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  • Vacuum Bloch–Siegert shift in Landau polaritons with ultra-high cooperativity
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-04-16
    Xinwei Li, Motoaki Bamba, Qi Zhang, Saeed Fallahi, Geoff C. Gardner, Weilu Gao, Minhan Lou, Katsumasa Yoshioka, Michael J. Manfra, Junichiro Kono

    A two-level system resonantly interacting with an a.c. magnetic or electric field constitutes the physical basis of diverse phenomena and technologies. However, Schrödinger’s equation for this seemingly simple system can be solved exactly only under the rotating-wave approximation, which neglects the counter-rotating field component. When the a.c. field is sufficiently strong, this approximation fails, leading to a resonance-frequency shift known as the Bloch–Siegert shift. Here, we report the vacuum Bloch–Siegert shift, which is induced by the ultra-strong coupling of matter with the counter-rotating component of the vacuum fluctuation field in a cavity. Specifically, an ultra-high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas inside a high-Q terahertz cavity in a quantizing magnetic field revealed ultra-narrow Landau polaritons, which exhibited a vacuum Bloch–Siegert shift up to 40 GHz. This shift, clearly distinguishable from the photon-field self-interaction effect, represents a unique manifestation of a strong-field phenomenon without a strong field.

    更新日期:2018-04-17
  • Giant collimated gamma-ray flashes
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-04-16
    Alberto Benedetti, Matteo Tamburini, Christoph H. Keitel

    Bright sources of high-energy electromagnetic radiation are widely employed in fundamental research, industry and medicine1,2. This motivated the construction of Compton-based facilities planned to yield bright gamma-ray pulses with energies up to3 20 MeV. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism based on the strongly amplified synchrotron emission that occurs when a sufficiently dense ultra-relativistic electron beam interacts with a millimetre-thickness conductor. For electron beam densities exceeding approximately 3 × 1019 cm−3, electromagnetic instabilities occur, and the ultra-relativistic electrons travel through self-generated electromagnetic fields as large as 107–108 gauss. This results in the production of a collimated gamma-ray pulse with peak brilliance above 1025 photons s−1 mrad−2 mm−2 per 0.1% bandwidth, photon energies ranging from 200 keV to gigaelectronvolts and up to 60% electron-to-photon energy conversion efficiency. These findings pave the way to compact, high-repetition-rate (kilohertz) sources of short (≲30 fs), collimated (milliradian) and high-flux (>1012 photons s−1) gamma-ray pulses.

    更新日期:2018-04-17
  • Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-04-16
    Hairun Guo, Clemens Herkommer, Adrien Billat, Davide Grassani, Chuankun Zhang, Martin H. P. Pfeiffer, Wenle Weng, Camille-Sophie Brès, Tobias J. Kippenberg

    Mid-infrared optical frequency combs are of significant interest for molecular spectroscopy due to the large absorption of molecular vibrational modes on the one hand, and the ability to implement superior comb-based spectroscopic modalities with increased speed, sensitivity and precision on the other hand. Here, we demonstrate a simple, yet effective, method for the direct generation of mid-infrared optical frequency combs in the region from 2.5 to 4.0 μm (that is, 2,500–4,000 cm−1), covering a large fraction of the functional group region, from a conventional and compact erbium-fibre-based femtosecond laser in the telecommunication band (that is, 1.55 μm). The wavelength conversion is based on dispersive wave generation within the supercontinuum process in an unprecedented large-cross-section silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguide with the dispersion lithographically engineered. The long-wavelength dispersive wave can perform as a mid-infrared frequency comb, whose coherence is demonstrated via optical heterodyne measurements. Such an approach can be considered as an alternative option to mid-infrared frequency comb generation. Moreover, it has the potential to realize compact dual-comb spectrometers. The generated combs also have a fine teeth-spacing, making them suitable for gas-phase analysis.

    更新日期:2018-04-17
  • Author Correction: Single-molecule imaging by optical absorption
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-04-12
    Michele Celebrano, Philipp Kukura, Alois Renn, Vahid Sandoghdar

    Author Correction: Single-molecule imaging by optical absorption Author Correction: Single-molecule imaging by optical absorption, Published online: 12 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0159-7 Author Correction: Single-molecule imaging by optical absorption

    更新日期:2018-04-12
  • Hydroxypropyl cellulose photonic architectures by soft nanoimprinting lithography
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-04-09
    André Espinha, Camilla Dore, Cristiano Matricardi, Maria Isabel Alonso, Alejandro R. Goñi, Agustín Mihi

    As contamination and environmental degradation increase, there is a huge demand for new eco-friendly materials. Despite its use for thousands of years, cellulose and its derivatives have gained renewed interest as favourable alternatives to conventional plastics, due to their abundance and lower environmental impact. Here, we report the fabrication of photonic and plasmonic structures by moulding hydroxypropyl cellulose into submicrometric periodic lattices, using soft lithography. This is an alternative way to achieve structural colour in this material, which is usually obtained by exploiting its chiral nematic phase. Cellulose-based photonic crystals are biocompatible and can be dissolved in water or not depending on the derivative employed. Patterned cellulose membranes exhibit tunable colours and may be used to boost the photoluminescence of a host organic dye. Furthermore, we show how metal coating these cellulose photonic architectures leads to plasmonic crystals with excellent optical properties acting as disposable surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates.

