“It takes two to know one” – Tongue protrusion-retraction is only one small facet of early intersubjectivity Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Kenneth J. Aitken
Tongue protrusion-retraction is critical to early nutrition but is also a gustatory-olfactory aspect of early infant social behaviour that is, in part, reliant on pre-natal exposure and learning. Most early development is necessarily dyadic and intrinsically associated with other aspects of social functioning.
Turning the tide: A plea for cognitively lean interpretations of infant behaviour Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Miriam Beisert, Norbert Zmyj, Moritz M. Daum
Keven & Akins (K&A;) revisit the controversial subject of neonatal imitation through analysing the physiological foundations of neonatal spontaneous behaviour. Consequently, they regard imitative capacities in neonates as unlikely. We welcome this approach as an overdue encouragement to refuse cognitively rich interpretations as far as cognitively lean interpretations are conceivable, and apply this rationale to other phenomena in early childhood development.
Multisensory control of ingestive movements and the myth of food addiction in obesity Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 David A. Booth
Some individuals have a neurogenetic vulnerability to developing strong facilitation of ingestive movements by learned configurations of biosocial stimuli. Condemning food as addictive is mere polemic, ignoring the contextualised sensory control of the mastication of each mouthful. To beat obesity, the least fattening of widely recognised eating patterns needs to be measured and supported.
Spontaneous communication and infant imitation Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Ross Buck
Infant behavior is viewed in a social-communicative context centered on the phenomenon of spontaneous communication. Symbolic communication is learned and culturally structured, intentional, consists of symbols, and is propositional in content. In contrast, spontaneous communication is innate in both its sending (display) and receiving (preattunement) aspects, non-intentional, consists of signs, and is non-propositional or emotional in content. It underlies infant imitation, interactional synchrony, primary intersubjectivity, emotional empathy, and mirror neurons; and it is associated with oxytocin.
When dyadic interaction is the context: Mimicry behaviors on the origin of imitation Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Ruth Campos, Carmen Nieto
Keven & Akins (K&A;) redefine some of the neonatal imitation (NI) behaviors as developmental stereotypes. From a neuroconstructivist framework, those early gestures are also far from being considered as imitative behaviors. The cognitive substrate of imitation requires an interactive context to develop. Prior to intentional imitation, the dyad shows mimicry behaviors, which are automatic, but do not fade through development.
The functional and developmental role of imitation in the (a)typical brain Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Luca Casartelli, Valentina Parma
Keven & Akins (K&A;) propose a biologically plausible view of neonatal imitation based on the analysis of sensorimotor development. Here, we consider imitation in the general context of motor cognition, taking examples from both typical and atypical development. Specifically, we will discuss the functional role of imitation, its multi-level nature, and its anomalous features in autism.
Does early motor development contribute to speech perception? Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Dawoon Choi, Padmapriya Kandhadai, D. Kyle Danielson, Alison G. Bruderer, Janet F. Werker
At the end of the target article, Keven & Akins (K&A;) put forward a challenge to the developmental psychology community to consider the development of complex psychological processes – in particular, intermodal infant perception – across different levels of analysis. We take up that challenge and consider the possibility that early emerging stereotypies might help explain the foundations of the link between speech perception and speech production.
Beyond sensorimotor imitation in the neonate: Mentalization psychotherapy in adulthood Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Martin Desseilles
Despite the persuasiveness of Keven & Akins' (K&A;) review, we argue that mentalization, or the ability to interpret the mental states of oneself and others, is required to construct the neonate mind, going far beyond sensorimotor imitation. This concept, informed by certain psychoanalytic and attachment theories, has produced a form of therapy called mentalization-based psychotherapy, which aims to improve emotional regulation. Our aim here is to shed light on a form of neonatal imitation that goes beyond sensorimotor imitation.
