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  • Morgan Sheng
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-19

    Morgan Sheng Morgan Sheng, Published online: 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.271 Morgan Sheng, Vice President of Neuroscience at Genentech, discusses his continued faith in the amyloid hypothesis, the promise of the genetics of neurodegenerative disorders and the overlap between psychiatric disease and neurodegeneration.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Impact of a five-dimensional framework on R&D productivity at AstraZeneca
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Paul Morgan, Dean G. Brown, Simon Lennard, Mark J. Anderton, J. Carl Barrett, Ulf Eriksson, Mark Fidock, Bengt Hamrén, Anthony Johnson, Ruth E. March, James Matcham, Jerome Mettetal, David J. Nicholls, Stefan Platz, Steve Rees, Michael A. Snowden, Menelas N. Pangalos

    In 2011, AstraZeneca embarked on a major revision of its research and development (R&D) strategy with the aim of improving R&D productivity, which was below industry averages in 2005–2010. A cornerstone of the revised strategy was to focus decision-making on five technical determinants (the right target, right tissue, right safety, right patient and right commercial potential). In this article, we describe the progress made using this '5R framework' in the hope that our experience could be useful to other companies tackling R&D productivity issues. We focus on the evolution of our approach to target validation, hit and lead optimization, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling and drug safety testing, which have helped improve the quality of candidate drug nomination, as well as the development of the right culture, where 'truth seeking' is encouraged by more rigorous and quantitative decision-making. We also discuss where the approach has failed and the lessons learned. Overall, the continued evolution and application of the 5R framework are beginning to have an impact, with success rates from candidate drug nomination to phase III completion improving from 4% in 2005–2010 to 19% in 2012–2016.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Glimmers in illuminating the druggable genome
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Griffin Rodgers, Christopher Austin, James Anderson, Aaron Pawlyk, Christine Colvis, Ronald Margolis, Jenna Baker

    Glimmers in illuminating the druggable genome Glimmers in illuminating the druggable genome, Published online: 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.252 Much biomedical research continues to focus on a small proportion of the human genome that has already been studied intensively. The Illuminating the Druggable Genome programme, initiated as a pilot project by the US National Institutes of Health Common Fund in 2014, is now being implemented to accelerate the investigation of subsets of understudied proteins that have potential therapeutic relevance.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Market watch: 2017 FDA drug approvals: number rebounds but average value slips
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Mathias Baedeker, Michael Ringel, Valery Panier, Ulrik Schulze

    Market watch: 2017 FDA drug approvals: number rebounds but average value slips Market watch: 2017 FDA drug approvals: number rebounds but average value slips, Published online: 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2018.2 Market watch: 2017 FDA drug approvals: number rebounds but average value slips

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • 2017 FDA drug approvals
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Asher Mullard

    2017 FDA drug approvals 2017 FDA drug approvals, Published online: 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2018.4 The FDA approved 46 new drugs last year, the highest total in more than two decades.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • mRNA vaccines — a new era in vaccinology
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Norbert Pardi, Michael J. Hogan, Frederick W. Porter, Drew Weissman

    mRNA vaccines represent a promising alternative to conventional vaccine approaches because of their high potency, capacity for rapid development and potential for low-cost manufacture and safe administration. However, their application has until recently been restricted by the instability and inefficient in vivo delivery of mRNA. Recent technological advances have now largely overcome these issues, and multiple mRNA vaccine platforms against infectious diseases and several types of cancer have demonstrated encouraging results in both animal models and humans. This Review provides a detailed overview of mRNA vaccines and considers future directions and challenges in advancing this promising vaccine platform to widespread therapeutic use.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Biased signalling: from simple switches to allosteric microprocessors
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Jeffrey S. Smith, Robert J. Lefkowitz, Sudarshan Rajagopal

