The theory of planned behavior as a model for understanding tourists' responsible environmental behaviors: The moderating role of environmental interpretations J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 Chang Wang, Jinhe Zhang, Peng Yu, Huan Hu
In tourism activities, tourists' responsible environmental behaviors (REB) are the result of human's interaction with environment. Most past studies about tourists' REB paid attention to tourists' individual factors while the influences of situational factors of sightseeing places on tourists' REB were left out. Environmental interpretations are the significant component and the main situational factor of tourism environment. This research uses the theory of planned behavior; takes the Huangshan Mountain scenic spot in China as the case-study place based on 534 questionnaire survey samples of tourists; and adopts the method of structural equation model-multiple group analysis (SEM-MGA) to explore the moderating role of environmental interpretations in the sightseeing place on the relationship between tourists' responsible environmental behavioral intentions (REBI) and REB. Results indicate that (1) tourists' attitudes toward environmental behaviors and subjective norms positively affect their REBI; their perceived behavioral control positively affects their REBI and REB, and their REBI positively affect REB; (2) environmental interpretations in the sightseeing place positively moderate the relationship between tourists' REBI and REB.
Modelling hybrid thermal systems for district heating: A pilot project in wood transformation industry J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 José P. Paredes-Sánchez, M. Conde, M.A. Gómez, D. Alves
The development of modern cities promotes the emergence of metropolitan areas with industrial areas. This situation favours the development of production nuclei of industrial waste, which is susceptible to being energetically used. Biomass of forest origin is particularly interesting due to its importance as an energy resource that mitigates CO2 emissions. The development of energy modelling methodologies is necessary to achieve cleaner production by circular economy in the world. This study aims to improve existing methods and develop new methods to characterise the energy potential of biomass from wood for thermal energy production. The methodology is based on the implementation of a model that calculates waste in terms of quantity, energy and cost while considering techno-economic and environmental restrictions. The study is developed in the Metropolitan Area of Vigo (MAV) for its wood processing industry. MAV is important for the production of manufactured and semi-manufactured products. The results suggest economic and environmental advantages with the installation of hybrid thermal generation systems to supply part of the heat demand using indigenous resources in the MAV. A total of eight district heating systems can be developed with thermal generation systems by Thermal Hybrid Units (THU).
Carbon Molecular Sieve Membranes for Biogas Upgrading: Techno-economic Feasibility Analysis J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 Xuezhong He, Yunhan Chu, Arne Lindbråthen, Magne Hillestad, May-Britt Hägg
Biomethane, produced by biogas upgrading, has a great potential to replace part of the fossil fuel natural gas, and may be injected into a gas grid or used as compressed biomethane as vehicle fuel. The state-of-the-art technologies for biogas upgrading in the European region are water scrubbing, pressure swing adsorption and chemical absorption, however, high performance carbon membranes may also have a great potential in this application. In this work, cellulose-derived hollow fiber carbon membranes were tested for CO2/CH4 separation at moderate pressures (5-20 bar), and a CO2/CH4 permeance selectivity >60 was obtained. The developed membranes were evaluated for biogas upgrading in a 1000 m3(STP)/h biogas plant based on HYSYS simulation and cost estimation. The results indicated that carbon membranes can be a promising candidate for biogas upgrading with a low processing cost of 0.078 $/m3 at the feed pressure of 8.5 bar. Increased membrane performance can further reduce the cost. Moreover, a carbon membrane system can be very cost-effective for upgrading of biogas in small-scale plants of around 350 m3(STP)/h.
The Chinese copper cycle: Tracing copper through the economy with dynamic substance flow and input-output analysis J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 Marcel Soulier, Matthias Pfaff, Daniel Goldmann, Rainer Walz, Yong Geng, Ling Zhang, Luis A. Tercero Espinoza
China has become a major user of copper as well as a producer of copper containing products. We present a dynamic model of Chinese copper stocks and flows in the period from 1990 to 2015. The model results indicate that China's per-capita in-use copper stock has grown from about 7 kg in 1990 to close to 60 kg in 2015. At the same time, total copper imports have increased from approximately 0.65 Mt per year to close to 10 Mt. One of the peculiarities of the Chinese copper cycle is that a comparatively large fraction (≈≈ 1,4 Mt) of these imports are made up of scrap, which China re-processes into new products. At the same time, China has relatively low domestic recycling efficiencies. The substance flow perspective is extended with national accounting data, which allows for a portrayal of the interconnection between copper flows and the wider economic structure. It is thus possible to identify the economic sectors which not only directly but also indirectly require copper for the provision of their goods and services.
Over the hill? Exploring the other side of the Rogers’ innovation diffusion model from a consumer and business model perspective. J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 Peter Wells, Paul Nieuwenhuis
The Rogers model of innovation diffusion, first proposed in 1962, has long featured in accounts of the penetration of new product technologies into society. The contention in this paper is that this model is in fact only half complete, for it deals exclusively with the uptake of new technologies rather than their retention or abandonment. Taking the Rogers model as a point of departure, this paper seeks to draw on the literature on nostalgia to characterize consumers who retain a specific technological artefact in the form of the car, then identify business models designed for those consumers.The paper therefore analyses the relatively neglected contribution of extended product lifetimes within circular economies and within the broader concept of socio-technical transitions for sustainability. The relevance of this contribution is that product longevity is one means by which lifestyles characterized by material affluence are reconciled with resource scarcity. Product longevity has the potential to contribute to slowing down the ‘velocity’ of material flows within the circular economy, and hence to the deferment of the investment of further energy (and materials) into the next cycle of consumption.Taking examples from the automotive industry and cars, the paper argues that the ‘post-peak’ (or post-production) retention of technologies may offer insights into both the viability and character of business opportunities, and a possible transition pathway into a post-consumer economy. The attraction of the post-production economy is in turn attributed to the concept of consumer nostalgia through which emotional engagement is translated into alternative forms of production and consumption.
Ownership unbundling of natural gas transmission networks in China J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Jichang Dong, Siying Sha, Xiuting Li, Jian Xu, Wei Dai, Hongbo Duan
The vertically integrated operation system of natural gas transmission has led to lagging pipeline network construction, low transmission network utilization rates, and high consumer prices in China. This paper proposes a combination of multi-agent and input-output models to outline natural gas transmission regime programs and examines the effects of mandatory separation of transmission networks from production and services, based on available data from 2014 to 2016. Three scenarios are set up including the basic condition (BAU) and two types of reforms, namely ownership unbundling (STRIP) and internal reform at company level (INTREF). Then a set of evaluation indicators are established, namely profit changes of three large oil companies, investment in pipeline networks, and user prices, as well as total output, added value, and price changes in related industries. The results show that, by 2030, the relative change rate of investment for STRIP will increase by 93.45% while the change in INTREF is -33.49%. Moreover, natural gas price under STRIP will decrease 27.12%, which is a decrease almost three times that under INTREF. It can be concluded that STRIP is more conducive to promoting the efficiency of natural gas transmission compared with INTREF. However, it may be time consuming for natural gas companies to introduce competitive social capital and gradually diversify their investments.
Consumer buying behaviour of sustainable vacuum cleaners - Consequences for design and marketing J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Mirjam Visser, Jan Schoormans, Joost Vogtländer
Embracing the variety of sustainable business models: A prolific field of research and a future research agenda J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Nikolay Dentchev, Romana Rauter, Lára Jóhannsdóttir, Yulia Snihur, Michele Rosano, Rupert Baumgartner, Timo Nyberg, Xingfu Tang, Bart van Hoof, Jan Jonker
Investigating the benefits of sustainable business models for our societies is an important and timely topic. This Special Volume contributes to current research by exploring a variety of sustainable models in use around the world. The accepted articles provide an overview of the various organizational forms, management mechanisms, sustainability solutions, challenges, theoretical lenses and empirical evidence, i.e. fundamental elements in the study of sustainable business models. In this introductory paper, the thirty-seven articles included in this Special Volume are presented, organized in four approaches to sustainable business models: 1/ the generalist approach, 2/ the technology-based approach, 3/ the entrepreneurship and innovation approach and 4/ the behavioral approach. In conclusion, avenues for future research are formulated, with a call for solid theory building, more sophisticated research methods, focus on the interplay of sustainable with existing conventional business models, and systemic consideration of the role of governments in advancing sustainable business models.