    更新日期:2018-04-10
  • Improved photovoltaic performance from inorganic perovskite oxide thin films with mixed crystal phases
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-04-09
    Joyprokash Chakrabartty, Catalin Harnagea, Mert Celikin, Federico Rosei, Riad Nechache

    Inorganic ferroelectric perovskites are attracting attention for the realization of highly stable photovoltaic cells with large open-circuit voltages. However, the power conversion efficiencies of devices have been limited so far. Here, we report a power conversion efficiency of ~4.20% under 1 sun illumination from Bi–Mn–O composite thin films with mixed BiMnO3 and BiMn2O5 crystal phases. We show that the photocurrent density and photovoltage mainly develop across grain boundaries and interfaces rather than within the grains. We also experimentally demonstrate that the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit photocurrent measured in the films are tunable by varying the electrical resistance of the device, which in turn is controlled by externally applying voltage pulses. The exploitation of multifunctional properties of composite oxides provides an alternative route towards achieving highly stable, high-efficiency photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    更新日期:2018-04-10
  • Segmented terahertz electron accelerator and manipulator (STEAM)
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-04-02
    Dongfang Zhang, Arya Fallahi, Michael Hemmer, Xiaojun Wu, Moein Fakhari, Yi Hua, Huseyin Cankaya, Anne-Laure Calendron, Luis E. Zapata, Nicholas H. Matlis, Franz X. Kärtner

    Acceleration and manipulation of electron bunches underlie most electron and X-ray devices used for ultrafast imaging and spectroscopy. New terahertz-driven concepts offer orders-of-magnitude improvements in field strengths, field gradients, laser synchronization and compactness relative to conventional radiofrequency devices, enabling shorter electron bunches and higher resolution with less infrastructure while maintaining high charge capacities (pC), repetition rates (kHz) and stability. We present a segmented terahertz electron accelerator and manipulator (STEAM) capable of performing multiple high-field operations on the six-dimensional phase space of ultrashort electron bunches. With this single device, powered by few-microjoule, single-cycle, 0.3 THz pulses, we demonstrate record terahertz acceleration of >30 keV, streaking with <10 fs resolution, focusing with >2 kT m–1 strength, compression to ~100 fs as well as real-time switching between these modes of operation. The STEAM device demonstrates the feasibility of terahertz-based electron accelerators, manipulators and diagnostic tools, enabling science beyond current resolution frontiers with transformative impact.

    更新日期:2018-04-03
  • Fibre multi-wave mixing combs reveal the broken symmetry of Fermi–Pasta–Ulam recurrence
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-04-02
    Arnaud Mussot, Corentin Naveau, Matteo Conforti, Alexandre Kudlinski, Francois Copie, Pascal Szriftgiser, Stefano Trillo

    In optical fibres, weak modulations can grow at the expense of a strong pump to form a triangular comb of sideband pairs, until the process is reversed. Repeated cycles of such conversion and back-conversion constitute a manifestation of the universal nonlinear phenomenon known as Fermi–Pasta–Ulam recurrence. However, it remains a major challenge to observe the coexistence of different types of recurrences owing to the spontaneous symmetry-breaking nature of such a phenomenon. Here, we implement a novel non-destructive technique that allows the evolution in amplitude and phase of frequency modes to be reconstructed via post-processing of the fibre backscattered light. We clearly observe how control of the input modulation seed results in different recursive behaviours emerging from the phase-space structure dictated by the spontaneously broken symmetry. The proposed technique is an important tool to characterize other mixing processes and new regimes of rogue-wave formation and wave turbulence in fibre optics.

    更新日期:2018-04-03
  • Giant lasers in the US threatened with closure
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-29

    Giant lasers in the US threatened with closure Giant lasers in the US threatened with closure, Published online: 29 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0158-8 Pressure on the US Department of Energy’s budget could see the Omega and Nike laser facilities being axed.

    更新日期:2018-03-30
  • On our bookshelf
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-29

    On our bookshelf On our bookshelf, Published online: 29 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0140-5 On our bookshelf

    更新日期:2018-03-30
  • Thermoelectric fields hold nanoparticles
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-29
    Frank Cichos

    Thermoelectric fields hold nanoparticles Thermoelectric fields hold nanoparticles, Published online: 29 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0143-2 Optical trapping of metal nanoparticles with conventional ‘tweezers’ can be challenging due to absorption and heating. Now, an opto-thermoelectric trapping approach that exploits heating has been demonstrated.

    更新日期:2018-03-30
  • On-chip spectroscopy
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-29
    Oliver Graydon

    On-chip spectroscopy On-chip spectroscopy, Published online: 29 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0149-9 On-chip spectroscopy

    更新日期:2018-03-30
  • Topological data analysis
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-29
    Oliver Graydon

    Topological data analysis Topological data analysis, Published online: 29 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0148-x Topological data analysis

    更新日期:2018-03-30
  • Optical spin transfer
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-29
    Noriaki Horiuchi

    Optical spin transfer Optical spin transfer, Published online: 29 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0150-3 Optical spin transfer

    更新日期:2018-03-30
  • The complete optical oscilloscope
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-29
    Cheng Lei, Keisuke Goda

    The complete optical oscilloscope The complete optical oscilloscope, Published online: 29 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0141-4 Observing ultrafast transient dynamics in optics is a challenging task. Two teams in Europe have now independently developed ‘optical oscilloscopes’ that can capture both amplitude and phase information of ultrafast optical signals. Their schemes yield new insights into the nonlinear physics that takes place inside optical fibres.