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest class of receptors in the human genome and some of the most common drug targets. It is now well established that GPCRs can signal through multiple transducers, including heterotrimeric G proteins, GPCR kinases and β-arrestins. While these signalling pathways can be activated or blocked by 'balanced' agonists or antagonists, they can also be selectively activated in a 'biased' response. Biased responses can be induced by biased ligands, biased receptors or system bias, any of which can result in preferential signalling through G proteins or β-arrestins. At many GPCRs, signalling events mediated by G proteins and β-arrestins have been shown to have distinct biochemical and physiological actions from one another, and an accurate evaluation of biased signalling from pharmacology through physiology is crucial for preclinical drug development. Recent structural studies have provided snapshots of GPCR–transducer complexes, which should aid in the structure-based design of novel biased therapies. Our understanding of GPCRs has evolved from that of two-state, on-and-off switches to that of multistate allosteric microprocessors, in which biased ligands transmit distinct structural information that is processed into distinct biological outputs. The development of biased ligands as therapeutics heralds an era of increased drug efficacy with reduced drug side effects.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Accelerated approval of medicines: fit for purpose?
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Alasdair Breckenridge, Lawrence Liberti

    The uptake of a new medicine represents a balance between benefit–risk assessment and value considerations. In the case of products approved via accelerated pathways, the increased uncertainty adds to the challenge. Here, we suggest solutions so that regulators, companies, payers and patients can align around management of the uncertainties and expectations.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Can innate immune system targets turn up the heat on 'cold' tumours?
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-12-28
    Asher Mullard

    Can innate immune system targets turn up the heat on 'cold' tumours? Can innate immune system targets turn up the heat on 'cold' tumours?, Published online: 28 December 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.264 STING, RIG-I and NLRP3 agonists might increase the effectiveness of immuno-oncology checkpoint inhibitors, while antagonists of these targets offer an anti-inflammatory bonus.

    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • Market watch: Upcoming market catalysts in Q1 2018
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-12-28
    Tanner Collins

    Market watch: Upcoming market catalysts in Q1 2018 Market watch: Upcoming market catalysts in Q1 2018, Published online: 28 December 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.263 Market watch: Upcoming market catalysts in Q1 2018

    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • Cancer: Targeting telomeres
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-28
    Sarah Crunkhorn

    Cancer: Targeting telomeres Cancer: Targeting telomeres, Published online: 28 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.258 Cancer: Targeting telomeres

    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • Sean Harper
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-28

    Sean Harper Sean Harper, Published online: 28 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.262 Sean Harper, Amgen's Chief Scientific Officer, talks about how human genetic data can be used to avoid costly failures, prosecute programmes more effectively and discover de novo drug targets.

    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • Sage gets an antidepressant lift
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-28
    Asher Mullard

    Sage gets an antidepressant lift Sage gets an antidepressant lift, Published online: 28 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.270 Sage gets an antidepressant lift

    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • First in vivo gene-editing drugs enter the clinic
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-28
    Asher Mullard

    First in vivo gene-editing drugs enter the clinic First in vivo gene-editing drugs enter the clinic, Published online: 28 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.268 First in vivo gene-editing drugs enter the clinic

    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • Cancer: Inhibiting DNA damage signalling
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-28
    Sarah Crunkhorn

    Cancer: Inhibiting DNA damage signalling Cancer: Inhibiting DNA damage signalling, Published online: 28 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.261 Cancer: Inhibiting DNA damage signalling

    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • Immunotherapy: Vaccine patch to treat melanoma
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-28
    Sarah Crunkhorn

    Immunotherapy: Vaccine patch to treat melanoma Immunotherapy: Vaccine patch to treat melanoma, Published online: 28 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.259 Immunotherapy: Vaccine patch to treat melanoma

    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • A dynamic map for learning, communicating, navigating and improving therapeutic development
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    John Wagner, Andrew M. Dahlem, Lynn D. Hudson, Sharon F. Terry, Russ B. Altman, C. Taylor Gilliland, Christopher DeFeo, Christopher P. Austin

    A dynamic map for learning, communicating, navigating and improving therapeutic development A dynamic map for learning, communicating, navigating and improving therapeutic development, Published online: 22 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.217 A dynamic map for learning, communicating, navigating and improving therapeutic development

    更新日期:2017-12-22
  • Regulatory policy for the development of targeted therapies for low-frequency molecular subtypes of disease
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Robert N. Schuck, Michael Pacanowski, Janet Woodcock, Issam Zineh

    Regulatory policy for the development of targeted therapies for low-frequency molecular subtypes of disease Regulatory policy for the development of targeted therapies for low-frequency molecular subtypes of disease, Published online: 22 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.231 Numerous challenges arise when developing targeted therapies for diseases comprising low-frequency molecular subtypes. In this article, we describe a pragmatic, science-based regulatory policy for the development and approval of targeted therapies in such cases.