Carbon and nutrient recovery in the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris: a Life Cycle Assessment approach to comparing environmental performance. J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Giuliana D’Imporzano, Davide Veronesi, Silvia Salati, Fabrizio Adani
Microalgae cultivation is arousing interest for its ability to provide biomass for food, feed and energy. Microalgae are more efficient in converting solar energy into biomass than terrestrial plants, and microalgae cultivated in a mixotrophic mode showed a higher biomass productivity. This work aimed to evaluate the environmental impacts of the cultivation of microalgae in autotrophy and mixotrophy and to define under what conditions mixotrophic cultivation gives the best environmental performance. To make this comparison, primary data of Chlorella vulgaris cultivation in autotrophy and mixotrophy were used. The scenarios considered were autotrophy (Scenario 1); mixotrophic cultivation on cheese whey, (Scenario 2); and mixotrophic cultivation using dairy wastewater (cheese wastewater) (Scenario 3). In addition, since commercial nitrogen fertilizers are one of the major contributors to the environmental impact of Chlorella production, two other scenarios were modelled: autotrophy on recovered nitrogen from digestate (Scenario 4) and mixotrophic culture on recovered nitrogen and carbon (Scenario 5). The mixotrophic growth of microalgae was shown to be an environmentally effective process (i.e. it showed a decrease of the impact categories), when the organic carbon provided had no other allocation and could be considered free of a cost burden. The cultivation of microalgae on recovered nitrogen and recovered carbon was found to decrease the CO2 emission by almost 60% and similar decreases were obtained for the other impact categories in comparison with autotrophy. A value of CO2 emission equal to 1.05 kg CO2 eq. kg-1 of microalgae was achieved for Scenario 5, and a decrease of more than 50% was assessed for the impact categories: Marine eutrophication, Human toxicity, Freshwater ecotoxicity, Marine ecotoxicity and Fossil fuel depletion
Conceptualising the state of the art of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the construction industry and its nexus to sustainable development J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 Bo Xia, Ayokunle Olanipekun, Qing Chen, Linlin Xie, Yong Liu
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a widely embraced social phenomenon and has attracted increasing research interests in the construction industry recent years. However, their coverage of the issues pertaining to CSR in the construction industry are isolated and less comprehensive, failing to encompass the multifaceted nature of the construction industry. This study aimed to reveal and conceptualise the CSR's state of art in the construction industry. Following a systematic selection of 68 papers published in different journals between 2000 and 2017, the inductive and deductive content analysis of these papers reveal four research themes of current CSR research in the construction industry, comprising CSR perception, CSR dimensions, CSR implementation and CSR performance. A conceptual framework was developed accordingly to reflect the CSR research sate of art in the construction industry. Furthermore, given the nexus between CSR and sustainable development, insights for enhancing CSR contribution to sustainable development, and sustainable development goals (SDGs) in the construction industry were proposed, including changing the traditional procurement practices, improving legislation for environmental responsibility, integrating CSR dimensions and increasing CSR implementation in small to medium enterprises (SME). The findings of this study will deepen the understanding of CSR in the construction industry, and provide practical implications for different stakeholders in the construction industry to contribute more effectively to sustainable development.
Statistical modeling and mix design optimization of fly ash based engineered geopolymer composite using response surface methodology J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 Muhammad Zahid, Nasir Shafiq, M.Hasnain Isa, Lluis Gil
Fly ash-based geopolymer binders have been identified as one of the alternatives to the Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), which qualify the criteria of green construction material. In the process of enhancement of the properties of geopolymer; engineered geopolymer composite (EGC) is a recent development that is classified as the high-performance fiber reinforced geopolymer matrix. The philosophy of the development of EGC is to achieve high compressive strength and ductility. In this paper, statistical models are developed to predict the mechanical and post-cracking properties of EGC using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). In this regard, effects of three principal variables; molarity of sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide ratio, and curing temperature on the properties of fresh and hardened EGC (setting time, compressive strength, elastic modulus, flexural strength, flexural toughness, ductility index, tensile strength, tensile first crack strength and tensile strain capacity) were investigated. All models are found significant because, and the difference between predicted R2 and adjustable R2 was found less than 0.2. The optimized mixture proportion was assessed using multi-objective optimization technique as discussed in the RSM literature. Finally, an experimental program was performed to validate the optimized mixture proportion. The predicted and experimental results were found in a close agreement because the variation between the predicted and the experimental results was obtained less than 5%. The proposed method can be performed for any objective value of the EGC property with desirability almost equal to one, improving the yield, the reliability of the product and the processes.
Surface modification of carbon fiber support by ferrous oxalate for biofilm wastewater treatment system J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 Shuqiang Xu, Qi Jiang
Effectiveness of wetland plants as biofilters for inhalable particles in an urban park J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 Guoxin Yan, Jiakai Liu, Lijuan Zhu, Jiexiu Zhai, Ling Cong, Wenmei Ma, Yu Wang, Yanan Wu, Zhenming Zhang
Forests and vegetation are known to play an important role in capturing air pollutants, whereas the role of wetland plants in this context has been poorly understood. This study focused on particle accumulation in six common wetland plant species in a wetland in Beijing, China. The aim of the study was to show the capacity of the six plants species to accumulate particulates of two different size fractions (fine particles: diameter < 2.5 μm; coarse particles: diameter ranging from 2.5 to 10 μm) over three growing seasons. This study also discussed the differences among species with respect to their ability to accumulate particles and their unique microstructures and investigated the possible associations between stoma density, stoma width, stoma length, groove width, and particle accumulation. The results showed that Phragmites australis accumulated a considerable proportion of both coarse and fine particles. The leaf surface microstructure was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microstructures, such as trichomes, were good at capturing particles, but there was no relationship between surface roughness and particle accumulation. Regression analysis showed that the correlation between stoma density, groove width, stoma width, and particle accumulation was moderate (R2 = 0.45, 0.30, and 0.34, respectively). Thus, wetlands in urban areas could provide an important ecosystem service: accumulation of hazardous particulate matter. The results of this study could be useful to select wetland species with a strong particle-accumulating ability. P. australis has the potential to be a good biofilter in artificial wetlands in cities. In addition, when selecting species, it is better to select those with more trichomes or hairs on their leaf surfaces.
Energy and water consumption and carbon footprint of school buildings in hot climate conditions. Results from life cycle assessment. J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 A.R. Gamarra, I.R. Istrate, I. Herrera, C. Lago, J. Lizana, Y. Lechón
Optimized energy use and water provision in school buildings play an important role in the sustainability performance of municipalities, and are included in the local sustainable energy policies. Hot climate conditions exacerbate the need for the use of cooling devices and are usually associated to water scarcity problems. Additionally, school buildings in these areas are usually lacking good thermal insulation conditions and energy efficiency measures. This work analyses the energy, material and water requirement activities of two schools located in a hot climate area, and evaluates the aggregated energy and water consumption, the water scarcity exacerbation problems, and the associated carbon footprint through Life Cycle Assessment, which allows the quantification of the impacts along the whole value chain of the school activities per student. Additionally, the effects of different improvement measures, such as the implementation of renewable energy sources and the optimization of energy use based on energy efficiency measures, such as changes in the lighting technologies, are quantified. The results show that schools could reduce the fossil energy demand of the building in the operating and maintenance phase per student between 4.89% and 6.03% by means of the implementation of non-renewable heating measures, between 64.06% and 78.98% by means of the implementation of renewable heating solutions, and between 12.05% and 9.54% by means of the implementation of lighting substitution measures.
The health effects of individual characteristics and environmental factors in China: Evidence from the hierarchical linear model J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 Yue-Jun Zhang, Yan-Lin Jin, Tian-Tian Zhu
Environmental pollution and its health risks to human beings have been becoming increasingly serious in China, and the health status of the individuals is not only affected by their environment but also by their own characteristics and socio-economic status. Based on the survey data of China Family Panel Studies (2014), three hierarchical linear models at three levels of individual, family, and community were developed to investigate the influencing factors of individual health status. The results indicate that: (1) there exists significant difference among individual health status, of which 16% and 9.11% are caused by the family and community levels, respectively; (2) the average health status of men is better than that of women by 6.95%. As for the difference in health effects produced by gender, total household income can reduce this difference; (3) age has significant negative health effects, while the level of education has positive effect on individual health status; and (4) the health effects of pollution is mainly reflected by its interaction with gender; in particular, when men and women face the same level of pollution exposure, men are more susceptible.
A novel Solar-Biomass Based Multi-Generation Energy System Including Water Desalination and Liquefaction of Natural Gas System: Thermodynamic and Thermoeconomic optimization J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 Amir Ghasemi, Parisa Heidarnejad, Alireza Noorpoor
In this study, an inventive multi-generation energy system utilizing solar and biomass energy as a complementary fuel are proposed and analyzed, by means of a thermodynamic and thermoeconomic investigation and multi-objective optimization. For supplying electricity, heating and cooling power, a Rankine cycle including a turbine, a heater and a double effect absorption chiller, for liquefaction of natural gas, a Linde-Hampson cycle, for desalination of sea water, a multi-effect desalination system, for solar energy exploitation, a parabolic Trough solar collector and for combustion of biomass, a burner is utilized. Results outline that, the studied system has potential to generate 16.11kW electricity, 28.94 kW heating power, 23.41 kW cooling power, 8.8 kg/h fresh water and 0.02 m3/h liquefied natural gas with the energy and exergy efficiencies of 46.8 %, 11.2%, and product cost rate of 15.16 $/h. A comprehensive modeling is accomplished by applying mass, energy, exergy and thermoeconomic balances to all component of the multi-generation energy system. The investigation becomes more comprehensive with a sensitivity analysis in order to survey the dependency of the thermodynamic and thermoeconomic performance upon the decision variables such as stack gasses temperature, temperature difference of evaporator1, evaporator2 temperature and Turbine inlet temperature. Finally, optimized performance of the system is determined using Genetic Algorithm and deriving Pareto front considering the exergy efficiency and product cost rate as objective functions. The optimized multi-generation energy system could yield the exergy efficiency of 9.9% and the product cost rate of 13.32 $/h.
