Effect of stakeholder collaborative management on off-site construction cost performance J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Hong Xue, Shoujian Zhang, Yikun Su, Zezhou Wu, Rebecca Jing Yang
Off-site construction (OSC) has been a hot issue in the construction industry. However, high cost was an important factor that hinders the OSC development. This study attempts to explore how stakeholder collaborative management and OSC cost performance relate to each other. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore and verify the quantitative indicators that measure stakeholder collaborative management and cost performance. Interaction frequency, emotional intensity, familiarity, and reciprocity were selected as the metrics to measure stakeholder collaborative management. Unilateral cost and production cost of precast components were used to depict OSC cost performance. Meanwhile, social network analysis (SNA) was adopted to obtain density, network centralization and centrality to estimate the network relationship. This study attained the adjacency matrix by a survey, and then developed an OSC collaborative project management primary framework (OSCCPMPF) through SNA to explore the evolution process of collaboration among stakeholders. Hypotheses were developed. Then, multiple case studies were conducted. This study found that stakeholder collaborative management positively affects cost performance. Meanwhile, cost performance was the most important driver for stakeholder collaborative management. Network relationship had a positive impact on cost performance. Additionally, differential strategies can be adopted to promote the OSC development. The findings are useful for setting up a benchmark framework for cost management and project management mode in OSC.
Alkali-activated calcined smectite clay blended with waste calcium carbonate as a low-carbon binder J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Luca Valentini, Silvia Contessi, Maria C. Dalconi, Federico Zorzi, Enrico Garbin
Reconciling the need of producing reliable building materials, with that of drastically cutting greenhouse gas emissions represents one of the current fundamental technological and societal challenges. To this end, we assessed the performance of a binder alternative to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based on the alkali activation of a blend of locally sampled, impure calcined clay of smectitic composition, with waste calcium carbonate from the marble industry. The microstructure of the final product was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray tomography, and the phase composition by X-ray diffraction, implementing the PONKCS (partial or not known crystal structure) approach. Results of compressive strength tests show an adequate mechanical performance of these materials, with values of the compressive strength as high as 60 MPa after 20 days under room temperature curing. Replacement of a small quantity of the alkaline activator with sodium citrate induces enhanced workability and mechanical performance, reducing the amount of entrained air voids. The use of alkali activated calcined smectite clay – waste calcium carbonate blends represents a valuable complementary approach with respect to alkali activation of metakaolin and calcined kaolinite clay – OPC blends, towards the development of carbon-free binders.
What is the contribution of food self-provisioning for environmental sustainability? Case study of active gardeners J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Jan Vávra, Petr Daněk, Petr Jehlička
Food self-provisioning, also labelled as household food production, is a traditional activity persisting in the countries of the Global North. Recently, it has become an object of sustainability oriented research due to the positive social, health and environmental outcomes. However, little is known about the rate of self-sufficiency of the food self-provisioners and about environmental context of this kind of food production, including its actual potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. To clarify these topics, we analysed sociological data from a quantitative research study carried out in the Czech Republic in 2015. The data from 775 food growing households were used. The combined rate of self-sufficiency of the households was calculated as the share of home grown fruit, vegetables and potatoes in the overall consumption of the household. The rate of self-sufficiency (33%) was then compared with average food consumption and multiplied by the different values of greenhouse gas emissions reduction potential of home grown food. This led to the reduction of 42–92 kg CO2eq/person/year, which constitutes 3–5% of overall food emissions of Czech households. The research shows that positive environmental effects are not negatively counterweighted either by excessive use of industrial fertilisers or by car transportation to the gardens. Environmental motivation is unimportant for gardeners. Our findings give support to “quiet sustainability” and “sustainable materialism”; two recently advanced concepts highlighting the importance of considering everyday practices in the quest for sustainability.
Development of natural fiber-reinforced composite with comparable mechanical properties and reduced energy consumption and environmental impacts for replacing automotive glass-fiber sheet molding compound J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Yingji Wu, Changlei Xia, Liping Cai, Andres C. Garcia, Sheldon Q. Shi
Towards a Driver Framework for Regional Bioenergy Pathways J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Gerard McGovern, Thomas Klenke
Bioenergy is currently under diversified pressure to re-assess its compliance with sustainable development strategies and criteria and thereby ensure that the sector delivers a long-term contribution to renewable energy transition. With a view to promoting sustainable regional development this inquiry investigates whether a reframing of bioenergy supply chain design can allow sustainable regional development targets to feature as integral supply chain components and both help upgrade existing bioenergy processes and initiate new bioenergy value chains. Following a critical survey of classic supply chain management we use a Total Quality Management approach to operationalize the concept of regional energy and pilot the development of sustainable bioenergy pathways within North European regional settings. We argue that a methodical enhancement of supply chain design can help overcome the challenges facing bioenergy and at the same time provide a blueprint for pioneering feasible regional energy initiatives as alternatives to conventional energy processes. From an initially sectoral perspective the study seeks to support the integration of regional development goals into energy transition policy.
Research on intelligent expert system of green cutting process and its application J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Zhaohui Deng, Hua Zhang, Yahui Fu, Linlin Wan, Lishu Lv
Biowaste versus fossil sourced auxiliaries for plant cultivation: the Lantana case study J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Giancarlo Fascella, Enzo Montoneri, Matteo Francavilla
Soluble bio-based substances (SBS) were isolated from the anaerobic digestate of the organic humid fraction of urban waste and from the compost obtained from a mix of digestate, gardening residues and sewage sludge. These were compared with a commercial Leonardite-based product for their effects on the growth and productivity of two Lantana species. The SBS were found more powerful than the Leonardite-based product in enhancing plant photosynthesis, growth and aesthetic effect, improving flower quality, and optimizing water use efficiency. Enhancement factors of plant performance indicators by SBS ranged from 1.2 to 3.3 relatively to the control plants, and from 1.3 to 2.4 relatively to plants treated with the commercial Leonardite product at equal applied dose. The results are in line with findings published for other case studies performed with horticultural and ornamental plants. They confirm that municipal biowaste is a viable feedstock to obtain specialty chemicals that can efficiently replace fossil sourced products in agriculture. Options for further development work are discussed.
Economic and Environmental Analysis of Animal Fats Acidity Reduction by Enzymatic Esterification J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Teresa M. Mata, Fábio Pinto, Nídia Caetano, António A. Martins
This study examines the economic potential of reducing the acidity of animal fats (fish oil, poultry and mammalian fats) by enzymatic esterification, when applied at industrial scale in a Portuguese company, and determines its carbon and water footprints as a measure of its potential environmental impact. Cost and revenue data were obtained from real industrial and commercial sources, complemented with literature and life cycle inventory data for the environmental impact calculations. Based on esterification experiments, for optimizing operating conditions and enzymes selection, two scenarios are analysed in this work, using ethanol 96 % (v/v) as reagent, and the following enzymes commercialized by Novozymes as catalyst: (1) Lipozyme® CALB L for fish oil and mammalian fat and Novozym® 435 for poultry fat; (2) Lipozyme® TL 100L for fish oil and Lecitase® Ultra for mammalian fat. Results show that under current conditions the new process for the fats acidity reduction is not economically viable. To be feasible the cost of enzymes should decrease to at least 9.75 €/kg and 1 €/kg for treating, respectively, the fish oil and the mammalian fat. Alternatively, the sale price of fish oil alone and fish oil and mammalian fat together, should increase at least 3 and 4 % respectively, to ensure that the process is cost effective. For the process operating conditions defined in this work, it is estimated a carbon and water footprints of respectively 1.3 t CO2 eq/t fat and of is 574 m3 water/t fat for the new esterification process, corresponding to minor increases in the footprints of the current company processes.
Water resources utilization efficiency and influence factors under environmental restrictions J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Malin Song, Rui Wang
This paper measured province-level water resource efficiencies in China from both static and dynamic perspectives, applying the undesirable-output-based Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index to panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2006 to 2015. Then, the paper analyzed factors that affect water resource efficiency by using a panel Tobit model. Research results showed significant lack of water resource efficiency with notable differences among provinces; water resource efficiency was somehow related to the level of economic development. Technical improvement was an important factor in water resource efficiency. The level of economic development had a non-linear influence on water resource efficiency. Industrial structure upgrading and population expansion could significantly improve water resource efficiency while the effects of water supply and per capita educational level were insignificant.
How to Improve Learners’ (mis) Understanding of CO2 Accumulations Through the Use of Human-Facilitated Interactive Learning Environments? J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Hassan Qudrat-Ullah, Aymen Kayal
On a global scale, the need for CO2 mitigation and adaptation strategies is both compelling and urgent. While there are several challenges including political, economic, and technological, IPPC has identified the lack of mitigation and adaptation strategies and the lack of “flows of knowledge and information relevant for adaptation decisions” as the fundamental barriers to adaptation. In fact, there exists much scientific evidence of how environmental emissions (e.g., CO2) are contributing to the global warming and climate change phenomena, yet subjects in numerous experimental studies show a poor understanding of, and engagement with, environmental accumulations. How can learners’ understanding of environmental accumulations be improved? We argue that the adoption of the stock and flow perspective, which provides effective tools such as System Dynamics based Interactive Learning Environments (SDILEs) for education and engagement can address this challenge effectively. In our experiments, we assessed the impact of three interventions and found that education and training with human-facilitated SDILE improved learners’ understanding of, and ability to apply, the basic principle of accumulation much more than of those who were trained only with standalone SDILE or those who had a traditional lecture-based session. Such an improved understanding about CO2 accumulation is expected to support the design and implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies needed for our sustainable future.
