Macroeconomic implications of switching to process-emission-free iron and steel production in Europe J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Jakob Mayer, Gabriel Bachner, Karl W. Steininger
Climate change is one of the most serious threats to the human habitat. The required structural change to limit anthropogenic forcing is expected to fundamentally change daily social and economic life. The production of iron and steel is a special case of economic activities since it is not only associated with combustion but particularly with process emissions of greenhouse gases which have to be dealt with likewise. Traditional mitigation options of the sector like efficiency measures, substitution with less emission-intensive materials, or scrap-based production are bounded and thus insufficient for rapid decarbonization necessary for complying with long-term climate policy targets. Iron and steel products are basic materials at the core of modern socio-economic systems, additionally being essential also for other mitigation options like hydro and wind power. Therefore, a system-wide assessment of recent technological developments enabling almost complete decarbonization of the sector is substantially relevant. Deploying a recursive-dynamic multi-region multi-sector computable general equilibrium approach, we investigate switches from coke-to hydrogen-based iron and steel technologies in a scenario framework where industry decisions (technological choice and timing) and climate policies are misaligned. Overall, we find that the costs of industry transition are moderate, but still ones that may represent a barrier for implementation because the generation deciding on low-carbon technologies and bearing (macro)economic costs might not be the generation benefitting from it. Our macroeconomic assessment further indicates that anticipated bottom-up estimates of required additional domestic renewable electricity tend to be overestimated. Relative price changes in the economy induce electricity substitution effects and trigger increased electricity imports. Sectoral carbon leakage is an imminent risk and calls for aligned course of action of private and public actors.
Mapping the human resource focused enablers with sustainability viewpoints in Indian power sector J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Mohit Yadav, Anil Kumar, Sachin Kumar Mangla, Sunil Luthra, Umesh Bamel, Jose Arturo Garza-Reyes
Sustainability is defined a triple bottom line approach, which concentrates on economic, social and environment growth of any organization. In order to achieve sustainability objective, the human resource focused enablers are playing a significant role in optimising expenses, improving productivity and quality of work. Therefore, the present study seeks to build a model for the enablers of human resource development for sustainability in India power sector. The study findings help the sector to improve the productivity of their workers and establish all the enablers, which can be seen to improve quality of work life in the Indian power sector. Improved human resource capabilities and work conditions provide not only much needed motivation to power sector employees to improve their efficiency but also assist to accomplish social-ecological-economic organizational sustainability. Total Interpretive Structural Modelling with Matrice d'Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliqués à un Classement (MICMAC) analysis has been applied to build a structural model and to identify the driving force and dependence power of enablers. Validation of relationships among the enablers and managerial implications are also discussed. According to the findings, the enablers ‘work safety and healthy working conditions’ have the highest driving power. The outcomes of this study can help the power sector to enhance human resource capabilities and quality of work life within the organization through provision of a benchmark model and help to accomplish sustainable development initiatives in its business.
A comminution model with homogeneity and multiplication assumptions for the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment recycling industry J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Marco Diani, Antonio Pievatolo, Marcello Colledani, Ettore Lanzarone
Sustainable circular economy is introducing new industrial challenges, including recycling, to move from the cradle-to-grave paradigm to the innovative cradle-to-cradle concept. The core of several recycling systems consists of mechanical comminution, which aims at producing homogeneous mixtures of highly liberated particles. However, the complexity of comminution processes requires adequate models to control and optimize their behavior within the entire recycling system. In the literature, the so-called Population Balance Model has been proposed, which is however limited to the mining industry. In this paper, we examine the applicability of the Population Balance Models in the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment recycling industry. In particular, we include the homogeneity and multiplication assumptions, and analyze the impact of the comminution chamber saturation. These simplifications reduce the number of model parameters to be estimated, as the set of parameters remains the same over a wide range of working conditions. We tested our assumptions on a real system for recycling Printed Circuit Boards. Results showed the validity of the multiplication assumption and a marginal effect of saturation (p values for rotor velocity and saturation were always above 25% in an ANOVA with the Bonferroni correction). The homogeneity assumption is also tenable, with the exception of the initial transient, as the null hypothesis of constant output mass distribution under equivalent shredding times was never rejected at the 5% significance level. Outcomes of an out-of-sample validation confirmed the effectiveness of our simplified Population Balance Model (values of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov metric lower than 0.1).
Biochar as a sorbent for emerging contaminants enables improvements in waste management and sustainable resource use J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Longcheng Li, Dongsheng Zou, Zhihua Xiao, Xinyi Zeng, Liqing Zhang, Longbo Jiang, Andong Wang, Dabing Ge, Guolin Zhang, Fen Liu
Emerging contaminants have recently been recognized as new and significant water pollutants and gained great of concerns because of their considerable effects on ecosystems and human health. Current conventional wastewater treatment technologies are not efficient at removing these trace contaminants; novel and lower cost approaches are required. Biochar is well-known as an effective adsorbent for the removal of complex inorganic contaminants and organic contaminants from water. This review provides a summary of recent research on the underlying mechanisms controlling the presence of emerging contaminants in water, as well as their removal and the environmental treatment of soil by biochar. A range of information is also presented regarding the application of this resource; it is clear that a variety of cheap, efficient, modified, and composite biochar that is able to remove emerging contaminants will be required to further advance research progress.
Investigation of engineering properties and filtration characteristics of porous asphalt concrete containing activated carbon J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Xiaodi Hu, Kang Dai, Pan Pan
Permeable asphalt pavement (PAP) provides a promising method for controlling the pavement runoff, which is known as non-point source pollution. Since porous asphalt concrete (PAC) serves as an important part of PAP structure, this paper aims to study the feasibility of using activated carbon in porous asphalt mixture for improving the filtration effectiveness of pavement runoff. The effect of activated carbon on the optimum asphalt content, engineering properties and filtration characteristics of PAC were investigated by a series of laboratory tests. Abrasion loss and binder drainage tests results show that activated carbon increases the optimum asphalt content of porous asphalt mixture due to its high absorptivity and surface area. PAC strength is affected by softening effect of high asphalt content and stiffness effect of activated carbon. In addition, PAC sample with activated carbon that entirely substitutes for the mineral filler is superior in moisture stability and filtration effectiveness compared to the control sample without activated carbon. Activated carbon can modify the absorptivity of asphalt film and therefore improves the pollution removal rate for PAC. Moreover, acidic compound residues on the surface of activated carbon would infiltrate into runoff solution and slightly decreases the runoff pH value. Furthermore, the effect of thickness and air void content on pollutant removal rate of PAC sample shows different trends. PAC layer with a thickness of 6 cm and an air void content of 18% is recommended for permeable asphalt pavement to obtain the optimum filtration effectiveness of pavement runoff.
Advancing circular economy benefit indicators and application on open-loop recycling of mixed and contaminated plastic waste fractions J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-16 Sophie Huysveld, Sara Hubo, Kim Ragaert, Jo Dewulf
Increasing the recycling of plastic waste is a key priority within Europe and its circular economy initiatives. The benefits of recycling however decrease until a cut-off point is reached where recycling becomes environmentally and economically too expensive to achieve a net benefit compared to disposal. To identify this point, suitable indicators with a life cycle perspective are needed. In this study, we analysed the existing Recyclability Benefit Rate and the Recycled Content Benefit Rate indicators, which express the potential environmental benefits from recycling compared to disposal (e.g. incineration) taking into account life cycle thinking. However, improvements of these indicators are still needed. The aim of this research was to advance the existing indicators by introducing improved equations. More specifically, we further developed these indicators in four aspects, i.e. (i) by including the final step (e.g. incineration) in the cascaded use of the material, (ii) by accounting for the same basket of products in the denominator as the one in the nominator of the indicator, (iii) by eliminating confusion about the calculated result when the denominator is negative, and (iv) by introducing a new parameter ‘d’ to account for the lifetime of the product made from recycled material compared to the product made from virgin material. These adjustments clarify and advance the monitoring of the environmental benefits of material cascading. The indicators were applied to a case of mixed and contaminated plastic waste, which showed that recycling is more environmentally beneficial than incineration in this case. The impact of injection moulding of the new product was significant due to its energy consumption, and higher for the recycled material. Future research could focus on an economic cost-benefit analysis to complement this environmental analysis. Additionally, the practical implementation of accounting for the lifetime difference between the recycled and the virgin material needs further research.
Contextualising food waste prevention-decisive moments within everyday practices J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-16 Marie Hebrok, Nina Heidenstrøm
Household food waste is a matter of increasing concern for policy makers and organisations because recent research has shown that consumers contribute to about half of the edible food wasted in the developed world. The most applied measure to address the problem has been knowledge and awareness campaigns aiming at inducing changes in behaviour by educating consumers of the scale and impact of food waste, and on the meaning of date labelling. We argue that this approach is insufficient in achieving food waste reduction on a satisfactory scale, and that the potential of implementing measures into the actual contexts of food waste related practices should be further explored and developed. The research presented in this article is based on fieldwork from 26 households in Oslo, Norway. By applying a practice-oriented approach to food waste drivers, we focus on five food waste related practices: acquiring, storing, assessing, valuing and eating. Based on our analysis of how these practices are causing food waste, we identify decisive moments and contexts for food waste prevention and discuss examples of measures that could be further explored. The aim is to inspire a more contextual approach to food waste prevention by policy makers and organisations.
Platform strategies for innovation ecosystem: double-case study of Chinese automobile manufactures J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-16 Ling Ding, Ran Michelle Ye, Jin-xi Wu
There are several research gaps in combining innovation ecosystem theories with the platform theories. From the perspective of platform strategies in the context of innovation ecosystem (IE), the present study examined two typical cases observed in the automobile manufacturing industry. The main research findings are the illustrations of the two types of platform strategies (featured either in mutualism symbiosis or in predation symbiosis) of IE in a sustainable ecologic environment of an emerging market (China). Furthermore, the evolution mechanisms and process models of these platform strategies are revealed and discussed. The research findings may contribute to the theoretical development in the context of IE, meanwhile may shed some lights for the future research about the incremental improvement and/or radical innovation in a certain industrial ecology of the emerging markets.