    更新日期:2017-12-22
  • The evolving paradigm of cancer trials
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Shivaani Kummar

    The evolving paradigm of cancer trials The evolving paradigm of cancer trials, Published online: 22 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.210 The development of anticancer therapies is evolving with the advent of novel targeted drugs. In this Comment, I summarize some of the key changes and discuss the various choices for the optimal development of a new generation of cancer therapeutics.

    更新日期:2017-12-22
  • Infectious disease: Blocking malaria parasite invasion and egress
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-15
    Sarah Crunkhorn

    Infectious disease: Blocking malaria parasite invasion and egress Infectious disease: Blocking malaria parasite invasion and egress, Published online: 15 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.253 Infectious disease: Blocking malaria parasite invasion and egress

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Drug discovery effectiveness from the standpoint of therapeutic mechanisms and indications
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-15
    Hsin-Pei Shih, Xiaodan Zhang, Alex M. Aronov

    Drug discovery effectiveness from the standpoint of therapeutic mechanisms and indications Drug discovery effectiveness from the standpoint of therapeutic mechanisms and indications, Published online: 15 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.255 Drug discovery effectiveness from the standpoint of therapeutic mechanisms and indications

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Mechanistic enzymology in drug discovery: a fresh perspective
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-15
    Geoffrey A. Holdgate, Thomas D. Meek, Rachel L. Grimley

    Mechanistic enzymology in drug discovery: a fresh perspective Mechanistic enzymology in drug discovery: a fresh perspective, Published online: 15 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.257 Mechanistic enzymology in drug discovery: a fresh perspective

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Automating drug discovery
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-15
    Gisbert Schneider

    Automating drug discovery Automating drug discovery, Published online: 15 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.232 Advances in areas such as microfluidics-assisted chemical synthesis and biological testing, as well as in artificial intelligence systems, are increasingly providing opportunities to introduce greater automation into the small-molecule drug discovery process. Schneider highlights approaches and technologies that seem poised to be implemented robustly by medicinal chemists in the near future and analyses the challenges for their more widespread application

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Addressing challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of rare genetic diseases
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-15
    Kym M. Boycott, Diego Ardigó

    Addressing challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of rare genetic diseases Addressing challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of rare genetic diseases, Published online: 15 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.246 The past 5 years have seen an unprecedented rate of discovery of genes that cause rare diseases and with it a commensurate increase in the number of diagnosable but nevertheless untreatable disorders. Here, we discuss the increasing opportunity for diagnosis and therapy of rare diseases and how to tackle the associated challenges.

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Cancer: Strategies for mature T cell cancers
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-15
    Megan Cully

    Cancer: Strategies for mature T cell cancers Cancer: Strategies for mature T cell cancers, Published online: 15 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.254 Cancer: Strategies for mature T cell cancers

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Cancer Immunotherapy: The right shape
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-15
    M. Teresa Villanueva

    Cancer Immunotherapy: The right shape Cancer Immunotherapy: The right shape, Published online: 15 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.256 Cancer Immunotherapy: The right shape

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Drug development in the era of precision medicine
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-08
    Sarah A. Dugger, Adam Platt, David B. Goldstein

    Drug development in the era of precision medicine Drug development in the era of precision medicine, Published online: 08 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.226 The contribution of genomics to drug discovery and development so far has not yet lived up to the initial high expectations. Goldstein and colleagues discuss the reasons for the limited progress and review how recent advances — particularly in oncology and rare genetic diseases — may enable precision medicine strategies to harness the therapeutic potential of genomic knowledge.

    更新日期:2017-12-10
  • Drug development for neurodevelopmental disorders: lessons learned from fragile X syndrome
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-08
    Elizabeth M. Berry-Kravis, Lothar Lindemann, Aia E. Jønch, George Apostol, Mark F. Bear, Randall L. Carpenter, Jacqueline N. Crawley, Aurore Curie, Vincent Des Portes, Farah Hossain, Fabrizio Gasparini, Baltazar Gomez-Mancilla, David Hessl, Eva Loth, Sebastian H. Scharf, Paul P. Wang, Florian Von Raison, Randi Hagerman, Will Spooren, Sébastien Jacquemont

    Drug development for neurodevelopmental disorders: lessons learned from fragile X syndrome Drug development for neurodevelopmental disorders: lessons learned from fragile X syndrome, Published online: 08 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.221 In this Review, a group of experts in fragile X syndrome analyses why the considerable drug development effort based on robust preclinical findings describing the mechanisms underlying this neurodevelopmental disorder has failed to translate into effective treatment and offers possible solutions to improve clinical trial design and therapeutic approaches.