Study of Impact Factors of Willingness to Pay regarding Water Reserve of South-to-North Water Diversion Project in Beijing Based on Bayesian Network Model J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Zhuoyue Peng, Lili Zhang, Junxian Yin, Hao Wang
The contingent valuation method is used to study the service value regarding the water resources reservation of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in Beijing. The analysis results illustrate that the mean willingness to pay (WTP) is 42.15 CNY per permanent resident of Beijing. We propose a WTP analysis model based on the Bayesian network for its obvious advantages compared to previous models. The results demonstrate certain factors crucial to WTP, including “public support for the project expenditure of financial, material, and human resources to reserve water resources”, “willingness to participate in public benefit activities”, “public cognition of water scarcity in Beijing”, “monthly family income”, and “knowledge of the project”. This study concentrates on the variables that are of most concern to the government, including “education background”, “occupation”, “public cognition of water scarcity in Beijing”, and “public awareness of the SNWDP”. The future of China's environmental strategy will gradually be market-oriented, and this study also provides a basis for the government to gain insight into public payment behaviour impact factors and set policies.
Governance of Electronic Waste Recycling Based on Social Capital Embeddedness Theory J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Benhong Peng, Yu Tu, Guo Wei
The implementation of EPR systems has posed enterprises with high responsibilities in e-waste governance and management. However, most enterprises have demonstrated a very low interest in EPR systems as expected due to a wide range of barriers, involving high cost, low efficiency on subsidies audit, a lack of effective and efficient collection systems, and low levels of public awareness and participation. We argue that social capital might function as the ‘relational glue’ underpinning effective supply chain relationships in e-waste management. Drawing upon a survey of 800 enterprises, we utilize structural equation model to examine the relationships between social capital, governance and willingness to participation in e-waste recycling behaviour. Findings show that social capitals have a positively impact on both governance practices and willingness to participation. Nonetheless, the positive effects of cognitive social capital and incentives on willingness to participation are limited due to the lack of coercive powers.
Prisoner's dilemma on competing retailers' investment in green supply chain management J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Yingchen Yan, Ruiqing Zhao, Huiru Chen
Nowadays, along with increased public environmental awareness and widespread upstream investments in green production, some retailers have begun to invest in the packaging and distribution processes to shape their public images and enhance their competitiveness. However, under the pressure of competition and existing upstream investments, retailers' incentives to invest may be weakened. In this paper, we study whether and when competing retailers should invest and explore the performance of the equilibrium outcome. First, we find that a retailer prefers to invest only with a high efficiency, which can endow her with a considerable demand improvement at an acceptable cost level. Second, we demonstrate that a retailer counterintuitively will not always benefit from her rival's investment inefficiency because the manufacturer in this case will reduce his investment level, which cannot sufficiently expand the product market size. Third, we verify the existence of a prisoner's dilemma for retailers under a medium investment efficiency because although green investment enhances demand, it also increases the unit cost and subsequently the retail price. Additionally, a retailer facing competition is especially unwilling to improve her price compared with her rival. Fourth, we present an interesting insight that the prisoner’ dilemma area will be decreased with a sufficient upstream investment efficiency since a retailer will focus less on the downstream competition for market occupation but more on the upstream investment that can expand the total market size. The decreased hostility alleviates the prisoner’ dilemma.
Exergy-based sustainability analysis of acetins synthesis through continuous esterification of glycerol in acetic acid using Amberlyst®36 as catalyst J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Mortaza Aghbashlo, Meisam Tabatabaei, Hajar Rastegari, Hassan S. Ghaziaskar
This research was devoted to investigating the exergetic performance of a continuous reactor applied to valorize glycerol through esterification with acetic acid in the presence of Amberlyst®36 as catalyst. The main aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of reaction temperature (66–134 °C), acetic acid to glycerol molar ratio (1–9), and pressure (1–199 bar) at a fixed feed flow rate of 0.5 mL/min on the exergetic performance parameters of the reactor. The developed reactor satisfactorily converted glycerol into acetins, i.e., monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin. The exergetic performance parameters of the reactor were profoundly influenced by the process variables. In general, reaction temperature of 80 °C, acetic acid to glycerol molar ratio of 3, and pressure of 41 bar were found to be the most optimal glycerol esterification conditions from the exergetic viewpoint. Under these conditions, functional exergetic efficiency and exergetic productivity index of the process stood at 25.38% and 0.42%, respectively. The results obtained showed that selection of the esterification conditions based on yield alone could be misleading, since high-yield chemical operations might potentially destroy large amounts of resources as a result of thermodynamic irreversibilities. Overall, the best operating conditions determined herein can be applied in commercial scale for efficient, productive, and sustainable valorization of glycerol into value-added acetins.
A spatially-resolved inventory analysis of the water consumed by the coal-to-gas transition of Pennsylvania J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Sarah M. Jordaan, Lauren A. Patterson, Laura Diaz Anadon
Life cycle assessments (LCA) typically exclude spatial information in estimating the water consumption associated with a product, resulting in calls to improve regional detail to better reflect spatial variation. In response to these calls, we have compiled a spatially-resolved inventory of changes in water consumption associated with the coal-to-gas transition in Pennsylvania at the resolution of watersheds from 2009 to 2012. Results indicate that the total water consumption of the fuel extraction and power sectors in Pennsylvania increased by 7.6 million m3 (2 Bgal) over four years. At the state and watershed scales, we compare total water consumption for the coal-to-gas transition to a case where only the water consumed across two life cycle stages of electricity generation is considered – fuel extraction and use at the power plant to generate electricity. The results for the latter indicate that water consumption decreased by over 15.1 million m3 (4 Bgal). For both cases, watershed-level results showed water consumption generally increased in watersheds with growing shale gas activity or new natural gas capacity, while it decreased with diminishing coal-fired generation. Watershed-scale water consumption from 2009 to 2012 may be reversed from a net increase to decrease (and vice versa) when the total water consumption is compared to the water consumed specifically for life cycle stages of electricity generation, reinforcing the importance of further developing spatially-resolved inventories for LCA. Focusing on the water consumption associated with only electricity generation and its fuel use does not capture the full effects of fuel extracted for use in other sectors. We suggest that spatially-explicit inventories should be a critical component in the development of more comprehensive, spatial LCA methodology. Spatial differentiation in inventories is necessary to adequately characterize watershed-level impacts that can be normalized over a functional unit. The approach can be used as a complementary assessment to LCA that can inform policy-makers and investors about where energy developments may pose additional risks to water supply and availability.
Evaluating the performance of suppliers based on using the R'AMATEL-MAIRCA method for green supply chain implementation in electronics industry J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Kajal Chatterjee, Dragan Pamucar, Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas
Green supply chain management (GSCM) practitioners striving to create a healthier environment should first identify the key criteria pertinent to the process of implementing the appropriate sustainable policies, particularly in the most rapidly growing electronics sector. Since the decision to adopt GSCM in electronics industry is associated with the use of a multi-dimensional approach involving a number of qualitative criteria, the paper examines GSCM based on fifteen criteria expressed in five dimensions and proposes a multi-criteria evaluation framework for selecting suitable green suppliers. In real life, the assessment of this decision is based on vague information or imprecise data of the expert's subjective judgements, including the feedback from the criteria and their interdependence. Thus to treat this uncertainty in multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) process, rough number (RN) is applied here using only the internal knowledge in the operative data available to the decision-makers. In this way objective imprecisions and uncertainties are used and there is no need to rely on models of assumptions. Instead of different external parameters in the application of RN, the structure of the given data is used. Therefore, the identified components are incorporated into a rough DEMATEL-ANP (R'AMATEL) method, combining the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory Model (DEMATEL) and the Analytical Network Process (ANP) in a rough context. In group decision making, a rough number-based approach aggregates individual judgements and handles imprecision. The structure of the relationships between the criteria expressed in different dimensions is determined by using the rough DEMATEL (R'DAMETEL) method and building an influential network relation mapping, based on which the rough ANP (R'ANP) method is implemented to obtain the respective criteria weights. Then, the rough multi-attribute Ideal-Real Comparative Analysis (R'MAIRCA) is used to evaluate the environmental performance of suppliers for each evaluation criterion. Sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of the weights of criteria and the influence of the decision maker's preferences on the final evaluation results. Applying the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and other ranking methods, the stability of the alternative rankings based on the variation in the criteria weights is checked. The results obtained in the study show that the proposed method significantly increases the objectivity of supplier assessment in a subjective environment.
