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  • Fungal pathogenesis: Wheat stem rust effectors revealed
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2018-01-15
    Ursula Hofer

    Fungal pathogenesis: Wheat stem rust effectors revealed Fungal pathogenesis: Wheat stem rust effectors revealed, Published online: 15 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2018.5 Fungal pathogenesis: Wheat stem rust effectors revealed

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Metagenomics: Setting the bar for mycobiome analysis
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2018-01-15
    Ursula Hofer

    Metagenomics: Setting the bar for mycobiome analysis Metagenomics: Setting the bar for mycobiome analysis, Published online: 15 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2018.7 Metagenomics: Setting the bar for mycobiome analysis

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • 1918 influenza virus: 100 years on, are we prepared against the next influenza pandemic?
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2018-01-15
    Rafael A. Medina

    1918 influenza virus: 100 years on, are we prepared against the next influenza pandemic? 1918 influenza virus: 100 years on, are we prepared against the next influenza pandemic?, Published online: 15 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.174 As we commemorate 100 years since the 1918 pandemic, research has advanced our knowledge of influenza virulence and pathogenesis, and has highlighted the role of animal reservoirs in the emergence of pandemic strains. Future efforts in understanding viral ecology, zoonosis and in integrating human and animal epidemiology should aid pandemic preparedness.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Bacterial pathogenesis: Clostridium difficile is sweet on trehalose
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2018-01-15
    Andrea Du Toit

    Bacterial pathogenesis: Clostridium difficile is sweet on trehalose Bacterial pathogenesis: Clostridium difficile is sweet on trehalose, Published online: 15 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2018.2 Bacterial pathogenesis: Clostridium difficile is sweet on trehalose

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Bacterial physiology: It's a wrap for Burkholderia flagella
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2018-01-15
    Ursula Hofer

    Bacterial physiology: It's a wrap for Burkholderia flagella Bacterial physiology: It's a wrap for Burkholderia flagella, Published online: 15 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2018.6 Bacterial physiology: It's a wrap for Burkholderia flagella

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • The human skin microbiome
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2018-01-15
    Allyson L. Byrd, Yasmine Belkaid, Julia A. Segre

    Functioning as the exterior interface of the human body with the environment, skin acts as a physical barrier to prevent the invasion of foreign pathogens while providing a home to the commensal microbiota. The harsh physical landscape of skin, particularly the desiccated, nutrient-poor, acidic environment, also contributes to the adversity that pathogens face when colonizing human skin. Despite this, the skin is colonized by a diverse microbiota. In this Review, we describe amplicon and shotgun metagenomic DNA sequencing studies that have been used to assess the taxonomic diversity of microorganisms that are associated with skin from the kingdom to the strain level. We discuss recent insights into skin microbial communities, including their composition in health and disease, the dynamics between species and interactions with the immune system, with a focus on Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Cellular microbiology: Many pathogens, one host receptor
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2018-01-15
    Andrea Du Toit

    Cellular microbiology: Many pathogens, one host receptor Cellular microbiology: Many pathogens, one host receptor, Published online: 15 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2018.1 Cellular microbiology: Many pathogens, one host receptor

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • The germ-organ theory of non-communicable diseases
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    Mariana X. Byndloss, Andreas J. Bäumler

    Gut dysbiosis is associated with many non-communicable human diseases, but the mechanisms maintaining homeostasis remain incompletely understood. Recent insights suggest that during homeostasis, epithelial hypoxia limits oxygen availability in the colon, thereby maintaining a balanced microbiota that functions as a microbial organ, producing metabolites contributing to host nutrition, immune education and niche protection. Dysbiosis is characterized by a shift in the microbial community structure from obligate to facultative anaerobes, suggesting oxygen as an important ecological driver of microbial organ dysfunction. The ensuing disruption of gut homeostasis can lead to non- communicable disease because microbiota-derived metabolites are either depleted or generated at harmful concentrations. This Opinion article describes the concept that host control over the microbial ecosystem in the colon is critical for the composition and function of our microbial organ, which provides a theoretical framework for linking microorganisms to non-communicable diseases.