    更新日期:2018-03-30
  • Broadband absorption
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-29
    David F. P. Pile

    Broadband absorption Broadband absorption, Published online: 29 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0146-z Broadband absorption

    更新日期:2018-03-30
  • In situ 3D nanoprinting of free-form coupling elements for hybrid photonic integration
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    P.-I. Dietrich, M. Blaicher, I. Reuter, M. Billah, T. Hoose, A. Hofmann, C. Caer, R. Dangel, B. Offrein, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, W. Freude, C. Koos

    Hybrid photonic integration combines complementary advantages of different material platforms, offering superior performance and flexibility compared with monolithic approaches. This applies in particular to multi-chip concepts, where components can be individually optimized and tested. The assembly of such systems, however, requires expensive high-precision alignment and adaptation of optical mode profiles. We show that these challenges can be overcome by in situ printing of facet-attached beam-shaping elements. Our approach allows precise adaptation of vastly dissimilar mode profiles and permits alignment tolerances compatible with cost-efficient passive assembly techniques. We demonstrate a selection of beam-shaping elements at chip and fibre facets, achieving coupling efficiencies of up to 88% between edge-emitting lasers and single-mode fibres. We also realize printed free-form mirrors that simultaneously adapt beam shape and propagation direction, and we explore multi-lens systems for beam expansion. The concept paves the way to automated assembly of photonic multi-chip systems with unprecedented performance and versatility.

    更新日期:2018-03-26
  • High-harmonic spectroscopy of ultrafast many-body dynamics in strongly correlated systems
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    R. E. F. Silva, Igor V. Blinov, Alexey N. Rubtsov, O. Smirnova, M. Ivanov

    We bring together two topics that, until now, have been the focus of intense but non-overlapping research efforts. The first concerns high-harmonic generation in solids, which occurs when an intense light field excites a highly non-equilibrium electronic response in a semiconductor or a dielectric. The second concerns many-body dynamics in strongly correlated systems such as the Mott insulator. We show that high-harmonic generation can be used to time-resolve ultrafast many-body dynamics associated with an optically driven phase transition, with accuracy far exceeding one cycle of the driving light field. Our work paves the way for time-resolving highly non-equilibrium many-body dynamics in strongly correlated systems, with few femtosecond accuracy.

    更新日期:2018-03-26
  • Opto-thermoelectric nanotweezers
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Linhan Lin, Mingsong Wang, Xiaolei Peng, Emanuel N. Lissek, Zhangming Mao, Leonardo Scarabelli, Emily Adkins, Sahin Coskun, Husnu Emrah Unalan, Brian A. Korgel, Luis M. Liz-Marzán, Ernst-Ludwig Florin, Yuebing Zheng

    Optical manipulation of plasmonic nanoparticles provides opportunities for fundamental and technical innovation in nanophotonics. Optical heating arising from the photon-to-phonon conversion is considered as an intrinsic loss in metal nanoparticles, which limits their applications. We show here that this drawback can be turned into an advantage, by developing an extremely low-power optical tweezing technique, termed opto-thermoelectric nanotweezers. By optically heating a thermoplasmonic substrate, a light-directed thermoelectric field can be generated due to spatial separation of dissolved ions within the heating laser spot, which allows us to manipulate metal nanoparticles of a wide range of materials, sizes and shapes with single-particle resolution. In combination with dark-field optical imaging, nanoparticles can be selectively trapped and their spectroscopic response can be resolved in situ. With its simple optics, versatile low-power operation, applicability to diverse nanoparticles and tunable working wavelength, opto-thermoelectric nanotweezers will become a powerful tool in colloid science and nanotechnology.

    更新日期:2018-03-26
  • Focusing of light energy inside a scattering medium by controlling the time-gated multiple light scattering
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Seungwon Jeong, Ye-Ryoung Lee, Wonjun Choi, Sungsam Kang, Jin Hee Hong, Jin-Sung Park, Yong-Sik Lim, Hong-Gyu Park, Wonshik Choi

    The efficient delivery of light energy is a prerequisite for the non-invasive imaging and stimulating of target objects embedded deep within a scattering medium. However, the injected waves experience random diffusion by multiple light scattering, and only a small fraction reaches the target object. Here, we present a method to counteract wave diffusion and to focus multiple-scattered waves at the deeply embedded target. To realize this, we experimentally inject light into the reflection eigenchannels of a specific flight time to preferably enhance the intensity of those multiple-scattered waves that have interacted with the target object. For targets that are too deep to be visible by optical imaging, we demonstrate a more than tenfold enhancement in light energy delivery in comparison with ordinary wave diffusion cases. This work will lay a foundation to enhance the working depth of imaging, sensing and light stimulation.

    更新日期:2018-03-26
  • Massively parallel sensing of trace molecules and their isotopologues with broadband subharmonic mid-infrared frequency combs
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    A. V. Muraviev, V. O. Smolski, Z. E. Loparo, K. L. Vodopyanov

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy offers supreme sensitivity for the detection of trace gases, solids and liquids based on tell-tale vibrational bands specific to this spectral region. Here, we present a new platform for mid-infrared dual-comb Fourier-transform spectroscopy based on a pair of ultra-broadband subharmonic optical parametric oscillators pumped by two phase-locked thulium-fibre combs. Our system provides fast (7 ms for a single interferogram), moving-parts-free, simultaneous acquisition of 350,000 spectral data points, spaced by a 115 MHz intermodal interval over the 3.1–5.5 µm spectral range. Parallel detection of 22 trace molecular species in a gas mixture, including isotopologues containing isotopes such as 13C, 18O, 17O, 15N, 34S, 33S and deuterium, with part-per-billion sensitivity and sub-Doppler resolution is demonstrated. The technique also features absolute optical frequency referencing to an atomic clock, a high degree of mutual coherence between the two mid-infrared combs with a relative comb-tooth linewidth of 25 mHz, coherent averaging and feasibility for kilohertz-scale spectral resolution.