Thermal insulation improvement in construction materials by adding spent coffee grounds: An experimental and simulation study J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-16 A. Lachheb, A. Allouhi, M. El Marhoune, R. Saadani, T. Kousksou, A. Jamil, M. Rahmoune, O. Oussouaddi
Improving thermal insulation of buildings envelopes can reduce their energy consumption and related CO2 emissions considerably. Searching for new and innovative insulation materials is therefore a key challenge. This paper presents an experimental study to show the effect of adding spent coffee grounds (SCGs) on thermal properties of plaster composite. The obtained results using the box method show a significant decrease of thermal conductivity along with an increase of the coffee ground content, indicating the possible usage of the resulting material as efficient insulation in buildings. It is found that the thermal conductivity of the resulting building material can be decreased from 0.5 to 0.31 W/m.K by adding 6 wt% of CGs to the initial material. To illustrate energetically and environmentally the benefit of using the proposed material, annual simulations were carried out for a typical Moroccan house located in Marrakech. The results indicated that up to 20% of the cooling and heating loads of the building can be reduced if the proposed material substitutes the conventional one. From an environmental point of view, the utilization of the proposed material can reduce up to 1500 kg CO2, annually for the studied case.
Evolution of regional low-carbon innovation systems with sustainable development: An empirical study with big-data J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-16 Hang Yin, Jianyu Zhao, Xi Xi, Yuhan Zhang
Based on the theory of low-carbon economy, this article introduces the theory and method of synergetics and puts forward an interdisciplinary theoretical framework based on the dynamic perspective of complexity science to analyze the evolution principles of regional low-carbon innovation system targeting sustainable development. Earlier studies tended to demonstrate a single variable, such as the role of R & D of low-carbon technologies in improving the output of regional low-carbon innovation systems, ignoring the impacts that interactions among variables may have on systems. Different from the existing literature, we rigorously identify multiple state variables that make up a regional low-carbon innovation system and establish a Logistics equation that describes the relationships among variables. Large quantities of data and simulations are used to make the order parameters, the nonlinear forms and evolution principles of different variables explicit. Our research confirms the impact of changes in government support on regional low-carbon innovation systems, clarifies the evolutionary trends of different state variables and their correlation with each other, and identifies the shortcomings in the evolution of regional low-carbon innovation systems. The results of this study provide the basis for managers to make more targeted policies to promote the evolution of regional low-carbon innovation systems. And the proposed interdisciplinary research framework is also applicable to other fields such as strategic alliances and complex networks.
Managing in turbulent times: The impact of sustainability in management education on current and future business leaders J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-16 Rosanna Cole, Brent Snider
During modern times of economic and political turmoil, we ask how we should be educating current and future business leaders to navigate periods of global turbulence. The paper suggests that firstly, undergraduates (future managers) and executive MBA students (current managers) need sustainability embedded in their management education because both groups believe that the global supply chain practices have contributed to global turbulence and that sustainable supply chain actions could help to reduce that turbulence. Secondly, that exposure to supply chain sustainability examples in management education increases global awareness and empathy in current and future managers. Thirdly, it is suggested that a gender balance is required for improved sustainability decision making. Lastly, it is found that direct facilitation by an instructor is not required for threshold learning and that it can occur exclusively through self-reflection. The overarching contribution of the paper is that rather than viewing economic, environmental, social and political turbulence as external factors that managers must simply navigate, supply chain sustainability education enables managers to connect how their global supply chain decisions can either intensify or reduce the turbulence.
Permeable concrete pavements: A review of environmental benefits and durability J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-16 Ning Xie, Michelle Akin, Xianming Shi
The objective of this work is to examine the state of knowledge relevant to permeable concrete pavements (PCPs) and facilitate efforts in enhancing their overall performance and maximizing their environmental benefits. Based on a review of recent literature, this work provides a summary of the key environmental benefits of PCPs, in terms of stormwater runoff reduction, underground water quality improvement, heat-island effect mitigation, traffic noise reduction, and skid resistance improvement. The hydraulic performance of PCPs is determined by its mix design, pavement design, construction practice, and service environment. In general, it is difficult to simultaneously optimize the mechanical and durability properties and infiltration performance of PCPs. New technologies need to be developed to help improve the durability of PCPs without significantly increasing its maintenance requirements or sacrificing its infiltration properties. Freeze/thaw damage, deicer impacts, and clogging phenomenon still create bottleneck problems for the implementation of PCPs. The durability of PCPs in cold climates is governed by many factors, and advances could be made at many stages of its life cycle. Challenges remain in quantitative characterization of permeable concrete materials and in establishing quantitative relationships between the physicochemical characteristics and performance of permeable concrete. Modeling and advanced characterization are expected to greatly advance the PCP technology. This review also provides a look to the future, for instance, there are some emerging areas of research (e.g., nano-science and nano-engineering) that may help address the durability challenges or further enhance the environmental benefits of PCPs.
A low-emission strategy to recover lead compound products directly from spent lead-acid battery paste: Key issue of impurities removal J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-16 Wenhao Yu, Peiyuan Zhang, Jiakuan Yang, Mingyang Li, Yuchen Hu, Sha Liang, Junxiong Wang, Suyuan Li, Keke Xiao, Huijie Hou, Jingping Hu, R. Vasant Kumar
Hydrometallurgical route normally has lower energy consumption and less carbon dioxide emission than high-temperature smelting route. However, efficient removal of impurities is a common challenge for hydrometallurgical process. A facile recovery route of spent lead-acid battery pastes, including efficient desulfurization and pH-controlled acid leaching, is proposed. Effects of two typical desulfurizers (NaOH and Na2CO3) on desulfurization efficiency and removals of major impurities (Ba and Fe elements) were comparatively investigated for the first time. NaOH was more effective than Na2CO3 with a higher desulfurization efficiency of 99.3 wt% in 10 min. Approximately 26.2 wt% of BaSO4 in the raw spent lead paste was converted into BaCO3 in the Na2CO3 desulfurization system, causing more Ba element entered into the acid leaching solution. The significant decrease of pH in the acid leaching solution caused a high concentration of Fe element impurity, which was efficiently removed by further pH adjustment. The optimal conditions were determined to be: a NaOH/PbSO4 molar ratio of 2.0 in the desulfurization step, a HNO3/Pb molar ratio of 2.2 in the acid leaching step, and followed by adjusting the pH of the acid leaching solution to about 3.48. Up to 98.4 wt% of the Pb was recovered, while 99.8 wt% of Ba and 99.9 wt% of Fe element impurities were removed. The obtained low-impurity lead nitrate solution was further converted into high-purity PbCO3 and α-PbO products, providing a viable alternative for the recovery of the spent lead pastes.
Stabilized emulsions to produce warm asphalt mixtures with reclaimed asphalt pavements J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-16 Carlos López, Alvaro González, Guillermo Thenoux, Gonzalo Sandoval, José Marcobal
Stabilized Emulsions (SE) is a Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technique that reduces mixing temperatures to approximately 100 °C, the range of WMA with the greatest reduction in temperature compared to Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). The term ‘stabilized’ refers to the good storage stability of the stabilized emulsion compared to that of common emulsions. Another technique that reduces the environmental impact of asphalt mixtures is the addition of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). This paper presents the research results in which the performance of SE-WMA with different amounts of added RAP were evaluated. SE-WMA was produced at 100 °C, and could be prepared with high RAP contents, reducing the consumption of virgin materials and lowering energy needs. The laboratory study and a pavement trial section were used to evaluate the performance of SE-WMA in comparison with HMA. The experimental results indicated that the physical and mechanical properties of SE-WMA, without RAP, are similar to conventional HMA, showing that the effect of reducing mixing temperature does not significantly affect the quality or performance of these asphalt mixtures. The performance of SE-WMA with 25% and 44% RAP, was slightly lower than that obtained from conventional HMA. However, the quality of the SE-WMA complied with the requirements of conventional HMA, indicating that SSE-WMA with up to 44% RAP content is suitable for pavement construction. Deflections measured in the HMA and SE-WMA trial sections without RAP and with 25% RAP showed similar results, although the SE-WMA with 44% RAP showed 8% higher deflection. The energy consumption to produce one ton of asphalt mixture calculated using a thermodynamic model showed that SE-WMA is effective for the reduction of energy consumption in asphalt plants. Overall, the study concludes that SE-WMA with RAP is a sustainable material for pavement construction that could save energy and consume less virgin material than conventional HMA pavements.
Cleaner production of one-part white geopolymer cement using pre-treated wood biomass ash and diatomite J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-16 Hassan Soltan Hassan, H.A. Abdel-Gawwad, S.R. Vásquez García, Isabel Israde-Alcántara, Nelly Flores, Jose Rico, Mona S. Mohammed
The key point of this investigation is to valorize CaCO3-rich wood biomass ash (WBA) from brick industry in the preparation of one-part white geopolymer cement (WGPC) using diatomite as main ingredient. The suggested method not only implemented for cleaner production of eco-friendly cement, but also used to WBA disposal. In the present work, WBA was treated with different sodium hydroxide concentrations (at NaOH: CaCO3 molar ratios of 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25), followed by dying and pulverizing to produce dry activator powder with a fixed fineness. The impact of dry activator content, containing the same NaOH content (3 wt. %), on the performance of one-part WGPC was evaluated by setting times, total porosity, and compressive strength measurements. The results revealed that the compressive strength development enhances with time, associating with the continuation of aluminosilicate (in diatomite) dissolution and formation of strength-giving-phases such as calcium silicate hydrate and calcium aluminosilicate hydrate. The synergistic filling and nucleating effects of CaCO3 were recorded when 21.5 wt.,% of pretreated WBA, at NaOH/CaCO3 molar ratio of 0.5, added to diatomite to yield one-part WGPC with optimal 28-days compressive strength (48 MPa) and relatively high whiteness (85%). This qualifies the prepared one-part WGPC to be beneficially used as alternative to white Portland cement in decorative works and prestige construction projects.