A profitability analysis of small-scale plants for biomethane injection into the gas grid J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Federica Cucchiella, Idiano D’Adamo, Massimo Gastaldi, Michela Miliacca
Biomethane is a promising renewable energy carrier with the potential to diversify and decarbonise natural gas. It is produced from a range of waste sources and can be distributed into the natural gas grid or used as a vehicle fuel or converted into in cogeneration units.The economic evaluation of small plants for biomethane injection into the gas grid is not well defined in literature.This paper proposes a mathematical and economic model useful to evaluate the profitability of these plants in according to Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) method. The indicators used are Net Present Value (NPV),Discounted Payback Time (DPBT), Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Profitability Index (PI). The baseline case studies analyse three different small-scale sizes (50 m3/h, 100 m3/h and 150 m3/h) concerning two typologies of substrates (organic fraction of municipal solid waste (ofmsw) and a mixture of maize and manure residues). Results define that the profitability is verified only for 150 m3/h ofmsw plant in baseline case study (NPV is 615,694 €, DPBT is 3 y, IRR is 33% and PI is 0.18). Furthermore, alternative case studies are conducted on the main critical variables (subsidies, investment costs of biogas production, transport costs of substrates and percentage of maintenance and overhead costs in biogas production).The economic feasibility can be reached in the following case studies: 100 m3/h ofmsw plant in sensitivity analysis, 50 m3/h ofmsw plant in scenario analysis, 150 m3/h mixed plant in scenario analysis with a new incentive scheme and 100 m3/h manure residues plant in scenario analysis. The biomethane can contribute to develop the circular economy recovering a wide range of waste.
A method of strategic evaluation of energy performance of Building Integrated Photovoltaic in the urban context J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 V. Costanzo, R. Yao, E. Essah, L. Shao, M. Shahrestani, A.C. Oliveira, M. Araz, A. Hepbasli, E. Biyik
This paper presents an integrated bottom-up approach aimed at helping those dealing with strategical analysis of installation of Building Integrated Photo Voltaic (BIPV) to estimate the electricity production potential along with the energy needs of urban buildings at the district scale. On the demand side, hourly energy profiles is generated using dynamic building simulation taking into account actual urban morphologies. On the supply side, electricity generated from the system is predicted considering both the direct and indirect components of solar radiation as well as local climate variables. Python-based Algorithm editor Grasshopper is used to interlink four types of modelling and simulation tools as 1) generation of 3-D model, 2) solar radiation analysis, 3) formatting weather files (TMY data set) and 4) dynamic energy demand. The method has been demonstrated for a cluster of 20 buildings located in the Yasar University in Izmir (Turkey), for which it is found the BIPV system could achieve an annual renewable share of 23%, in line with the Renewable Energy Directive target of 20%. Quantitatively-compared demand and supply information at hourly time step shows that only some energy needs can be met by BIPV, so there is a need for an appropriate matching strategy to better exploit the renewable energy potential.
Understanding Consumer Motivations for Buying Sustainable Agricultural Products at Romanian Farmers Markets J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 John M. Polimeni, Raluca I. Iorgulescu, Adriana Mihnea
Farmers markets are an important direct-to-consumer market that enables non-farmers to purchase locally, and often sustainably, grown produce and products. This interaction is mutually beneficial. Consumers gain access to local produce and products, typically at lower costs, while learning about their food, local products, and how they are produced. Farmers retain some profit by eliminating the wholesaler and having increased interaction with the consumer and winning their loyalty for their products. Understanding the factors that influence consumer motivations for buying sustainable agricultural products would provide producers and policy-makers better information to improve economic development and the growth of farmers markets. This study examines, using primary data from 243 surveys, the characteristics and motivations of consumers at 89 farmers markets (piaţa) throughout Romania. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics are presented using descriptive statistics. Ordered logit models are used to understand consumer motivations. The results of this study suggest that consumers learn about how the agricultural products they purchase at the piaţa are produced and the connection between the environment, community building, and their personal health. Furthermore, economic value, wealth, and educational level are important factors for consumers to choose sustainable products at the piaţa. These findings are necessary to develop and maintain sustainable agricultural production.
Novel multi-metal containing MnCr catalyst made from manganese slag and chromium wastewater for effective selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide at low temperature J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Gaorong Wang, Jia Zhang, Lu Liu, Ji Zhi Zhou, Qiang Liu, Guangren Qian, Zhi Ping Xu, Ryan M. Richards
The disposal of manganese slag and chromium electroplating wastewater is a difficult problem worldwide. These wastes contain various transition metals, such as Mn, Cr, Fe, Ni and Cu. Thus, these wastes are also potential resources. In this work, a novel catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide was synthesized with the synergetic utilization of manganese slag and chromium wastewater for the first time. The catalyst was feathered by a multi-metal containing amorphous and crystal MnCr oxides. As a result, the manganese slag after ammonia activation increased the removal of nitric oxide from 25 to 61% at a temperature as low as 150 °C. The nitric oxide removal further increased to 97% after chromium wastewater precipitation. The enhanced efficiency lasted for more than 900 min. The results of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that chromium wastewater increased the amount of amorphous Mn4+, which coupled to Cr3+. Moreover, the Ni, Fe and Cu in Mn slag and Cr wastewater were incorporated into the coupling, further enhancing the amount of acid sites and low-temperature activity. This catalyst was even more active than a reagent-synthesized MnCr catalyst. Therefore, the present research developed a new strategy to recycle transition metal-containing wastes and to synthesize catalysts for sustainable development.
Technological innovation systems in multi-level governance frameworks: The case of Taiwan's biodiesel innovation system (1997–2016) J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Chao-Chen Chung
This study analyses the sustainability transitions of technological innovation systems (TISs) in the context of multi-level governance frameworks. TISs which are spatially embedded in both international and national arenas are simultaneously governed by the governance frameworks in different layers, i.e. international institutions on a macro level, national institutions on a meso level and domestic dynamics of novel technologies on a micro level. Through the investigation of the biodiesel innovation system in Taiwan, this study concludes that international institutions could appropriately play a role in the guidance of search, while national governments should ensure policies are consistent and generate appropriateness on the domestic TISs' functions. If the domestic TISs’ functions are appropriately guided by the institutions on the above levels, novel technologies that sustainably transit the systems would then emerge on a micro level.
Promoting remanufactured heavy-truck engine purchase in China: Influencing factors and their effects J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Ying Qu, Yakun Liu, Guo Lingling, Qinghua Zhu, Tseng Minglang
Due to the ever-increasing quantity of produced and sold automobiles in China, many side effects such as resource depletion, energy shortages and air pollution have emerged. Remanufacturing, as the highest form of the recycling economy, has been promoted by the Chinese government as a major measure to save resources and energy. The remanufactured products, however, get very low market recognition from Chinese consumers. Thus, understanding how to cultivate consumers potential behavior of purchasing remanufactured products is the first step and also very important for developing the remanufacturing industry. This paper, focusing on heavy truck engines due to their short life expectancy and repair frequency, aims to identify the factors influencing remanufactured heavy truck engine (RHTE) potential purchase and analyze the relationship among those factors and potential purchasing behavior. Based on 301 questionnaires from Chinese heavy truck drivers, this paper develops a conceptual model to hypothesize how the influencing factors affect RHTE potential purchasing behavior. Hierarchical regression results show that individual factors (including product knowledge, product trust and environmental values) mediate the relationship between environmental factors (including product attribute and advertisement) and RHTE purchasing intention. Contextual factors (including incentive policy and purchasing convenience) moderate the relationship between RHTE purchasing intention and potential purchasing behavior. Our results indicate that individual factors are essential in cultivating RHTE purchasing intention and environmental factors are helpful for improving individual factors. Contextual factors can motivate the transformation from RHTE purchasing intention to potential purchasing behavior.
Post Evaluation of Distributed Energy Generation Combining the Attribute Hierarchical Model and Matter-Element Extension Theory J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Lihua Ma, Hong Chen, Huizhe Yan, Wanqing Li, Jiao Zhang, Wenbin Zhang
Distributed energy supply has a prominent impact on solving the contradiction between energy supply and demand, environmental degradation, and other issues. This paper analyzes the application of distributed energy supply for specific power projects. We developed a systematic post project evaluation index and evaluation model using the theory of matter-element extension, and determined weights for all indicators that influenced distributed energy generation projects, combined with the attribute hierarchical model. The proposed model was verified experimentally, and shown to enhance evaluation of distributed generation projects. In addition, (1) Distributed energy systems have been widely applied across the world due to their inherent advantages of flexibility, convenience, environmentally friendliness, and high reliability, so it is necessary to study. (2) This paper combined the matter-element extension theory (MEET) and the attribute hierarchical model (AHM) to develop an evaluation model for distributed generation projects. The proposed model was verified experimentally using actual distributed energy project data. (3) This paper enhances the evaluation theoretical research on the post-evaluation of distributed generation projects and capturing experience and lessons for subsequent projects.