    更新日期:2018-01-08
  • Microbial modulation of cardiovascular disease
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    J. Mark Brown, Stanley L. Hazen

    Although diet has long been known to contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD), research over the past decade has revealed an unexpected interplay between nutrient intake, gut microbial metabolism and the host to modify the risk of developing CVD. Microbial-associated molecular patterns are sensed by host pattern recognition receptors and have been suggested to drive CVD pathogenesis. In addition, the host microbiota produces various metabolites, such as trimethylamine-N-oxide, short-chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids, that affect CVD pathogenesis. These recent advances support the notion that targeting the interactions between the host and microorganisms may hold promise for the prevention or treatment of CVD. In this Review, we summarize our current knowledge of the gut microbial mechanisms that drive CVD, with special emphasis on therapeutic interventions, and we highlight the need to establish causal links between microbial pathways and CVD pathogenesis.

    更新日期:2018-01-08
  • Genome watch: Microbial diversity knows no borders
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2018-01-02
    Lindsay J. Pike, Elisa Viciani, Nitin Kumar

    Genome watch: Microbial diversity knows no borders Genome watch: Microbial diversity knows no borders, Published online: 02 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.166 This month's genome watch discusses the vast global microbial diversity revealed by the Earth Microbiome Project and the value of its characterization.

    更新日期:2018-01-02
  • Viral infection: A fungus boosts dengue virus in the mosquito gut
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2018-01-02
    Ashley York

    Viral infection: A fungus boosts dengue virus in the mosquito gut Viral infection: A fungus boosts dengue virus in the mosquito gut, Published online: 02 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.168 A recent study finds that a gut-associated fungus alters the gut physiology of the Aedes aegypti mosquito to increase susceptibility to dengue virus.

    更新日期:2018-01-02
  • Parasite biology: Keeping Plasmodium awake
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2018-01-02
    Andrea Du Toit

    Parasite biology: Keeping Plasmodium awake Parasite biology: Keeping Plasmodium awake, Published online: 02 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.167 This study reports that artemisinin-induced latency is mediated by general translational repression following the phosphorylation of the α-subunit of Plasmodium eukaryotic initiation factor 2.

    更新日期:2018-01-02
  • Uncovering the mechanisms of Acinetobacter baumannii virulence
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-12-18
    Christian M. Harding, Seth W. Hennon, Mario F. Feldman

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen that causes ventilator-associated as well as bloodstream infections in critically ill patients, and the spread of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter strains is cause for concern. Much of the success of A. baumannii can be directly attributed to its plastic genome, which rapidly mutates when faced with adversity and stress. However, fundamental virulence mechanisms beyond canonical drug resistance were recently uncovered that enable A. baumannii and, to a limited extent, other medically relevant Acinetobacter species to successfully thrive in the health-care environment. In this Review, we explore the molecular features that promote environmental persistence, including desiccation resistance, biofilm formation and motility, and we discuss the most recently identified virulence factors, such as secretion systems, surface glycoconjugates and micronutrient acquisition systems that collectively enable these pathogens to successfully infect their hosts.

    更新日期:2017-12-18
  • Inserting proteins into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane using the Sec and YidC translocases
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-12-11
    Kun Xie, Ross E. Dalbey

    Inserting proteins into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane using the Sec and YidC translocases Inserting proteins into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane using the Sec and YidC translocases, Published online: 11 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.160 Inserting proteins into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane using the Sec and YidC translocases

    更新日期:2017-12-11
  • Marine microbiology: Illuminating the importance of nitrite oxidation
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-12-11
    Ursula Hofer

    Marine microbiology: Illuminating the importance of nitrite oxidation Marine microbiology: Illuminating the importance of nitrite oxidation, Published online: 11 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.165 Using single amplified genomes, this study identifies members of the Nitrospinae bacterial phylum as the main primary producers in the dark ocean.