A framework for assessing the relational accessibility of protected areas J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 Maria Bonaventura Forleo, Nadia Palmieri
Human - nature relationship concept has recently been reconsidered, emphasizing the benefits humans beings receive from ecosystems. This study moves from the awareness of the importance for organizations that manage protected areas to design strategies and actions aimed at improving the relatedness between the natural world and people, and between individuals. Starting from this premise, the study proposes a voluntary framework of relational accessibility, with the aim of improving the visitor-organization relationship and the human-nature relatedness, and thus creating value for the organizations themselves. After defining the relationship concept, the approach and the content of the framework are set, based on multidisciplinary fields and approaches. The framework follows a cyclical approach and consists of a set of general and specific requirements and guidelines. To support the definition of the framework, relational accessibility is investigated within a specific protected area, through a focus group and a direct survey with children. The framework is then defined in more general terms, so that it can suitable for application to other environmental and organizational contexts. The relational accessibility framework is discussed with the managing board of the study site and compared with other sustainability tools. The implementation of the relational framework within the management system of protected areas could increase the social and economic value of these areas, while at the same time pursuing environmental goals.
A REVIEW ON AIR EMISSIONS ASSESSMENT: TRANSPORTATION J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 Yee Van Fan, Simon Perry, Jiří Jaromír Klemeš, Chew Tin Lee
The greenhouse gas emissions footprint and global warming potential are widely-used for environmental sustainability studies. However, environmental sustainability is far wider than carbon emissions and climate change. This review aims to highlight the importance of considering air pollutants in optimisation studies and evaluate the limitation of the current assessments for air emissions, particularly in relation to transportation. The source of air pollutants is firstly overviewed with special attention on non-stationary sources, freight and sea transportation. The type of measurement to obtain the emission data and the available optimisation models on transport mode choice selection were then summarised. The strengths and weakness’ have been indicated. The identified gap includes greenhouse gas and air pollutants not being evaluated simultaneously and the interaction between the different pollutants are not being adequately considered. A better assessment framework and impact categories classification are consequently required. The summarised assessment model of transportation mode choice shows that the current viewpoint on low emissions, green or environmental sustainability options refers to carbon dioxide as a part of greenhouse gas. Attention towards a better emission assessment and management has been supported in this study through critical discussion. The next step of this work is to develop a methodology to measure greenhouse gas and air pollutants simultaneously by considering the synergistic effect and the discussed limitation. It is important for minimising the potential of footprint shifting and poor decision-making.
An indicator approach to industrial sustainability assessment: The case of China's Capital Economic Circle J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 Chen Wang, Lu Wang, Shufen Dai
While industrial sector has long been the economic engine of China's Capital Economic Circle (CEC) including Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei province, the consequences of its rapid expansion such as environmental degradation and social concerns are attracting exceptional attention. In recent years, policies and measures are largely applied to industrial sector of the CEC to find out a sustainable pathway. However, the sustainable development performance is lacking in scientific evaluation. To comprehensively understand the status quo of industrial performance under the pressure of climate change adaptation and mitigation, this study establishes an evaluation framework of sustainable performance for industrial sector of the CEC, synthesizing the economic, environmental and social pillars. Particularly, we use global principal component analysis (GPCA), a dynamic multi-criteria decision making model, to assess the progress of industrial performance in each region from a time series perspective. We find that industrial sectors in all three regions show good trends of sustainable development during 2009–2015. Among them, the industrial sector of Tianjin performed the best and maintained the best improving status because of its positive performance on innovation, employees' benefits, and economic structure. The industrial sector in Beijing had medium performance but it had outstanding advantages on social dimension for its high proportion of R&D employment with high income level. Hebei's industrial sector performed the worst for its relatively lower energy efficiency and heavy industry-based economic structure. The innovation-driven development mode in Beijing and Tianjin provides a direction for Hebei's industrial sectors.
Potential transitions in the iron and steel industry in Sweden: Towards a hydrogen-based future? J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-20 Emrah Karakaya, Cali Nuur, Linda Assbring
The iron and steel industry accounts for one third of global industrial CO2 emissions, putting pressure on the industry to shift towards more sustainable modes of production. However, for an industry characterised by path dependency and technological lock-ins, sustainability transitions are not straightforward. In this study, we aim to explore the potential pathways for sustainability transitions in the iron and steel industry. To do so, we have conducted a case study in Sweden where there are policy and industry commitments towards fossil-free steel production. Our theoretical points of departure are the technological innovation system (TIS) approach and the multi-level perspective (MLP), and our paper presents the dynamics behind an emerging case of transition towards a hydrogen-based future. The paper has two major contributions to the literature on sustainability transitions. First, it empirically presents an in-depth case study of the iron and steel industry – an understudied context in the field of sustainability transitions. Second, it attempts to borrow some concepts from the MLP and integrate them with the TIS approach. By doing so, it sheds some light on the dynamics between an emerging TIS and potential transition pathways of a regime.
Achievements and perspectives of anaerobic co-digestion: a review J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-20 Md. Nurul Islam Siddique, Zularisam Ab. Wahid
Changing carbon content of Chinese coal and implications for emissions of CO2 J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-20 Xinyu Chen, Junling Huang, Qing Yang, Chris P. Nielsen, Dongbo Shi, Michael B. McElroy
The changing carbon content of coal consumed in China between 2002 and 2012 is quantified using information from the power sector. The carbon content decreased by 7.7% over this interval, the decrease particularly pronounced between 2007 and 2009. Inferences with respect to the changing carbon content of coal and the oxidation rate for its consumption, combined with the recent information on coal use in China, are employed to evaluate the trend in emissions of CO2. Emissions are estimated to have increased by 158% between 2002 and 2012, from 3.9 Gt y-1 to 9.2 Gt y-1. Our estimated emissions for 2005 are notably consistent with data reported by China in its “Second National Communication” to the UN (NDRC, 2012) and significantly higher than the estimation published recently in Nature. The difference is attributed, among other factors, to the assumption of a constant carbon content of coal in the latter study. The results indicate that CO2 emissions of China in 2005 reported by Second National Communication are more reliable to serve as the baseline for China's future carbon commitments (e.g. those in Paris Agreement of the UNFCCC). Discrepancies between national and provincial statistics on coal production and consumption are investigated and attributed primarily to anomalous reporting on interprovincial trade in four heavily industrialized provinces.
Are we all green? Understanding the microfoundations of corporate citizenship J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-20 Larissa Marchiori Pacheco, Marlon Fernandes Rodrigues Alves, Caroline Kruger, Marina Toledo de Arruda Lourenção, Adriana Cristina Ferreira Caldana
Although corporate citizenship (CC) has gained space in the discussion of organizations' responsibilities, previous research indicates that this is not a solid concept inside a company, suggesting a significant level of heterogeneity below the firm level. Based on secondary data collection, documental analysis, interviews and a survey of 403 employees, we investigate the microfoundations of CC in a company leader in sustainable initiatives. Our analyses revealed four distinct profiles: (a) dreamers, who see CC at an advanced level of understanding inside the company and whose corporate actions are coherent with the strategic intent of the firm to become a global citizen; (b) believers, who recognize previous actions on CC but who still see low leadership engagement and, consequently, room for improvement regarding CC management; (c) critics, who perceive that the company is doing something but who identify several faults and areas for improvement; and (d) skeptics, who do not acknowledge the company's effort toward CC or who are not able to connect corporate strategy with CC. Furthermore, we provide a framework for managing the perceptions of CC to increase employee engagement. Thus, the study brings fresh thoughts on how CC is spread and understood inside firms and reveals the importance of firms' microstructures for the development and implementation of sustainability strategies.
Environmental management practices for sustainable business models in small and medium sized hotel enterprises J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-18 Federica Buffa, Mariangela Franch, Dina Rizio
The subject of our research is the environmental management practices (EMPs) adopted by small and medium-sized hotel enterprises (SMHEs) to foster the development of sustainable business models. The aim is to analyse operational, communication and organisational practices and to explore whether or not the availability of public incentives encourages SMHEs to adopt EMPs, and, if it does, how. We use a framework based on a multi-dimensional approach according to the classification proposed by González-Benito and González-Benito (2006) and we add a supplementary variable (access to subsidies) to capture the importance of the public actor. The research was carried out in Trentino, a traditional tourist destination in the Italian Alpine Arc. We received 351 completed online questionnaires, of which 247 were considered valid. The data were analysed using Principle Component Analysis (PCA) applied to a polychoric correlation matrix. The PCA evidences three relevant latent dimensions which summarized more than 72% of the sample variance. The results demonstrate that the SMHEs adopted three different sets of EMPs, and that the role of public actor is crucial for financing the most expensive operational activities. The research narrows the knowledge gap with regard to a) the types of EMPs adopted by the SMHEs, b) the methods used to achieve this implementation. The research validates the inclusion of the supplementary variable within the framework, and thus the original nature of our study.