A cyberlearning platform for enhancing undergraduate engineering education in sustainable product design J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Kamyar Raoufi, Kijung Park, Md Tarique Hasan Khan, Karl R. Haapala, Carolyn E. Psenka, Kathy L. Jackson, Gül E. Okudan Kremer, Kyoung-Yun Kim
Existing tools for educating undergraduate students about sustainable engineering methods are notably lacking. In particular, these tools are unable to support the assessment of competing objectives in the evaluation of economic, environmental, and social performance across the lifecycle during product design. In an effort to address this deficiency, an interactive, web-based learning environment, a distributed cyberlearning environment, Constructionism in Learning: Sustainable Life Cycle Engineering (CooL:SLiCE) has been created. CooL:SLiCE aims to facilitate the consideration of different human controlled/initiated impacts on the natural environment through personalized individual and team-based design activities. Thus, CooL:SLiCE enables constructionist (physical, hands-on) learning in engineering via a virtual platform that allows students to visualize/analyze the effect of changes to product designs, manufacturing processes, and supply chain configurations on sustainability performance. The overall conceptual framework of the CooL:SLiCE platform is discussed. Additionally, the application of constructionism as a pedagogical approach for sustainable engineering education is presented. The framework is designed to facilitate attainment of deeper conceptual understanding in environmentally responsible product design and manufacturing by supplying a set of tools that support a constructivist learning environment. This tool set is based on disparate methodologies from the design, industrial, and manufacturing engineering domains. A team project was undertaken to pilot the CooL:SLiCE platform to aid design and assessment during the sustainable product development process. The pilot project demonstrated the capacity of the CooL:SLiCE platform in the understanding of sustainable product design concepts. This research advances the current educational tools for sustainable product design by integrating three learning modules into a web-based environment developed in the CooL:SLiCE project to provide a platform for learning not currently accessible to engineering educators and students. Future work will mainly focus on using the platform in the classroom settings to investigate its effect on improving student understanding of sustainable life cycle engineering.
A study of steel wire mesh reinforced high performance geopolymer concrete slabs under blast loading J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Qingfei Meng, Chengqing Wu, Yu Su, Jun Li, Jian Liu, Jiabao Pang
In this study, a novel green construction material, high performance alkali-activated geopolymer concrete is introduced. Both numerically and experimentally investigations were conducted on a new type of structural slabs made of steel wire mesh reinforced geopolymer concrete against close-in ground surface explosion. Steel rebar reinforced conventional concrete slabs are also studied to compare the results. The experimental investigation was conducted to study the slab damage mechanism. It is found that the steel wire mesh reinforced geopolymer concrete slab showed less damage and fragmentation under 50 kg Trinitrotoluene (TNT) blast load within 3 m, 5 m and 7 m distances as compared to the C30 concrete slab. Numerical analysis was then conducted to further investigate the slab dynamic responses. Combining the steel wire mesh reinforcement with geopolymer concrete can help increase the blast resistance capacity leading to promising and environmental friendly structural protective design.
Management of mineral processing tailings and metallurgical slags of the Congolese copperbelt: environmental stakes and perspectives J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Arthur Tshamala Kaniki, Kaniki Tumba
Mining activities lead to substantial quantities of tailings and slags containing metallic trace elements (MTE), leave persistent pollutants in the environment and are toxic even in low concentrations. Concerning the Congolese copperbelt, more than 416 million tons of mineral tailings and metallurgical slags were inventoried, most of which are not environmentally friendly. These are regarded as a critical environmental hazard for the surrounding population as they are stored in dams built between valleys of rivers, without protection. In order to gain insight into the nature of wastes from copper ores processed in DR Congo, and to suggest adequate waste management strategies, samples from selected sites were chemically analysed and subjected to various leaching tests. Results obtained in this study revealed that, though potentially recoverable, the investigated mine wastes are leachable and can be hazardous for the environment. In a normal leaching scenario using neutral water, these wastes exhibited leached amounts (also known as release) as high as 0.5%, 3% and even 30% for pyrometallurgical slags, flotation and hydrometallurgical wastes, respectively. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) demonstrated that pyrometallurgical slags are as leachable as flotation and hydrometallurgical wastes, with more than 30% release. This confirms serious risk to the environment. As Congolese legislation considers these wastes as artificial ore bodies that can be subjected to a separate exploitation permit, processing plant owners neglect to get rid of them. To process the Congolese copperbelt ore bodies in a sustainable development context, the production unit operators should, through appropriate studies, classify their wastes and institute a management plan which takes into account the need for environmental protection. One such plan considers the use of geomembranes to prevent infiltration. In the perspective of mining regulation revision, the responsibility of processing plant owners will be linked to damage of the environment in accordance with the principle of ‘the polluter pays’.
Comparative eco-efficiency analysis on asphalt pavement rehabilitation alternatives: Hot in-place recycling and milling-and-filling J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Ruijun Cao, Zhen Leng, Shu-Chien Hsu
With the ever-increasing road mileages worldwide, the focus of pavement construction has been shifted from new pavement construction to pavement maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R). The corresponding huge environmental burdens and capital consumptions posed big challenges in achieving the target of sustainable development. In this study, an eco-efficiency analysis (EEA) framework was developed and applied to compare two common asphalt pavement rehabilitation techniques: hot-in-place recycling (HIRP) and milling-and-filling (M&F), by integrating the life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing analysis (LCCA), which followed by a sensitivity analysis to investigate the eco-efficiency performances of the two alternatives under different life extension scenarios. The eco-efficiency portfolio positions of hot-in-place recycling and milling-and-filling provided by the eco-efficiency analysis clearly indicated that hot-in-place recycling was more eco-efficient than milling-and-filling under the same assumed service life (15 years) for the cases studied. Hot-in-place recycling could save 5% cost and reduce 16% overall environmental impacts than milling-and-filling, while milling-and-filling saved 7% energy consumption than hot-in-place recycling. When the life extension ratio of the two alternatives reaches 12/15 (HIPR/M&F), milling-and-filling starts to show its advantages in both environmental and economic aspects in the long-term perspective. These findings indicated that if the hot-in-place recycling technique could ensure its treatment effectiveness. Its wider adoption would be championed for more sustainable transportation infrastructure development. The method and results of this study were expected to serve as a reference for decision-makers to make well-informed project decisions on the optimum rehabilitation alternative from the view of eco-efficiency.
Activities of degrowth and political change J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Pasi Heikkurinen, Jana Lozanoska, Pierre Tosi
Hannah Arendt’s three-fold conceptualization of human activity offers a useful base for understanding the necessity of degrowth and the kinds of activities required to achieve it. The article argues that the different roles of labour, work, and action should be acknowledged and scrutinized in detail to appreciate the underpinnings of contemporary over-production and over-consumption, as well as to prompt the organization of an alternative society. While following the Arendtian analysis on the origins of meaningful political change, which emphasizes the utmost importance of ‘action’, the article also underscores the importance of a different conception of ‘labour’ through physical activity, such as community supported agriculture, and ‘work’ through social activity such as building off-grid energy systems. The study aligns itself with Arendt’s key insight that the origin of most contemporary problems relates to the disappearance of ‘action’, which for her is political, but also argues that the distinction between ‘paid’ and ‘non-paid’ activity has to be carefully considered in the context of degrowth. The article concludes that non-paid activities, particularly in the form of Arendtian ‘action’, have great potential to contribute to the degrowth movement. Demonetized activities are important for degrowth, as monetary transactions in capitalist societies based on interest and debt tend to contribute to economic growth, which is deemed ecologically unsustainable.
Efficiency and economic feasibility of forward osmosis in textile wastewater treatment J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Jasmina Korenak, Claus Hélix-Nielsen, Hermina Bukšek, Irena Petrinić
Implementing forward osmosis (FO) into textile wastewater treatment process can provide high value to an industry segment which is a large consumer of fresh water and one of the biggest polluters. In this study real textile wastewater was used as feed solution with 1M NaCl, 1M MgCl2, blue dye mixture, and green dye mixture as draw solution in FO. Pre-determined concentrations of green and blue dye mixtures based on final desired concentrations (for further use in dyeing process), gave comparable water flux with 1M NaCl and 1M MgCl2, however, slightly higher reverse salt flux values were obtained with dyes compared to the inorganic salts. Long-term filtration followed by chemical cleaning of the FO membranes tested resulted in 100% flux recovery with negligible irreversible fouling. Membrane surface characterisation (zeta potential, contact angle, SEM and ATR-FTIR) confirmed efficient FO membrane cleaning and complete flux recovery. Rejection performance of the FO membranes for COD rejection was > 94% with up to 55% water recovery. The rejection of TDS, TSS, Zn2+, and SO42- were all > 99%. Using the obtained results an OPEX/CAPEX analysis demonstrated the economic feasibility of using the FO process in textile wastewater treatment system.
Mangosteen peel waste as a sustainable precursor for high surface area mesoporous activated carbon: Characterization and application for methylene blue removal J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Asma Nasrullah, Bahruddin Saad, A.H. Bhat, Amir Sada Khan, Mohammed Danish, Mohamed Hasnain Isa, Abdul Naeem
The aim of this study was the production of high surface area activated carbon (AC) under optimized synthesis conditions from Mangosteen Peels (MP) waste using a single step ZnCl2 activation process. The influence of the various activation parameters such as impregnation ratio, impregnation time, carbonization time, and carbonization temperature on surface area and pore characteristics of synthesized ACs was investigated. The AC prepared under optimized conditions showed BET surface area, average pore diameter, and total pore volume of 1621.8 m2/g, 4.4 nm, and 1.805 cm3/g, respectively. The optimized synthesis conditions were as follows: 1:4 impregnation ratio, 600 °C calcination temperature, and 30 min calcination time. The characteristics of the optimized AC were analyzed using nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm, scanning electron microscopy, pore structural analysis, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and X-Ray diffraction analysis. The adsorption capacity of activated carbon prepared under optimized conditions for methylene blue was 1193 mg/g. Equilibrium data was best fitted to the Langmuir isotherm, while adsorption kinetic was favorably described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The findings reveal the feasibility of mangosteen peel waste to be used as a potential and cheap precursor for the preparation of high surface area mesoporous AC.