    更新日期:2017-12-11
  • The great escape
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-12-08
    Eva Heinz

    The great escape The great escape, Published online: 08 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.156 This month's Genome Watch highlights how genomics has improved our understanding of how vaccines impact pathogen populations and their genomes.

    更新日期:2017-12-10
  • Viral pathogenesis: A small change makes a big difference
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-12-08
    Ashley York

    Viral pathogenesis: A small change makes a big difference Viral pathogenesis: A small change makes a big difference, Published online: 08 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.162 Viral pathogenesis: A small change makes a big difference

    更新日期:2017-12-10
  • Microbiome: Fusobacterium persistence in colorectal cancer
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-12-08
    Ashley York

    Microbiome: Fusobacterium persistence in colorectal cancer Microbiome: Fusobacterium persistence in colorectal cancer, Published online: 08 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.164 Microbiome: Fusobacterium persistence in colorectal cancer

    更新日期:2017-12-10
  • Host response: Fungal safeguards in the gut
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-12-08
    Ashley York

    Host response: Fungal safeguards in the gut Host response: Fungal safeguards in the gut, Published online: 08 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.155 This study reports that commensal enteric fungi provide protection against infection in local intestinal and non-intestinal systemic tissues and enhance systemic immunity.

    更新日期:2017-12-10
  • Microbiome: Precision engineering of gut metabolites
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-12-08
    Ursula Hofer

    Microbiome: Precision engineering of gut metabolites Microbiome: Precision engineering of gut metabolites, Published online: 08 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.159 This study identified a metabolic pathway in members of the gut microbiota, which uses aromatic amino acids to produce small molecules with systemic effects.

    更新日期:2017-12-10
  • Host response: Suppressing gut feelings
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-12-08
    Ashley York

    Host response: Suppressing gut feelings Host response: Suppressing gut feelings, Published online: 08 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.163 Host response: Suppressing gut feelings

    更新日期:2017-12-10
  • Archaea and the origin of eukaryotes
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Anja Spang, Courtney W. Stairs, Jonathan Lombard, Laura Eme, Thijs J. G. Ettema

    Archaea and the origin of eukaryotes Archaea and the origin of eukaryotes, Published online: 27 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.154 Archaea and the origin of eukaryotes

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • Functional horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Filip Husnik, John P. McCutcheon

    Bacteria influence eukaryotic biology as parasitic, commensal or beneficial symbionts. Aside from these organismal interactions, bacteria have also been important sources of new genetic sequences through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) for eukaryotes. In this Review, we focus on gene transfers from bacteria to eukaryotes, discuss how horizontally transferred genes become functional and explore what functions are endowed upon a broad diversity of eukaryotes by genes derived from bacteria. We classify HGT events into two broad types: those that maintain pre-existing functions and those that provide the recipient with new functionality, including altered host nutrition, protection and adaptation to extreme environments.

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • Parasite development: The missing link to Plasmodium gametocytogenesis
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Ursula Hofer

    Parasite development: The missing link to Plasmodium gametocytogenesis Parasite development: The missing link to Plasmodium gametocytogenesis, Published online: 27 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.151 Parasite development: The missing link to Plasmodium gametocytogenesis

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • Listeria monocytogenes: towards a complete picture of its physiology and pathogenesis
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Lilliana Radoshevich, Pascale Cossart

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen responsible for a disease called listeriosis, which is potentially lethal in immunocompromised individuals. This bacterium, first used as a model to study cell-mediated immunity, has emerged over the past 20 years as a paradigm in infection biology, cell biology and fundamental microbiology. In this Review, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of human listeriosis and L. monocytogenes biology. We describe unsuspected modes of hijacking host cell biology, ranging from changes in organelle morphology to direct effects on host transcription via a new class of bacterial effectors called nucleomodulins. We then discuss advances in understanding infection in vivo, including the discovery of tissue-specific virulence factors and the 'arms race' among bacteria competing for a niche in the microbiota. Finally, we describe the complexity of bacterial regulation and physiology, incorporating new insights into the mechanisms of action of a series of riboregulators that are critical for efficient metabolic regulation, antibiotic resistance and interspecies competition.