    更新日期:2018-03-26
  • High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 μm
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-19
    Gabriel Ycas, Fabrizio R. Giorgetta, Esther Baumann, Ian Coddington, Daniel Herman, Scott A. Diddams, Nathan R. Newbury

    Mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy has the potential to supplant conventional Fourier-transform spectroscopy in applications requiring high resolution, accuracy, signal-to-noise ratio and speed. Until now, mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy has been limited to narrow optical bandwidths or low signal-to-noise ratios. Using digital signal processing and broadband frequency conversion in waveguides, we demonstrate a mid-infrared dual-comb spectrometer covering 2.6 to 5.2 µm with comb-tooth resolution, sub-MHz frequency precision and accuracy, and a spectral signal-to-noise ratio as high as 6,500. As a demonstration, we measure the highly structured, broadband cross-section of propane from 2,840 to 3,040 cm−1, the complex phase/amplitude spectra of carbonyl sulfide from 2,000 to 2,100 cm−1, and of a methane, acetylene and ethane mixture from 2,860 to 3,400 cm−1. The combination of broad bandwidth, comb-mode resolution and high brightness will enable accurate mid-infrared spectroscopy in precision laboratory experiments and non-laboratory applications including open-path atmospheric gas sensing, process monitoring and combustion.

    更新日期:2018-03-20
  • Bridging ultrahigh-Q devices and photonic circuits
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-19
    Ki Youl Yang, Dong Yoon Oh, Seung Hoon Lee, Qi-Fan Yang, Xu Yi, Boqiang Shen, Heming Wang, Kerry Vahala

    Optical microresonators are essential to a broad range of technologies and scientific disciplines. However, many of their applications rely on discrete devices to attain challenging combinations of ultra-low-loss performance (ultrahigh Q) and resonator design requirements. This prevents access to scalable fabrication methods for photonic integration and lithographic feature control. Indeed, finding a microfabrication bridge that connects ultrahigh-Q device functions with photonic circuits is a priority of the microcavity field. Here, an integrated resonator having a record Q factor over 200 million is presented. Its ultra-low-loss and flexible cavity design brings performance to integrated systems that has been the exclusive domain of discrete silica and crystalline microcavity devices. Two distinctly different devices are demonstrated: soliton sources with electronic repetition rates and high-coherence/low-threshold Brillouin lasers. This multi-device capability and performance from a single integrated cavity platform represents a critical advance for future photonic circuits and systems.

    更新日期:2018-03-20
  • Spatiotemporal control of laser intensity
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Dustin H. Froula, David Turnbull, Andrew S. Davies, Terrance J. Kessler, Dan Haberberger, John P. Palastro, Seung-Whan Bahk, Ildar A. Begishev, Robert Boni, Sara Bucht, Joseph Katz, Jessica L. Shaw

    The controlled coupling of a laser to plasma has the potential to address grand scientific challenges1,2,3,4,5,6, but many applications have limited flexibility and poor control over the laser focal volume. Here, we present an advanced focusing scheme called a ‘flying focus’, where a chromatic focusing system combined with chirped laser pulses enables a small-diameter laser focus to propagate nearly 100 times its Rayleigh length. Furthermore, the speed at which the focus moves (and hence the peak intensity) is decoupled from the group velocity of the laser. It can co- or counter-propagate along the laser axis at any velocity. Experiments validating the concept measured subluminal (−0.09c) to superluminal (39c) focal-spot velocities, generating a nearly constant peak intensity over 4.5 mm. Among possible applications, the flying focus could be applied to a photon accelerator7 to mitigate dephasing, facilitating the production of tunable XUV sources.

    更新日期:2018-03-13
  • Single-shot measurement of phase and amplitude by using a heterodyne time-lens system and ultrafast digital time-holography
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Alexey Tikan, Serge Bielawski, Christophe Szwaj, Stéphane Randoux, Pierre Suret

    Temporal imaging systems are outstanding tools for single-shot observation of optical signals that have irregular and ultrafast dynamics. They allow long time windows to be recorded with femtosecond resolution, and do not rely on complex algorithms. However, simultaneous recording of amplitude and phase remains an open challenge for these systems. Here, we present a new heterodyne time-lens arrangement that efficiently records both the amplitude and phase of complex and random signals over large temporal windows (tens of picoseconds). Phase and time are encoded onto the two spatial dimensions of a camera. We implement this phase-sensitive time-lens system in two configurations: a time microscope and a digital temporal-holography device that enables single-shot measurement with a temporal resolution of ~80 fs. We demonstrate direct application of our heterodyne time-lens to turbulent-like optical fields and optical rogue waves generated from nonlinear propagation of partially coherent waves inside optical fibres.

    更新日期:2018-03-13
  • Ultimate waveform reproducibility of extreme-ultraviolet pulses by high-harmonic generation in quartz
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    M. Garg, H. Y. Kim, E. Goulielmakis

    Optical waveforms of light reproducible with subcycle precision underlie applications of lasers in ultrafast spectroscopies, quantum control of matter and light-based signal processing. Nonlinear upconversion of optical pulses via high-harmonic generation in gas media extends these capabilities to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). However, the waveform reproducibility of the generated EUV pulses in gases is inherently sensitive to intensity and phase fluctuations of the driving field. We used photoelectron interferometry to study the effects of intensity and carrier-envelope phase of an intense single-cycle optical pulse on the field waveform of EUV pulses generated in quartz nanofilms, and contrasted the results with those obtained in gas argon. The EUV waveforms generated in quartz were found to be virtually immune to the intensity and phase of the driving field, implying a non-recollisional character of the underlying emission mechanism. Waveform-sensitive photonic applications and precision measurements of fundamental processes in optics will benefit from these findings.