Corporate social responsibility in Brazil according to SA 8000: Case studies and the correlation with the supply chain J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Valdelis Fernandes de Andrade, Waldir Antonio Bizzo
This study presents the results of audits of social responsibility management systems according to SA 8000 standard carried out in 35 units of seven Brazilian organizations, in the fields of construction industry, financial institution, sugar and alcohol industry, printing, telemarketing and public administration, totaling 230,561 workers in the audited scopes, addressing medium and large size companies. An analysis of the main points of improvement and items associated with the difficulties of implementation and management was carried out, verifying that the requirements of SA 8000:2008 with lower adherence in terms of non-compliance are: “Item 3 Occupational health and safety”€, the item with the greatest difficulty of attendance in all segments and sizes of organizations, and the second largest item not met was the qualification and control of suppliers. As organizations, to obtain certification, must correct these problems and solve the requirements that their suppliers do not meet, this causes a great impact in the supply chain of these companies, since the suitability is extended to subcontracted companies impacting working conditions and increasing the degree of compliance with legislation throughout the production chain, with the improvement of working conditions in subcontracted companies, where often the working conditions are not adequate and legislation is not met. These results demonstrate the need to make social responsibility management systems more efficient, investing in actions to address non-compliances and improve management throughout the supply chain.
An experimental work on the performance of single slope solar still incorporated with latent heat storage system in hot climate conditions J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Mohamed S. Yousef, Hamdy Hassan
The limit production of freshwater is considered the main problem of solar still. So, the objective of this work is studying the performance of single slope solar still coupled with phase change materials as a thermal storage unit and its effect on the still productivity. In view of this, different cases are considered namely, Case 1: solar still without phase change material (conventional solar still), Case 2: solar still coupled only with phase change material attached to the still base, Case 3: solar still with hollow cylindrical pin fins imbeded in the phase change material, case 4: solar still with phase change material and steel wool fibers in the still basin and case 5: solar still with only steel wool fibers in the still basin. The performance of the solar still for the five cases is experimentally evaluated and compared to each other’s under the same climate conditions of New Borg El-Arab City, Egypt (Longitude/Latitude: E 029°42′/N 30°55′). The results revealed that the presence of phase change material negatively affects the daytime freshwater productivity with a significant increment in the overall freshwater yield of the still. Also, solar still with phase change material-based pin finned (Case 3) achieves the best thermal performance compared to conventional still (Case 1) and solar still with phase change material (Case 2). It is perceived that the total daily cumulative yield of distillated water of Case 3 is higher than those of case 1 and case 2 by 17 and 7 %, respectively. Additionally, placing steel wool fibers in the basin accompanied with phase change material significantly enhances the daytime freshwater productivity with a considerable reduction in overnight productivity and an increase of the overall day productivity. Moreover, using steel wool fibers in the basin with a phase change material based solar still (case 4) enhances the total daytime freshwater productivity by 14% with a drop in the overnight productivity by 80%, compared to case 2. Among all tested configurations, case 5 achieves the highest accumulated daily freshwater productivity (approximately 25 % an enhancement in the daily productivity compared to case 1) and thermal efficiency with minimum cost.
A bi-objective network design for value recovery of neodymium-iron-boron magnets: A case study of the United States J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-13 Hongyue Jin, Byung Duk Song, Yuehwern Yih, John W. Sutherland
Rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy) are indispensable in modern society because they are vital for creating powerful neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets used in many technological applications. These elements have been subject to a significant supply uncertainty. A promising strategy to alleviate supply risk is value recovery from end-of-life (EOL) products. This paper proposes a reverse supply network to optimize: 1) the locations and capacities of dismantling and recycling facilities, and 2) the transportation flows between collection centers, dismantling facilities, recycling facilities, and sales points. Two objectives are considered: maximizing profit and environmental benefits. A Pareto front is created that shows non-dominated optimal solutions. When the model was applied to the United States, California was found to be the most important state for EOL product collection, representing up to 22% of the total collection volume. Nevada, Tennessee, and Delaware were the key states for EOL product dismantling, and Nevada, Texas, and Delaware were the key states for NdFeB magnet recycling. A sensitivity analysis was performed to measure the impact of different NdFeB magnet price on the overall network design. While REE recovery is still at an early stage of the development, this research serves as a blueprint for constructing a profitable and environmentally friendly NdFeB magnet reverse supply chain.
Combustion optimization and inhibition of NOx of a 600 MWe down-fired boiler by rearrangement of swirl burner and introduction of separated over-fire air J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-14 Wu Yang, Ben Wang, Siyuan Lei, Ke Wang, Tao Chen, Zijian Song, Chuan Ma, Yiding Zhou, Lushi Sun
In this paper, a 600 MWe Babcock & Wilcox boiler is selected as the research object. Numerical simulation and field experiments have been applied to this study under original and new combustion systems. The new approach mainly involves changing the operation mode of swirl burner, rearranging secondary air, and employing separated over-fire air. Numerical results showed that NOx emissions and the unburned combustible in flue dust decrease with the arrangement of the swirl burner changing from co-rotating mode to counter-rotating one. Consequently, counter-rotating mode of adjacent burners was chosen as the optimized arrangement. The introduction of separated over-fire air resulted in a remarkably reduction of the NOx emissions, which reduced from 1085 mg/m3 to 547 mg/m3. With increase of the distance between separated over-fire air and arch from 0.5 m to 3.0 m, NOx emissions changed slightly and the unburned combustible in flue dust were not greatly affected. When the distance continued increase to 6.0 m, NOx generation was suppressed and boiler efficiency declined. Considering the economic efficiency and NOx emissions reduction, the optimal sofa position is 3.0 m above the arch. In situ measurement results are consistent with the modeling predictions This work provides a feasible and economic approach for Babcock & Wilcox down-fired boilers to achieve high efficiency and low pollutant emissions.
Kinetics of oxalate degradation in aerated packed-bed biofilm reactors under nitrogen supplemented and deficient conditions J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-14 Tharanga N. Weerasinghe Mohottige, Anna H. Kaksonen, Ka Yu Cheng, Ranjan Sarukkalige, Maneesha P. Ginige
Destruction of oxalate from alumina-refining process liquor is considered essential for many alumina refineries around the world. Some refineries have embraced the use of aerobic bioreactors as a cost-effective destruction method. These processes are often supplemented with an external nitrogen (N) source to facilitate microbial activity, even though such augmentations are undesirable due to increase of operational costs. Until now, there has also only been little information on oxalate degradation kinetics, although this knowledge is essential to design bioreactor processes. Hence, this study aimed at determining oxalate degradation kinetics in two aerobic packed bed biofilm reactors under both N supplemented and N-deficient conditions. Michaelis-Menten equation was used to derive kinetic parameters for specific oxalate degradation. The N-deficient culture had a higher affinity (Km of 458.4 vs. 541.9 mg/L) towards oxalate and a higher maximum specific oxalate removal rate (Vmax of 161.3 vs. 133.3 mg/(h·g biomass)) compared to the N-supplemented culture, suggesting that the N-deficient culture is better suited to remove oxalate. Microbial community analysis also showed differences in the composition of the two cultures. Based on the kinetic parameters derived, a novel two step oxalate removal process was proposed that capitalises on higher specific oxalate removal rates for efficient oxalate destruction from waste streams of alumina industry.
A review of climate change implications for built environment: impacts, mitigation measures and associated challenges in developed and developing countries J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-14 Ivan Andrić, Muammer Koc, Sami G. Al-Ghamdi
This interdisciplinary review organizes, summarizes and critically analyzes the literature regarding the nexus between climate change and the built environment, its associated impacts, and the proposed mitigation measures and challenges for their implementation. While global warming-driven changes of ecosystems could have multiple impacts on the built environment (most prominently on building energy demand and related urban energy systems), the building sector presents significant potential for climate change mitigation. Study findings indicate that building renovations have significant potential for the mitigation of urban-related emissions and achieving the sustainability goals set. However, these measures should be adapted to different climate conditions and different segments of the building stock. In developed countries, where the majority of the building stock is older than 50 years, more effort should be invested into creating adequate policies for the renovation of existing building stock. In developing countries with rapid growth in the urban environment, due to a previous lack of energy-efficiency policies, the focus should be on policy development and an increase in environmental awareness among building owners/tenants. Moreover, additional research efforts should be invested into performing technoeconomic and environmental analyses of green wall performance under future climate conditions, especially within the hot and humid climates
Recycled coarse aggregates from precast plant and building demolitions: Environmental and economic modeling through stochastic simulations J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-14 Gabriel Azúa, Marcelo González, Paz Arroyo, Yahya Kurama
Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials in the world. However, its sustainability is currently being challenged by the depletion of natural resources necessary to produce it (mainly due to the mining of aggregates) and the use of landfill space for its final disposition after service use. At the same time, the need for faster construction has encouraged the utilization of precast concrete structures, including pre-stressed elements. Recycled concrete aggregates could make the fabrication of concrete more sustainable; several studies demonstrate the technical feasibility of recycled concrete aggregates in Portland cement concrete for structural use. However, the sustainability of recycled concrete aggregates needs more reliable methodologies to assess it. This paper presents a stochastic simulation model of the precast fabrication process that considers obtaining materials, materials transportation, and precast elements production to evaluate the use of water, generation of CO2 emissions, and costs incurred when using natural coarse aggregates versus recycled concrete coarse aggregates from several sources. The model is based on data from companies in the United States, Canada, and Chile. The results show that replacing natural coarse aggregates with recycled concrete coarse aggregates reduces CO2 emissions and costs for the production of precast concrete elements, compared with the conventional system. However, water consumption is increased when recycled concrete coarse aggregates is used. Therefore, this research shows that the use of recycled concrete coarse aggregates for precast plants can be beneficial in terms of CO2 emissions and cost in contexts where water is not a scarce resource.