    更新日期:2017-12-10
  • Three-dimensional holographic optical manipulation through a high-numerical-aperture soft-glass multimode fibre
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-04
    Ivo T. Leite, Sergey Turtaev, Xin Jiang, Martin Šiler, Alfred Cuschieri, Philip St. J. Russell, Tomáš Čižmár

    Holographic optical tweezers (HOT) hold great promise for many applications in biophotonics, allowing the creation and measurement of minuscule forces on biomolecules, molecular motors and cells. Geometries used in HOT currently rely on bulk optics, and their exploitation in vivo is compromised by the optically turbid nature of tissues. We present an alternative HOT approach in which multiple three-dimensional (3D) traps are introduced through a high-numerical-aperture multimode optical fibre, thus enabling an equally versatile means of manipulation through channels having cross-section comparable to the size of a single cell. Our work demonstrates real-time manipulation of 3D arrangements of micro-objects, as well as manipulation inside otherwise inaccessible cavities. We show that the traps can be formed over fibre lengths exceeding 100 mm and positioned with nanometric resolution. The results provide the basis for holographic manipulation and other high-numerical-aperture techniques, including advanced microscopy, through single-core-fibre endoscopes deep inside living tissues and other complex environments.

    更新日期:2017-12-05
  • Room-temperature ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy of a single molecule
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-04
    Matz Liebel, Costanza Toninelli, Niek F. van Hulst

    Single-molecule spectroscopy aims to unveil often hidden but potentially very important contributions of single entities to a system’s ensemble response. Albeit contributing tremendously to our ever growing understanding of molecular processes, the fundamental question of temporal evolution, or change, has thus far been inaccessible, thus painting a static picture of a dynamic world. Here, we finally resolve this dilemma by performing ultrafast time-resolved transient spectroscopy on a single molecule. By tracing the femtosecond evolution of excited electronic state spectra of single molecules over hundreds of nanometres of bandwidth at room temperature, we reveal their nonlinear ultrafast response in an effective three-pulse scheme with fluorescence detection. A first excitation pulse is followed by a phase-locked de-excitation pulse pair, providing spectral encoding with 25 fs temporal resolution. This experimental realization of true single-molecule transient spectroscopy demonstrates that two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of single molecules is experimentally within reach.

    更新日期:2017-12-05
  • Deal watch: Roche taps potential antibiotics mine with Warp Drive Bio
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-01
    Megan Cully

    Deal watch: Roche taps potential antibiotics mine with Warp Drive Bio Deal watch: Roche taps potential antibiotics mine with Warp Drive Bio, Published online: 01 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.247 Deal watch: Roche taps potential antibiotics mine with Warp Drive Bio

    更新日期:2017-12-01
  • Mechanistic enzymology in drug discovery: a fresh perspective
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-01
    Geoffrey A. Holdgate, Thomas D. Meek, Rachel L. Grimley

    Mechanistic enzymology in drug discovery: a fresh perspective Mechanistic enzymology in drug discovery: a fresh perspective, Published online: 01 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.219 Understanding the role of enzymes in disease states and the implementation of strategies to modulate their activities for therapeutic benefit remains a key focus for drug discovery. Here, Holdgate and colleagues assess the benefits of conducting and applying high-quality mechanistic enzymology studies throughout a drug-discovery programme and assess the value of combining such knowledge with orthogonal biophysical methods.

    更新日期:2017-12-01
  • Next generation antibody drugs: pursuit of the 'high-hanging fruit'
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-01
    Paul J. Carter, Greg A. Lazar

    Next generation antibody drugs: pursuit of the 'high-hanging fruit' Next generation antibody drugs: pursuit of the 'high-hanging fruit', Published online: 01 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.227 Antibody therapeutics are now established as a major drug class. Here, Carter and Lazar comprehensively discuss current and emerging platforms and technologies for antibody therapeutics, with an emphasis on approaches that could extend their therapeutic applications, including antibody–drug conjugates, bispecific antibodies and antibody engineering to enable more effective delivery.