Joint effects of variable carbon emission cost and multi-delay-in-payments under single-setup-multiple-delivery policy in a global sustainable supply chain J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Biswajit Sarkar, Waqas Ahmed, Namhun Kim
In today's global market, supply chain players have to cooperate mutually for extra benefits, long lasting paybacks, and to control carbon emission for a clean environment. This study develops the three-echelon sustainable supply chain model in the context of multi-level trade credit and single-setup-multiple-delivery policy for mutual coordination in financial support and reducing carbon emissions. These joint effects will benefit the firms for interim financing as well as minimize carbon emission for a clean environment. This model quantifies the effects of the environmental regulations and trade credit period under the single-setup-multiple-delivery policy. The supplier produces semi-finished items and transports it to the manufacturer, the manufacturer transform these semi-finished items into final products. These finished products finally transported to multi-retailer. The shipments are permitted to proceed from the particular lot during production instead after completing the entire lot This strategy save the environment by minimizing carbon emission. Additionally, a multi-level trade credit policy is considered in this model for short-term investment. An algebraic approach is used to derive a closed form optimal result for the designed model. This non-derivative method provides the effective solution algorithm. The main contribution of this study is to minimize the sustainable supply chain cost of the system by jointly considering the multi-level delay-in-payment, variable carbon emission cost, and variable transportation cost under the single-setup-multi-delivery policy. The study presents an optimal solution for the individual scenario and also derived a comparison between them with a numerical example. The findings directed that implementation of multi-level trade credit under single setup-multiple-delivery improves the economic and environmental performance of three-echelon supply chain. Sensitivity analysis of the developed study is also illustrated to prove the real practice.
The environmental Kuznets curve model for greenhouse gas emissions in Canada J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Edward Olale, Thomas O. Ochuodho, Van Lantz, Jafar El Armali
This paper tests for the applicability of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis at the Canadian and provincial/territorial levels using greenhouse gas emissions as an indicator for environmental degradation. The hypothesis is tested using provincial and territorial panel data from 1990 to 2014. The results vary depending on the econometric estimation method. The pooled regression results are mixed, with the EKC hypothesis confirmed at the Canadian level and in half of the provinces and territories. However, the fixed-effects regression results confirm the EKC hypothesis at the Canadian level and in all provinces and territories. The results also highlight the significance of technological change and province/territory specific characteristics in determining the level of greenhouse gas emissions.
A Novel Energy Consumption Model for Milling Process Considering Tool Wear Progression J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 K.N. Shi, D.H. Zhang, N. Liu, S.B. Wang, J.X. Ren, S.L. Wang
Energy crisis, climate change, and stringent legislations are imposing great pressure on enterprises, especially manufacturing sectors, to improve their energy efficiency. To achieve higher energy efficiency in manufacturing, reliable energy consumption modelling is the prerequisite since it offers fundamental basis for any energy efficiency-related optimization. Although tool wear is inevitable, traditional energy consumption models fail to take tool wear effects into consideration. To address this issue, this study proposes an energy consumption model with tool wear progression for 3-axis milling process. Based on modern machining theory and recent achievements in energy consumption modelling, the proposed model is firstly derived as an expression with unknown coefficients. Subsequently, the involved coefficients are calibrated based on cutting experiments. With the explicit energy consumption model, power consumption with a given tool wear under new cutting conditions can be predicted with a high accuracy. In addition, as the model reveals a one-to-one correspondence between the power consumption and tool wear, the tool wear can also be effectively estimated from the measured power consumption. Compared with other tool wear monitoring methods such as acoustic emission and vibration, this power consumption-based tool wear estimation method is not only straightforward but also cost-effective. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the proposed energy consumption model with tool wear progression is the first model that was experimentally validated in terms of total power prediction and tool wear prediction, respectively. As such, the proposed model can be a significant supplement to existing energy consumption modelling in machining process, and may provide a more accurate and comprehensive platform for energy efficiency optimization.
A high temporal-spatial resolution air pollutant emission inventory for agricultural machinery in China J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Jianlei Lang, Jingjing Tian, Ying Zhou, Kanghong Li, Dongsheng Chen, Qing Huang, Xiaofan Xing, Yanyun Zhang, Shuiyuan Cheng
Agricultural machinery is an important non-road mobile source, which can exhaust multi-pollutants, making primary and secondary contributions to the air pollution. China is a significant agricultural country of the world; however, the agricultural machinery emissions research is at an early stage, and an emission inventory with a high temporal-spatial resolution is still needed. In this study, a comprehensive emission inventory with a high temporal-spatial resolution for agricultural machinery in China was first developed. The results showed that the total emissions in 2014 were 262.69 Gg, 249.25 Gg, 1211.39 Gg, 2192.05 Gg, 1448.16 Gg and 25.14 Gg for PM10, PM2.5, THC, NOx, CO and SO2, respectively. Tractors and farm transport vehicles were the top two greatest contributors, accounting for approximately 39.9%-53.6% and 17.4%-24.6%, respectively, of the total emissions of the five pollutants (except THC). The farm transport vehicles contributed the most (81.8%) to the THC emissions. The county-level emissions were further allocated into 1 km × 1 km grids according to source-specific allocation surrogates. The spatial characteristic analysis indicated that high emissions were distributed in northeast, north and central-south China. To obtain a high temporal resolution emission inventory, a comprehensive investigation on the agricultural practice timing in different provinces was conducted. Then, the annual emissions in the different provinces were distributed to a spatial resolution of ten-day periods (i.e. the early, mid- and late ten-day periods in each month). It was found that higher emissions in China occurred in late April, mid-June and early October. In addition, the emission uncertainty was also analyzed based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The estimated high temporal-spatial resolution emission inventory could provide important basic information for environmental/climate implications research, emission control policy making, and air quality modeling.
Numerical Simulation of Enhancement in CO2 Sequestration with Various Water Production Schemes under Multiple Well Scenarios J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Chen Li, Danqing Liu, Ramesh Agarwal
To determine the best CO2 injection and brine production strategy for achieving both the optimal water production and the optimal CO2 storage capacity while maintaining operational safety in CO2 enhanced brine production, three injection scenarios based on the typical geological parameters of the Junggar Basin in China are compared. They are the sole CO2 injection, sole water production and combined CO2 enhanced water recovery, and for the combined CO2 enhanced water recovery scenario, both the co-production of brine and pre-production of brine are considered. It is found that compared to the pre-production of brine, the combination of pre- and co-production of brine can be more effective in controlling the pressure perturbation and in increasing the CO2 storage capacity. However the volume of co-produced brine plays a smaller role in the pressure build-up. The influence of number of pumping wells is also analyzed. Although increasing the number of wells can enhance the CO2 storage, the economic analysis reveals that the revenue in water production and CO2 storage cannot compensate the expensive investment required in well drilling. The injection strategy is essential to the efficiency of CO2enhanced water recovery; this paper compares the strategies for pre-production and co-production of brine on CO2enhanced shale gas recovery. The conclusions given in this paper can serve as a reference for the design engineers interested in CO2storage with co-production of brine.
Physical and chemical characterization and recycling potential of desktop computer waste, without screen J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Claudia Adriana Kohl, Luciana Paulo Gomes
Environmentally appropriate and efficient recycling of several materials contained in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) requires knowledge and the identification of materials and chemical elements forming this kind of waste. Therefore, this study presents the physical and chemical characterization of desktop computer waste and the potential recycling rates of these materials. Differently from other studies, which investigated recycling and chemical composition only of motherboards (the component that contains precious metals), here were evaluate all components, namely floppy disk drives, CD drives, IDE cables, HDs, coolers, motherboards, power supply units, lids, casings, and other parts. This study was carried out in three steps: (i) the physical characterization included the manual dismantling of these components, and grouping the materials under seven categories (plastics, non-ferrous metals, ferrous metals, materials with substances of interest, hazardous materials, wires and cables, and other materials); (ii) potential recycling rates were calculated according to the European Directive 2102/19/EU; (iii) chemical characterization of components based on X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that the potential recycling rate of the waste analyzed was 96.66%, which represents the amount of material that can be recycled in the samples investigated. The results also show that, besides motherboards, other components also are potentially recyclable. Noble, precious, and critical metals as well as and rare earth elements were detected in IDE cables, power supply units, hard disks, floppy disk drives, and motherboards. Parts with high levels of aluminum, copper, and zinc were also observed. Recycling of WEEE is important both economically and environmentally, since PC components, since these elements may be recycled in processes that use less energy, preventing the extraction of natural raw materials and minimizing environmental impact.
Enhanced removal of Cd(II) from water using sulfur-functionalized rice husk: Characterization, adsorptive performance and mechanism exploration J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Jianhua Qu, Xianlin Meng, Xingying Jiang, Hong You, Peng Wang, Xiuqing Ye
By grafting sulfur-bearing groups onto rice husk with magnesium xanthate, a novel biosorbent (RH-M) was synthesized for removal of cadmium from water. New sulfur containing binding sites were achieved efficiently according to Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and elemental analysis, and the alternation of surface morphology of RH-M was presented by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The adsorption performance of xanthate-modified biosorbent including adsorbent dosage effect, pH-dependence, kinetic curves and equilibrium isotherms were systematically investigated. The Cd(II) adsorption of RH-M was found to follow Langmuir isotherm model with maximum adsorption capacity of 137.16 mg g−1, significantly higher than that of many other reported adsorbents. The high-density sulfur-bearing groups on the functionalized rice husk surface are believed to improve the cadmium uptake due to a combination of ion exchange and chelation. Moreover, RH-M exhibited fast Cd(II) uptake ability in an exceptionally high correlation with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Besides, Desorption experiments demonstrated that 0.5 M HNO3 solution could effectively desorb Cd(II) from the biosorbent with recovery rate up to 75% after four consecutive cycles. All these results recommend RH-M as a promising biosorbent for cadmium removal in aqueous solution.
