Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and methylation of LINE-1 and imprinted genes in placenta: A CHECK cohort study Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-10 Sujin Kim, Yoon Hee Cho, Inae Lee, Wonji Kim, Sungho Won, Ja-Lok Ku, Hyo-Bang Moon, Jeongim Park, Sungkyoon Kim, Gyuyeon Choi, Kyungho Choi
Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been linked to numerous adverse birth outcomes among newborn infants in many epidemiological studies. Although epigenetic modifications have been suggested as possible explanations for those associations, studies have rarely reported a relationship between POP exposure during pregnancy and DNA methylation in the placenta. In the present study, we investigated the association between prenatal exposure to several POPs, including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and methylation levels of long interspersed element 1 (LINE-1), as well as imprinted genes in placental DNAs among Korean mother-child pairs (N = 109). We assessed the association of DNA methylation not only with each target POP (single-POP models) but also with multiple POPs applying principal component analysis (multiple-POP models). Potential associations between placental DNA methylation and birth outcomes of newborn infants were also estimated. In single-POP models, significant associations were detected between OCP measurements and placental DNA methylation. Elevated concentrations of β-hexachlorhexane (β-HCH) in maternal serum collected during delivery were significantly associated with a decrease in methylation of LINE-1 in the placenta. Higher levels of p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p′-DDT) in maternal serum were associated with hypermethylation of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2). In multiple-POP models, a significant and positive association between DDTs and IGF2 methylation was also observed. Placental LINE-1 methylation was inversely associated with birth length. Our observations indicate that prenatal exposure to several POPs including DDTs is associated with the changes in methylation of genes, including major imprinted genes in the placenta. The consequences of these epigenetic alterations in placenta during development deserve further investigation.
Association between birthweight and ambient PM2.5 in the United States: Individually-varied susceptibility and spatial heterogeneity Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-10 Tao Xue, Tong Zhu, Yiqun Han
The association between maternal exposure to PM2.5 and birthweight varies geographically, which may be caused by susceptibility. Whether this population-level association is a function of mixtures of individuals with different susceptibilities is unclear. We investigated the probability distribution of individuals with different susceptibilities to PM2.5-related birthweight change, and evaluated spatial variation of the effect across the United States (US). We estimated the individual-level susceptibility using the effect of PM2.5 among a homogenous subpopulation, which was defined by a specific combination of modifiers. According to frequencies for all combinations, we derived the probability distribution of differential susceptibilities across the US and by states. From birth certificates across the US (1999–2004), we analyzed a total of 18,317,707 samples of singletons. Of the samples, 54–55% were assigned valid exposures, and linked to PM2.5. The subpopulation-specific associations of PM2.5 on birthweight change (i.e., susceptibilities) ranged from negative to positive. For the first-trimester exposure, 61.4% of the associations were negative, and the mean was −1.01 g (95% confidence interval, CI: −1.63, −0.38) of birthweight change per 5 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5. The state-level associations varied (from −2.04 g [−2.76, −1.31] in New Hampshire to −0.30 g [−1.01, 0.41] in Texas) with demographic compositions in the US. The between-state variations of maternal race and education level were the greatest contributors to the spatial heterogeneity. Our findings may be useful to the policymaker in planning interventions for subpopulations susceptible to ambient pollution.
Association between diurnal temperature range and mortality modified by temperature in Japan, 1972–2015: Investigation of spatial and temporal patterns for 12 cause-specific deaths Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Whanhee Lee, Yoonhee Kim, Yasushi Honda, Ho Kim
Many previous literatures suggested that high temperature and diurnal temperature range (DTR) are prominent risk factors to increase risk of mortality. However, the role of effect modification of temperature on the DTR-related mortality is unclear. We examined whether temperature was an effect modifier on the DTR-mortality association and how the modification patterns differed by cause of deaths and different regional climates using a nationwide 47 prefecture data in Japan (1972–2015). We used a two-stage analysis. For the first stage, we used a time-series regression with a distributed lag model to estimate the DTR-mortality association according to five levels of temperature (extreme cold, cold, moderate, hot, and extreme hot days) for each prefecture stratified by twelve cause-specific deaths. Then, we applied a meta-analysis to pool the estimates across the 47 prefectures in Japan and separately by cooler vs. warmer regions. Our findings showed that the risk of mortality associated with DTR was strongly modified by temperature for all causes and cardiovascular deaths (p < 0.001) in the total population, suggesting that the influence of DTR on mortality increases at higher levels of temperature. These findings were consistent across warmer and cooler regions. Similar patterns were observed for respiratory and renal disease deaths which demonstrated the associations with DTR were the highest during extreme hot days, although it was statistically not significant and varied depending on the climate regions. Our findings suggest that the DTR-related mortality may be modified by daily mean temperature and the most elevated during extremely hot temperatures.