Pollution Avoidance and Green Purchase: The Role of Moral Emotions J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-14 Dapeng Liang, Chenxuan Hou, Myung-Soo Jo, Emine Sarigöllü
This study explores the relationship between moral emotions and pro-environmental intentions related to pollution avoidance and green purchasing. Findings gathered from 573 Chinese respondents indicate that pollution avoidance intentions contribute to green purchasing intentions. We also find that positive emotions (e.g., pride, gratitude) relate to both pollution avoidance and green purchasing intentions, but negative emotions (e.g., guilt, condemnation of others) only relate to green purchasing intentions. Self-directed moral emotions have stronger influence on pollution avoidance intention than other-directed emotions, but the effect of the other-directed emotions become stronger due to green purchasing intention. These effects of emotions on pro-environmental intentions are enhanced by behavioral control level. The interaction between self-directed emotions with perceived behavioral control is stronger, compared with those with other-directed emotions. This research enriches extant literature pertaining to green consumption, with important implications for policy makers and strategy formulation promoting green and pollution-avoiding behaviors.
Environmental risks and opportunities for countries along the Belt and Road: Location choice of China's investment J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-14 Yanying Huang
Chinese investment in the “Belt and Road Initiative” (BRI) will have an impact on a host country's environment. At the same time, the resource endowments and environmental capacity of a host country will also affect international investment. Geographic Information System (GIS) maps and a risk-opportunity matrix generated to assess environmental risks and to explore opportunities within 64 countries along the “Belt and Road” (B&R) have been dialectically applied to determine investment locations. This paper aims to help Chinese enterprises choose suitable investment locations with respect to balancing the investment, environment, and resource potential of host countries. The findings indicate that Singapore, Bhutan, Nepal, Myanmar, Laos, and most countries in Central and Eastern Europe have the best environmental conditions for investment. Conversely, India has the least ideal environmental conditions. Based on these results, the BRI could be designed and implemented more intelligently to maximize return while minimizing ecological harm to the environment.
Comments on "Conceptualization, modeling and environmental impact assessment of a natural rubber techno-ecological system with nutrient, water and energy integration" by Martinez-Hernandez E and Hernandez JE (2018, 185: 707-722). J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-14 Thaler Philippe
The article "Conceptualization, modeling and environmental impact assessment of a natural rubber techno-ecological system with nutrient, water and energy integration" by Martinez-Hernandez E and Hernandez JE (2018, 185: 707-722) is based on a compilation of published information processed through a model linking natural rubber making to latex yield in rubber tree fields. Its main conclusion is that recycling processing wastewater could increase the yield by 62%. However, the statement that nitrogen input can significantly increase latex yield is based on a wrong quotation of the only cited reference. Moreover, the outputs of the model were not validated by actual data. The published literature actually shows that possible increase of latex yield by fertilization or irrigation would be much lower than 62%, and this invalidates the model. Its conclusions can then not be considered scientifically established.
Assessing the life cycle CO2 emissions of reinforced concrete structures: Four cases from China J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-14 Hui Li, Quanxue Deng, Bo Xia, Jingxiao Zhang, Martin Skitmore
The large amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from Chinese buildings has caused widespread concern among researchers around the world. A more comprehensive study is needed based on an international perspective as the standards and methods used for estimating emissions have not yet been integrated with international standards. It is necessary to quantify the life cycle emissions from reinforced concrete structures through a variety of actual engineering data and a multi-case empirical study to establish their standard value, in order to promote the rapid development of low-carbon buildings in China.Internationally, reinforced concrete structures are often grouped under six types: schools, hospitals, aerospace, commercial, residential, and prisons. This study examines residential, hospitals, commercial and schools as examples for multiple case studies. Life cycle cost analysis (LCA) principles, multi-case analysis and quantitative studies are combined to assemble a CO2 emission assessment model in SimaPro to evaluate the CO2 emission over the life cycle of a representative sample of reinforced concrete structures in China with the aim of developing proposals for energy-saving emission reductions.The results indicate that steel contributes 40%–53% to global warming and 40%–80% of the total environmental emissions during the construction phase of the buildings analyzed, with energy saving in the building materials production phase, especially steel production. The amount of CO2 emissions is generally 30% more in the use and maintenance phase than the construction phase, reaching even 300% for hospital buildings. By contrast, CO2 emissions during the demolition phase are relatively small, accounting for only 3%–12% of the building's life cycle. In terms of building type, the life-cycle CO2 emissions of hospital buildings are much larger than other types of reinforced concrete structures, reaching 3390 kg CO2 eq/m2.
A techno-economic assessment of biogas upgrading in a developed market J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-12 Francesco Ferella, Federica Cucchiella, Idiano D'Adamo, Katia Gallucci
The development of renewable energies was impressive in recent years on a global scale. This produced changes regarding production processes, citizens' habits, industrial investments and consumer decisions. In this context, the policy-maker played a crucial role. The subsidies are able to determine the development of a specific market. Biogas market spread globally, while biomethane market concentrated in some territories. Green gas can be used as vehicle fuel or injected into the gas grid but also burnt for co-generation.The present work proposes a techno-economic analysis for an existing biogas plant. In particular, the analysis was focused on the comparison between two possible strategic plans, in order to establish which one was the best in terms of profitability: the first one is the expansion of the plant to upgrade biogas to biomethane, whereas the second one is to continue the production of biogas as planned when the plant was constructed.The Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) method was proposed in this paper, and the Net Present Value (NPV) is the main index used. One 250 m3/h biomethane plant located in Italy using pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technique is analysed. The results demonstrated the positive environmental impact deriving from the use of zeolites synthesized from spent fly ash and the profitability is verified only in some scenarios. However, they are limited only to the construction of new biomethane plants, while the upgrading of existing biogas plants are always unprofitable. A Break-Even Point (BEP) analysis quantifies the value of subsidies of biogas and biomethane by which the profitability could be reached. Biomethane can contribute to the development of circular economy models, while the sustainability targets are achieved only in some scenarios.
The role of chrome and zinc free-based neodymium oxide nanofilm on adhesion and corrosion protection properties of polyester/melamine coating on mild steel: Experimental and molecular dynamics simulation study J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-12 Ghasem Bahlakeh, Bahram Ramezanzadeh, Mohammad Ramezanzadeh
This study introduces a novel environmentally friendly chemical conversion coating based on neodymium (Nd) oxide for mild steel surface treatment. The Nd-based nanofilm impact on the polyester/melamine coating adhesion to metal surface and corrosion protection properties was examined. The Nd film composition and morphology were analyzed by XPS, AFM, SEM, and contact angle measurements. The uniform deposition of Nd-oxide/hydroxide compounds on steel surface was proved by surface characteristic analyses. Pull-off adhesion test results evidenced the wet adhesion bonding strength improvement of coating on steel treated by Nd-oxides/hydroxide compounds. Furthermore, the coating delamination rate remarkably decreased in the presence of Nd film. The significant effect of Nd film on the anti-corrosion properties of steel/coating system was demonstrated by accelerated salt spray corrosion test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test results. Additionally, molecular dynamics simulation results clarified the stronger coating molecules adsorption to neodymium oxide substrates as compared with iron oxides.
Green synthesis of NiFe nano particles using Punica granatum peel extract for tetracycline removal J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-12 K.V.G. Ravikumar, Shruthi Vathaluru Sudakaran, K. Ravichandran, Mrudula Pulimi, Chandrasekaran Natarajan, Amitava Mukherjee
This study investigated the formation of NiFe nanoparticles (nano zero valent iron/Nickel) by the green synthesis approach using ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peels. Detailed antioxidant analyses and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) results established that 2-furancarboxaldehyde 5-(hydroxymethyl), 1,2-Di(2-furyl)-1,2-ethanedione and 2,5-furandicarboxaldehyde present in the extract could serve as reducing agents during synthesis. The synthesized particles were characterized through various techniques like X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), FE-SEM (Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy), FT-IR (Fourier Transform-Infra Red) spectroscopy, Brunauer Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analyses. The biosynthesized NiFe nanoparticles were further used for the tetracycline (TC) removal from aqueous solutions. Tetracycline removal was optimized with respect to nanoparticle concentration using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) approach. Under the optimized conditions (initial TC concentration: 20 mg/L; NiFe nanoparticles concentration: 300 mg/L; interaction time: 90 min) 93 ± 1.55% TC removal could be obtained. The mechanism(s) of TC removal by NiFe nanoparticles was studied with help of LC-MS, TOC (Total Organic Carbon), FTIR, XRD, and ORP (Oxidation-reduction potential) analyses. It was observed that both the sorption and degradation phenomena were involved in TC removal. The application potential of the NiFe nanoparticles was investigated in ground water and lake water samples spiked with TC and the removal was found to be 77 ± 1.12 and 70 ± 2.02% respectively. Residual toxicity assays with TC by-products after interaction with NiFe nanoparticles were conducted on algal and bacterial species with the results indicating that the TC by-products were less toxic as compared to TC alone.
Application of statistical analysis to evaluate the corrosion resistance of steel rebars embedded in concrete with marble and granite waste dust J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-12 Iman Taji, Saeid Ghorbani, Jorge de Brito, Vivian W.Y. Tam, Sohrab Sharifi, Ali Davoodi, Mohmmadreza Tavakkolizadeh
In recent years, the production of waste materials has increased due to the growth of industrial activities around the world. Therefore, recycling and reusing these waste materials for different applications would make a tremendous contribution to waste elimination and sustainable building construction. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of marble and granite waste dust (MGWD) as a result of marble and granite stone processing on concrete properties. To achieve this purpose, a total of 15 mixes were prepared with up to 30% of MGWD cement replacement. After 28-day immersion of specimens in lime-saturated water, they were placed in a NaCl solution with 3.5% by weight for 90 days. Then, splitting tensile and compressive strength, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests were performed alongside a statistical analysis. The mechanical results indicate that utilizing MGWD as cement replacement at a maximum amount of 20% does not notably influence the mechanical properties of concrete. The OCP assessment revealed that using 10% of granite and 10% of marble waste dust instead of cement enhances the corrosion resistance of steel rebars embedded in concrete, and also increases the potential compared to the other tested concrete mixes.