    更新日期:2018-03-13
  • Diboron compound-based organic light-emitting diodes with high efficiency and reduced efficiency roll-off
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-05
    Tien-Lin Wu, Min-Jie Huang, Chih-Chun Lin, Pei-Yun Huang, Tsu-Yu Chou, Ren-Wu Chen-Cheng, Hao-Wu Lin, Rai-Shung Liu, Chien-Hong Cheng

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials are promising for the realization of highly efficient light emitters. However, such devices have so far suffered from efficiency roll-off at high luminance. Here, we report the design and synthesis of two diboron-based molecules, CzDBA and tBuCzDBA, which show excellent TADF properties and yield efficient OLEDs with very low efficiency roll-off. These donor–acceptor–donor (D–A–D) type and rod-like compounds concurrently generate TADF with a photoluminescence quantum yield of ~100% and an 84% horizontal dipole ratio in the thin film. A green OLED based on CzDBA exhibits a high external quantum efficiency of 37.8 ± 0.6%, a current efficiency of 139.6 ± 2.8 cd A−1 and a power efficiency of 121.6 ± 3.1 lm W−1 with an efficiency roll-off of only 0.3% at 1,000 cd m−2. The device has a peak emission wavelength of 528 nm and colour coordinates of the Commission International de l´Eclairage (CIE) of (0.31, 0.61), making it attractive for colour-display applications.

    更新日期:2018-03-06
  • Real-time full-field characterization of transient dissipative soliton dynamics in a mode-locked laser
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-05
    P. Ryczkowski, M. Närhi, C. Billet, J.-M. Merolla, G. Genty, J. M. Dudley

    Dissipative solitons are remarkably localized states of a physical system that arise from the dynamical balance between nonlinearity, dispersion and environmental energy exchange. They are the most universal form of soliton that can exist, and are seen in far-from-equilibrium systems in many fields, including chemistry, biology and physics. There has been particular interest in studying their properties in mode-locked lasers, but experiments have been limited by the inability to track the dynamical soliton evolution in real time. Here, we use simultaneous dispersive Fourier transform and time-lens measurements to completely characterize the spectral and temporal evolution of ultrashort dissipative solitons as their dynamics pass through a transient unstable regime with complex break-up and collisions before stabilization. Further insight is obtained from reconstruction of the soliton amplitude and phase and calculation of the corresponding complex-valued eigenvalue spectrum. These findings show how real-time measurements provide new insights into ultrafast transient dynamics in optics.

    更新日期:2018-03-06
  • Attosecond time–energy structure of X-ray free-electron laser pulses
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-03-05
    N. Hartmann, G. Hartmann, R. Heider, M. S. Wagner, M. Ilchen, J. Buck, A. O. Lindahl, C. Benko, J. Grünert, J. Krzywinski, J. Liu, A. A. Lutman, A. Marinelli, T. Maxwell, A. A. Miahnahri, S. P. Moeller, M. Planas, J. Robinson, A. K. Kazansky, N. M. Kabachnik, J. Viefhaus, T. Feurer, R. Kienberger, R. N. Coffee, W. Helml

    The time–energy information of ultrashort X-ray free-electron laser pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source is measured with attosecond resolution via angular streaking of neon 1s photoelectrons. The X-ray pulses promote electrons from the neon core level into an ionization continuum, where they are dressed with the electric field of a circularly polarized infrared laser. This induces characteristic modulations of the resulting photoelectron energy and angular distribution. From these modulations we recover the single-shot attosecond intensity structure and chirp of arbitrary X-ray pulses based on self-amplified spontaneous emission, which have eluded direct measurement so far. We characterize individual attosecond pulses, including their instantaneous frequency, and identify double pulses with well-defined delays and spectral properties, thus paving the way for X-ray pump/X-ray probe attosecond free-electron laser science.

    更新日期:2018-03-06
  • Nanocrystals feel the heat
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-02-26
    Liangliang Liang, Xiaogang Liu

    Nanocrystals feel the heat Nanocrystals feel the heat, Published online: 26 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0117-4 Phosphors often suffer luminescence quenching at elevated temperatures. Now, thermal quenching can be combated with surface phonon-assisted energy transfer, enabling the luminescence of ultrasmall upconversion nanophosphors to be dramatically enhanced.

    更新日期:2018-02-27
  • Bright colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes enabled by efficient chlorination
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-02-26
    Xiyan Li, Yong-Biao Zhao, Fengjia Fan, Larissa Levina, Min Liu, Rafael Quintero-Bermudez, Xiwen Gong, Li Na Quan, James Fan, Zhenyu Yang, Sjoerd Hoogland, Oleksandr Voznyy, Zheng-Hong Lu, Edward H. Sargent

    The external quantum efficiencies of state-of-the-art colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) are now approaching the limit set by the out-coupling efficiency. However, the brightness of these devices is constrained by the use of poorly conducting emitting layers, a consequence of the present-day reliance on long-chain organic capping ligands. Here, we report how conductive and passivating halides can be implemented in Zn chalcogenide-shelled colloidal quantum dots to enable high-brightness green QLEDs. We use a surface management reagent, thionyl chloride (SOCl2), to chlorinate the carboxylic group of oleic acid and graft the surfaces of the colloidal quantum dots with passivating chloride anions. This results in devices with an improved mobility that retain high external quantum efficiencies in the high-injection-current region and also feature a reduced turn-on voltage of 2.5 V. The treated QLEDs operate with a brightness of 460,000 cd m−2, significantly exceeding that of all previously reported solution-processed LEDs.