A major blow to primate neonatal imitation and mirror neuron theory Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 W. Tecumseh Fitch
Keven & Akins' (K&A;'s) compelling new hypothesis explaining the developmental and neural basis of neonatal tongue protrusion has important implications for current understanding of primate imitation and the explanatory value of mirror neurons. If correct, this hypothesis eliminates a major source of evidence for neonatal imitation. I explore the implications this has for mirror neuron research and the arguments building upon them.
The case against newborn imitation grows stronger Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Susan S. Jones
The claim that human newborns imitate is widely accepted and influential. Yet reliable evidence that newborns match modeled behaviors is limited, and there is no empirically based explanation of how the knowledge that imitation requires could develop before birth. In their target article, Keven & Akins (K&A;) contribute important new evidence to an alternative account of newborns' matching that challenges the newborn imitation claim.
There is no compelling evidence that human neonates imitate Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Siobhan Kennedy-Costantini, Janine Oostenbroek, Thomas Suddendorf, Mark Nielsen, Jonathan Redshaw, Jacqueline Davis, Sally Clark, Virginia Slaughter
Keven & Akins (K&A;) propose that neonatal “imitation” is a function of newborns' spontaneous oral stereotypies and should be viewed within the context of normal aerodigestive development. Their proposal is in line with the result of our recent large longitudinal study that found no compelling evidence for neonatal imitation. Together, these works prompt reconsideration of the developmental origin of genuine imitation.
Mommy or me? Who is the agent in a sense of agency in infant orofacial stereotypies? Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Gerry Leisman
That neonates imitate is an assertion that lacks supporting evidence. Orofacial stereotypies are critical to optimizing food rejection. Matching of tongue-protrusion is not imitation, but a manifestation of the infant's arousal by the modeler's exhibition of the same behavior. The support for the nativist assertion that newborn infants imitate is not compelling, and we should proceed on the assumption that they do not.
“What” matters more than “Why” – Neonatal behaviors initiate social responses Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Klaus Libertus, Melissa E. Libertus, Christa Einspieler, Peter B. Marschik
Newborns are born into a social environment that dynamically responds to them. Newborn behaviors may not have explicit social intentions but will nonetheless affect the environment. Parents contingently respond to their child, enabling newborns to learn about the consequences of their behaviors and encouraging the behavior itself. Consequently, newborn behaviors may serve both biological and social-cognitive purposes during development.
Do innate stereotypies serve as a basis for swallowing and learned speech movements? Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Connor Mayer, Francois Roewer-Despres, Ian Stavness, Bryan Gick
Keven & Akins suggest that innate stereotypies like TP/R may participate in the acquisition of tongue control. This commentary examines this claim in the context of speech motor learning and biomechanics, proposing that stereotypies could provide a basis for both swallowing and speech movements, and provides biomechanical simulation results to supplement neurological evidence for similarities between the two behaviors.
Elements of a comprehensive theory of infant imitation Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Andrew N. Meltzoff
Imitation is central to human development. Imitation involves mapping between the perception and production of actions. Imitation after delays implicates preverbal memory. Imitation of people informs us about infants' processing of social events. A comprehensive theory needs to account for the origins, mechanisms, and functions of imitation. Neonatal imitation illuminates how the initial state engenders and supports rapid social learning.
Beyond aerodigestion: Exaptation of feeding-related mouth movements for social communication in human and nonhuman primates Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Lynne Murray, Valentina Sclafani, Holly Rayson, Leonardo De Pascalis, Laura Bozicevic, Pier Francesco Ferrari
Three arguments are advanced from human and nonhuman primate infancy research for the exaptation of ingestive mouth movements (tongue protrusion and lip smacking) for the purposes of social communication: their relation to affiliative behaviours, their sensitivity to social context, and their role in social development. Although these behaviours may have an aerodigestive function, such an account of their occurrence is only partial.
Infant orofacial movements: Inputs, if not outputs, of early imitative ability? Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Eoin P. O'Sullivan, Christine A. Caldwell
According to Keven & Akins (K&A;), infant orofacial gestures may not reflect imitative responses. Here, we emphasise that these actions nonetheless represent a significant feature of the infant's early sensorimotor experience, and therefore may play a key role in the development of imitative capacities. We discuss how the ideas proposed in the target article could contribute substantially to experiential accounts of imitation.