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • Bacterial Physiology: Touching base on bacterial surface sensing
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Ursula Hofer

    Bacterial Physiology: Touching base on bacterial surface sensing Bacterial Physiology: Touching base on bacterial surface sensing, Published online: 27 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.150 Bacterial Physiology: Touching base on bacterial surface sensing

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • Environmental microbiology: Around the globe in 2.2 billion sequences
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Ursula Hofer

    Environmental microbiology: Around the globe in 2.2 billion sequences Environmental microbiology: Around the globe in 2.2 billion sequences, Published online: 27 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.152 Environmental microbiology: Around the globe in 2.2 billion sequences

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • Archaea and the origin of eukaryotes
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Anja Spang, Courtney W. Stairs, Jonathan Lombard, Laura Eme, Thijs J. G. Ettema

    Archaea and the origin of eukaryotes Archaea and the origin of eukaryotes, Published online: 27 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.154 Archaea and the origin of eukaryotes

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • Functional horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Filip Husnik, John P. McCutcheon

    Bacteria influence eukaryotic biology as parasitic, commensal or beneficial symbionts. Aside from these organismal interactions, bacteria have also been important sources of new genetic sequences through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) for eukaryotes. In this Review, we focus on gene transfers from bacteria to eukaryotes, discuss how horizontally transferred genes become functional and explore what functions are endowed upon a broad diversity of eukaryotes by genes derived from bacteria. We classify HGT events into two broad types: those that maintain pre-existing functions and those that provide the recipient with new functionality, including altered host nutrition, protection and adaptation to extreme environments.

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • Parasite development: The missing link to Plasmodium gametocytogenesis
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Ursula Hofer

    Parasite development: The missing link to Plasmodium gametocytogenesis Parasite development: The missing link to Plasmodium gametocytogenesis, Published online: 27 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.151 Parasite development: The missing link to Plasmodium gametocytogenesis

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • Listeria monocytogenes: towards a complete picture of its physiology and pathogenesis
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Lilliana Radoshevich, Pascale Cossart

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen responsible for a disease called listeriosis, which is potentially lethal in immunocompromised individuals. This bacterium, first used as a model to study cell-mediated immunity, has emerged over the past 20 years as a paradigm in infection biology, cell biology and fundamental microbiology. In this Review, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of human listeriosis and L. monocytogenes biology. We describe unsuspected modes of hijacking host cell biology, ranging from changes in organelle morphology to direct effects on host transcription via a new class of bacterial effectors called nucleomodulins. We then discuss advances in understanding infection in vivo, including the discovery of tissue-specific virulence factors and the 'arms race' among bacteria competing for a niche in the microbiota. Finally, we describe the complexity of bacterial regulation and physiology, incorporating new insights into the mechanisms of action of a series of riboregulators that are critical for efficient metabolic regulation, antibiotic resistance and interspecies competition.

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • Bacterial Physiology: Touching base on bacterial surface sensing
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Ursula Hofer

    Bacterial Physiology: Touching base on bacterial surface sensing Bacterial Physiology: Touching base on bacterial surface sensing, Published online: 27 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.150 Bacterial Physiology: Touching base on bacterial surface sensing

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • Environmental microbiology: Around the globe in 2.2 billion sequences
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Ursula Hofer

    Environmental microbiology: Around the globe in 2.2 billion sequences Environmental microbiology: Around the globe in 2.2 billion sequences, Published online: 27 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.152 Environmental microbiology: Around the globe in 2.2 billion sequences

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • Antimicrobials: Daylight robbery by Acinetobacter
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Andrea Du Toit

    Antimicrobials: Daylight robbery by Acinetobacter Antimicrobials: Daylight robbery by Acinetobacter, Published online: 20 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.147 Bacterial predation by Acinetobacter baylyi increases the rate of horizontal gene transfer from Escherichia coli, which leads to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes from prey cells.