    更新日期:2017-12-01
  • Two-dimensional topological photonics
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-11-30
    Alexander B. Khanikaev, Gennady Shvets

    Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.

    更新日期:2017-12-01
  • Turning loss into gain
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-11-30

    Turning loss into gain Turning loss into gain, Published online: 30 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0067-2 The exploitation of non-Hermitian quantum physics concepts in classical photonics has spawned much research activity during 2017. We conclude the year with a focus issue on parity–time symmetry and concepts with overlapping goals, in particular topological and non-reciprocal photonics.

    更新日期:2017-12-01
  • Reduced threshold
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-11-30
    Oliver Graydon

    Reduced threshold Reduced threshold, Published online: 30 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0062-7 Reduced threshold

    更新日期:2017-12-01
  • Machine learning under the spotlight
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-11-30
    Darko Zibar, Henk Wymeersch, Ilya Lyubomirsky

    Machine learning under the spotlight Machine learning under the spotlight, Published online: 30 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0058-3 The field of machine learning potentially brings a new set of powerful tools to optical communications and photonics. However, to separate hype from reality it is vital that such tools are evaluated properly and used judiciously.

    更新日期:2017-12-01
  • Accuracy boost
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-11-30
    Rachel Won

    Accuracy boost Accuracy boost, Published online: 30 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0065-4 Accuracy boost

    更新日期:2017-12-01
  • Plasmonic coupling at a metal/semiconductor interface
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-11-30
    Shijing Tan, Adam Argondizzo, Jindong Ren, Liming Liu, Jin Zhao, Hrvoje Petek

    Integrating plasmonic nanoparticles with semiconductor substrates introduces strong optical resonances that extend and enhance the spectrum of photocatalytic and photovoltaic activity. The effect of plasmonic resonances has been variously attributed to the field nanoconfinement, plasmon–exciton coupling, hot electron transfer, and so on, based on action spectra of enhanced photoactivity. It remains unclear, however, whether energized carriers in the substrate are generated by the transfer of plasmonically generated hot electrons from the metal, as broadly believed, or directly by dephasing of the plasmonic field at the interface. Here, we demonstrate the importance of the direct plasmonic coupling across the chemical interface for hot electron generation at a prototypical Ag nanocluster/TiO2 heterojunction by direct probing of the coherence and hot electron dynamics with two-photon photoemission spectroscopy. Energy, time and material distributions of excitations in the Ag nanocluster/TiO2 heterojunction indicate that dielectric coupling with the substrate renormalizes the plasmon resonance of the Ag nanoparticle, and its dephasing directly generates hot electrons in TiO2 on a <10 fs timescale.

    更新日期:2017-12-01
  • Gaining with loss
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-11-30
    Interview by David F. P. Pile

    Gaining with loss Gaining with loss, Published online: 30 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0060-9 Nature Photonics spoke to Demetrios Christodoulides, of CREOL, The College of Optics & Photonics, University of Central Florida, about the birth of the parity–time-symmetry concepts in optics and the challenges and prospects on the path ahead.

    更新日期:2017-12-01
  • Non-Hermitian photonics based on parity–time symmetry
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-11-30
    Liang Feng, Ramy El-Ganainy, Li Ge

    Nearly one century after the birth of quantum mechanics, parity–time symmetry is revolutionizing and extending quantum theories to include a unique family of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. While conceptually striking, experimental demonstration of parity–time symmetry remains unexplored in quantum electronic systems. The flexibility of photonics allows for creating and superposing non-Hermitian eigenstates with ease using optical gain and loss, which makes it an ideal platform to explore various non-Hermitian quantum symmetry paradigms for novel device functionalities. Such explorations that employ classical photonic platforms not only deepen our understanding of fundamental quantum physics but also facilitate technological breakthroughs for photonic applications. Research into non-Hermitian photonics therefore advances and benefits both fields simultaneously.