Applying a multi-objective optimization approach in designing water supply systems for mining industries. The case of Chile J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-13 Sebastián Herrera-León, Freddy A. Lucay, Luis A. Cisternas, Andrzej Kraslawski
This work presents a multi-objective optimization approach to designing integrated water supply systems for the mining industry. The main goal is to estimate the total operational costs and greenhouse gas emissions from water supply systems. Chilean mining industry has been selected as a case study because of acute problem of water scarcity that it experiences. The current strategy to face the problem applied by the mining companies operating in Chile consists in building independent water supply systems that use ocean as the source of water. This solution is highly energy intensive, which is why the problem of water consumption is also a problem of energy consumption. The proposed optimization approach determines - from technical, economic and environmental perspective - the optimal topology of the system, optimal locations and sizes of water treatment plants, pumping stations, and pipelines. In addition, the analysis takes into account the eventual use of photovoltaic solar system in order to decrease greenhouse gas emissions. Our main findings have demonstrated that an integrated water supply system is always the best option from an economic and environmental point of view.
Comparison of decomposition levels for wavelet transform based energy management in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-13 Chun Wang, Rui Xiong, Hongwen He, Yongzhi Zhang, Weixiang Shen
A wavelet transform (WT)-based energy management strategy (EMS) is developed to reduce the damages caused by transient and peak power demands on batteries in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. A hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of a battery pack, an ultracapacitor pack and two DC/DC converters is established based on MATLAB/Simulink. The WT-based EMS with different decomposition levels is evaluated by using simulation under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Comparison results show that the 3-decomposition-level based EMS is the optimal selection. The developed EMS is further evaluated by using simulation under three typical driving cycles including HWFET, WVUBUS and MANHATTAN. To validate the feasibility of the developed EMS, a hardware-in-the loop (HIL) test bench is constructed to simulate the EMS. The results indicate that the developed WT-based EMS with 3 decomposition levels achieves better accuracy performances.
The Government Regulation and Market Behavior of the New Energy Automotive Industry J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-13 Dong-xiao Yang, Lin-shu Qiu, Jian-jun Yan, Zi-yue Chen, Mingxing Jiang
Environmental issues and cleaner production are getting increasing attentions currently, making the clean production and sustainable consumption with low emissions significant. Traditional energy vehicles are increasingly unsuitable for the development of current society. It’s a trend in the current vehicle market to accelerate the substitution of new energy vehicles for traditional energy vehicles. This paper makes a theoretical study on the development of new energy vehicle market supported by the government. First, this paper establishes a Cournot duopoly model which includes domestic and imported new energy vehicle manufacturers. Through the analysis of this model, this paper argues that government support policies such as subsidies and tariffs can effectively expand the market share of domestic new energy vehicles with less technology. Yet this approach is unsustainable, because domestic new energy vehicles with less technology can only survive in the market by shortening the gap with imported brands. Secondly, this paper establishes a Stackelberg model with product price as the decision variable and find that when there is a technical gap, the first mover advantage in the market will no longer exist. Finally, this paper compares two kinds of subsidies for domestic new energy vehicles and shows that the two subsidies are not different from subsidizing consumers or enterprises in expanding market share, and the consumer can obtain higher social welfare level as the subsidy object.
Sustainability evaluation of soybean-corn rotation systems in the Loess Plateau region of Shaanxi, China J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-13 Wenjing Liu, Jingsheng Wang, Lu Sun, Tong Wang, Chao Li, Baoxiong Chen
To reach the “Zero Hunger” sustainable development goal, increases in the efficiency, quality and sustainability of agricultural practices are needed. The Loess Plateau region is one of the most fragile regions in China, and crop rotation and crop straw recycling are receiving increasing attention in this region. To compare sustainability among different agricultural practices from both ecological and economic perspectives, we employed emergy analysis to comprehensively quantitatively evaluate corn-soybean rotation systems with and without the return of straw to the field in the central region of the Loess Plateau. The results showed that because of the poor natural conditions, both production practices depend heavily on significant inputs of resources and human activities from outside systems. The emergy sustainability index of the corn-soybean rotation with straw recycling system (0.131) was higher than that of the corn-soybean rotation without straw recycling system (0.079); however, neither system is sustainable, as they both produce high environmental loads and result in low production yields. These problems originate from the fragility of the ecosystem and long-term human exploitation of the ecosystem. Furthermore, neither system is ecologically or economically sustainable, and farmers suffer ecological and economic losses when selling soybeans on the market. This inefficiency is due to poor agricultural production methods and environmental conditions. Several insights into and suggestions for reducing environmental loads and improving productivity are presented in this paper.
A systematic literature review of internal capabilities for enhancing eco-innovation performance of manufacturing firms J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-13 Norhuda Salim, Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman, Dzuraidah Abd Wahab
Establishing an effective eco-innovation strategy requires the firms to embrace changes and adapt to a dynamic environment, thus contributing to a competitive advantage. In this case, internal factors have a greater influence in forming a fit and effective business model. Nevertheless, internal factors can only be adapted with efficient capabilities responding to changes in the business environment. This situation rationalises why the internal capabilities of a firm need to be deeply explored and comprehensively developed. Literature indicates that most previous reviews concentrated on broad internal factors. Thus, this study complements the papers by specifying the particular capabilities on top of the wide factors. Through a systematic literature review, this study aims to present the lack of current research regarding the internal capabilities of manufacturing firms in enhancing eco-innovation. The literature was classified accordingly, presenting a framework with recommendations for future research. The results show that further study on internal eco-innovation capabilities is necessary by providing more attention to organisational culture and structure dimensions, specifically on the most crucial capabilities, dynamic, and integration. The findings also suggest that there is a need to measure the social, product development, and environmental performance. The situation presents an opportunity to investigate further internal capabilities that provide values to firms in managing resources and strengthening their ability to enhance eco-innovation performance.
How can an optimized life cycle assessment method help evaluate the use phase of energy storage systems? J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-13 Hassana Elzein, Thomas Dandres, Annie Levasseur, Réjean Samson
The deployment of smart technologies such as storage systems is a requirement for the integration of renewable energy sources (RES) in today's grids. The increase in the share of renewable energy, mainly wind and solar power relies on the grid operators' capacity to offset intermittency and enhance the grids' flexibility, for which the most recommended solution is the deployment of energy storage systems (ESS). However, this type of addition to the grid will have consequences on current power sources operation and lead to changes in their environmental impacts. It is no longer possible to rely on temporally aggregated data, linear impact allocation assumptions or averaged emission factors to evaluate the ESS use phase. A more robust environmental assessment tool is therefore required. In light of this limitation, we propose an optimized consequential life cycle assessment (O-C-LCA) methodology applied to the Norman grid (France) for the year 2017. We optimally simulate the operation of lithium-ion batteries as an ESS within the grid by means of an optimization algorithm. The cost of electricity production, including greenhouse gas emissions through a price on carbon, is minimized, and the various generation sources are managed. A near-real ESS operation pattern is obtained as well. Afterward, we assess the environmental impacts of electricity generation using a retrospective consequential LCA. The results highlight the importance of time-variant data in the identification of the system's temporal hotspots. The life cycle optimization analysis illustrates the generation patterns and periods that are most altered by (i) the minimization of electricity generation costs including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and (ii) the addition of an ESS. For this case, on average, 53% GHG emissions abatement results from the grid optimized operation and deployment of ESS, along with a total marginal operating costs reduction of 28%. Temporally-differentiated region-specific emission factors (EFs) are also recommended for enhanced assessment results. By including time-variant data and temporally-differentiated EFs, the developed method leads to an appropriate representation and a more accurate evaluation of the ESS use phase. It is therefore considered an effective tool for policy and decision makers regarding the impacts of ESS operation on the environmental profiles of power grids.
Integration of Nanofiltration membranes in recovery options of rare earth elements from acidic mine waters J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-13 J. López, M. Reig, O. Gibert, J.L. Cortina
Acid mine waters (AMWs) are characterised by a low pH, high concentrations of transition metals (iron, copper, zinc), and the presence of highly valuable metals such as rare earth elements (REE) at lower concentrations. Sustainable management of AMW implies the reduction of acidity and Fe/Al concentrations and the recovery of valuable metals by ion-exchange processes. Nanofiltration (NF) offers a good opportunity compared to conventional methods to treat AMW, such as good passage of mono-charged ions (e.g. hydrogen sulphate, proton) for further recovery of sulphuric acid and high rejection of multi-charged ions, such as transition metals and REE. Two membranes with a different active layer, a double membrane (poly-piperazinamide/proprietary polyamide) (Desal DL) and a sulphonated polyethersulphone (HydraCoRe 70pHT), were evaluated with a solution mimicking acidic streams generated after the removal of iron by precipitation and its subsequent treatment with ion-exchange resins. The recovery of sulphuric acid and metal rejections were evaluated by changing the sulphuric concentration/pH (1.0–1.5) and by varying the concentration of aluminium in the solution (0.6–2.2 g/L). The transport of ions through NF membranes was described according to the solution-electro-diffusion model coupled with reactive transport of ions, and the membrane permeances to ions were determined as a function of aluminium concentration. Desal DL showed better results than HydraCoRe 70pHT in terms of acid recovery and metal rejections for both tested conditions. Membrane chemistry of the active layer (nature and acid-base membrane properties) and chemical speciation were found to be strong parameters in the separation performance of the membranes. Finally, a process scheme for recovering the REE is proposed.