China's regional ecological energy efficiency and energy saving and pollution abatement potentials: An empirical analysis using epsilon-based measure model J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-18 Li Yang, Ke-Liang Wang, Ji-Chao Geng
this paper applies an epsilon-based measure DEA approach to evaluate the regional ecological energy efficiency for 30 regions in China and its three major areas for the period 2007–2015. Based on this, the temporal and spatial disparities of China's regional ecological energy efficiency are investigated. To explore the sources of China's regional ecological energy inefficiency, the overall ecological energy inefficiency is decomposed into several input-specific inefficiencies. And then, the energy saving and pollution abatement potentials of each Chinese region is calculated using the differences between the target values and the actual values of energy consumption and pollution emissions. The empirical results show that China's ecological energy efficiency is relatively low and regional differences are significant for the period 2007–2015. It can be demonstrated that the inefficiency to abate pollution is the main contributor to China's regional ecological energy inefficiency. By calculating the potentials of energy saving and pollution abatement, it can be found that the east area has the lowest potential, followed by the central area, with the west area having the highest potential.
Optimization on emission permit trading and green technology implementation under cap-and-trade scheme J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-18 Wen Yang, Yanchun Pan, Jianhua Ma, Ming Zhou, Zhimin Chen, Weihua Zhu
More and more countries and regions have turned to the cap-and-trade scheme to control carbon emissions. Proper planning of emission permit trading and green technology implementation is beneficial for a generating company to achieve its emission targets at the lowest possible cost. In this paper, a multistage mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is formulated to help make these decisions, which minimizes the total cost of green technology investment, emission permit trading and holding. Differing from previous research, this model captures the characteristics associated with green technology, notably its implementation lasting as a project for several periods and investment cost declining over time due to technology maturation. The holding cost of emission permits as a new operational resource under the cap-and-trade scheme and auto-regression of the carbon price are also considered in the proposed model. The analytical results suggest the optimal trading period and the trading amount of emission permit as well as the starting period for implementing green technology. It is found that the optimal trading period has nothing to do with initial emission permit quota allocated by regulator. In addition, whether or not to invest in green technology is determined by balancing the investment cost and its resulting benefit of reduced emission. Higher carbon price and unit holding cost of emission permit will incent the generating companies implement green technology. The analysis results also illustrate the specific regions in which cleaner/dirtier green technology will be selected or none of them will be considered. Finally, numerical examples validate the analytical results.
Comparison of artificial intelligence methods in estimation of daily global solar radiation J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-18 A. Khosravi, R.O. Nunes, M.E.H. Assad, L. Machado
Assessment of solar potential over a location of interest is introduced as an important step for the successful planning of solar energy systems (photovoltaic or thermal). Due to the absence of meteorological stations and sophisticated solar sensors, solar data may be unavailable for every point of interest. Hence, empirical and intelligence methods are developed to estimate solar irradiance data. In this study, the idea of artificial intelligence methods is employed to predict the daily global solar radiation. The developed models are: group method of data handling (GMDH) type neural network, multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFFNN), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), ANFIS optimized with particle swarm optimization algorithm (ANFIS-PSO), ANFIS optimized with genetic algorithm (ANFIS-GA) and ANFIS optimized with ant colony (ANFIS-ACO). The data are collected from 12 stations in different climate zones of Iran. The input variables of the models are including month, day, average air temperature, maximum air temperature, minimum air temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, top of atmosphere insolation, latitude and longitude. The results demonstrated that although the developed models can successfully predict the global horizontal irradiance, the GMDH model outperforms the other developed models. The values of root mean square error (RMSE), determination coefficient (R2) and mean square error (MSE) for the GMDH model were 0.2466 (kWh/m2/day), 0.9886 and 0.0608 (kWh/m2/day), respectively.
Creating an industry-level business model for sustainability: The case of the European ports industry J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-19 Mychal Langenus, Michaël Dooms
The seaports industry is an industry that produces voluminous negative externalities on the local and regional level, and is also affected by the challenges of climate change. To improve the dimensions of the sustainability – economic, social or ecological dimensions for cleaner production - on an industry level, there is a need to build an inter-organizational network. In this paper, we apply a virtual learning model for the setup of an interorganizational network (ION) for sustainable development in the ports industry, which offers a unique context of high stakeholder complexity and conflict. The value of this paper is that it builds on previous research on the role of the net broker function for triple bottom line transitions through an action research project for the creation of an ION for sustainable development. We furthermore provide managerial recommendations for the setup of such networks.
Characterizing the essential materials and energy performance of city buildings: A case study of Macau J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-19 Qingbin Song, Huabo Duan, Danfeng Yu, Jinhui Li, Chao Wang, Jian Zuo
Exploring the influencing factors and decoupling state of residential energy consumption in Shandong J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-19 Ming Zhang, Chunyu Bai
This paper aims at analyzing the current situation of residential energy consumption in Shandong, identifying the influence factors governing energy consumption based on the LMDI (Log Mean Divisia Index) method, and describing the decoupling relationship between residential energy consumption and residential income based on the Tapio decoupling method. The main results are as follows: (1) The residential energy consumption structures of urban and rural have become multilevel. Furthermore, the gap in per capital residential energy consumption between urban and rural regions narrowed. (2) The energy intensity had an obvious inhibitory effect on decreasing urban residential energy consumption. Per capital income and population structure increased the urban residential energy consumption over the study period. However, per capital income and energy intensity played a more significant role in promoting rural residential energy consumption. And the population structure decreased rural residential energy consumption. During the study period, the contributions from both energy consumption structure and total population effect were negligible. (3) Since 2000, the decoupling index for both urban and rural resident gradually declined, which also shows that residential energy consumption in urban and rural regions was gradually less depend on residential income.
Life cycle targets applied in highly automated car body manufacturing – Method and algorithm J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-19 Jan-Markus Rödger, Niki Bey, Leo Alting, Michael Z. Hauschild
Automotive companies are striving for higher productivity, flexibility and more sustainable products to meet demands of central stakeholders (e.g. regulation, customers, investors). New drive systems or lightweight-design of cars often imply an environmental burden shifting from one life cycle stage to another, e.g. from the use-stage to the manufacturing stage. More products will be manufactured for an increasing population and higher efficiency effort may lead to increased consumption (rebound effect). An optimization of the manufacturing stage is thus increasingly important but it has to be done from the perspective of bringing the product's life cycle performance in accordance with sustainability requirements. In order to support the companies in finding effective solutions, the framework “Sustainability Cone” was applied and an algorithm developed guiding the definition of economic and environmental target states (TS) in automotive manufacturing. Especially during the early phase of planning, largest improvements can be achieved, however target states are not yet integrated in production simulation software (e.g. PLM tools). This paper describes the approach and its application in the planning of a body shop, being one of the most relevant and complex steps of car production. The approach addresses all relevant levels, e.g. a robot, a production cell and the entire production line. So-called life cycle targets (LCT) are introduced, which represent a specific share of the target state, reflecting the importance (i.e. activity-based) of each level. Using this approach, a product and production system can be planned holistically and any rebound effect factored in and sub-optimization can be avoided.
Revisiting Industrial Organization : Product Service Systems Insight &z.star; J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-18 Mehdi Ben Amor, Mattias Lindahl, Per Frankelius, Hafedh Ben Abdennebi
This literature review puts forward a comparison between the traditional seller, usually represented by classic Industrial Organization (IO) models, and system providers, which are illustrated by Product Service System (PSS) models. A multidisciplinary systematic literature review, that compares PSS and IO models, is conducted, and ends up in to define PSS as a technology highlights the differences and similarities between classic IO and classic PSS and evaluate the weakness and strengths of different models. In total, 148 articles from different disciplines have been investigated, and a different understanding of PSS is provided. A new IO framework, that considers classic sellers and PSSs providers, is established to preserve PSS specificities and stress the role of policy maker and competition for PSSs expansion.