Effect of perforation on exhaust performance of a turbo pipe type muffler using methanol and gasoline blended fuel: A step to NOx control J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Prakash Chandra Mishra, Sourav Kumar Kar, Harsit Mishra
Environmental assessment of a landfill leachate treatment plant: Impacts and research for more sustainable chemical alternatives J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Leonardo Postacchini, Filippo E. Ciarapica, Maurizio Bevilacqua
The potential of dance: Reducing fashion consumption through movement therapy J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Clemens Thornquist
Fashion is one of the elements contributing to human phenomena such as self-concept, social interaction, and cross-cultural communication. Despite the significance of this reality however the link between the consumption of fashion and its lack of sustainability in relation to natural resources is one of ongoing concern. To investigate how large-scale changes in consumption can be encouraged, this paper explores the theoretical potential of dance as a replacement for the emotive person-product relationship related to the fast rate of fashion consumption, an exchange that would not disable essential functions such as expressive self-concept, social interaction, and cross-cultural communication. By refocusing the means of self-expression from material products to gestures and movement, dance and dance/movement therapy can help individuals resist the impulsive and compulsive consumption promoted by the fashion industry. This study identifies a potential for dance and dance movement therapy to reduce an individual’s dependence on material goods for self-expression. Further research is needed to develop and evaluate practical implementation of place, scale, and longevity. In addition, research methods need to be developed to evaluate the effectiveness of different dance methods.
Nanocellulose-tannin films: From trees to sustainable active packaging J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 André L. Missio, Bruno D. Mattos, Daniele de F. Ferreira, Washington L.E. Magalhães, Daniel A. Bertuol, Darci A. Gatto, Alexander Petutschnigg, Gianluca Tondi
Cellulose nanofibrils and condensed tannins were chosen to prepare a strong, sustainable packaging material. Cellulose nanofibrils provided the physical and mechanical requirements, while the tannin was incorporated due to its antioxidant properties. Herein, an easy, one-step method was designed to prepare a film containing 190 mg/g of active molecules. The incorporation of tannin into the cellulose matrix was carried out through the mechanical fibrillation of cellulose pulp and tannin mixtures. The tannin-incorporated cellulose films presented high density and improved surface hydrophobicity, which resulted in a 6-fold enhancement in their air-barrier properties. A slow release of antioxidant components was verified upon soaking, as well as good resistance to several solvents. The mechanical features of the cellulose matrix were not significantly affected by the incorporation of such phenolic molecules. These properties are key factors to put forward the utilization of tannin-added films as a valid green, nontoxic packaging material for food and pharmaceutical products.
Silver imprinted zinc oxide nanoparticles: Green synthetic approach, characterization and efficient sunlight-induced photocatalytic water detoxification J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Amr A. Essawy
Unique and infrequent strategy to greenly synthesize silver imprinted zinc oxide nanoparticles (AgZnO NPs) is presented. A facile and low cost phytosynthetic route using guava leaves aqueous extract succeeded in decorating commercial ZnO with Ag nanoparticles without needing environmentally undesirable chemical reagents. The AgZnO NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectrophotometry/spectrofluorimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Band gap calculations of Ag(2.5mol%)/ZnO give estimate of (3.03 eV) compared to 3.25 eV for ZnO. indicating good capacity of visible light absorption. This improves the solar energy harvesting characteristics of the phyto-developed AgZnO NPs. Moreover, the photocatalytic efficacy of AgZnO NPs is tested in detoxification of methylene blue (MB) enriched aqueous solutions. Parameters affecting the photodegradation rate like catalyst dosage, amount of Ag loading and pH were investigated and optimized. Under ≈18 min of sunlight-irradiation (800 W/m2), over 22 mg/L of alkaline solution of MB can be efficiently photomineralized using 0.4 g of Ag(2.5%)/ZnO NPs. Under the optimized conditions, the developed photocatalysts show a great stability after 6 folds of photocatalytic cycles reflecting their efficient photocatalytic performance in the long run.
A Decision Framework for Sustainable Supplier Selection and Order Allocation with Lost Sales J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Hacer Guner Goren
In recent years, companies have started to focus on their supply chains to enhance their sustainability performance in order to meet the customer demands and comply with environmental legislations. Therefore, the sustainability awareness has become an important issue in supply chain management and companies prefer to work with other companies focusing on this subject. This study presents a decision framework for sustainable supplier selection and order allocation problem. The framework consists of three integrated components. First, fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) approach is used to calculate the weights of sustainable criteria considered in decision making process. Second, these weights are used as inputs in Taguchi Loss Functions for ranking and calculating the rating value of each supplier. The ranking values are then taken as inputs to determine the optimal order quantities that should be allocated to each supplier using bi-objective optimization. The first contribution of this study is that it presents a novel hybrid approach by integrating fuzzy DEMATEL and Taguchi loss functions for evaluating and ranking sustainable suppliers. The second contribution is that a new bi-objective model considering the issue of lost sales has been proposed for order allocation phase for the first time in literature. The illustration of the proposed framework is shown on a case study which helps decision makers to select the sustainable suppliers and determine order sizes considering lost sales.
Wind resource assessment and economics of electric generation at four locations in Sinai Peninsula, Egypt J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Ahmed Shata Ahmed
The most attractive source of clean energy is the wind power; it is also a potentially valuable source of sustainable energy in the world in general and in Egypt in particular. Egypt's energy resources are limited in oil and petroleum products and it has large reserves of natural gas, the current projects are very massive. Nowadays, the increase in demand of energy of the country is mainly due to rapid expansion of industrial projects and the economic growth, particularly, in Suez Canal area and Sinai Peninsula. This study presents a realistic approximation of wind as a promising renewable source for electricity production along the coastal southern regions in Sinai Peninsula. Where an integrated analysis was made of the wind characteristics plus accurate estimation of the wind power potential per month and per season at different heights 10–50 m AGL for the selected locations along Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba at northern Red Sea namely: Ras Seder, Abu Redis, El Tor and Nabq. The average wind speed was obtained annually to be 8.6, 6.3, 5.8 and 8.0 m/s at altitude 50 m, respectively. According to the applied method, accurate estimation of the wind power density was done. The results confirmed that the two sites Ras Seder and Nabq are absolutely the best, which have annually available wind energies over 314 and 249 kWh/m2 at 50 m, respectively. Consequently, they and can be evaluated as an international regions for electric power generation by the inshore wind. The project of installing 580 MW class inshore wind farms at the four locations has been examined and that requires due attention from the policy makers and the foreign investors. The proposed wind projects will produce 2335 GWh of electricity per year which is more than the needs of the country. The generation cost per kWh at these locations varies from 1.84 to 4.22 US cent. This expected cost of electric generation by the wind is less than the local tariff of electricity which will be produced by other ways during the financial year 2017/2018 according to the announcement the Egyptian Ministry of Electricity. In addition, this venture will reduce domestic fossil fuel consumption in Egypt and can prevent thousands of tons of carbon emissions every year which entering into the local atmosphere.
Prediction of emissions and performance of a diesel engine fueled with n-octanol/diesel blends using response surface methodology J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Kaliyaperumal Gopal, Amudhavalli Paramasivam Sathiyagnanam, Babu Rajesh Kumar, Subramani Saravanan, Dipak Rana, Balaji Sethuramasamyraja
Business Models for Commercial Scale Second-generation Bioethanol Production J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Antonio Calil Neto, Maria José O. C. Guimarães, Estevão Freire
Faced with the prospect of depletion of non-renewable sources of fossil fuels and concerns about the emission of substances that compromise the environment, biofuels, and especially bioethanol, have attracted the attention of researchers, companies and governments. Specifically, the second generation of bioethanol has critical stages in the production process which have been limiting for companies to achieve production on a commercial scale. Although research has sought to overcome such constraints by focusing on technological challenges, it has been recognized that the greater or lesser absorption capacity of technological innovations is related to the business model used. The purpose of this article was to analyze the business models used by Brazilian companies that have achieved commercial scale production of second generation bioethanol, studying their business models as commercial viability instruments of technologies, looking to subsidize companies of this segment in formulating their policies to reach commercial scale. The research was carried out through a methodology based on the content analysis technique, which provided the following categories that served as the basis for the analysis of the business models: company focus, raw material, costs, certification, technology and production. Among the six major second-generation commercial ethanol plants in the world - GranBio, Raízen, Poet-DSM, BetaRenewables, Abengoa (plant bought by Synata Bio) and DuPont - two are Brazilian: GranBio and Raízen, which mainly use sugar cane bagasse and straw as raw material. The study demonstrated that both companies have competitive advantages that are equivalent in most of the categories studied, albeit GranBio's business model performs better in some other categories due to the strategic partnerships it has established with some of the main companies in the segment, thus, better exploring the benefits of the open innovation environment that characterizes the competitive arena.