    更新日期:2018-02-27
  • Versatile plasmomechanical systems
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-02-26
    Rachel Won

    Versatile plasmomechanical systems Versatile plasmomechanical systems, Published online: 26 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0124-5 Versatile plasmomechanical systems

    更新日期:2018-02-27
  • Giant multiphoton absorption for THz resonances in silicon hydrogenic donors
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-02-26
    M. A. W. van Loon, N. Stavrias, Nguyen H. Le, K. L. Litvinenko, P. T. Greenland, C. R. Pidgeon, K. Saeedi, B. Redlich, G. Aeppli, B. N. Murdin

    The absorption of multiple photons when there is no resonant intermediate state is a well-known nonlinear process in atomic vapours, dyes and semiconductors. The N-photon absorption (NPA) rate for donors in semiconductors scales proportionally from hydrogenic atoms in vacuum with the dielectric constant and inversely with the effective mass, factors that carry exponents 6N and 4N, respectively, suggesting that extremely large enhancements are possible. We observed 1PA, 2PA and 3PA in Si:P with a terahertz free-electron laser. The 2PA coefficient for 1s–2s at 4.25 THz was 400,000,000 GM (=4 × 10−42 cm4 s), many orders of magnitude larger than is available in other systems. Such high cross-sections allow us to enter a regime where the NPA cross-section exceeds that of 1PA—that is, when the intensity approaches the binding energy per Bohr radius squared divided by the uncertainty time (only 3.84 MW cm−2 in silicon)—and will enable new kinds of terahertz quantum control.

    更新日期:2018-02-27
  • Keeping up standards
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-02-26

    Keeping up standards Keeping up standards, Published online: 26 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0131-6 Scientific claims, particularly those related to devices, are often backed up by standardized characterization. In fields without accepted standards, is it beneficial to strive to establish them?

    更新日期:2018-02-27
  • Breaking symmetry
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-02-26
    Noriaki Horiuchi

    Breaking symmetry Breaking symmetry, Published online: 26 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0127-2 Breaking symmetry

    更新日期:2018-02-27
  • Terahertz surprises
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-02-26
    Noriaki Horiuchi

    Terahertz surprises Terahertz surprises, Published online: 26 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0115-6 The observation of terahertz nonlinearities in graphene and quantum wells and the emission of terahertz waves from water show that terahertz science is still a fertile area of research that is full of surprises.

    更新日期:2018-02-27
  • On our bookshelf
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-02-26

    On our bookshelf On our bookshelf, Published online: 26 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0122-7 On our bookshelf

    更新日期:2018-02-27
  • Experimental statistical signature of many-body quantum interference
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-02-19
    Taira Giordani, Fulvio Flamini, Matteo Pompili, Niko Viggianiello, Nicolò Spagnolo, Andrea Crespi, Roberto Osellame, Nathan Wiebe, Mattia Walschaers, Andreas Buchleitner, Fabio Sciarrino

    Multi-particle interference is an essential ingredient for fundamental quantum mechanics phenomena and for quantum information processing to provide a computational advantage, as recently emphasized by boson sampling experiments. Hence, developing a reliable and efficient technique to witness its presence is pivotal in achieving the practical implementation of quantum technologies. Here, we experimentally identify genuine many-body quantum interference via a recent efficient protocol, which exploits statistical signatures at the output of a multimode quantum device. We successfully apply the test to validate three-photon experiments in an integrated photonic circuit, providing an extensive analysis on the resources required to perform it. Moreover, drawing upon established techniques of machine learning, we show how such tools help to identify the—a priori unknown—optimal features to witness these signatures. Our results provide evidence on the efficacy and feasibility of the method, paving the way for its adoption in large-scale implementations.

    更新日期:2018-02-21
  • Activation of the surface dark-layer to enhance upconversion in a thermal field
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-02-12
    Jiajia Zhou, Shihui Wen, Jiayan Liao, Christian Clarke, Sherif Abdulkader Tawfik, Wei Ren, Chao Mi, Fan Wang, Dayong Jin

    Thermal quenching, in which light emission experiences a loss with increasing temperature, broadly limits luminescent efficiency at higher temperature in optical materials, such as lighting phosphors1,2,3 and fluorescent probes4,5,6. Thermal quenching is commonly caused by the increased activity of phonons that leverages the non-radiative relaxation pathways. Here, we report a kind of heat-favourable phonons existing at the surface of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanomaterials to combat thermal quenching. It favours energy transfer from sensitizers to activators to pump up the intermediate excited-state upconversion process. We identify that the oxygen moiety chelating Yb3+ ions, [Yb···O], is the key underpinning this enhancement. We demonstrate an approximately 2,000-fold enhancement in blue emission for 9.7 nm Yb3+-Tm3+ co-doped nanoparticles at 453 K. This strategy not only provides a powerful solution to illuminate the dark layer of ultra-small upconversion nanoparticles, but also suggests a new pathway to build high-efficiency upconversion systems.

    更新日期:2018-02-13
  • Dark exciton study
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-26
    Noriaki Horiuchi

    Dark exciton study Dark exciton study, Published online: 26 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0101-z Dark exciton study

    更新日期:2018-01-30
  • Large magneto-optical Kerr effect and imaging of magnetic octupole domains in an antiferromagnetic metal
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-26
    Tomoya Higo, Huiyuan Man, Daniel B. Gopman, Liang Wu, Takashi Koretsune, Olaf M. J. van ’t Erve, Yury P. Kabanov, Dylan Rees, Yufan Li, Michi-To Suzuki, Shreyas Patankar, Muhammad Ikhlas, C. L. Chien, Ryotaro Arita, Robert D. Shull, Joseph Orenstein, Satoru Nakatsuji

    The magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) has been intensively studied in a variety of ferro- and ferrimagnetic materials as a powerful probe for electronic and magnetic properties1,2,3 and for magneto-optical technologies4. The MOKE can be additionally useful for the investigation of the antiferromagnetic (AF) state, although thus far limited to insulators5,6,7,8,9. Here, we report the first observation of the MOKE in an AF metal. In particular, we find that the non-collinear AF metal Mn3Sn (ref. 10) exhibits a large zero-field Kerr rotation angle of 20 mdeg at room temperature, comparable to ferromagnetic metals. Our first-principles calculations clarify that ferroic ordering of magnetic octupoles11 produces a large MOKE even in its fully compensated AF state. This large MOKE further allows imaging of the magnetic octupole domains and their reversal. The observation of a large MOKE in an AF metal will open new avenues for the study of domain dynamics as well as spintronics using antiferromagnets12,13,14,15,16.