Increasing removal of benzene from groundwater using stacked tubular air-cathode microbial fuel cells J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-18 Shu-Hui Liu, Chi-Yung Lai, Jhe-Wei Ye, Chi-Wen Lin
Current challenges for sustainable product development in the German automotive sector: A survey based status assessment J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-18 Maximilian Held, Dominik Weidmann, Daniel Kammerl, Christoph Hollauer, Markus Mörtl, Mayada Omer, Udo Lindemann
Since 2015/16, dieselgate has initiated transformations of the automotive industry towards the integration of sustainability into the product development process. The present study combines a qualitative approach, based on semi-structured expert interviews, with a quantitative online survey to identify the current status of this implementation. The objective of the paper is to provide an overview on how German automotive companies currently deal with challenges and chances of a sustainable product development.The study obtained the following core conclusions: (1) A common understanding of the term sustainability is missing and a company-wide definition would be beneficial. (2) There is no consensus on the optimal organizational embedment for sustainability into a company. A centralized responsibility plus distributed awareness was identified as the most promising solution. (3) As a matter of supply and demand, automotive companies will not over-satisfy the customers’ demand. As dieselgate has boosted public interest, possible competitive advantages were identified by transforming the product property “sustainability” to a unique selling point. (4) There is an unmanageable amount of methods for the implementation of sustainability in the product development process. For that reason, academically developed methods are only rarely used in industry. (5) Companies are retrospectively evaluating the results of the development rather than using assessment outcomes systematically to improve the product prospectively. (6) Major potential drivers for sustainable product development are laws & politics, customers and competition.Sustainability could become more attractive for industry and customers by creating win-win-solutions. Conceivable propositions are tax advantages or Pigovian taxes, the internalization of sustainability, the shift from tank-to-wheel- towards holistic well-to-wheel-analyses or product service-systems.
Life cycle assessment of wheat straw lignocellulosic bio-ethanol fuel in a local biorefinery prospective J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-18 Amalia Zucaro, Annachiara Forte, Angelo Fierro
A ″cradle-to-wheel" life cycle analysis was carried out to investigate the environmental profile of bioethanol (EtOH) production from lignocellulosic wheat straw (WS) and its use as transport fuel in E10 (10% of EtOH and 90% of gasoline) and E85 (85% of EtOH and 15% of gasoline) vehicles. The aims of this study were: (i) to evaluate the environmental performance of the whole WS-EtOH supply chain and (ii) to identify the best performing feedstock for a prospective bio-refinery network in Campania Region (Southern Italy). A comparison of WS-EtOH system against the fossil counterpart (gasoline passenger car) and similar bio-based production-use chains was conducted to fulfil one of the main goals of EnerBiochem and BioPoliS projects: investigating the environmental profitability of a bio-refinery system in Campania Region. Starting from the use of residual feedstock (wheat straw) or the revaluation of marginal lands (cultivation of dedicated perennial giant reed or annul fiber sorghum), through the investigation of an advanced lignocellulosic conversion processes, this work assesses the environmental feasibility of bio-energy production in Campania Region.The WS-E10 environmental profile was driven by the gasoline input in the blend, whilst the WS-E85 results showed the relevance of the crop phase. The comparison of the different blends and the gasoline-fuelled car highlighted for E10-blends similar profiles for almost all the impact categories, nearly overlapping with the conventional vehicle. Differently, for E85 vehicles, the differences between the bio-based systems appeared amplified according to the specific impacts of the feedstock supply and the conversion steps. On the whole, Fiber Sorghum-E85 system showed the worst environmental profile whilst WS-E85 entailed the best performance.
Study of determinants of proactive environmental strategies in India's power sector J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-18 Arun Kumar Vishwakarma, Arvind K. Nema, Shirish Sangle
Why are some firms more environmentally proactive than their counterparts from the same industry? What are these factors, which are responsible for the adoption of proactive environmental strategies which are beyond the requirement of extant laws? The power sector is a critical sector for the development of infrastructure in a developing economy like India. The emissions from the power sector are a cause of concern for the environmentalists and stakeholders. Some firms are observed to be more environmentally proactive than others even though the regulatory requirements are same. This paper aims to identify the determinants of the adoption of proactive environmental strategies in the power sector in India. The available studies are generalised and very few are sector-specific. No such research is carried out specifically for the power sector in India. Statistical tools like SPSS (Statistical Programme for Social Science) and AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structures) are used to analyse the quantitative data collected through a questionnaire-based survey from major power sector companies. Reliability and validity of data collected are checked using Exploratory Factor Analysis. Subsequently, Confirmatory Factor Analysis is applied to identify the determinants of adoption of proactive environmental strategies. The identified determinants are ranked using Structural Equation Modelling. The study identifies institutional pressure, performance improvement, business practices, and market pressure and benefits as determinants. Institutional pressure and performance improvement emerge as determinants which are ranked higher as compared to other two. The specific contribution of the study is to provide an understanding for the policymakers in Indian power sector to recognise these determinants in the formulation of policies and guidelines for environmental protection.
Visualizing the change of embodied CO2 emissions along global production chains J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-18 Yuwan Duan, Xuemei Jiang
Network analysis has become one of the most widely used tools for visualizing the major inter-country/inter-industry CO2 emission flows along the global production chains. Based on the World Input-Output Database (WIOD), we estimate worldwide CO2 emission flows across economies from 1995 to 2011, and visualize the major flows and their temporal changes through network analysis. More specifically, we adapt the recognition of crucial nodes in network, and present four types of networks: networks based on absolute size and relative size of CO2 emission flows for four individual years (1995, 2000, 2007, and 2011) and networks based on absolute change and relative change of CO2 emission flows for three sub-periods (1995–2000, 2000–2007, and 2007–2011). The results highlight the different roles economies play in worldwide CO2 trade networks and their temporary changes over time. While “large” economies such as the U.S. and China were often recognized as the major importers of worldwide CO2 emissions, the very rapid growth rates of a series of “medium” and “small” economies, such as Turkey, Mexico, and Cyprus, in CO2 imports throughout the entire period of 1995–2011 are not negligible. The global warming mitigation requires joint inputs from “large” economies as well as “medium” and “small” economies.
Performance enhancement and environmental impact of cement composites containing graphene oxide with recycled fine aggregates J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-18 Wu-Jian Long, Dan Zheng, Hua-bo Duan, Ningxu Han, Feng Xing
The rapidly growing volume of construction and demolition (C&D) waste produced by construction industry has led tremendous pressure on environmental protection. This study focuses on the improvement of the use of C&D waste as recycled fine aggregates (RFA) in cement composites by adding graphene oxide (GO), which is desirable to promote the application of recycled aggregates, decrease the exploitation of natural aggregates (NA) and alleviate environmental burden. In order to investigate the performance enhancement of RFA cement composites, the physico-chemical properties, microstructural performances, and environmental benefits of RFA mortars prepared with different GO contents (0.05 wt%, 0.1 wt%, and 0.2 wt%) have systematically examined. Electrochemical and mercury intrusive analysis revealed that the RFA mortars containing GO exhibited lower porosity and denser pore structure, compared to RFA mortars without any GO. The incorporated GO could further reduce ionic conductivity and thus improve the service life of RFA mortars. In addition, the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the RFA and cement paste was filled with hydration products when examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compared to those of RFA mortars without GO, the 28-day compressive and flexural strengths of RFA mortars with 0.2 wt% GO were increased by 19.2% and 47.5%, respectively. Finally, life cycle assessment (LCA) indicated that, compared to mortars with NA at the equivalent mechanical strengths, RFA mortars (containing 0.2 wt% GO) have better environmental performance (6.7% CO2 emission reduction or 2.2% primary energy demand saving). Overall, the addition of GO could significantly improve the quality of RFA mortars, which could further apparently improve the recycling of C&D waste, and then promote the sustainable development of construction sector.
Nanostructured ZnO on cotton fabrics – A novel flexible gas sensor & UV filter J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Dinesh Kumar Subbiah, Ganesh Kumar Mani, K.Jayanth Babu, Apurba Das, John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan
The surge in skin cancer cases across the globe has forced the scientific community to develop solutions to protect humans against the ill effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Nowadays, functionalized cotton textiles are employed to protect humans against UV radiation. In this context, nanostructured ZnO modified cotton fabrics towards the enhancement of ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) as well as to develop wearable gas sensors have been developed. The surface of carbon cellulosic fabric was modified by sol-gel and sputter seed layer-coated sol-gel techniques. ZnO grown fabrics were characterized using X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). Subsequently, UV-blocking and gas sensing properties of the modified textile samples were investigated. The seed layer initiated sol-gel modified cotton fabric showed a maximum UV protection factor (UPF) of 378. Also, room temperature gas-sensing performance of the functionalized cotton fabric towards volatile organic compounds such as acetaldehyde, ammonia and ethanol vapours was investigated.
Identifying emission hotspots for low carbon technology transfers J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Kirsten S. Wiebe
Study on Disruption Management Strategy of Job-shop Scheduling Problem Based on Prospect Theory J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Ning Tao, Wang Xu-ping
In view of the disturbance in the process of uncertain job-shop scheduling problem, the measurement method of value function based on prospect theory and the disruption management strategy of user's psychological perception are proposed in this paper. A multi-objective optimization model for job-shop scheduling management is established through multi-objective programming. At the same time, the idea of gradual optimization for the target to obtain the job-shop scheduling adjustment scheme with minimum disturbance is introduced. Acting the user's psychological perception time as the reference point, the degree of the user's psychological perception of the expected time of goods is measured. In order to optimize the scheduling model and search the optimum solution of multi-objective optimization problem, an improved quantum bacterial foraging algorithm is proposed, and it is compared with the existing classical algorithms to verify its effectiveness.