Philosopher's disease and its antidote: Perspectives from prenatal behavior and contagious yawning and laughing Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Robert R. Provine
Accounts of behavior, including imitation, often suffer from philosopher's disease: the unnecessary, inappropriate, theoretically driven explanation of behavior in terms of cognition, rationality, and consciousness. Embryos are perversely unphilosophical and unpsychological, starting to move before they receive sensory input. Postnatal contagious yawning and laughing indicate that pseudo-imitative behavior can occur without conscious intent or other higher-order cognitive process.
Animal studies help clarify misunderstandings about neonatal imitation Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Elizabeth A. Simpson, Sarah E. Maylott, Mikael Heimann, Francys Subiaul, Annika Paukner, Stephen J. Suomi, Pier F. Ferrari
Empirical studies are incompatible with the proposal that neonatal imitation is arousal driven or declining with age. Nonhuman primate studies reveal a functioning brain mirror system from birth, developmental continuity in imitation and later sociability, and the malleability of neonatal imitation, shaped by the early environment. A narrow focus on arousal effects and reflexes may grossly underestimate neonatal capacities.
An unsettled debate: Key empirical and theoretical questions are still open Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Stefano Vincini, Yuna Jhang, Eugene H. Buder, Shaun Gallagher
Debates about neonatal imitation remain more open than Keven & Akins (K&A;) imply. K&A; do not recognize the primacy of the question concerning differential imitation and the links between experimental designs and more or less plausible theoretical assumptions. Moreover, they do not acknowledge previous theorizing on spontaneous behavior, the explanatory power of entrainment, and subtle connections with social cognition.
Ecological validity, embodiment, and killjoy explanations in developmental psychology Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Shane Zappettini
Keven & Akins (K&A;) present a compelling alternative to the case for neonatal orofacial imitation, offered by Meltzoff and Moore. However, they provide little concerning what lessons their proposal has to offer developmental psychology more generally. I suggest three candidates and elaborate on how they raise outstanding methodological and philosophical questions for the approach taken in the target article.
Beyond neonatal imitation: Aerodigestive stereotypies, speech development, and social interaction in the extended perinatal period Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Nazim Keven, Kathleen A. Akins
In our target article, we argued that the positive results of neonatal imitation are likely to be by-products of normal aerodigestive development. Our hypothesis elicited various responses on the role of social interaction in infancy, the methodological issues about imitation experiments, and the relation between the aerodigestive theory and the development of speech. Here we respond to the commentaries.
Public health interventions can increase objective and perceived control by supporting people to enact the choices they want to make Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Jean Adams
“Low-agency” public health interventions do not rely on individuals using their personal resources to benefit. These help people enact the choices they wish to make and are likely to increase objective and perceived control. Lower-agency interventions have been criticised as constraining individual choice. Pepper & Nettle show that this is unlikely to be the case.
The behavioral constellation of deprivation may be best understood as risk management Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Dorsa Amir, Matthew R. Jordan
Although the authors make a compelling case that early-life deprivation leads to present orientation, we believe that such behaviors may be better understood in terms of an underlying risk-management strategy, in which those who experience such deprivation are more risk-averse. The model we sketch accommodates the authors' present-orientation observations and further explains differences in risk preferences and social preferences.
Developing the behavioural constellation of deprivation: Relationships, emotions, and not quite being in the present Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Arkadiusz Białek, Vasudevi Reddy
Although it is a welcome and timely idea, the behavioural constellation of deprivation (BCD) needs to explain how the development of personal control, trust, and perception of future risk is mediated through relationships with parents. Further, prioritising the present over the future may not be the essence of this constellation; perhaps not quite being, either in the present or in the future, is a better depiction.