    更新日期:2018-01-30
  • Highly efficient nanoscale X-ray sources
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-26
    Daniel Rolles

    Highly efficient nanoscale X-ray sources Highly efficient nanoscale X-ray sources, Published online: 26 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0092-9 Irradiating arrays of metal nanowires with intense femtosecond laser pulses produces high-brightness picosecond X-ray pulses. By specifically tailoring the plasma properties, up to 20% conversion efficiency of optical light into X-rays can be achieved.

    更新日期:2018-01-30
  • Broadband optomechanical non-reciprocity
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-26
    Alireza Seif, Mohammad Hafezi

    Broadband optomechanical non-reciprocity Broadband optomechanical non-reciprocity, Published online: 26 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0091-x Implementing non-reciprocal elements with a bandwidth comparable to optical frequencies is a challenge in integrated photonics. Now, a phonon pump has been used to achieve optical non-reciprocity over a large bandwidth.

    更新日期:2018-01-30
  • Embracing instability
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-26
    Oliver Graydon

    Embracing instability Embracing instability, Published online: 26 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0095-6 The study of the complex, unstable dynamics of lasers is not just of scientific value but is also creating new opportunities for making secure lidar and generating high-frequency microwave signals.

    更新日期:2018-01-30
  • Optical coin toss
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-26
    David F. P. Pile

    Optical coin toss Optical coin toss, Published online: 26 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0102-y Optical coin toss

    更新日期:2018-01-30
  • Monolithic mid-IR array
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-26
    Oliver Graydon

    Monolithic mid-IR array Monolithic mid-IR array, Published online: 26 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41566-018-0100-0 Monolithic mid-IR array

    更新日期:2018-01-30
  • High-efficiency electroluminescence and amplified spontaneous emission from a thermally activated delayed fluorescent near-infrared emitter
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-26
    Dae-Hyeon Kim, Anthony D’Aléo, Xian-Kai Chen, Atula D. S. Sandanayaka, Dandan Yao, Li Zhao, Takeshi Komino, Elena Zaborova, Gabriel Canard, Youichi Tsuchiya, Eunyoung Choi, Jeong Weon Wu, Frédéric Fages, Jean-Luc Brédas, Jean-Charles Ribierre, Chihaya Adachi

    Near-infrared organic light-emitting diodes and semiconductor lasers could benefit a variety of applications including night-vision displays, sensors and information-secured displays. Organic dyes can generate electroluminescence efficiently at visible wavelengths, but organic light-emitting diodes are still underperforming in the near-infrared region. Here, we report thermally activated delayed fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes that operate at near-infrared wavelengths with a maximum external quantum efficiency of nearly 10% using a boron difluoride curcuminoid derivative. As well as an effective upconversion from triplet to singlet excited states due to the non-adiabatic coupling effect, this donor–acceptor–donor compound also exhibits efficient amplified spontaneous emission. By controlling the polarity of the active medium, the maximum emission wavelength of the electroluminescence spectrum can be tuned from 700 to 780 nm. This study represents an important advance in near-infrared organic light-emitting diodes and the design of alternative molecular architectures for photonic applications based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

    更新日期:2018-01-30
  • Post-exposure treatments for Ebola and Marburg virus infections
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-29
    Robert W. Cross, Chad E. Mire, Heinz Feldmann, Thomas W. Geisbert

    The filoviruses — Ebola virus and Marburg virus — cause lethal haemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Filoviruses present a global health threat both as naturally acquired diseases and as potential agents of bioterrorism. In the recent 2013–2016 outbreak of Ebola virus, the most promising therapies for post-exposure use with demonstrated efficacy in the gold-standard NHP models of filovirus disease were unable to show statistically significant protection in patients infected with Ebola virus. This Review briefly discusses these failures and what has been learned from these experiences, and summarizes the current status of post-exposure medical countermeasures in development, including antibodies, small interfering RNA and small molecules. We outline how our current knowledge could be applied to the identification of novel interventions and ways to use interventions more effectively.

    更新日期:2018-01-29
  • The market for chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapies
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-29
    Amy Yip, Rachel M. Webster

    The market for chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapies The market for chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapies, Published online: 29 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.266 This article discusses the market for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies, focusing on haematological malignancies.