Electricity generation from pyrolysis gas produced in charcoal manufacture: Technical and economic analysis J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Marcio Montagnana Vicente Leme, Osvaldo José Venturini, Electo Eduardo Silva Lora, Mateus Henrique Rocha, Fábio Codignole Luz, Wellington de Almeida, Daniel Carvalho de Moura, Luiz Fernando de Moura
Brazilian steel industry based on charcoal is unique in the world, making Brazil the largest world charcoal producer and the only one that produces green pig iron in large scale, a low-carbon and economic option to the traditional pig iron produced from coal coke. The renewable charcoal originates from the slow pyrolysis of eucalyptus wood produced in high productivity reforestation farms thought traditional batch reactors. Unfortunately, the state-of-the-art of charcoal making in Brazil do not comprise the pyrolysis gases utilization, wasting more than 30% of wood energy decreasing air quality and producing environmental and social impacts. Therefore, in this sense, the goal of this work is to evaluate the possibility to recovery this energy to produce electricity, and issues the topics related to the use of a very lean fuel, with flammability problems, which varies its composition over time, and the lack of water to be used as cooling mean for the thermodynamic cycles in the eucalyptus farms. The gases Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) was analyzed by the Calculated Adiabatic Flame Temperature (CAFT) method showing that in the first half of pyrolysis, the gases are generally under the LFL line, what could be solved by the gases pre-heating or mixing with richer fuel produced by kilns in advanced carbonization stage. Results showed an average gas Lower Heating Value (LHV) of 1,323 kJ/kg. To overcome gas production instability a cluster system of 120 rectangular carbonization kilns working in synchrony was accessed through a computational tool, where it was found a minimum thermal power available of 57.5 MWth or 25.6% of initial wood energy content. Three energy conversion technologies were evaluated: the Steam Rankine Cycle (SRC), the Externally Fired Gas Turbine (EFGT) and the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). In this work, it was found that the efficiency of the SRC, EFGT and ORC conversion technologies are 24.0%, 19.3% and 23.7%, respectively. An economic analysis indicated the SRC as the most viable technology with a potential to generate 0.93 MWhel per ton of charcoal produced. Brazil has as estimated energy loss of 2.5 Mtoe (million tonne of oil equivalent) annually in the form of carbonization gases, which could be used to produce up to 5,644 GWhel of electricity and reduce the Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions up to 15 Mton CO2–eq.
Potential energy savings and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions reduction strategy for natural gas liquid (NGL) recovery: Process simulation and economic evaluation J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Ahmed AlNouss, Mohamed Ibrahim, Saad A. Al-Sobhi
Recovery of sales gas and natural gas liquid (NGL) is characterized by its high energy consumption and significant environmental impact. This study explores the effect of design alternatives for NGL recovery on economic, energy, and environmental metrics. Focus is given to the turbo-expanding separation method owing to its wide applicability and potential for improvements. The primary configurations of turbo-expanding systems were simulated using ASPEN HYSYS. The simulation results included mass and energy balances, unit sizing, and sensitivity analyses using what-if scenarios to improve the design of the base configuration. Other ASPENTech products, such as the ASPEN Process Economic Analyzer and ASPEN Energy Analyzer were utilized to carry out an economic evaluation and optimization of utilities. To illustrate the value of the proposed approach, a case study was analysed for the assessment of various design alternatives to process 84,000 kg/h (5000 kmol/h) of natural gas while accounting for and reconciling the economic, energy, and environmental objectives.
The heterogeneous effect of democracy, political globalization, and urbanization on PM2.5 concentrations in G20 countries: Evidence from panel quantile regression J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-16 Ningli Wang, Huiming Zhu, Yawei Guo, Cheng Peng
Challenges for Sustainable Supply Chain Management: When Stakeholder Collaboration Becomes Conducive to Corruption J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-16 Bruno S. Silvestre, Marcelo S. Monteiro, Fernando Luiz E. Viana, Jose Milton Souza-Filho
Corruption in supply chains is an important but poorly understood phenomenon that prevents supply chains from achieving their desired sustainability performance. Drawing from the literatures on sustainable supply chain management, and corruption, this paper explores the antecedents, dynamics, and consequences of corruption in the Brazilian beef supply chain. Supply chains in emerging economies face a significant risk from both “petty” and “grand” corruption, and this makes criminal activity more difficult to disrupt. This research makes four contributions to theory, policy, and practice: (1) it fills an important gap in the literature by explicitly connecting the sustainable supply chain management perspective to the corruption discourse; (2) it advances the sustainable supply chain management literature by suggesting that stakeholder collaboration might not be always a “good thing” because in some cases it may increase the risk of corruption; (3) it suggests that corruption might be embedded in certain types of supply chain relationships which form a “corruption triangle”; (4) it identifies implications for the practice of supply chain management and provides insights for policy makers and regulators/law enforcers on how to identify and disrupt supply chain corruption scams.
Process intensification and waste minimization for ibuprofen synthesis process ☆ J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-16 Yixin Ma, Xia Zhang, Zhaoyou Zhu, Yinglong Wang, Jun Gao, Peizhe Cui
In China, the most commonly used method for the synthesis of ibuprofen is aryl-1,2–translocation rearrangement, which comprises several main processes: the Friedel-hydrolysis reaction, ketal reaction and so on. There are some problems in the process of industrial production. The temperature control of the Friedel-hydrolysis reaction is a problem because excessive temperatures will lead to the occurrence of side reactions, and low temperatures will lead to the crystallization of raw reaction materials. The reaction time of the ketal reaction is up to 24 h, which limits the productive capacity of ibuprofen. Otherwise, the emissions of the ibuprofen synthesis processes are more than 5,000 m3/h of waste gas with VOC contents of over 1000 mg/m3 and highly concentrated organic wastewater, with a COD up to 20,000 mg/L. Therefore, process intensification and waste minimization of the ibuprofen synthesis process is described in this paper. A new reactor is designed for the Friedel-hydrolysis reaction. The reaction temperature can be precisely controlled at 13 to 15 °C, which effectively inhibits the occurrence of side reactions. The industrial applications showed that the ketal reaction time is reduced from 24 h to less than 8 h. The VOC content is reduced to less than 100 mg/m3, and the COD value is reduced to 150 mg/L in the improved processes, which meet national emissions standards.
Life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of urban residential buildings in Guangzhou city J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-16 Jinyan Zhan, Wei Liu, Feng Wu, Zhihui Li, Chao Wang
Carbon emissions are derived mainly from the building, industrial, and transport sectors. Buildings are responsible for more than 40% of global energy use and for as much as 33% of global greenhouse gas emissions. By the end of 2016, 57.4% of the total population lived in urban areas in China, a dramatic increase from 26% in 1990. It is essential to study and analyze both energy consumption and carbon emissions of buildings. Taking Guangzhou city of China as an example, this study applied a hybrid life cycle assessment approach to quantify both the energy consumption and CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of an urban residential building. The data was collected from the Guangzhou input–output (IO) table of 2012, Guangzhou Statistical Yearbook of 2013, China Electric Power Yearbook of 2013, and statistical data of the studied building. Results showed that the overall life cycle energy consumption and CO2 (eq.) emissions for the studied building, constructed in 2012, were approximately 72,591.98 GJ and 12,637.32 t, respectively. The largest CO2 (eq.) emission factor was oil and the smallest one was electricity. The CO2 emissions of steel, concrete, brick, and cement together accounted for 76.69% of the total emissions which are related to building materials in the preparation stage. This research not only promotes the construction of eco-cities or eco-communities, but also provides decision makers with comprehensive data on the energy consumption and environmental impacts of residential buildings. The findings are of considerable importance in terms of energy saving and emissions reductions for society as a whole.
Consumer attitudes towards biobased packaging – A cross-cultural comparative study J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-16 Carsten Herbes, Christoph Beuthner, Iris Ramme
Growing awareness of the environmental damage associated with conventional product packaging has led to keen interest in ‘green’, ‘environmentally friendly’ or ‘sustainable’ packaging. Research tells us a great deal about how the ‘environmental friendliness’ of a package may influence a consumer purchasing decision, but we have little scientific insight into the attributes that shape consumer perceptions of ’environmental friendliness. Hence, we examined how the interplay of environmentally friendly packaging attributes influences an overall evaluation of environmental friendliness, surveying attitudes from three Western consumer cultures: Germany, France, and the U.S. We found that consumers focus predominantly on end-of-life attributes of packaging, although the cultures differ in how they weigh the relative value of recyclability, reusability and biodegradability. We found that consumers concern themselves less with renewable origins, and almost not at all with activities relating to production, transport and retail use. We also found that widespread misunderstanding of biomethane continues to exist; further, the fact that biomethane is ‘biobased’ counts little in consumer ratings if the product is not also ‘biodegradable’. Ethical concerns about the use of agricultural land to produce biogas substrates are raised primarily by German consumers. A comparison with results from LCA studies of packaging revealed a number of discrepancies between consumer perception and facts on the environmental impact of different packaging options. Brand owners advancing environmentally friendly packaging initiatives are advised to feature those eco-advantages that pertain to the post-use phase and to differentiate packaging strategies across countries.