Odor mapping of an urban waste management plant: Chemometric approach and correlation between physico-chemical, respirometric and olfactometric variables J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-13 M. Toledo, M.C. Gutiérrez, J.A. Siles, M.A. Martín
New approaches are of crucial importance to evaluate and minimize the odorous impact in the management of organic waste. The objective of this study is to develop an odor map to identify the highest critical odor points in an urban waste treatment plant from the physico-chemical, respirometric and olfactometric variables evaluated in different emission sources. Fresh organic waste such as sewage sludge (SL) and organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were found to be the most influential odorous substrates (14.57 and 2.41 ouE/s·m2, respectively), due to their high concentration in biodegradable organic matter. Compost derived from both fresh organic materials (C-SL and C-OFMSW) were the least influential substrates in terms of odor emission (≤0.1 ouE/s·m2) as a consequence of their stabilization. Inorganic waste (IW) showed an odor potential as high as 2.10 ouE/s·m2, similar to OFMSW, due to the organic material adhered to IW surface emits high amount of unpleasant odors. Leachate lagoons (LIX) were classified as middle critical emission points (0.7 ouE/s·m2), because of the high mineralization of nitrogen in the form of ammonical nitrogen. Moreover, the emission sources were clearly grouped according to their physico-chemical and respirometric characteristics by principal component analysis (PCA) and a value as high as 67.3% of the total variance was explained. Finally, odor emission was predicted from the physico-chemical and respirometric variables by multivariate regression, with respirometric variables (OD20 and SOUR), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammoniacal nitrogen (N-NH4+) and the residence time (t) being the most influential variables on the prediction correlation (r = 0.9768). SL and OFMSW contributed 60% and 15%, respectively, to the global odor emission derived from the treatment plant, followed by IW (13%) and LIX (11%).
Designing an eco-efficient biomass-based supply chain using a multi-actor optimisation model J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-13 Jochem Jonkman, Argyris Kanellopoulos, Jacqueline M. Bloemhof
Sustainability concerns emphasise the importance of identifying eco-efficient supply chain configurations which balance economic and environmental chain objectives. The applied modelling approaches for this purpose often assume the availability of raw materials and full coordination within the supply chain studied. Some or all actors in the chain can however pursue individual objectives, making the obtained solutions unfeasible in practice. Economic incentives support aligning the objectives of the different supply chain actors. This paper explores the design of eco-efficient biomass supply chains and economic gain allocation between the supply chain partners. A case study is developed for the sugar beet processing chain in the Netherlands, in which farmers can also choose to produce other competing crops. We observe that higher yields often lead to lower carbon emissions per ton of produce. Hence, eco-efficient solutions are found to have production and processing locations in the most productive regions. Additionally, margin sharing above the minimum sugar beet price is necessary to ensure the production of the desired quantity of sugar beet. Realistic sugar beet prices are determined using a Shapley-value approach, leading to a fair distribution of margin among the farmers and processor in the supply chain.
Risk Assessment of the Unsafe Behaviours of Humans in Fatal Gas Explosion Accidents in China's Underground Coal Mines J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-13 Xianfei Meng, Quanlong Liu, Xinchun Li, Xiaoxiang Zhou
Among the potential accidents that can lead to fatal injuries in underground coal mines, gas explosion accidents have been recognized as the leading threat to miners’ safety in China. Moreover, such accidents are triggered predominantly by human-related hazards, namely, the unsafe behaviours of humans. In underground coal mines, there are a considerable number of unsafe behaviours that can trigger gas explosion accidents. Consequently, how to determine scientifically the risk management priority of human unsafe behaviour is the basis of pre-controlling gas explosion accidents effectively. Therefore, the method of assessing the risk value of unsafe behaviour is proposed based on the analysis of its characteristics, and then a risk assessment model is constructed. Under this framework, the risk assessment model is composed of probability, importance degree, and loss, and the risk value is the product of the three. Furthermore, the probability and importance degree can be obtained by assessing the degree of unreliability of unsafe behaviour and analysing the degree of influence in the fault tree using the Boolean algebra algorithm, respectively. Finally, according to the risk values, the priority for controlling unsafe behaviours can be obtained to provide a theoretical basis for the effective control of gas explosion accidents.
The effect of gear ratıos on the exhaust emıssıons and fuel consumptıon of a parallel hybrid vehicle powertrain J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-13 M. Umut Karaoğlan, N. Sefa Kuralay, C. Ozgur Colpan
Petroleum based fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions have been reduced using hybrid applications in the automotive sector in the last decades. Parallel hybrid construction, which is equipped with internal combustion engine and electric motor, for the propulsion of vehicle is one of the most preferred alternatives for hybridization. The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes in the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions in the powertrain components for a parallel hybrid with torque coupling unit for different values of gear ratios. Investigation of the effects of gear ratios on the torque coupling unit, gearbox unit, and differential is performed by simulating the parallel hybrid powertrain in the MATLAB® and Simulink® environment. New European Drive Cycle speed and acceleration requirements are defined as the input parameters for this simulation. The fuel consumption, exhaust emission, and state of charge of the battery are determined according to the power requirement of internal combustion engine and electric motor. Five different gear ratio combinations are simulated. These combinations are arranged by using alternative ratios in the third stage of gearbox unit, torque coupling unit, and differential. The best gear ratio distribution among these combinations are determined for reducing the fuel consumption and the carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. It is found that an improvement of 17% in the fuel consumption and reductions of 9.1% in the CO2, 18% in the CO, 4% in the HC, and 8% in the NOx emissions can be achieved by the proper arrangements of gear ratios in the powertrain components.
Is low-input dairy farming more climate friendly? A meta-analysis of the carbon footprints of different production systems J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-12 Heike Lorenz, Thorsten Reinsch, Sebastian Hess, Friedhelm Taube
The global warming potential of milk production is a key aspect in the assessment of its eco-efficiency. The carbon footprint summarises the climate-relevant emissions of the production cycle, with this study focussing on the emissions from cradle to farm gate as boundaries. Numerous life cycle assessments were published in recent years, presenting the carbon footprint for different regions, production systems and management scenarios. However, despite the obvious high scientific interest in this topic, general conclusions on the climate-friendliness of contrasting production systems can hardly be drawn and there is no clear answer to the question of whether or not grazing systems provide an overall more climate-friendly alternative to confinement systems. To resolve this discussion, a meta-analysis was applied to a dataset, created with data from a selection of 30 published life cycle assessments, comprising in total 87 carbon footprint values from 15 different countries. After a standardisation process, three production system categories (pasture-based, mixed and confinement) were defined based on feeding parameters. Aside from the comparison of the production systems, the effects of various production variables (pasture and concentrate intake, milk yield per cow, milk yield per kg of metabolic live weight, mineral nitrogen fertilisation, feed efficiency and replacement rate) were analysed. Therefore, linear and level-log mixed models were developed and analyses of covariance performed. As the dataset used for the analysis covered a large range of different intensities per production system, the results are based on a robust analysis and can be extrapolated to any milk production system with known in- and outputs. The results show that increases in milk yield, pasture intake and feed efficiency decreased the carbon footprint of milk significantly, independent of the production system. However, the mitigation potential is limited across production systems with regard to their productivity thresholds. The comparison of the systems without consideration of other production parameters did not reveal any significant differences. When controlling for milk yield, however, the pasture-based system achieved lower carbon footprints compared to the other production systems. Thus, irrespective of the importance of milk yield for emissions and the generally lower milk yields of the pasture-based production system, this system still offers a competitive climate impact.
Analysis of urban energy metabolic system: An ecological network framework and a case study for Beijing J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-12 Guangwen Hu, Xianzhong Mu
The trilemma of economic growth, energy sustainability and environmental protection is facing China's urban sustainable development. In this paper, the ecological network analysis is applied to evaluate the whole metabolic processes of urban energy system. Then, an hierarchy analysis is conducted to diagnose and describe the energy's impacts on the whole energy metabolic processes, and reflect the dynamics and evolution of urban energy metabolic system. Using Beijing as a case study, results suggest that Beijing's strongest energy metabolic flows are electricity→service and electricity→ industrial energy use. Meanwhile, the main inflow to electricity has switched from raw coal in 2008 to natural gas in 2016. The hierarchy analysis indicates that the impacts of Natural gas and other energy are increasing while that of raw coal is decreasing. These results also suggest that Beijing's current achievements on urban energy system optimization mainly rely on structural variation in industries. It is considered that the future optimization should concentrate on promoting clean energy utilization in Beijing.
do people value electric vehicle charging service? A gamified survey approach J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-12 Lara Dorcec, Dario Pevec, Hrvoje Vdovic, Jurica Babic, Vedran Podobnik
Electric vehicles (EVs) are currently the most promising technology with the potential to transform transportation and energy landscapes to make industry and society more sustainable. Although their adoption has been much faster than anticipated a few years ago, resulting in a significant increase from 400,000 EVs sold in 2013 to more than 3 million in 2017, the coming years will be crucial for determining whether EVs are to become a new transportation industry “standard”, the role of which has been held by internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles over the last hundred years. Not only will innovation in EV batteries determine a “win” or “fail” for EVs, but a significant role in its acceptance will be successful development of a comprehensive EV eco-system, establishing an efficient network of EV chargers as well as attractive and affordable charging tariffs. Furthermore, having insight as to how much money EV users are willing to pay for the charging service (i.e., willingness to pay) in various circumstances is one of the essential factors in building a successful EV eco-system. That being said, this paper utilizes a gamified survey for exploring a person's willingness to pay for EV charging. The experimental setup includes both the classic (text-only) questionnaire, as well as the game-based questionnaire. Therefore, not only have interesting insights on the willingness to pay for EV charging been identified, but analysis of user experience analysis from the questionnaires suggests that use of gamification is a good approach to performing a survey as it exhibits superior hedonic quality in comparison to classic methods (i.e., text-only questionnaire).
Environmental sustainability of liquid food packaging: Is there a gap between Danish consumers' perception and learnings from life cycle assessment? J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-12 Søren Boesen, Niki Bey, Monia Niero
The environmental impact of packaging has already been studied since the early development of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, and today an extensive amount of studies exists. LCAs inform policy makers and guide companies in developing more environmentally sustainable packaging. From both a policy and a business perspective it is also relevant to understand what citizens and consumers recognize as being an environmentally sustainable packaging. Does perceived environmental sustainability align with the results of LCAs? And if not, where do consumers go wrong? In this study, we investigate how well-educated young consumers living in Denmark understand the environmental sustainability of five different kinds of packaging for liquid food (milk, beer, soft drink, olive oil and skinned tomatoes) based on an on-line survey and qualitative interviews. The results are compared with a streamlined LCA we performed for packaging of beer and soft drinks, and they are validated by means of comparative LCAs of these five product categories published in scientific literature. The results of the consumer research show that consumers assess the environmental sustainability of the tested types of packaging primarily based on the material type and on what they can personally do at the disposal stage. The consumers covered in this study do, in general, not consider the impacts of production and of transport. Amongst the investigated packaging types, bio-based types and glass are perceived as the most environmentally sustainable ones, and plastic in general is perceived least favourable. Laminated cartons receive a mixed perception. LCA results show that plastic – and especially laminated cartons – can be environmentally preferable solutions, even though they may be difficult to recycle. Our streamlined LCA on beer and soft drink shows that there is a significant difference in environmental performance between one-way glass and refillable glass, but consumers seem not to be aware of this difference. Our findings show i) that there is a gap between Danish consumers' perception of environmental sustainability of packaging and LCA results, and ii) that consumers have limited knowledge of sustainability-related eco-labels. In order to close these gaps, actions are needed both from producers, retailers and policy makers. The final aim of such improvement efforts should be to give to the consumers the possibility to make choices based on better information.