The potential of energy savings and the prospects of cleaner energy production by solar energy integration in the residential buildings of Saudi Arabia J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Hafiz M. Abd-ur-Rehman, Fahad A. Al-Sulaiman, Aamir Mehmood, Sehar Shakir, Muhammad Umer
In this study, various energy conservation techniques and clean energy utilization prospects are investigated for the residential buildings of Saudi Arabia. A base case study of a distinctive residential building in Saudi Arabia is performed using simulation packages and its energy performance is optimized by incorporating the design standards of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). The optimized results show that the energy consumed by the IECC standardized building is less by 56% for space cooling, 37% for space heating, 46% for lighting, and 27% for appliances. The IECC standardized building is integrated with a passive solar water heating system and a grid-connected solar PV system to meet the water heating load and lighting load, respectively. The use of solar water heating system shows 76% reduction in energy consumption as compared to the electric water heater. The feasibility of integrating a grid-connected solar PV system in the residential buildings is justified in terms of subsidy provided by the government and eco-environmental benefits. Finally, the prospects of utilizing solar energy in buildings are discussed with their economic and environmental benefits.
Downscaling national road transport emission to street level: A case study in Dublin, Ireland J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Md Saniul Alam, Paul Duffy, Bernard Hyde, Aonghus McNabola
Emissions from road transport are routinely prepared at the national scale in many countries under different national and international policies, directives and legislation. Scaling down this emission to the smaller geographical area is considered as a top-down approach. Several methods have been previously applied to scaling down emission, however these have often reported inconsistent findings in comparison with emission distribution using a bottom-up approach. Carbon dioxide and particulate matter (smaller than about 2.5 μm) emissions from a national road transport estimation in Ireland were disaggregated among four counties in the Greater Dublin Area and subsequently distributed at a finer spatial scale (0.5 × 0.5 km2). Spatial coverage of the proxy variables, spatial weight distribution and appropriate representation of the fleet characteristics were identified as main sources of difference in distributed spatial emissions between top-down and bottom-up approaches. The first two issues were addressed in this paper by predicting missing or absent traffic volume from limited datasets, and the later was addressed by considering the fleet and mileage data from national annual vehicle test data at county level. A neural network model was applied to predict traffic volume which showed a 51% precision in prediction performance. Emission distribution was also performed for comparison purposes using a more conventional road density-based approach, where a correlation analysis showed an inconsistency between the two approaches. The results of this study highlighted that if the fleet characteristics at county level were not considered, the estimated emission would be different by −1.6 to −8.6% (Carbon dioxide) and −12.6 to 0.03% (Particulate matter) for passenger cars and −3.57–13.6% (Carbon dioxide) and −0.054–16.8% (Particulate matter) for light and heavy duty vehicles, depending on the counties in question. This study revealed that a share of 22.6% and 21.1% of national carbon dioxide and particulate matter emission occurred in Dublin County alone, and Dublin city was attributed to approximately 10.5% carbon dioxide and 9.8% particulate matter of the national total. The particulate matter in Dublin County was 14.3–22.4% higher than surrounding counties, and carbon dioxide emissions in Dublin city were two times higher than that of the towns and urban areas in the surrounding three counties. This study provides a combination of methods for producing finer scale spatial estimation of emission to facilitate abatement strategies and mitigation action plans at county and municipality level for the reduction of emission, better air quality and climate. The study highlights the necessity of reliable spatial distribution methods for assigning emission at a finer scale.
Multi-object optimization of flexible flow shop scheduling with batch process — Consideration total electricity consumption and material wastage J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Zhiqiang Zeng, Mengna Hong, Yi Man, Jigeng Li, Yanzhong Zhang, Huanbin Liu
Electricity consumption and material wastage of manufacturing industries have directly or indirectly influenced the environment. Many manufacturing enterprises are committed to improving energy and material efficiencies. To achieve this goal, one of the high-efficiency ways is to optimize the scheduling. In this study, a multi-object optimization model is constructed for a particular kind of batch processing scheduling problem existed in flexible flow shops, where the objects include makespan, electricity consumption and material wastage. First, the models for electricity consumption and material wastage are built, based on which a mathematic model for scheduling problem is built afterwards. Finally, a hybrid non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) method is employed to solve the multi-object optimization scheduling model. A case study based on a real-world paper mill industry is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method and its application in practice. Moreover, a real-life scheduling problem is investigated, and the result shows that the proposed method is more efficient than manual scheduling in energy and material saving. In fact, many tissue paper mills or other manufacturing industries schedule by manual labor in China, indicating that the proposed method has a significant potential in improving energy and material efficiencies in the studied flexible flow shop, and in energy and material saving in similar industries.
Life cycle assessment comparing the treatment of surplus activated sludge in a sludge treatment reed bed system with mechanical treatment on centrifuge J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Julie D. Larsen, Marieke ten Hoeve, Steen Nielsen, Charlotte Scheutz
In Denmark, the conventional method for treating sewage sludge is mechanical dewatering and subsequent storage. However, sludge treatment reed bed systems, which are holistic sludge treatment facilities combining the dewatering, mineralisation and storage of sludge, have been more common during the last three decades. Treatment of sludge in a sludge treatment reed bed system can be combined with post-treatment (further dewatering and mineralisation) on a stockpile area. This study aimed to compare the environmental performances of a mechanical sludge treatment method with the sludge treatment reed bed system strategy, using the life cycle assessment approach and a life cycle inventory based on newly generated data obtained from Danish reference facilities. The scenarios based on the different treatment methods were initiated by sludge entering the sludge treatment reed bed system or the centrifuge and terminated by land application of the final sludge product. The environmental impacts caused by the sludge treatment reed bed system strategy was comparable to or lower than those caused by the mechanical sludge treatment method. The impacts on climate change were the same for all the treatment scenarios; however, the conversion of organic carbon and nitrogen into gas species was more efficient in the sludge treatment reed bed system compared to mechanical treatment. Thus, mechanically treated sludge contained more nitrogen, causing higher nitrogen emissions (primarily nitrate run-off) when applied on land. According to the results of the life cycle assessment, there were no considerable environmental gains made by adding post-treatment on a stockpile area to the sludge treatment reed bed strategy. However, some practical aspects not included in a life cycle assessment, should also be taken into consideration when evaluating the performances of sludge treatment scenarios.
Global water transfers embodied in international trade: Tracking imbalanced and inefficient flows J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 M.Y. Han, G.Q. Chen, Y.L. Li
In light of the increasingly serious resource crisis in the context of global regional connectivity, a detailed analysis for embodied water flows in global supply chains is conducted involving more than 180 countries/regions. Based on the multi-regional database, this work attempts to explore the rules of embodied water transfers and the ways in which imbalance and inefficiencies in the new stage of globalization can be relieved. Overall, water embodied in trade flows, also known as embodied water, is estimated near one third the volume of global water withdrawal. Mainland China is the world's leading gross embodied water exporter with 114.47 billion m3, in contrast to the United States as the leading importer with 151.39 million m3. Under the background of resources distribution, trade acts as a mechanism to enable wealthy consumers to shift stress to their trading partners, leading to a more complex context of imbalance. As the most water-deficient region, the Middle East virtually receives 30 million m3 of embodied water; however most of the less developed regions including African countries are always large embodied water suppliers, requiring urgent, global attention. With the detailed data supports, this study provides systematical accounting on embodied water transfers, conducts comprehensive analyses on transfer patterns, efficiencies, and pressures, and identify imbalanced and inefficient embodied water transfers among countries/regions, attempting to map out an inclusive and sustained transfer path and lay an essential foundation for globe resources use in the new stage of globalization.
Tar reduction mechanism via compression of producer gas J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Zia Ud Din, Z.A. Zainal
Tar is the main impurity derived from biomass gasification which causes environmental hazards as well as technical problems in advanced power generation applications. Removal of tar to acceptable tolerance limits for Internal Combustion (IC) engines and fuel cells is one of the major limitations and considered the main obstacle to the wide commercial power generation using biomass producer gas. If tar is not removed to the required levels, it will condense at low temperatures and result in clogging and fouling of engines. Even though physical tar removal at low temperatures has been performing effectively with the technical and economical point of view, there is still need to explore new and more efficient tar removal techniques. In this work, compression of producer gas in a compressor is introduced as a tar cleaning mechanism of biomass tar. Compressor was exposed to low tar levels in the range of 138 – 312 ± 31 mg Nm-3 after the cooling and pre-cleaning system. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the compression process in reducing tar by 84.4 ± 1.2% and 83 ± 1.1% when compressed to 0.8 MPag and 0.2 MPag respectively at ambient temperature. The blue colour flare after the compression indicates the clean producer gas from tar and corresponds to the total tar levels around and below 30 mg Nm-3 with negligible particulates in the producer gas as compared to the orange flare before the compression. It was found that tar condenses inside the compressor receiver tank. A mechanism explaining the condensation of tar in the compression process is proposed.