The elusive constellations of poverty Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Seger M. Breugelmans, Arnoud Plantinga, Marcel Zeelenberg, Olga Poluektova, Maria Efremova
Pepper & Nettle describe possible processes underlying what they call a behavioral constellation of deprivation (BCD). Although we are certain about the application of evolutionary models to our understanding of poverty, we are less certain about the utility of behavioral constellations. The empirical record on poverty-related behaviors is much more divergent and broad than such constellations suggest.
Interpreting risky behavior as a contextually appropriate response: Significance and policy implications beyond socioeconomic status Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Timothy Brezina
The significance of the contextually appropriate response perspective (CARP) can be judged, in part, by its potential to stimulate new research and guide public policy. To illustrate this potential, I move beyond socioeconomic status differences in behavior and apply CARP to broader, policy-relevant issues in criminology. In this area, CARP sheds new light on some old problems.
Epigenetic-based hormesis and age-dependent altruism: Additions to the behavioural constellation of deprivation Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 William Michael Brown, Rose Jyoti Olding
We support Pepper and Nettle's (P&N;'s) hypothesised adaptive responses to deprivation. However, we argue that adaptive responses to stress shift with age. Specifically, present-oriented behaviours are adaptive for young people (e.g., in terms of mating and reproduction) but costly for older people in deprived communities who would benefit from investing in grandchildren. Epigenetic mechanisms may be responsible for age-related tactical shifts.
From perceived control to self-control, the importance of cognitive and emotional resources Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Eyal Carmel, David Leiser
Pepper & Nettle (P&N;) suggest that the poor present a “contextually appropriate response” to a perceived limited control and to a short life expectancy. We argue that differences in health, behavior, or impaired economic decisions are better explained by self-control. We discuss the implications of the differences between these perspectives and present supporting findings from two intervention studies with marginalized populations.
Evolutionary approaches to deprivation transform the ethics of policy making Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Coralie Chevallier
When designing public policies, decision makers often rely on their own behavioral preferences. Pepper & Nettle's (P&N;'s) theory suggests that these preferences are unlikely to be appropriate when applied to a different environment (e.g., a low-income environment with fewer career opportunities). This theory has profound implications for the design and ethics of public policies.
The behavioural constellation of deprivation: Compelling framework, messy reality Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Martin Daly, Dandara Ramos, Gretchen Perry
Pepper & Nettle's (P&N;'s) argument is compelling, but apparently contradictory data are easily found. Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and substance abuse are sometimes positive, the poor are sometimes eager to educate their children, and perceptions of local mortality risk can be so distorted as to constitute an implausible basis for contextually appropriate responding. These anomalies highlight the need for more psychological work.
Beyond personal control: The role of developing self-control abilities in the behavioral constellation of deprivation Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Sabine Doebel, Laura E. Michaelson, Yuko Munakata
We agree with Pepper & Nettle that personal control is important in understanding people's willingness to engage in future-oriented behavior. However, this does not imply that self-control abilities play no role, for self-control abilities do influence whether individuals engage in future-oriented behavior. Personal control may also shape the development of self-control abilities, so contrasting the two may be a false dichotomy.
Toward a balanced view of stress-adapted cognition Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Willem E. Frankenhuis, Bruce J. Ellis
Pepper & Nettle's paper exemplifies an emerging resistance against an exclusive focus on deficits in people who come from harsh environments. We extend their model by arguing for a perspective that includes not only contextually appropriate responses but also strengths – that is, enhanced mental skills and abilities. Such a well-rounded approach can be leveraged in education, jobs, and interventions.
What about the behavioral constellation of advantage? Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Jeremy Freese
Many short-sighted behaviors are more common among poorer people. These behaviors are neither evolutionarily nor historically unusual and have strong contemporary encouragement. The bigger puzzle is their lower frequency among the affluent. The behaviors also have clear cultural and normative aspects that limit the usefulness of strictly individualist theories.