    更新日期:2017-12-01
  • Continuous-wave lasing in an organic–inorganic lead halide perovskite semiconductor
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Yufei Jia, Ross A. Kerner, Alex J. Grede, Barry P. Rand, Noel C. Giebink

    Hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites have emerged as promising gain media for tunable, solution-processed semiconductor lasers. However, continuous-wave operation has not been achieved so far1,2,3. Here, we demonstrate that optically pumped continuous-wave lasing can be sustained above threshold excitation intensities of ~17 kW cm–2 for over an hour in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) distributed feedback lasers that are maintained below the MAPbI3 tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition temperature of T ≈ 160 K. In contrast with the lasing death phenomenon that occurs for pure tetragonal-phase MAPbI3 at T > 160 K (ref. 4), we find that continuous-wave gain becomes possible at T ≈ 100 K from tetragonal-phase inclusions that are photogenerated by the pump within the normally existing, larger-bandgap orthorhombic host matrix. In this mixed-phase system, the tetragonal inclusions function as carrier recombination sinks that reduce the transparency threshold, in loose analogy to inorganic semiconductor quantum wells, and may serve as a model for engineering improved perovskite gain media.

    更新日期:2017-11-21
  • Publisher Correction: Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-11-16
    Hongtao Lin, Yi Song, Yizhong Huang, Derek Kita, Skylar Deckoff-Jones, Kaiqi Wang, Lan Li, Junying Li, Hanyu Zheng, Zhengqian Luo, Haozhe Wang, Spencer Novak, Anupama Yadav, Chung-Che Huang, Ren-Jye Shiue, Dirk Englund, Tian Gu, Daniel Hewak, Kathleen Richardson, Jing Kong, Juejun Hu

    Publisher Correction: Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics Publisher Correction: Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics, Published online: 16 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0066-3

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • Hard X-ray free-electron laser with femtosecond-scale timing jitter
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Heung-Sik Kang, Chang-Ki Min, Hoon Heo, Changbum Kim, Haeryong Yang, Gyujin Kim, Inhyuk Nam, Soung Youl Baek, Hyo-Jin Choi, Geonyeong Mun, Byoung Ryul Park, Young Jin Suh, Dong Cheol Shin, Jinyul Hu, Juho Hong, Seonghoon Jung, Sang-Hee Kim, KwangHoon Kim, Donghyun Na, Soung Soo Park, Yong Jung Park, Jang-Hui Han, Young Gyu Jung, Seong Hun Jeong, Hong Gi Lee, Sangbong Lee, Sojeong Lee, Woul-Woo Lee, Bonggi Oh, Hyung Suck Suh, Yong Woon Parc, Sung-Ju Park, Min Ho Kim, Nam-Suk Jung, Young-Chan Kim, Mong-Soo Lee, Bong-Ho Lee, Chi-Won Sung, Ik-Su Mok, Jung-Moo Yang, Chae-Soon Lee, Hocheol Shin, Ji Hwa Kim, Yongsam Kim, Jae Hyuk Lee, Sang-Youn Park, Jangwoo Kim, Jaeku Park, Intae Eom, Seungyu Rah, Sunam Kim, Ki Hyun Nam, Jaehyun Park, Jaehun Park, Sangsoo Kim, Soonam Kwon, Sang Han Park, Kyung Sook Kim, Hyojung Hyun, Seung Nam Kim, Seonghan Kim, Sun-min Hwang, Myong Jin Kim, Chae-yong Lim, Chung-Jong Yu, Bong-Soo Kim, Tai-Hee Kang, Kwang-Woo Kim, Seung-Hwan Kim, Hee-Seock Lee, Heun..

    The hard X-ray free-electron laser at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL-XFEL) in the Republic of Korea achieved saturation of a 0.144 nm free-electron laser beam on 27 November 2016, making it the third hard X-ray free-electron laser in the world, following the demonstrations of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free Electron Laser (SACLA). The use of electron-beam-based alignment incorporating undulator radiation spectrum analysis has allowed reliable operation of PAL-XFEL with unprecedented temporal stability and dispersion-free orbits. In particular, a timing jitter of just 20 fs for the free-electron laser photon beam is consistently achieved due to the use of a state-of-the-art design of the electron linear accelerator and electron-beam-based alignment. The low timing jitter of the electron beam makes it possible to observe Bi(111) phonon dynamics without the need for timing-jitter correction, indicating that PAL-XFEL will be an extremely useful tool for hard X-ray time-resolved experiments.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Long lifetimes and effective isolation of ions in optical and electrostatic traps
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Alexander Lambrecht, Julian Schmidt, Pascal Weckesser, Markus Debatin, Leon Karpa, Tobias Schaetz