    更新日期:2017-11-20
  • Antimicrobials: Daylight robbery by Acinetobacter
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Andrea Du Toit

    Antimicrobials: Daylight robbery by Acinetobacter Antimicrobials: Daylight robbery by Acinetobacter, Published online: 20 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.147 Bacterial predation by Acinetobacter baylyi increases the rate of horizontal gene transfer from Escherichia coli, which leads to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes from prey cells.

    更新日期:2017-11-20
  • Environmental microbiology: Geographic coordinates guide natural product discovery
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Andrea Du Toit

    Environmental microbiology: Geographic coordinates guide natural product discovery Environmental microbiology: Geographic coordinates guide natural product discovery, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.142 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= This study identifies the environmental factors that are associated with changes in bacterial secondary metabolism across natural environments on a metagenome-wide scale. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • A flourishing field: going back to the roots of the Archaea
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10

    A flourishing field: going back to the roots of the Archaea A flourishing field: going back to the roots of the Archaea, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.144 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= This issue marks the 40th anniversary of the publication of the landmark article by Carl Woese and George Fox in which they proposed the Archaea as a third domain of life. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • The enigmatic archaeal virosphere
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    David Prangishvili, Dennis H. Bamford, Patrick Forterre, Jaime Iranzo, Eugene V. Koonin, Mart Krupovic

    One of the most prominent features of archaea is the extraordinary diversity of their DNA viruses. Many archaeal viruses differ substantially in morphology from bacterial and eukaryotic viruses and represent unique virus families. The distinct nature of archaeal viruses also extends to the gene composition and architectures of their genomes and the properties of the proteins that they encode. Environmental research has revealed prominent roles of archaeal viruses in influencing microbial communities in ocean ecosystems, and recent metagenomic studies have uncovered new groups of archaeal viruses that infect extremophiles and mesophiles in diverse habitats. In this Review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the genomic and morphological diversity of archaeal viruses and the molecular biology of their life cycles and virus–host interactions, including interactions with archaeal CRISPR–Cas systems. We also examine the potential origins and evolution of archaeal viruses and discuss their place in the global virosphere.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Archaea and the origin of eukaryotes
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Laura Eme, Anja Spang, Jonathan Lombard, Courtney W. Stairs, Thijs J. G. Ettema

    Woese and Fox's 1977 paper on the discovery of the Archaea triggered a revolution in the field of evolutionary biology by showing that life was divided into not only prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Rather, they revealed that prokaryotes comprise two distinct types of organisms, the Bacteria and the Archaea. In subsequent years, molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that eukaryotes and the Archaea represent sister groups in the tree of life. During the genomic era, it became evident that eukaryotic cells possess a mixture of archaeal and bacterial features in addition to eukaryotic-specific features. Although it has been generally accepted for some time that mitochondria descend from endosymbiotic alphaproteobacteria, the precise evolutionary relationship between eukaryotes and archaea has continued to be a subject of debate. In this Review, we outline a brief history of the changing shape of the tree of life and examine how the recent discovery of a myriad of diverse archaeal lineages has changed our understanding of the evolutionary relationships between the three domains of life and the origin of eukaryotes. Furthermore, we revisit central questions regarding the process of eukaryogenesis and discuss what can currently be inferred about the evolutionary transition from the first to the last eukaryotic common ancestor.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Mareike Möller, Eva H. Stukenbrock

    Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.143

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Host response: Granzyme B's roundhouse kick against bacteria
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Ursula Hofer

    Host response: Granzyme B's roundhouse kick against bacteria Host response: Granzyme B's roundhouse kick against bacteria, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.145 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= This study identifies a new bacterial cell death pathway that is triggered by granzyme B and that can kill diverse bacteria. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Environmental microbiology: Geographic coordinates guide natural product discovery
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Andrea Du Toit

    Environmental microbiology: Geographic coordinates guide natural product discovery Environmental microbiology: Geographic coordinates guide natural product discovery, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.142 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= This study identifies the environmental factors that are associated with changes in bacterial secondary metabolism across natural environments on a metagenome-wide scale. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • A flourishing field: going back to the roots of the Archaea
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10