Impacts of urbanization on water use and energy-related CO2 emissions of residential consumption in China: A spatio-temporal analysis during 2003–2012 J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-16 Jialiang Cai, He Yin, Olli Varis
Stochastic multi-objective energy management in residential microgrids with combined cooling, heating, and power units considering battery energy storage systems and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Mostafa Sedighizadeh, Masoud Esmaili, Nahid Mohammadkhani
Industrial Sustainability: Modelling Drivers and Mechanisms with Barriers J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Neri Alessandra, Cagno Enrico, Di Sebastiano Giulio, Trianni Andrea
Sustainability’s relevance is constantly increasing among industrial decision makers, policy-makers and scholars. To improve sustainability performance, firms must adopt industrial sustainability measures. These have been proven to positively impact on overall firm’s performance, but their rate of adoption is still low, and barriers to their adoption need to be properly tackled by drivers. This work is based on a review of literature on drivers to sustainability and to the areas of occupational health and safety, eco efficiency, and energy efficiency, and contributes to industrial sustainability research presenting a novel framework of drivers. The framework comprehends a model of drivers and a model of mechanisms: the former encompasses previous literature contributions and aims to characterize drivers for the adoption of measures in all areas of industrial sustainability; the latter aims to evaluate if a driver may tackle specific barrier or boost the action of another driver. We conducted a preliminary validation of the framework in nine Italian manufacturing firms. Regarding model of drivers, capacity to represent, usefulness and ease of use were evaluated; concerning model of mechanisms usefulness and ease of use were evaluated. Results seem to be sound with an overall positive evaluation of the framework by all the interviewees. Model of drivers was appreciated for its structure and completeness, and for its ability to enhance knowledge and awareness; model of mechanisms was considered useful for properly foster the adoption of a measure within the firm. The framework could be useful for industrial decision makers and policy-makers to better direct resources and efforts to foster the adoption of industrial sustainability measures.
Degradation of 4-chlorophenol using catalyzed peroxymonosulfate with nano-MnO2/UV irradiation: Toxicity assessment and evaluation for industrial wastewater treatment J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Akbar Eslami, Marjan Hashemi, Farshid Ghanbari
Consumers’ Perceptions of Luxury Brands’ CSR Initiatives: An Investigation of the Role of Status and Conspicuous Consumption J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Cesare Amatulli, Matteo De Angelis, Daniel Korschun, Simona Romani
This research challenges the notion that luxury and CSR are incompatible by investigating whether and under what conditions consumers react positively to different kinds of CSR initiatives among luxury companies. Extending Carroll’s four-dimension model of CSR, we argue that some CSR initiatives, namely those in the economic and ethical dimensions, are less noticeable and visible to consumers than those in the legal and philanthropic dimensions. We categorized the former as “internal” dimensions and the latter as “external” dimensions as part of a novel classification of Carroll’s four CSR dimensions. To test our hypotheses, we conducted three experiments – one in a laboratory, one online and one in the field – with a total of 461 respondents. Our results demonstrate that luxury companies’ external (compared to internal) CSR initiatives increase consumers’ willingness to buy; this effect is accentuated for consumers with higher status and conspicuous consumption orientation.
An Anomaly Identification Model for Wind Turbine State Parameters J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Yiyi Zhang, Hanbo Zheng, Jiefeng Liu, Junhui Zhao, Peng Sun
Identifying the anomalies of wind turbine (WT) and maintaining in time will improve the reliability of wind turbine and the efficiency of energy use, however it is difficult toidentify the wind turbine’s abnormal operation by the traditional threshold settings because the anomalies can be induced by multiple factors.Therefore, this paper presents an anomaly identification model for wind turbine state parameters,and the model can identify abnormal state which the fluctuation range of the condition parametersis within the SCADA alarm threshold. The main work is as follows: 1) in order to increase the accuracy of the prediction model, a novel BPNN model integrated genetic algorithm (GA) was employed to optimize the training method (called GABP method), data samples, and input parameter selection, respectively; 2) on this basis, the distribution characteristics of state parameter prediction errors were depicted by a T-location scale (TLS) distribution with the shift factor and elastic coefficient; 3)error abnormal index (EAI) is defined to quantify the abnormal level of the prediction error, which is used as an indicator of the wind turbine anomaly. The proposed method has been applied on areal 1.5 MW wind turbine, and the analysis shows that the proposed method is effective in wind turbine anomaly identification.
Botanical Biofilter for Indoor Toluene Removal and Reduction of Carbon dioxide Emission under Low Light Intensity by Using Mixed C3 and CAM Plants J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Chairat Treesubsuntorn, Paitip Thiravetyan
Botanical biofilters are an interesting technology for indoor air pollution control. However, when growing plants under indoor air conditions with low light intensity (10–50 µmole PAR m-2 s-1), they seem to emit CO2 to the environment. In order to solve this problem, a combination of C3 and CAM plants might be able to decrease the level of CO2 emission and increase pollutant-removal efficiency. Therefore, an effective botanical biofilter with mixed plants was studied. The CO2 emissions from high benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) removal plants including Zamioculcas zamiifolia (facultative CAM), Dracaena sanderiana (C3), Chlorophytum comosum (C3), Euphorbia milii (CAM cycling), Sansevieria kirkii (CAM), and Sansevieria trifasciata (CAM) were investigated. C. comosum and S. trifasciata emitted very low CO2 under both light (50 µmole PAR m-2 s-1) and dark conditions. These two plant species (total leaf area of 500 cm2) were used in the botanical biofilter. The results showed that the botanical biofilter with a mixture of C. comosum and S. trifasciata plants could rapidly remove 1 m3 of 1±0.2 ppm (3.9-4.7 mg m-3) toluene-contaminated air within only 2–3 h. In addition, the mixed plant system also showed low CO2 emission under both light and dark conditions. The combination of C3 and CAM plants offers an alternative method to limit CO2 emissions from a botanical biofilter under low light-intensity conditions.
Turning waste to wealth: A direct process for recovery of nano-silica and lignin from paddy straw agro-waste J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Baljinder Singh Kauldhar, Sudesh Kumar Yadav
Three-Dimensional Ecological Footprint Assessment for Ecologically Sensitive Areas: A Case Study of the Southern Qin Ling Piedmont in Shaanxi, China J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Yi YANG, Sun Ling, Ting Zhang, Congxu Yao
The ecological management of ecologically sensitive areas is highly sensitive and complex. The three-dimensional ecological footprint assessment for ecologically sensitive areas plays a decisive role in the overall development of a region’s ecological environment and can be helpful for promoting the coordinated and sustainable development of economic and natural capital utilization. Taking a typical ecologically sensitive area in the southern Qin Ling piedmont of Shaanxi (southern Shaanxi) as an example, this paper describes the per capita ecological footprint and per capita biological capacity from 2005 to 2015. In addition, based on an analysis of the utilization of capital stocks and flows and the ecological footprint depth and size , the factors driving changes in the region’s ecological footprint size are revealed by a partial least squares model (PLS model). The results indicate that the per capita biological capacity in the southern Qin Ling piedmont of Shaanxi remained stable at 2.100 ha/cap and that the per capita ecological footprint increased, with fluctuations between 1.359 ha/cap and 2.239 ha/cap. After the first appearance of a per capita ecological deficit in 2013, the ecological footprint depth peaked in 2014 at 1.049 ha/cap. The capital stocks consumption rate was well controlled, which meant that capital flows remained the main source of natural capital. The main factors driving the ecological footprint size are commonly used arable land, the per capita disposable income of urban residents and the primary industry output value. Therefore, some suggestions are offered as follows: control the land use for urbanization, accelerate industrial restructuring and upgrading, and establish a mechanism for environmental monitoring and warning.
Profit or Environment? A System Dynamic Model Analysis of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Management System in China J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Qinxin Guo, Enci Wang, Yongyou Nie, Junyi Shen
In the past decade, sales of electrical and electronic equipment have undergone explosive growth worldwide, while at the same time, the life cycles of electrical and electronic equipment have been getting shorter. This has resulted in large numbers of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) being generated, which causes serious environmental problems that each country has to face. In this paper, we use the system dynamic method to analyze how China’s “WEEE processing fund” policy, wherein levies or subsidies are set on appropriate targets, influences the economic and environmental conditions of participants in the WEEE management system. The simulations results suggest that the “WEEE processing fund” policy could improve the economic status of those receiving subsidies without losing the economic revenue from levies and improve the entire system’s ability to recover and process waste equipment.