    Long trapping times, as well as low heating and decoherence rates, essentially isolating individual particles from the environment, are crucial ingredients for controlling these particles on the quantum level1. Here, we demonstrate that optical trapping and isolation of ions can be performed on a level comparable to neutral atoms, boosting their lifetime by three orders of magnitude compared to previous work2,3, and measure an upper bound of the total heating rate. The achieved isolation from the environment opens a path to a novel regime of ultracold interactions of ions and atoms at previously inaccessible collision energies4,5,6 and may permit a novel class of experimental quantum simulations with ions and atoms in a variety of versatile optical trapping geometries7, for example, bichromatic traps or higher-dimensional optical lattices8,9.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Ions captured in the spotlight
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Dietrich Leibfried

    Ions captured in the spotlight Ions captured in the spotlight, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0036-9 NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup= Optical trapping of ions is relatively new and has been limited to a few milliseconds so far. Now researchers have trapped a single barium ion for several seconds, putting experiments with ultracold atoms and ions within reach. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • On our bookshelf
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31

    On our bookshelf On our bookshelf, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0035-x

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Practical photon counting
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Oliver Graydon

    Practical photon counting Practical photon counting, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0042-y

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Straightening light sheets
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Juan José Sáenz

    Straightening light sheets Straightening light sheets, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0039-6 NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup= Diffraction-free light-sheet beams, strongly confined in one axis, are typically thought to self-bend during propagation in free space and cannot be made flat. Now, diffraction-free planar light sheets in air have been realized by exploiting polychromatic pulsed beams. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Industry of the future
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Rachel Won

    Industry of the future Industry of the future, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0040-0 NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup= Giorgio Anania, the vice president of Photonics21 and CEO of Aledia, a French developer of GaN microwire LEDs, discusses the impact of the Photonics Public Private Partnership on jobs and growth in Europe and the importance of investing in future industries. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • A triumph of sensitivity
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31

    A triumph of sensitivity A triumph of sensitivity, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0046-7 NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup= The Nobel Prize-winning observation of gravitational waves has required laser interferometry to be pushed to extreme limits of sensitivity. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Hard X-ray free-electron laser with femtosecond-scale timing jitter
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Heung-Sik Kang, Chang-Ki Min, Hoon Heo, Changbum Kim, Haeryong Yang, Gyujin Kim, Inhyuk Nam, Soung Youl Baek, Hyo-Jin Choi, Geonyeong Mun, Byoung Ryul Park, Young Jin Suh, Dong Cheol Shin, Jinyul Hu, Juho Hong, Seonghoon Jung, Sang-Hee Kim, KwangHoon Kim, Donghyun Na, Soung Soo Park, Yong Jung Park, Jang-Hui Han, Young Gyu Jung, Seong Hun Jeong, Hong Gi Lee, Sangbong Lee, Sojeong Lee, Woul-Woo Lee, Bonggi Oh, Hyung Suck Suh, Yong Woon Parc, Sung-Ju Park, Min Ho Kim, Nam-Suk Jung, Young-Chan Kim, Mong-Soo Lee, Bong-Ho Lee, Chi-Won Sung, Ik-Su Mok, Jung-Moo Yang, Chae-Soon Lee, Hocheol Shin, Ji Hwa Kim, Yongsam Kim, Jae Hyuk Lee, Sang-Youn Park, Jangwoo Kim, Jaeku Park, Intae Eom, Seungyu Rah, Sunam Kim, Ki Hyun Nam, Jaehyun Park, Jaehun Park, Sangsoo Kim, Soonam Kwon, Sang Han Park, Kyung Sook Kim, Hyojung Hyun, Seung Nam Kim, Seonghan Kim, Sun-min Hwang, Myong Jin Kim, Chae-yong Lim, Chung-Jong Yu, Bong-Soo Kim, Tai-Hee Kang, Kwang-Woo Kim, Seung-Hwan Kim, Hee-Seock Lee, Heun..

    The hard X-ray free-electron laser at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL-XFEL) in the Republic of Korea achieved saturation of a 0.144 nm free-electron laser beam on 27 November 2016, making it the third hard X-ray free-electron laser in the world, following the demonstrations of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free Electron Laser (SACLA). The use of electron-beam-based alignment incorporating undulator radiation spectrum analysis has allowed reliable operation of PAL-XFEL with unprecedented temporal stability and dispersion-free orbits. In particular, a timing jitter of just 20 fs for the free-electron laser photon beam is consistently achieved due to the use of a state-of-the-art design of the electron linear accelerator and electron-beam-based alignment. The low timing jitter of the electron beam makes it possible to observe Bi(111) phonon dynamics without the need for timing-jitter correction, indicating that PAL-XFEL will be an extremely useful tool for hard X-ray time-resolved experiments.