    A flourishing field: going back to the roots of the Archaea A flourishing field: going back to the roots of the Archaea, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.144 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= This issue marks the 40th anniversary of the publication of the landmark article by Carl Woese and George Fox in which they proposed the Archaea as a third domain of life. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • The enigmatic archaeal virosphere
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    David Prangishvili, Dennis H. Bamford, Patrick Forterre, Jaime Iranzo, Eugene V. Koonin, Mart Krupovic

    One of the most prominent features of archaea is the extraordinary diversity of their DNA viruses. Many archaeal viruses differ substantially in morphology from bacterial and eukaryotic viruses and represent unique virus families. The distinct nature of archaeal viruses also extends to the gene composition and architectures of their genomes and the properties of the proteins that they encode. Environmental research has revealed prominent roles of archaeal viruses in influencing microbial communities in ocean ecosystems, and recent metagenomic studies have uncovered new groups of archaeal viruses that infect extremophiles and mesophiles in diverse habitats. In this Review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the genomic and morphological diversity of archaeal viruses and the molecular biology of their life cycles and virus–host interactions, including interactions with archaeal CRISPR–Cas systems. We also examine the potential origins and evolution of archaeal viruses and discuss their place in the global virosphere.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Archaea and the origin of eukaryotes
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Laura Eme, Anja Spang, Jonathan Lombard, Courtney W. Stairs, Thijs J. G. Ettema

    Woese and Fox's 1977 paper on the discovery of the Archaea triggered a revolution in the field of evolutionary biology by showing that life was divided into not only prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Rather, they revealed that prokaryotes comprise two distinct types of organisms, the Bacteria and the Archaea. In subsequent years, molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that eukaryotes and the Archaea represent sister groups in the tree of life. During the genomic era, it became evident that eukaryotic cells possess a mixture of archaeal and bacterial features in addition to eukaryotic-specific features. Although it has been generally accepted for some time that mitochondria descend from endosymbiotic alphaproteobacteria, the precise evolutionary relationship between eukaryotes and archaea has continued to be a subject of debate. In this Review, we outline a brief history of the changing shape of the tree of life and examine how the recent discovery of a myriad of diverse archaeal lineages has changed our understanding of the evolutionary relationships between the three domains of life and the origin of eukaryotes. Furthermore, we revisit central questions regarding the process of eukaryogenesis and discuss what can currently be inferred about the evolutionary transition from the first to the last eukaryotic common ancestor.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Mareike Möller, Eva H. Stukenbrock

    Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.143

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Host response: Granzyme B's roundhouse kick against bacteria
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Ursula Hofer

    Host response: Granzyme B's roundhouse kick against bacteria Host response: Granzyme B's roundhouse kick against bacteria, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.145 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= This study identifies a new bacterial cell death pathway that is triggered by granzyme B and that can kill diverse bacteria. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Pathogenesis of HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Lucy C. K. Bell, Mahdad Noursadeghi

    Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in individuals infected with HIV-1. It has long been known that HIV-1 infection alters the course of M. tuberculosis infection and substantially increases the risk of active tuberculosis (TB). It has also become clear that TB increases levels of HIV-1 replication, propagation and genetic diversity. Therefore, co-infection provides reciprocal advantages to both pathogens. In this Review, we describe the epidemiological associations between the two pathogens, selected interactions of each pathogen with the host and our current understanding of how they affect the pathogenesis of TB and HIV-1/AIDS in individuals with co-infections. We evaluate the mechanisms and consequences of HIV-1 depletion of T cells on immune responses to M. tuberculosis. We also discuss the effect of HIV-1 infection on the control of M. tuberculosis by macrophages through phagocytosis, autophagy and cell death, and we propose models by which dysregulated inflammatory responses drive the pathogenesis of TB and HIV-1/AIDS.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • The evolution of seasonal influenza viruses
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Velislava N. Petrova, Colin A. Russell