    更新日期:2018-01-29
  • Morgan Sheng
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-19

    Morgan Sheng Morgan Sheng, Published online: 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.271 Morgan Sheng, Vice President of Neuroscience at Genentech, discusses his continued faith in the amyloid hypothesis, the promise of the genetics of neurodegenerative disorders and the overlap between psychiatric disease and neurodegeneration.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Impact of a five-dimensional framework on R&D productivity at AstraZeneca
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Paul Morgan, Dean G. Brown, Simon Lennard, Mark J. Anderton, J. Carl Barrett, Ulf Eriksson, Mark Fidock, Bengt Hamrén, Anthony Johnson, Ruth E. March, James Matcham, Jerome Mettetal, David J. Nicholls, Stefan Platz, Steve Rees, Michael A. Snowden, Menelas N. Pangalos

    In 2011, AstraZeneca embarked on a major revision of its research and development (R&D) strategy with the aim of improving R&D productivity, which was below industry averages in 2005–2010. A cornerstone of the revised strategy was to focus decision-making on five technical determinants (the right target, right tissue, right safety, right patient and right commercial potential). In this article, we describe the progress made using this '5R framework' in the hope that our experience could be useful to other companies tackling R&D productivity issues. We focus on the evolution of our approach to target validation, hit and lead optimization, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling and drug safety testing, which have helped improve the quality of candidate drug nomination, as well as the development of the right culture, where 'truth seeking' is encouraged by more rigorous and quantitative decision-making. We also discuss where the approach has failed and the lessons learned. Overall, the continued evolution and application of the 5R framework are beginning to have an impact, with success rates from candidate drug nomination to phase III completion improving from 4% in 2005–2010 to 19% in 2012–2016.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Glimmers in illuminating the druggable genome
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Griffin Rodgers, Christopher Austin, James Anderson, Aaron Pawlyk, Christine Colvis, Ronald Margolis, Jenna Baker

    Glimmers in illuminating the druggable genome Glimmers in illuminating the druggable genome, Published online: 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.252 Much biomedical research continues to focus on a small proportion of the human genome that has already been studied intensively. The Illuminating the Druggable Genome programme, initiated as a pilot project by the US National Institutes of Health Common Fund in 2014, is now being implemented to accelerate the investigation of subsets of understudied proteins that have potential therapeutic relevance.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Market watch: 2017 FDA drug approvals: number rebounds but average value slips
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Mathias Baedeker, Michael Ringel, Valery Panier, Ulrik Schulze

    Market watch: 2017 FDA drug approvals: number rebounds but average value slips Market watch: 2017 FDA drug approvals: number rebounds but average value slips, Published online: 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2018.2 Market watch: 2017 FDA drug approvals: number rebounds but average value slips

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • 2017 FDA drug approvals
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Asher Mullard

    2017 FDA drug approvals 2017 FDA drug approvals, Published online: 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2018.4 The FDA approved 46 new drugs last year, the highest total in more than two decades.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • mRNA vaccines — a new era in vaccinology
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Norbert Pardi, Michael J. Hogan, Frederick W. Porter, Drew Weissman

    mRNA vaccines represent a promising alternative to conventional vaccine approaches because of their high potency, capacity for rapid development and potential for low-cost manufacture and safe administration. However, their application has until recently been restricted by the instability and inefficient in vivo delivery of mRNA. Recent technological advances have now largely overcome these issues, and multiple mRNA vaccine platforms against infectious diseases and several types of cancer have demonstrated encouraging results in both animal models and humans. This Review provides a detailed overview of mRNA vaccines and considers future directions and challenges in advancing this promising vaccine platform to widespread therapeutic use.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Biased signalling: from simple switches to allosteric microprocessors
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Jeffrey S. Smith, Robert J. Lefkowitz, Sudarshan Rajagopal

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest class of receptors in the human genome and some of the most common drug targets. It is now well established that GPCRs can signal through multiple transducers, including heterotrimeric G proteins, GPCR kinases and β-arrestins. While these signalling pathways can be activated or blocked by 'balanced' agonists or antagonists, they can also be selectively activated in a 'biased' response. Biased responses can be induced by biased ligands, biased receptors or system bias, any of which can result in preferential signalling through G proteins or β-arrestins. At many GPCRs, signalling events mediated by G proteins and β-arrestins have been shown to have distinct biochemical and physiological actions from one another, and an accurate evaluation of biased signalling from pharmacology through physiology is crucial for preclinical drug development. Recent structural studies have provided snapshots of GPCR–transducer complexes, which should aid in the structure-based design of novel biased therapies. Our understanding of GPCRs has evolved from that of two-state, on-and-off switches to that of multistate allosteric microprocessors, in which biased ligands transmit distinct structural information that is processed into distinct biological outputs. The development of biased ligands as therapeutics heralds an era of increased drug efficacy with reduced drug side effects.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Accelerated approval of medicines: fit for purpose?
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Alasdair Breckenridge, Lawrence Liberti

    The uptake of a new medicine represents a balance between benefit–risk assessment and value considerations. In the case of products approved via accelerated pathways, the increased uncertainty adds to the challenge. Here, we suggest solutions so that regulators, companies, payers and patients can align around management of the uncertainties and expectations.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Can innate immune system targets turn up the heat on 'cold' tumours?
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-12-28
    Asher Mullard

    Can innate immune system targets turn up the heat on 'cold' tumours? Can innate immune system targets turn up the heat on 'cold' tumours?, Published online: 28 December 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.264 STING, RIG-I and NLRP3 agonists might increase the effectiveness of immuno-oncology checkpoint inhibitors, while antagonists of these targets offer an anti-inflammatory bonus.

    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • Market watch: Upcoming market catalysts in Q1 2018
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-12-28
    Tanner Collins

    Market watch: Upcoming market catalysts in Q1 2018 Market watch: Upcoming market catalysts in Q1 2018, Published online: 28 December 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.263 Market watch: Upcoming market catalysts in Q1 2018

    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • Cancer: Targeting telomeres
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-12-28
    Sarah Crunkhorn

    Cancer: Targeting telomeres Cancer: Targeting telomeres, Published online: 28 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.258 Cancer: Targeting telomeres

    更新日期:2017-12-31
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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