The physiological constellation of deprivation: Immunological strategies and health outcomes Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Angela R. Garcia, Aaron D. Blackwell
Physiology and behavior are best thought of as two aspects of the same biological process, shaped simultaneously by natural selection. Like behavioral strategies, ecological conditions may affect physiological strategies, leading to changes in immunity and hormonal regulation. These alternate strategies help explain the health correlations of deprivation and provide additional pathways for feedback from early-life experiences.
Predictability or controllability: Which matters more for the BCD? Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Jeffrey Gassen, Hannah K. Bradshaw, Randi Proffitt Leyva, Sarah E. Hill
Pepper & Nettle's theory of the behavioral constellation of deprivation (BCD) would benefit from teasing apart the conceptually distinct – although related – constructs of predictability and control. Our commentary draws from prior research conducted in the learning domain to demonstrate that predictability moderates the effects of control and independently exerts a powerful influence on outcomes relevant to the BCD.
Divergent life histories and other ecological adaptations: Examples of social-class differences in attention, cognition, and attunement to others Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Igor Grossmann, Michael E. W. Varnum
Many behavioral and psychological effects of socioeconomic status (SES), beyond those presented by Pepper & Nettle cannot be adequately explained by life-history theory. We review such effects and reflect on the corresponding ecological affordances and constraints of low- versus high-SES environments, suggesting that several ecology-specific adaptations, apart from life-history strategies, are responsible for the behavioral and psychological effects of SES.
Uncertainty about future payoffs makes impatience rational Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 James Holland Jones
Uncertainty (i.e., variable payoffs with unknown probabilities) brings together a number of features of the authors' argument. It leads to present bias, even for completely rational agents with time-consistent preferences. As an evolutionary product of Pleistocene climate instability, humans possess broad adaptations to environmental uncertainty, giving rise to key features of the behavioral constellation of deprivation (BCD).
The uncontrollable nature of early learning experiences Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Katelyn Kurkul, Kathleen Corriveau
Early learning experiences shape the development of the behavioral constellation of deprivation (BCD) proposed by Pepper & Nettle (P&N;). There is considerable variability in early learning experiences across diverse socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, particularly when it comes to language. Here, we discuss how early learning experiences are beyond the control of the individual and subsequently contribute to behaviors in P&N;'s constellation.
The “appropriate” response to deprivation: Evolutionary and ethical dimensions Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Christopher Lewis, David M. G. Lewis
Pepper & Nettle use an evolutionary framework to argue that “temporal discounting” is an appropriate response to low socioeconomic status (SES), or deprivation. We suggest some conceptual refinements to their “appropriate-response” perspective, with the hope that it usefully informs future research on and public policy responses to the relationship between deprivation and temporal discounting.
Both collection risk and waiting costs give rise to the behavioral constellation of deprivation Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Hugo Mell, Nicolas Baumard, Jean-Baptiste André
Pepper & Nettle explain the behavioral constellation of deprivation (BCD) in terms of differences in collection risk (i.e., the probability of collecting a reward after some delay) between high- and low-socioeconomic-status (SES) populations. We argue that a proper explanation should also include the costs of waiting per se, which are paid even when the benefits are guaranteed.
Socioeconomic status, unpredictability, and different perceptions of the same risk Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Chiraag Mittal, Vladas Griskevicius
In this commentary, we address three questions: (1) How might outcomes be affected by the variation in the level of deprivation, rather than the average level of deprivation? (2) Could there be differences in the subjective perception of the same risk as either intrinsic or extrinsic, depending on people's socioeconomic status (SES)? (3) What other psychological mechanisms might play a role in influencing the psychology and behavior of people from deprived backgrounds?
Relative state, social comparison reactions, and the behavioral constellation of deprivation Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Dallas Novakowski, Sandeep Mishra
Pepper & Nettle compellingly synthesize evidence indicating that temporal discounting is a functional, adaptive response to deprivation. In this commentary, we underscore the importance of the psychology of relative state, which is an index of relative competitive (dis)advantage. We then highlight two proximate emotional social comparison reactions linked with relative state – personal relative deprivation and envy – that may play an important role in the deprivation-discounting link.