    The evolution of seasonal influenza viruses The evolution of seasonal influenza viruses, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.146

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Pathogenesis of HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Lucy C. K. Bell, Mahdad Noursadeghi

    Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in individuals infected with HIV-1. It has long been known that HIV-1 infection alters the course of M. tuberculosis infection and substantially increases the risk of active tuberculosis (TB). It has also become clear that TB increases levels of HIV-1 replication, propagation and genetic diversity. Therefore, co-infection provides reciprocal advantages to both pathogens. In this Review, we describe the epidemiological associations between the two pathogens, selected interactions of each pathogen with the host and our current understanding of how they affect the pathogenesis of TB and HIV-1/AIDS in individuals with co-infections. We evaluate the mechanisms and consequences of HIV-1 depletion of T cells on immune responses to M. tuberculosis. We also discuss the effect of HIV-1 infection on the control of M. tuberculosis by macrophages through phagocytosis, autophagy and cell death, and we propose models by which dysregulated inflammatory responses drive the pathogenesis of TB and HIV-1/AIDS.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • The evolution of seasonal influenza viruses
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Velislava N. Petrova, Colin A. Russell

    The evolution of seasonal influenza viruses The evolution of seasonal influenza viruses, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.146

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Techniques & applications: Expanding the genetic toolbox for fungi
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Andrea Du Toit

    Techniques & applications: Expanding the genetic toolbox for fungi Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.141

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Viral evolution: Closely monitoring influenza virus
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Andrea Du Toit

    Viral evolution: Closely monitoring influenza virus Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.139

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • The evolution of seasonal influenza viruses
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Velislava N. Petrova, Colin A. Russell

    Despite decades of surveillance and pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions, seasonal influenza viruses continue to cause epidemics around the world each year. The key process underlying these recurrent epidemics is the evolution of the viruses to escape the immunity that is induced by prior infection or vaccination. Although we are beginning to understand the processes that underlie the evolutionary dynamics of seasonal influenza viruses, the timing and nature of emergence of new virus strains remain mostly unpredictable. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the molecular determinants of influenza virus immune escape, sources of evolutionary selection pressure, population dynamics of influenza viruses and prospects for better influenza virus control.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Genome watch: Microbiota shuns the modern world
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Nitin Kumar, Samuel C. Forster

    Genome watch: Microbiota shuns the modern world Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.136 This month's Genome Watch highlights the variation in gut microbiota across different human communities and explores how this is associated with lifestyle and diet.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Marine microbiology: Synchronized rhythms in the ocean
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Andrea Du Toit

    Marine microbiology: Synchronized rhythms in the ocean Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.140

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Microbiome: The microbiota's cryptic message
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Ursula Hofer

    Microbiome: The microbiota's cryptic message Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.138 This study shows how the crypt microbiota and the LPS that they produce alter epithelial proliferation and differentiation in the colon.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Bacterial pathogenesis: Activating Helicobacter effector delivery
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-24
    Irene Vacca

    Bacterial pathogenesis: Activating Helicobacter effector delivery Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 24 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.135 A recent study revealed how H. pylori opens cell-to-cell junctions and traverses the gastric epithelium to bind to basolateral integrins, thereby activating the assembly and function of its type IV secretion system.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Anti-CRISPR: discovery, mechanism and function
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-24
    April Pawluk, Alan R. Davidson, Karen L. Maxwell

    Anti-CRISPR: discovery, mechanism and function Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 24 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.120 CRISPR–Cas adaptive immune systems are widespread in prokaryotes. In this Progress article, Maxwell and colleagues highlight how phages and other mobile genetic elements inactivate CRISPR–Cas systems using anti-CRISPR proteins and outline evolutionary and biotechnological implications of anti-CRISPR protein activity.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Techniques & applications: Expanding the genetic toolbox for fungi
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Andrea Du Toit

    Techniques & applications: Expanding the genetic toolbox for fungi Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.141

    更新日期:2017-10-30
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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