Green Supply Chain Management, Economic Growth and Environment: A GMM Based Evidence J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Syed Abdul Rehman Khan, Yu Zhang, Muhammad Anees, Hêriş Golpîra, Arij Lahmar, Dong Qianli
The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between green logistics operations and energy demand, economic growth and environmental sustainability need to make factors for relationship clearer in a panel data of 43 different countries around the globe. The study employed panel Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimates for robust inferences. The results have revealed that logistics operations consume energy and fossil fuel, while the amount of fossil fuel and non-green energy sources create significant harmful effect on the environmental sustainability and also have negative effect on economic growth. In addition, poor transport-related infrastructure and logistics service are a major contributor of CO2 and total greenhouse gas emissions. However, carbon emission damages fauna and flora, and reduces economic growth. The findings suggest that renewable energy sources and green practices can mitigate harmful effect of logistics operations on environmental sustainability and spur economic activities with greatly export opportunities in a region.
Methodological accounting tool for Climate and Energy Planning in a Norwegian municipality J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Clara Valente, Ellen Soldal, Fredrik Moltu Johnsen, Felipe Verdú, Hanne Lerche Raadal, Ingunn Saur Modahl, Ole Jørgen Hanssen
The aim of this study was to propose a methodology to support the production of Climate and Energy Plans in Norwegian municipalities by analyzing whether locally available woody biomass, specifically forest logging residues, within the municipality (in this case, Fredrikstad), could cover the demand for heating in municipality buildings over the next 20 years. Three different tools, a geoprocessing tool for forestry (GEOSKOG), a methodology for environmental assessment (Life Cycle Assessment) and a tool for processing geographical data (Geographical Information System), were used in combination with energy data related to municipal buildings. The goal was to quantify the share of energy end-use (heat) that could potentially be replaced by bioenergy from forest logging residues and to calculate the potential GHG benefits from this substitution. The annual heating demand for municipal buildings in Fredrikstad currently heated by electric and oil boilers was 9.3 GWh. The potential annual GHG savings from the bioenergy substitution of fossil fuel (oil) boilers and electric boilers (Norwegian and Nordic electricity mix) equaled 292 tonnes CO2-eq, 95 tonnes CO2-eq and 535 tonnes CO2-eq respectively.
Does Funding of Waste Services follow the Polluter Pays Principle? The Case of Spain J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Julian Chamizo-González, Elisa-Isabel Cano-Montero, Clara-Isabel Muñoz-Colomina
The generation of municipal solid waste is a problem for societies aspiring to sustainability within their municipalities. Policymakers responsible for this issue apply formulas to fund solid waste management by charging taxes or fees. The formulas differ in that some link charges to the event or to the producer of the waste rather than to the environmental‘polluter pays principle’. Among the range of options for funding this service, the literature identifies “pay as you throw” (PAYT), as the method that most directly relates user charges to contributions to environmental sustainability. This study begins by exploring the types of charges in effect in 52 Spanish provincial capitals and, where applicable, the variables to which they are related. Next, it conducts a case study of the city of Madrid, whose solid waste charge, in force from 2009 to 2014, was based on property values. The case study aims to confirm the relationship—over time—between waste generated (total and per property), number of properties (place where the waste was generated) and properties’ rateable value. The results reveal, first, that the most widely-used solution at local government level is the easiest to apply—namely, a flat rate per household or a step-variable flat rate covering on average 59.03% of the cost (in 2012); and, second, that Madrid’s waste step-flat rate cannot be considered a PAYT system, despite it covers up to 70% of the cost (in 2012).
Life cycle assessment of the production of stabilized lactic acid bacteria for the environmentally-friendly preservation of living cells J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Caroline Pénicaud, Vincent Monclus, Bruno Perret, Stéphanie Passot, Fernanda Fonseca
Among food ingredients, concentrates of lactic acid bacteria are widely used as starters for producing cheeses, fermented milks, meats, vegetables and beneficial health products (probiotics). The first objective of this study was to identify environmental hotspots of the production system of lactic acid bacteria concentrates. The second was to compare the impacts of the two scenarios of stabilization (freezing vs. freeze-drying). To fulfill these objectives, Life Cycle Assessment was performed. Since production processes damage lactic acid bacteria, the impact scores were weighted by the quality of the bacteria, i.e., their physiological state, to obtain meaningful comparisons. Storage and fermentation were the hotspots when bacteria were stabilized by freezing, whereas fermentation and freeze-drying were the hotspots when bacteria were stabilized by freeze-drying. By comparing different storage devices (laboratory vs. walk-in freezers), it was revealed that the device scale was a critical choice when storage was a hotspot. Surprisingly, no benefit was obtained by increasing the storage temperature of freeze-dried products from -20°C to ambient temperature due to the high bacteria quality loss in such storage conditions. The scenario comparison (frozen vs. freeze-dried bacteria) highlighted the dependence of the results on storage time. The most eco-friendly scenario was frozen bacteria for storage periods of less than 2 months, whereas it was freeze-dried bacteria for storage periods of more than 7 months. Between 2 and 7 months, the conclusion depended on the indicators considered. This study demonstrated improvement options for the processes, including the energy efficiency of freeze-drying and the efficient use of steam and water, as well as optimized cleaning procedures for fermentation. It also highlighted the environmental benefit that could be obtained if the quality of the bacteria could be more efficiently preserved during freeze-drying and storage. This study provides valuable information concerning the preservation of microorganisms and the use of the cold chain.
A stochastic fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making model for optimal selection of clean technologies J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Michael Angelo B. Promentilla, Jose Isagani B. Janairo, Derrick Ethelbhert C. Yu, Carla Mae J. Pausta, Arnel B. Beltran, Aileen P. Huelgas-Orbecido, John Frederick D. Tapia, Kathleen B. Aviso, Raymond R. Tan
Selection of clean technology options requires systematic evaluation based on multiple criteria which are often conflicting. The optimal choice should consider not just technical performance but also the economic, environmental and social aspects of technologies. Furthermore, the interdependencies of these aspects should also be considered. The decision-maker often needs to make explicit trade-offs while ranking the alternatives. In addition, data gaps and imprecise information that are typical when dealing with emerging technologies make conventional methods ineffective. This work thus proposes a Stochastic Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchical Network Process decision model to address the complexity and uncertainty involved in the clean technology selection process. This method first decomposes the problem into a hierarchical network structure, and then derives the probability distribution of the priority weights needed for ranking. The capabilities of the methodology are demonstrated with three case studies, involving the comparison of different carbon nanotube synthesis methods, nutrient removal treatment technology options for municipal wastewater, and low-carbon electricity sources in the Philippines.
Optimization of the freeway truck toll by weight policy, including external environmental costs J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Jian Wang, Xiaowei Hu, Cuixia Li
A policy for tolling trucks by weight has recently been implemented in China. However, the policy ignores the external environmental costs of heavy trucks. By referring to the German HGV toll policy, similar toll scheme has been implemented in China. This paper considers including the external environmental costs of heavy trucks on freeways in the Chinese toll system, similar to the German HGV toll policy. The truck toll by weight model is optimized to account for external costs of environmental pollution. A case study in Heilongjiang gives further insight into development of the toll by weight policy, which may contribute to development of sustainable transportation.
Modeling and Predicting of the Color Changes of Wood Surface during CO2 Laser Modification J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Rongrong Li, Wei Xu, Xiaodong Wang (Alice), Chuangui Wang
To adopt a greener approach, a novel thermal treatment for wood was proposed. Poplar wood surface was treated by CO2 laser and the surface color changes were evaluated by CIELAB color space. The treated and untreated surface were scanned by Epson scanner to measure lightness difference (∆L*), red-green index difference (∆a*) and yellow-blue index difference (∆b*), then the total color difference (∆E*) was calculated. The laser energy load on wood surface caused characteristic changes in the chemical component, which were determined by means of Fourier infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for modelling and to establish a relationship between color changes and laser modification parameters. The results showed that the feed speed, sweep width and laser power had significant effects on color changes of wood surface. The ∆E* increased with the increasing of laser power, however it decreased with increasing of feed speed and sweep width, because of the amount of heat transferring decreased with the increasing of feed speed and sweep width. The results of FTIR revealed chemical structure in the wood components, which is one of the reasons to the color changes of the wood surfaces. The established quadratic mathematical model applied to describe the relationship between color changes and laser modification parameters had a good prediction. It will be useful for selecting appropriate modification parameters to achieve desired color changes.
Productivity change and its drivers for the Chilean water companies: A comparison of full private and concessionary companies J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 María Molinos-Senante, Simon Porcher, Alexandros Maziotis
The privatization of the water industry has aroused interest in comparing the performance of public vs. private water companies. However, little research has been conducted to compare the performances of full private (FPWCs) and concessionary water companies (CWCs). This study estimates and compares the productivity growth and its drivers (efficiency, technical and scale change) for a sample of Chilean FPWCs and CWCs over the 2007–2015 period using the input distance function. Both types of water companies showed deteriorations in productivity growth, with CWCs exhibiting higher rates of negative productivity growth than FPWCs. For FPWCs, any gains in efficiency and scale were outstripped by negative technical change. CWCs did not improve their performance in any of the three components of productivity change. The comparison of productivity change between FPWCs and CWCs is essential to support decision-making therefore, this study is of great interest for policymakers worldwide who are developing policies aimed at privatizing water companies.