    更新日期:2017-10-31
  • Long lifetimes and effective isolation of ions in optical and electrostatic traps
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Alexander Lambrecht, Julian Schmidt, Pascal Weckesser, Markus Debatin, Leon Karpa, Tobias Schaetz

    Long trapping times, as well as low heating and decoherence rates, essentially isolating individual particles from the environment, are crucial ingredients for controlling these particles on the quantum level1. Here, we demonstrate that optical trapping and isolation of ions can be performed on a level comparable to neutral atoms, boosting their lifetime by three orders of magnitude compared to previous work2,3, and measure an upper bound of the total heating rate. The achieved isolation from the environment opens a path to a novel regime of ultracold interactions of ions and atoms at previously inaccessible collision energies4,5,6 and may permit a novel class of experimental quantum simulations with ions and atoms in a variety of versatile optical trapping geometries7, for example, bichromatic traps or higher-dimensional optical lattices8,9.

    更新日期:2017-10-31
  • Ions captured in the spotlight
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Dietrich Leibfried

    Ions captured in the spotlight Nature Photonics, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0036-9 Optical trapping of ions is relatively new and has been limited to a few milliseconds so far. Now researchers have trapped a single barium ion for several seconds, putting experiments with ultracold atoms and ions within reach.

    更新日期:2017-10-31
  • On our bookshelf
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31

    On our bookshelf Nature Photonics, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0035-x

    更新日期:2017-10-31
  • Practical photon counting
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Oliver Graydon

    Practical photon counting Nature Photonics, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0042-y

    更新日期:2017-10-31
  • Straightening light sheets
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Juan José Sáenz

    Straightening light sheets Nature Photonics, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0039-6 Diffraction-free light-sheet beams, strongly confined in one axis, are typically thought to self-bend during propagation in free space and cannot be made flat. Now, diffraction-free planar light sheets in air have been realized by exploiting polychromatic pulsed beams.

    更新日期:2017-10-31
  • Industry of the future
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Rachel Won

    Industry of the future Nature Photonics, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0040-0 Giorgio Anania, the vice president of Photonics21 and CEO of Aledia, a French developer of GaN microwire LEDs, discusses the impact of the Photonics Public Private Partnership on jobs and growth in Europe and the importance of investing in future industries.

    更新日期:2017-10-31
  • A triumph of sensitivity
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31

    A triumph of sensitivity Nature Photonics, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0046-7 The Nobel Prize-winning observation of gravitational waves has required laser interferometry to be pushed to extreme limits of sensitivity.

    更新日期:2017-10-31
  • Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Hongtao Lin, Yi Song, Yizhong Huang, Derek Kita, Skylar Deckoff-Jones, Kaiqi Wang, Lan Li, Junying Li, Hanyu Zheng, Zhengqian Luo, Haozhe Wang, Spencer Novak, Anupama Yadav, Chung-Che Huang, Ren-Jye Shiue, Dirk Englund, Tian Gu, Daniel Hewak, Kathleen Richardson, Jing Kong, Juejun Hu

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are of tremendous interest to integrated photonics, given their singular optical characteristics spanning light emission, modulation, saturable absorption and nonlinear optics. To harness their optical properties, these atomically thin materials are usually attached onto prefabricated devices via a transfer process. Here, we present a new route for 2D material integration with planar photonics. Central to this approach is the use of chalcogenide glass, a multifunctional material that can be directly deposited and patterned on a wide variety of 2D materials and can simultaneously function as the light-guiding medium, a gate dielectric and a passivation layer for 2D materials. Besides achieving improved fabrication yield and throughput compared with the traditional transfer process, our technique also enables unconventional multilayer device geometries optimally designed for enhancing light–matter interactions in the 2D layers. Capitalizing on this facile integration method, we demonstrate a series of high-performance glass-on-graphene devices including ultra-broadband on-chip polarizers, energy-efficient thermo-optic switches, as well as graphene-based mid-infrared waveguide-integrated photodetectors and modulators.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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