Winter legume-rice rotations can reduce nitrogen pollution and carbon footprint while maintaining net ecosystem economic benefits J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-16 Siyuan Cai, Cameron M. Pittelkow, Xu Zhao, Shenqiang Wang
Intercropping forage sorghum with maize is a promising alternative to maize silage for biogas production, J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.715) Pub Date : 2018-05-16 Dulan Samarappuli, Marisol T. Berti
Maize (Zea mays L.) silage is the preferred feedstock choice for biogas production. However, other feedstocks or mixed feedstocks might have lower environmental impact than silage maize. The objectives of this study include 1) to determine if forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] and forage sorghum maize intercropping can be a viable option to replace maize in forage and biogas production, and 2) to assess the environmental impact of systems involving maize and forage sorghum intercropping and comparing the impact of those, with conventional monocrop rotations. Replicated experiments were conducted in Carrington, Fargo, and Prosper, ND, in 2013 and in Fargo, ND in 2014. Maize for silage and grain and two forage sorghum cultivars (Brown Mid Rib (BMR) and non-BMR) were grown in monoculture and in intercropping. Treatments were a total of twelve; four monocultures, four inter-row intercropped maize-sorghum, and four within-row intercropped maize-sorghum. Results across environments indicated non-BMR forage sorghum monocultures produced similar or higher biomass yield compared with maize monocultures and maize-forage sorghum mixed cultures (inter-row and within-row). Biogas yield and forage quality produced by forage sorghum monocultures, and mixtures containing forage sorghum were similar to that of maize. Thus, forage sorghum can replace, at least in part, silage maize as feedstock for feed or biogas. Forage sorghum and forage sorghum-maize intercropping had lower environmental impact compared with maize in all categories evaluated. In conclusion, intercropping of forage sorghum with maize is a promising alternative to maize silage for forage or as feedstock for biogas production.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
- Acc. Chem. Res.
- ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
- ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng.
- ACS Catal.
- ACS Cent. Sci.
- ACS Chem. Biol.
- ACS Chem. Neurosci.
- ACS Comb. Sci.
- ACS Earth Space Chem.
- ACS Energy Lett.
- ACS Infect. Dis.
- ACS Macro Lett.
- ACS Med. Chem. Lett.
- ACS Nano
- ACS Omega
- ACS Photonics
- ACS Sens.
- ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng.
- ACS Synth. Biol.
- Acta Biomater.
- Acta Crystallogr. A Found. Adv.
- Acta Mater.
- Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.
- Adv. Electron. Mater.
- Adv. Energy Mater.
- Adv. Funct. Mater.
- Adv. Healthcare Mater.
- Adv. Mater.
- Adv. Mater. Interfaces
- Adv. Opt. Mater.
- Adv. Sci.
- Adv. Synth. Catal.
- AlChE J.
- Anal. Bioanal. Chem.
- Anal. Chem.
- Anal. Chim. Acta
- Anal. Methods
- Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.
- Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem.
- Annu. Rev. Biochem.
- Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour.
- Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol.
- Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.
- Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.
- Appl. Catal. A Gen.
- Appl. Catal. B Environ.
- Appl. Clay. Sci.
- Appl. Energy
- Aquat. Toxicol.
- Arab. J. Chem.
- Asian J. Org. Chem.
- Atmos. Environ.
- Carbohydr. Polym.
- Catal. Commun.
- Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng.
- Catal. Sci. Technol.
- Catal. Today
- Cell Chem. Bio.
- Cem. Concr. Res.
- Ceram. Int.
- Chem. Asian J.
- Chem. Bio. Drug Des.
- Chem. Biol. Interact.
- Chem. Commun.
- Chem. Educ. Res. Pract.
- Chem. Eng. J.
- Chem. Eng. Sci.
- Chem. Eur. J.
- Chem. Mater.
- Chem. Phys.
- Chem. Phys. Lett.
- Chem. Phys. Lipids
- Chem. Rev.
- Chem. Sci.
- Chem. Soc. Rev.
- Chin. J. Chem.
- Combust. Flame
- Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf.
- Compos. Sci. Technol.
- Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf.
- Comput. Chem. Eng.
- Constr. Build. Mater.
- Coordin. Chem. Rev.
- Corros. Sci.
- Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr.
- Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.
- Cryst. Growth Des.
- Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng.
- Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci.
- Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain
- Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.
- Ecotox. Environ. Safe.
- Electrochem. Commun.
- Electrochim. Acta
- Energy Environ. Sci.
- Energy Fuels
- Energy Storage Mater.
- Environ. Impact Assess. Rev.
- Environ. Int.
- Environ. Model. Softw.
- Environ. Pollut.
- Environ. Res.
- Environ. Sci. Policy
- Environ. Sci. Technol.
- Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett.
- Environ. Sci.: Nano
- Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts
- Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol.
- Eur. J. Inorg. Chem.
- Eur. J. Med. Chem.
- Eur. J. Org. Chem.
- Eur. Polym. J.
- J. Acad. Nutr. Diet.
- J. Agric. Food Chem.
- J. Alloys Compd.
- J. Am. Ceram. Soc.
- J. Am. Chem. Soc.
- J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
- J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol.
- J. Anal. At. Spectrom.
- J. Antibiot.
- J. Catal.
- J. Chem. Educ.
- J. Chem. Eng. Data
- J. Chem. Inf. Model.
- J. Chem. Phys.
- J. Chem. Theory Comput.
- J. Chromatogr. A
- J. Chromatogr. B
- J. Clean. Prod.
- J. CO2 UTIL.
- J. Colloid Interface Sci.
- J. Comput. Chem.
- J. Cryst. Growth
- J. Dairy Sci.
- J. Electroanal. Chem.
- J. Electrochem. Soc.
- J. Environ. Manage.
- J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.
- J. Fluorine Chem.
- J. Food Drug Anal.
- J. Food Eng.
- J. Food Sci.
- J. Funct. Foods
- J. Hazard. Mater.
- J. Heterocycl. Chem.
- J. Hydrol.
- J. Ind. Eng. Chem.
- J. Inorg. Biochem.
- J. Magn. Magn. Mater.
- J. Mater. Chem. A
- J. Mater. Chem. B
- J. Mater. Chem. C
- J. Mater. Process. Tech.
- J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater.
- J. Med. Chem.
- J. Membr. Sci.
- J. Mol. Catal. A Chem.
- J. Mol. Liq.
- J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng.
- J. Nat. Prod.
- J. Nucl. Mater.
- J. Org. Chem.
- J. Photochem. Photobiol. C Photochem. Rev.
- J. Phys. Chem. A
- J. Phys. Chem. B
- J. Phys. Chem. C
- J. Phys. Chem. Lett.
- J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.
- J. Porphyr. Phthalocyanines
- J. Power Sources
- J. Solid State Chem.
- J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E.
- Macromol. Rapid Commun.
- Mass Spectrom. Rev.
- Mater. Chem. Front.
- Mater. Des.
- Mater. Horiz.
- Mater. Lett.
- Mater. Sci. Eng. A
- Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep.
- Mater. Today
- Meat Sci.
- Med. Chem. Commun.
- Microchem. J.
- Microchim. Acta
- Micropor. Mesopor. Mater.
- Mol. Biosyst.
- Mol. Cancer Ther.
- Mol. Catal.
- Mol. Nutr. Food Res.
- Mol. Pharmaceutics
- Mol. Syst. Des. Eng.
- Nano Energy
- Nano Lett.
- Nano Res.
- Nano Today
- Nano-Micro Lett.
- Nanomed. Nanotech. Biol. Med.
- Nanoscale Horiz.
- Nat. Catal.
- Nat. Chem.
- Nat. Chem. Biol.
- Nat. Commun.
- Nat. Energy
- Nat. Mater.
- Nat. Med.
- Nat. Methods
- Nat. Nanotech.
- Nat. Photon.
- Nat. Prod. Rep.
- Nat. Protoc.
- Nat. Rev. Chem.
- Nat. Rev. Drug. Disc.
- Nat. Rev. Mater.
- Natl. Sci. Rev.
- Neurochem. Int.
- New J. Chem.
- NPG Asia Mater.
- npj 2D Mater. Appl.
- npj Comput. Mater.
- npj Flex. Electron.
- npj Mater. Degrad.
- npj Sci. Food
- Pharmacol. Rev.
- Pharmacol. Therapeut.
- Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.
- Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.
- Phys. Life Rev.
- PLOS ONE
- Polym. Chem.
- Polym. Degrad. Stabil.
- Polym. J.
- Polym. Rev.
- Powder Technol.
- Proc. Combust. Inst.
- Prog. Cryst. Growth Ch. Mater.
- Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.
- Prog. Mater. Sci.
- Prog. Photovoltaics
- Prog. Polym. Sci.
- Prog. Solid State Chem.
- Sci. Adv.
- Sci. Bull.
- Sci. Rep.
- Sci. Total Environ.
- Sci. Transl. Med.
- Scr. Mater.
- Sens Actuators B Chem.
- Sep. Purif. Technol.
- Small Methods
- Soft Matter
- Sol. Energy
- Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells
- Solar PRL
- Spectrochim. Acta. A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.
- Surf. Sci. Rep.
- Sustainable Energy Fuels