When does deprivation motivate future-oriented thinking? The case of climate change Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Adam R. Pearson, Sander van der Linden
Pepper & Nettle overstate cross-domain evidence of present-oriented thinking among lower-socioeconomic-status (SES) groups and overlook key social and contextual drivers of temporal decision making. We consider psychological research on climate change – a quintessential intertemporal problem that implicates inequities and extrinsic mortality risk – documenting more future-oriented thinking among low- compared to high-SES groups.
Cultural consonance, deprivation, and psychological responses for niche construction Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Robert J. Quinlan
Cultural consonance is a measure of culturally encoded goals relevant to psychological, behavioral, and health responses to deprivation. Similar to extrinsic mortality, low cultural consonance and an associated inability to predict adaptive outcomes may activate impulsivity, delay discounting, and reward seeking. Low cultural consonance could promote “fast life history” in low-quality environments and motivate cultural niche construction for local adaptation.
Loss of control is not necessary to induce behavioral consequences of deprivation: The case of religious fasting during Ramadan Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Mostafa Salari Rad, Jeremy Ginges
Pepper & Nettle argue that the more present-oriented behavior associated with a low socioeconomic status is an adaptive response to having relatively little control over the future. However, a study of fasters during Ramadan shows that self-imposed deprivation, which carries no implications regarding the ability to realize deferred rewards, is associated with loss and risk aversion.
Intergenerational capital flows are central to fitness dynamics and adaptive evolution in humans Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Ian J. Rickard
Human fitness dynamics are uniquely and profoundly governed by the flow of capital to subsequent generations. Low socioeconomic status individuals may possess limited capacity to direct capital to descendants and may respond to such constraints adaptively or maladaptively. Mitigation of capital constraints may provide practicable routes to alleviation of the behavioural constellation of deprivation.
Stuff goes wrong, so act now Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Michala Iben Riis-Vestergaard, Johannes Haushofer
Pepper & Nettle make an ambitious and compelling attempt to isolate a common cause of what they call the behavioral constellation of deprivation. We agree with the authors that limited control can indeed help explain part of the difference in observed present-oriented behavior between the poor and the rich. However, we suggest that mortality risk is not the primary mechanism leading to this apparent impatience.
Deprived, but not depraved: Prosocial behavior is an adaptive response to lower socioeconomic status Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Angela R. Robinson, Paul K. Piff
Individuals of lower socioeconomic status (SES) display increased attentiveness to others and greater prosocial behavior compared to individuals of higher SES. We situate these effects within Pepper & Nettle's contextually appropriate response framework of SES. We argue that increased prosocial behavior is a contextually adaptive response for lower-SES individuals that serves to increase control over their more threatening social environments.
It's not just about the future: The present payoffs to behaviour vary in degree and kind between the rich and the poor Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Rebecca Sear, Susan B. Schaffnit
Pepper & Nettle offer a nuanced and humane view on poverty that should be required reading for policy makers, particularly those interested in “behaviour change” policy. We suggest, however, that the emphasis on “future-discounting” in this paper downplays the importance of differences in the payoffs to behaviours in the present and how these payoffs may be realised in different currencies.
The link between deprivation and its behavioural constellation is confounded by genetic factors Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 James M. Sherlock, Brendan P. Zietsch
Most research cited throughout Pepper & Nettle's (P&N;'s) target article is correlational and suffers from a serious genetic confound that renders it of little evidentiary value. Of correlational findings that are not confounded, P&N; ignore examples that contradict their model. Further, P&N;'s claim that evolutionary models explaining between-species differences in behaviour can be used to understand that corresponding individual differences lack any evidence.