Policy mixes for the sustainability transition of the pulp and paper industry in Sweden J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Lisa Scordato, Antje Klitkou, Valentina Elena Tartiu, Lars Coenen
The need to view innovation policy through the lens of policy mixes has gained momentum given the growing complexity, the dynamics of real-world policy and the wide array of difficulties to address the current great societal challenges, notably the increasing pressure on the ecosystems that support our society. One of the main challenges concerning the transition towards bioeconomy, is to gain a more in-depth understanding on the policy mix to stimulate innovation in sustainability transitions. Our paper aims at enriching the portfolio of empirical case studies on policy mixes for innovation and sustainable transitions, by investigating the development of the policy mix underpinning the sustainability transition of the pulp and paper industry in Sweden. We apply a case study approach which draws on event history analysis, semi-structured interviews with industry and policy makers, literature reviews, a participative workshop with stakeholders from the pulp and paper industry, as well as on the IEA databases on climate change and energy efficiency policies and measures. Our analysis emphasises coordination, timing and scale in policy mixes as important elements to understand how instruments interact to accelerate sustainability transitions. The mapping of the policy mix shows that destabilising policies were crucial for accelerating the transition process of the industry. Prior to novelty creation policies, destabilising policies (e.g. environmental policies) were needed for 'innovation policy instruments' to be effective. More specific instruments (e.g. carbon tax), targeting particular functions of the innovation systems, require 'on-the-ground' policy intelligence and benefit from close interaction with industry.
Literature overview of Chinese research in the field of better coal utilization J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Dan Li, Daishe Wu, Feigao Xu, Jinhu Lai, Li Shao
Coal preparation is an indispensable stage in coal production, during which run-of-mine coal is transformed into products (clean coal) suitable for the market. By-products (coal gangue, coal slime, and middlings) are also produced during this process, which are complex mixtures containing small amounts of coal and many impurities (minerals). However, in recent years, against a background of rising energy demand and growing yield of by-products, the Chinese Government has successively promulgated a series of policies to encourage and support comprehensive utilization of coal by-products. As a result, the comprehensive utilization of coal by-products has attracted considerable research interest and resulted in the publication of many academic articles (mostly written in Chinese). However, few previous studies have addressed the problems and negative effects of comprehensive utilization of by-products. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive literature review and analysis of the comprehensive utilization of coal-preparation by-products in China. The key focus of the review is on revealing problems during processing and giving indications of potential solutions. In addition, the paper also gives recommendations for future work in the field. To this aim, this study reviews the body of knowledge on the topic, through a systematic review of the literature. After searching for publications in four databases (Elsevier, Springer Link, CNKI, and ACS) and a standard Internet search engine, 203 studies (published from 1982 to 2017) have been included in the review due to their relevance for the stated aims. This study makes a significant contribution to the literature because it interprets the comprehensive utilization of coal-preparation by-products from a new viewpoint. Despite its advantages, the comprehensive utilization of by-products is associated with negative impacts that cannot be ignored, so it is very important to consider environmentally benign methods of utilizing these by-products. The findings of the present study can provide valuable information for researchers interested in the field, and hopefully motivate and promote relevant research and policy-making in the near and long-term.
Influence of ‘Green School Certification’ on Students’ Environmental Literacy and Adoption of Sustainable Practice by Schools J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Daphne Goldman, Dorit Baum, Ofira Ayalon, Bell Weiss
The whole-school approach to sustainability is recognized as a vital educational component for moving toward sustainable societies. ‘Green-school certification’ in Israel, as a whole-school sustainability program, integrates: changes in school operations, incorporating sustainability content in the curriculum and building links with local communities; aiming that sustainability become the students’ mindset and the school’s organizational culture. This study investigated the influence of this program on: 1) upper primary students’ environmental literacy, using a closed and open-ended questionnaire; 2) incorporating sustainable practice in the schools’ operations, using an ‘environmental visibility’ tool. Students’ environmental literacy and the school’s environmental performance were higher in schools that had moved to the advanced certification. Despite this, the educational gains lag behind achievements in the schools’ environmental performance. Recycling is perceived as the foremost means for environmentally-responsible behavior and students do not relate between their personal materialistic consumption and its environmental consequences. This implies that the program needs to advance from ‘light green’ sustainability education to tackle consumption, as a major issue of modern society, from the more fundamental transitions required in lifestyles and values. Another major challenge is maintaining the school’s long-term commitment to sustainability post-certification. Suggestions are provided for addressing these issues that may increase the contribution of this framework, as the educational channel for national SD policy, to promote sustainability.
Air pollution and its influential factors in China’s hot spots J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-20 Danting Zhao, Hong Chen, Xuedong Li, Xiaotong Ma
A novel selective disassembly sequence planning method for adaptive reuse of buildings J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-20 Benjamin Sanchez, Carl Haas
Adaptive reuse of buildings can be an attractive alternative to new construction in terms of sustainability and a circular economy. Achieving net benefits with adaptive reuse partly relies on efficiently planning building disassembly. The aim of this paper is to describe a new efficient single-target selective disassembly sequence planning method developed for adaptive reuse of buildings. Finding a global optimum disassembly planning solution for buildings can be time consuming and physically impractical due to the high number of possible solutions. The method developed seeks to minimize environmental impact and removal costs using rule-based recursive analyses for planning recovery of target components from multi-instance building subsystems based upon physical, environmental and economic constraints. Rule-based recursive methods have been demonstrated to be an efficient alternative to find near-optimal disassembly sequences by eliminating uncommon or unrealistic solutions. Validation is achieved through functional demonstration with case studies, where high quality, practical, realistic, and physically feasible solutions for single-target selective disassembly of buildings are found by using the new method. For adaptive reuse of buildings, the new method can be used to reduce the costs of disassembly and demolition and improve the planning process.
A rule-based approach for preventive identification of potential conflictive criteria in mining operations in Chile J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-20 Anahi Ocampo-Melgar, Jorge Gironás, Aida Valls
Mining projects, as with many other extractive activities, result in divergent opinions during the planning process which may trigger conflict. Early understanding of stakeholders’ priorities can help with the design of better projects while reducing sources of potential conflict. The objective of this article is to present a rule-based method for decision support to be used in the first stages of the project to identify disagreements in the form of potentially conflictive criteria. The method proposed defines four attributes that should be evaluated for the different relevant criteria subject to potential conflict: the importance of the criterion, the perceived risk, the fairness, and the affected side´s willingness to make dialogue. These attributes are used to construct a rule-based system that can assess the degree of sensibility to conflict for each criterion. The application of this rule-based approach is explained using information from a real past conflict in Chile, where nine criteria were considered, four key decision makers were interviewed and 81 rules were created. The output given by the rule-based system was compared with the conflict degree given by the four decision makers. Results show that in 44.4% of the responses the rank level was the same, in 44% there was a slight subestimation and in 11% an overestimation of the criterion conflictive level. The method proposed incorporates new aspects into the analysis of sources of potential conflict and is simple enough for an anticipatory screening of potential disagreements around the criteria. In addition, this type of precautionary approach in the earlier stages of project appraisal can contribute to a better project design and a constructive industry-community dialogue.
Design, implementation, and evaluation of an inverted (flipped) classroom model economics for sustainable education course J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-02-20 Gillian Foster, Sigrid Stagl
How effective is the Inverted Classroom Model (ICM), a teaching tool most often used with undergraduates, when applied to postgraduate learners in economics and sustainability? ICM, also known as the “flipped classroom”, replaces the classroom lecture with active student involvement in experiential learning activities in class, whilst the core course content is provided using digital tools and video lectures, possibly in addition to readings, before the students arrive at class. In 2016, the Vienna University of Economics and Business brought ICM to its postgraduate economics students for the first time. The authors of this paper used ICM to teach behavioural economics, a core course in the Masters in Socio-Ecological Economics and Policy with 49 students, as a pilot for using ICM in a sustainability education context. Case study methodology was applied to document the ICM pilot and discusses the effectiveness of the ICM approach. Did the student's view the ICM format positively? Did the ICM format meet the instructors' goals for sustainable education? Which In-class Activities did the students benefit from or criticise? This case study used an anonymous post-course perception survey to determine if the pilot was successful from the students' point of view, grades, and the authors' observations. The main findings are that ICM “worked” for sustainable education. Students acquired new knowledge, valued elements of the course that were intended for reflection, and expanded their competencies. The majority of students were satisfied with the ICM format and believed that it improved their individual performance. However, students advised against expanding this format. The authors interpret this paradoxical result as reflecting the students' perception that the inverted classroom and active learning methods implemented in this course imposed a too high workload; whereas the students perceive that they receive sufficient benefits from a traditional lecture format. While it is a case study, the findings and outcomes apply to postgraduate education in economics, particularly in sustainable education programs. Therefore, this research contributes to the field of research on ICM at the post-graduate level and augments the limited research on ICM in sustainable education. Additionally, this paper expands the research on ICM in the German-speaking world.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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