optomechanical system formed by two coupled resonators. We observe a pronounced linewidth broadening of the mechanical lasing mode generated in one of the resonators when the system approaches the EP.

    更新日期:2018-07-10
  • Publisher Correction: Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-07-04
    Hairun Guo, Clemens Herkommer, Adrien Billat, Davide Grassani, Chuankun Zhang, Martin H. P. Pfeiffer, Wenle Weng, Camille-Sophie Brès, Tobias J. Kippenberg

    Publisher Correction: Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguidesPublisher Correction: Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, Published online: 04 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0218-0Publisher Correction: Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides

    更新日期:2018-07-09
  • Macroscopic direct observation of optical spin-dependent lateral forces and left-handed torques
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Hernando Magallanes, Etienne Brasselet

    Observing and taming the effects arising from non-trivial light–matter interaction has always triggered scientists to better understand nature and develop photonic technologies. However, despite tremendous conceptual advances1,2, so far there have been only a few experimental proposals to reveal unusual optomechanical manifestations that are hardly seen in everyday life, such as negative radiation pressure3,4, transverse forces5,6 or left-handed torques7. Here, we report naked-eye identification of spin-dependent lateral displacements of centimetre-sized objects endowed with structured birefringence. Left-handed macroscopic rotational motion is also reported. The unveiled effects ultimately rely on spin–orbit optical interactions and are driven by lateral force fields that are five orders of magnitude larger than those reported previously, as a result of the proposed design. By highlighting the spin–orbit optomechanics of anisotropic and inhomogeneous media, these results allow structured light–matter interaction to move from a scientific curiosity to a new asset for the optical manipulation toolbox.

    更新日期:2018-07-05
  • Single-source chip-based frequency comb enabling extreme parallel data transmission
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Hao Hu, Francesco Da Ros, Minhao Pu, Feihong Ye, Kasper Ingerslev, Edson Porto da Silva, Md. Nooruzzaman, Yoshimichi Amma, Yusuke Sasaki, Takayuki Mizuno, Yutaka Miyamoto, Luisa Ottaviano, Elizaveta Semenova, Pengyu Guan, Darko Zibar, Michael Galili, Kresten Yvind, Toshio Morioka, Leif K. Oxenløwe

    The Internet today transmits hundreds of terabits per second, consumes 9% of all electricity worldwide and grows by 20–30% per year1,2. To support capacity demand, massively parallel communication links are installed, not scaling favourably concerning energy consumption. A single frequency comb source may substitute many parallel lasers and improve system energy-efficiency3,4. We present a frequency comb realized by a non-resonant aluminium-gallium-arsenide-on-insulator (AlGaAsOI) nanowaveguide with 66% pump-to-comb conversion efficiency, which is significantly higher than state-of-the-art resonant comb sources. This enables unprecedented high data-rate transmission for chip-based sources, demonstrated using a single-mode 30-core fibre. We show that our frequency comb can carry 661 Tbit s–1 of data, equivalent to more than the total Internet traffic today. The comb is obtained by seeding the AlGaAsOI chip with 10-GHz picosecond pulses at a low pump power (85 mW), and this scheme is robust to temperature changes, is energy efficient and facilitates future integration with on-chip lasers or amplifiers5,6.

    更新日期:2018-07-02
  • Electrically tuned nonlinearity
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-06-28
    Zhipei Sun

    Electrically tuned nonlinearity Electrically tuned nonlinearity, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0201-9 The demonstration of broadband, electrically tunable third-order nonlinear optical responses in graphene is promising for a host of nonlinear optical applications.

    更新日期:2018-06-30
  • Twin-field QKD
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-06-28
    David F. P. Pile

    Twin-field QKD Twin-field QKD, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0209-1 Twin-field QKD

    更新日期:2018-06-30
  • Molecular sensing
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-06-28
    Oliver Graydon

    Molecular sensing Molecular sensing, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0211-7 Molecular sensing

    更新日期:2018-06-30
  • On our bookshelf
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-06-28
    Rachel Won

    On our bookshelf On our bookshelf, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0207-3 On our bookshelf

    更新日期:2018-06-30
  • Measuring molecular mass with light
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-06-28
    Kyu Young Han, Taekjip Ha

    Measuring molecular mass with light Measuring molecular mass with light, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0202-8 Interferometric analysis of the weak light scattered from proteins makes it possible to determine their mass.

    更新日期:2018-06-30
  • Tunable comb
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-06-28
    Rachel Won

    Tunable comb Tunable comb, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0212-6 Tunable comb

    更新日期:2018-06-30
  • Triplet state brightens upconversion
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-06-28
    Jiajia Zhou, Dayong Jin

    Triplet state brightens upconversion Triplet state brightens upconversion, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0188-2 Efficient photon upconversion is desired for applications ranging from molecular sensing to solar-energy harvesting. Now, the population of hidden triplet state electrons, created on dye antennas and rare-earth-doped nanoparticles, has been amplified to brighten upconversion by five orders of magnitude.

    更新日期:2018-06-30
  • Encouraging instability
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-06-28
    David F. P. Pile

    Encouraging instability Encouraging instability, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0208-2 Encouraging instability

    更新日期:2018-06-30
  • Nonlinear charge oscillation driven by a single-cycle light field in an organic superconductor
    Nat. Photon. (IF 32.521) Pub Date : 2018-06-25
    Y. Kawakami, T. Amano, Y. Yoneyama, Y. Akamine, H. Itoh, G. Kawaguchi, H. M. Yamamoto, H. Kishida, K. Itoh, T. Sasaki, S. Ishihara, Y. Tanaka, K. Yonemitsu, S. Iwai

    Application of an intense light field to solids produces enormous and ultrafast nonlinear phenomena such as high-harmonic generation1,2 and attosecond charge dynamics3,4. These are distinct from conventional photonics. However, the main targets for investigation have been limited to insulators and semiconductors, although theoretical approaches have also been developed for correlated metals and superconductors5. Here, in a layered organic superconductor, a nonlinear charge oscillation driven by a nearly single-cycle strong electric field of >10 MV cm−1 is observed as a stimulated emission. The charge oscillation is different from a linear response and ascribed to a polar charge oscillation with a period of ∼6 fs. This nonlinear polar charge oscillation is enhanced by critical fluctuations near a superconducting transition temperature and a critical end-point of first-order Mott transitions. Its observation on an ultrafast timescale of ∼10 fs clarifies that Coulomb repulsion plays an essential role in the superconductivity of organic superconductors.

    更新日期:2018-06-27
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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