Intertemporal impulsivity can also arise from persistent failure of long-term plans Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Nisheeth Srivastava, Narayanan Srinivasan
We suggest that steep intertemporal discounting in individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) may arise as a rational metacognitive adaptation to experiencing planning and control failures in long-term plans. Low SES individuals' plans fail more frequently because they operate close to budgetary boundaries, in turn because they consistently operate with limited budgets of money, status, trust, or other forms of social utility.
Health behaviour, extrinsic risks, and the exceptions to the rule Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Caroline Uggla
Pepper & Nettle make a compelling case for how evolutionary thinking can help explain behaviours that cluster with deprivation. The role of extrinsic mortality risk in driving behaviour is probably important, but strong evidence is still lacking. By thinking carefully about behaviours seemingly at odds with an evolutionary life history perspective, we can gain important insights that will help refine theory.
Strengths, altered investment, risk management, and other elaborations on the behavioural constellation of deprivation Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Gillian V. Pepper, Daniel Nettle
We are grateful to have received so many insightful commentaries from interested colleagues regarding our proposed behavioural constellation of deprivation (BCD) and our thoughts on its causes and consequences. In this response article, we offer some clarifications regarding our perspective and tackle some common misperceptions, including, for example, assumptions that the BCD is adaptive and that it should include all behaviours that vary with socioeconomic status. We then welcome some excellent proposals for extensions and modifications of our ideas, such as the conceptualisation of the BCD as a risk-management strategy and the calls for a greater focus on strengths and differential investment rather than deficits and disinvestment. Finally, we highlight some insightful explorations of the implications of our ideas for ethics, policy, and practice.
Positivity versus negativity is a matter of timing Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 George Ainslie
“Negative” emotions are never purely negative. They attract attention at the very least and often stay attractive enough to make rehearsing them an addictive activity. As the authors point out, they also counteract a relentless tendency for positive emotions to become boring. Analysis in terms of reward suggests why this tendency occurs and how symbiosis with negative emotions may arise, in art and in life.
Considering the filmmaker: Intensified continuity, narrative structure, and the Distancing-Embracing model Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Kacie L. Armstrong, James E. Cutting
Menninghaus et al. pose two open-ended questions: To what extent do formal elements of art elicit negative affect, and do artists try to elicit this response in a theory-based or intuitive manner? For popular movies, we argue that the consideration of their construction is prior to the consideration of the experience that they evoke.
Art reception as an interoceptive embodied predictive experience Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Ruben T. Azevedo, Manos Tsakiris
In the Distancing-Embracing model, an explanation is proposed for the apparent paradox that is the enjoyment of negative emotional states in art reception. Here, we argue for the advantages of grounding the psychological dynamics described in the model in established and empirically testable frameworks of brain functioning by thinking of art reception as an embodied experience guided by predictive coding.
Emotional granularity and the musical enjoyment of sadness itself Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Nathaniel F. Barrett, Jay Schulkin, Javier Bernacer
We contest the claim that musically induced sadness cannot be enjoyable in itself. This possibility is supported by closer attention to a musical experience as well as cases of affective reversal, such as the “hedonic flip” of painful feelings. We propose that the affective reversal of sadness in music is due to the high granularity of musically induced emotion.
A social dimension to enjoyment of negative emotion in art reception Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Brock Bastian
The proposed model overlooks the contribution of a relational/prosocial dimension to the enjoyment of negative emotion in art reception. Negative experiences have a unique capacity to build social bonds and may also increase motivation to “connect” with the artist. This affiliative motivation ensures that people experience an artwork as more emotional, more intense, more interesting, and ultimately more rewarding.
The urge to judge: Why the judgmental attitude has anything to do with the aesthetic enjoyment of negative emotions Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 14.2) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Elvira Brattico, Peter Vuust
Based on arguments from both philosophical and empirical aesthetics, we hereby propose that the enjoyment of negative emotions in art and fiction is distinct from the immediate pleasure deriving from sensory features, because it requires a conscious, intentional attitude toward the object. This attitude is linked with the compelling goal of providing a judgment of liking, beauty, perfection, or similar.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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