An eco-friendly approach for metals extraction using polymeric nanofibers modified with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEHPA) J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-12 Felipe Nunes da Silva, Mariana Moro Bassaco, Daniel Assumpção Bertuol, Eduardo Hiromitsu Tanabe
The aim of this work was to develop new materials employing polymeric nanofibers modified with an organic extractant for the extraction of metals. For this purpose, nylon-6 nanofibers were modified with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEHPA) for use in the selective extraction of zinc and nickel. The best extraction efficiencies were 85.5% for Zn and 4.6% for Ni, achieved under the following conditions: pH 2, solid:liquid (S:L) ratio of 1:40, and contact time of 7.5 min. In the stripping, the best efficiencies were 85.9% for Zn and 90.1% for Ni, using a concentration of HCl of 0.5 M, S:L ratio of 1:10, and contact time of 5 min. The nanofibers were evaluated in terms of their stability and capacity for reuse, and it was found that there was no loss of the DEHPA extractant from the nanofibers, while the extraction efficiency remained almost constant. Regarding to environmental aspects of the new technology, the results confirm that nanofibers exhibit the same efficiency of conventional liquid-liquid extraction, without the disadvantage of the use of organic solvents. In this way, this new technology brings an enormous gain in environmental terms, since it drastically reduces the use of hazardous substances.
Increasing resource efficiency with an engineering decision support system for comparison of product design variants J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-12 Tom Buchert, Nathanael Ko, Roberta Graf, Thomas Vollmer, Moritz Alkhayat, Elisabeth Brandenburg, Rainer Stark, Fritz Klocke, Philip Leistner, Johannes Henrich Schleifenbaum
The development of sustainable and resource-efficient products requires consideration of multiple design targets concerning the whole product life cycle. Taking these factors into account leads to complex decision situations with conflicting targets and trade-offs. To support design engineers in these situations an Engineering Decision Support System (EDSS) has been developed. In this article, the overall concept of the EDSS is presented. Furthermore, one function of the EDSS to assist a systematic comparison of product variants is introduced in detail. It is based on combining an existing PLM solutions (in particular Siemens Teamcenter 11/Siemens NX9) and software for Life Cycle Assessment (GaBi 7). Beyond a proof of concept for information exchange between both systems a methodology is presented which enables design engineers to systematically assess and select multiple product variants based on their resource utilization. The approach is complemented with a comprehensive case study for different design options of a core slide. In the scope of this study, variations of geometry (solid vs. hollow design), materials (hot-working steel vs. nickel-based superalloy) and manufacturing processes (laser metal deposition vs. milling) were considered. Furthermore, a usability study of the decision support tool is shown.
Tunable Thermo-physical Performance of Castor Oil-based Polyurethanes with Tailored Release of Coated Fertilizers J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-12 Dunsheng Liang, Qian Zhang, Wenbo Zhang, Lingxiao Liu, Haiyan Liang, Rafael L. Quirino, Jie Chen, Minghui Liu, Qiming Lu, Chaoqun Zhang
In this work, castor oil-based polyurethanes were prepared through rotating-drum coating technology as encapsulating coating materials for slow-release fertilizers. The physico-chemical properties and microstructure of the polyurethanes were tailored by selection of diisocyanates, control of the hydroxyl number of castor oil used, and controlling the hydroxyl/isocyanate molar ratio. The effect of the microstructures and the composition of the resulting polyurethanes on the controlled release behavior of coated urea granules were evaluated by measuring the N release characteristics of the system in water under laboratory conditions. In addition, the critical mechanisms underlying the polyurethanes’ structures and properties are clarified and discussed. The results show that isophorone diisocyanate, and 2,6-diisocyanatotoluene as the hard segment are not suitable for production of slow-release fertilizers while polymethylene diisocyanate does. The N release longevity of SRFs coated with only 5.0 wt% of polyurethane can be tuned from 20 days to 140 days, constituting the widest range reported in the literature to date. The high hydroxyl number of castor oil and high content of NCO in the polyurethanes prepared lead to a high crosslink density, hydrophobicity, and compact micro-structure, resulting in a material that exhibits low water and nutrients permeabilities, and therefore slow release. This work offers a simple and effective method to create slow release fertilizers that is cost-effective and environmentally friendly.
The joint tax-subsidy mechanism incorporating extended producer responsibility in a manufacturing-recycling system J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-12 Xiangyun Chang, Jie Wu, Tian Li, Ti-Jun Fan
The joint tax-subsidy policy is a typical form to implement the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) in several countries and cities. An understanding of EPR implementation mechanisms can help governments to impose proper taxes and subsidies which can further incubate ecological and environment-friendly manufacturing-recycling systems. This paper aims to investigate the joint tax-subsidy mechanism using game theory by considering a manufacturing-recycling system consisting of a government, a manufacturer, and a recycler. Results show that such joint tax-subsidy mechanism can motivate the manufacturer to pursue eco-innovation and to incorporate the recycling considerations into its production and eco-innovation decisions. The mechanism can reinforce the benefit of the eco-innovation to the manufacturer by adding revenue to the recycler, because higher revenue to the recycler leads to higher production quantity of the manufacturer. Eco-innovation factors and recycling factors that define the backgrounds of mechanism implementation are identified, managerial insights for governments into how to change the mechanism in response to different backgrounds are provided. This study provides a guideline for the government to design the joint tax-subsidy mechanism and a reference for firms to effectively fulfill their environmental responsibility.
Persian Liquorice extract as a highly efficient sustainable corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in sodium chloride solution J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-09 E. Alibakhshi, M. Ramezanzadeh, S.A. Haddadi, G. Bahlakeh, B. Ramezanzadeh, M. Mahdavian
Business models of SMEs as a mechanism for scaling Climate Smart Technologies: The case of Punjab, India J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-09 A.E. Groot, J.S. Bolt, H.S. JAT, M.L. Jat, M. Kumar, V. Blok
Many Climate Smart Agricultural (CSA) technologies fail to achieve their full potential impact due to low levels of adoption by smallholder farmers and difficulties in scaling CSA. This paper presents how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can act as change agents for the uptake of CSA technologies where their business models may be seen as adoption and scaling mechanisms. Drawing upon our fieldwork in Punjab (India) during which over 100 respondents have been interviewed, critical issues and enabling factors for the business model of two types of SMEs, i.e. farmer cooperatives and individual service providers of climate smart technologies have been identified. Enabling factors supporting adoption are driven by scientific and practical evidence of CSA technologies, good partnership between SMEs and research institutes, good customer relationships and effective channels through farmers’ field trials. Critical issues consist of distortive government subsidies on energy and the lack of market intelligence affecting the profitability of the business model. Scaling is enhanced through market intelligence and a favouring regulatory landscape. However, difficult socio-economic circumstances and distortive government subsidies limit the role of SMEs business model as mechanism for scaling.
Weed suppression, nutrient leaching, water use and yield of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) under different land configurations and mulches J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-09 V.K. Choudhary, P. Suresh Kumar
Alteration in micro-topography and mulching are important agronomic practices to conserve the resources in situ. Turmeric is sensitive to weed infestation and soil loss. Studies were conducted during 2011-12 and 2012-13 in a silt loam soil to evaluate the weed suppression, nutrient leaching, water use and yield of turmeric under varying land configurations [broad bed and furrow (BBF), ridge and furrow (RF), and flat bed (FB)] and mulch materials [paddy straw followed by weed biomass (PS), thatch grass (Imperata cylendrica; IC), pine needle (PN) and no mulch (NM)]. Results revealed reduced weed density, dry biomass and superior weed suppression with BBF and either of mulch. Weed suppression followed the trend from higher to lower with PN>IC>PS>NM. The soil and nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) losses under BBF and PN mulch were the lowest, indicating better conservation of the soils. Besides, the rhizome yield, water use efficiency, economic and energy parameters were improved by following higher to lower with BBF>RF>FB and PN>IC>PS>NM. Land configuration and mulch suppress the weed growth, reduce the soil and nutrient losses, leading to higher rhizome yield, enhanced water use, superior economics and improves energy values.
Governing Sustainable Industrial Energy Use: Energy Transitions in Nigeria’s Manufacturing Sector J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2018-11-09 Norbert Edomah
The governance of industrial energy use in recent times has been driven by the quest for greater energy security and sustainable industrial growth. Sustainable use of energy necessitates a rethink in the production, use and governance of energy resources that stimulates and supports transition to a more effective and efficient energy system. However, how do we ensure an effective transition in industrial energy use in the midst of gross energy poverty within a developing country context? This paper explores the motives and drivers of changes in energy use within the industrial sector. Statistical data from published reports, as well as informal interviews of stakeholders in Nigeria’s industrial sector were used. Following analysis of data, four important salient phases (eras) of industrial energy transition in Nigeria’s manufacturing sector was established. These distinct eras are: (1) Grid-dependent era; (2) Self-generation era; (3) Industrial energy outsourcing era; (4) Industrial energy conservation era. The study reveals that: outsourcing of industrial services; cost reduction; and business realignment motives are key drivers of transitions in Nigeria’s industrial sector. This paper concludes by highlighting the implications of these changes for the future of energy and sustainable industrial growth in Nigeria.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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