Occupational exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields and brain tumor risk in the INTEROCC study: An individualized assessment approach Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-08 Javier Vila, Michelle C. Turner, Esther Gracia-Lavedan, Jordi Figuerola, Joseph D. Bowman, Laurel Kincl, Lesley Richardson, Geza Benke, Martine Hours, Daniel Krewski, Dave McLean, Marie-Elise Parent, Siegal Sadetzki, Klaus Schlaefer, Brigitte Schlehofer, Joachim Schüz, Jack Siemiatycki, Martie van Tongeren, Elisabeth Cardis
Introduction In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B), although the epidemiological evidence for the association between occupational exposure to RF-EMF and cancer was judged to be inadequate, due in part to limitations in exposure assessment. This study examines the relation between occupational RF and intermediate frequency (IF) EMF exposure and brain tumor (glioma and meningioma) risk in the INTEROCC multinational population-based case-control study (with nearly 4000 cases and over 5000 controls), using a novel exposure assessment approach. Methods Individual indices of cumulative exposure to RF and IF-EMF (overall and in specific exposure time windows) were assigned to study participants using a source-exposure matrix and detailed interview data on work with or nearby EMF sources. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate associations with glioma and meningioma risk. Results Overall, around 10% of study participants were exposed to RF while only 1% were exposed to IF-EMF. There was no clear evidence for a positive association between RF or IF-EMF and the brain tumors studied, with most results showing either no association or odds ratios (ORs) below 1.0. The largest adjusted ORs were obtained for cumulative exposure to RF magnetic fields (as A/m-years) in the highest exposed category (≥90th percentile) for the most recent exposure time window (1–4 years before the diagnosis or reference date) for both glioma, OR = 1.62 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 3.01) and meningioma (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 0.65, 3.55). Conclusion Despite the improved exposure assessment approach used in this study, no clear associations were identified. However, the results obtained for recent exposure to RF electric and magnetic fields are suggestive of a potential role in brain tumor promotion/progression and should be further investigated.
Impact of European chemicals regulation on the industrial use of plasticizers and patterns of substitution in Scandinavia Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-07 Kathrin Sackmann, Thorsten Reemtsma, Magnus Rahmberg, Dirk Bunke
REACH aims at promoting the safe use of chemicals in Europe, inter alia by identification and regulation of substances of very high concern (SVHCs). Once identified, SVHCs need to be substituted by safer alternatives. However, substitutes are frequently not safer than the substances that they replace but rather show similar hazard profiles, resulting in regrettable substitution. This paper investigates the impact of chemicals regulation on substitution of chemicals by analyzing time trends in the industrial use of chemicals from 2000 to 2014 in Scandinavia. It is shown that the use of ten water-relevant SVHCs decreased by about 90% in the considered period in Sweden as compared to a control group of unregulated substances which decreased by only 20%. A closer inspection of the use of 23 highly used plasticizers revealed that the use of regulated phthalate plasticizers decreased while the use of non-phthalate plasticizers increased. A first comparison of hazardous properties showed that during the 15-years period chemical substitution drastically reduced the chemical hazard burden of plasticizers in Scandinavia for both, the environment and human health. This study shows that regulation and the related discussion on chemicals safety have significantly reduced the chemical hazard burden from plasticizers in Scandinavia since the year 2000. It is assumed that similar trends can be found for the whole European Union. To combat regrettable substitution, mitigation options are suggested, including information-based tools for the identification of safer alternatives and an improved accessibility of information on production volumes and uses of chemicals to allow for an improved assessment of chemical's risk.
Perturbation of metabolic pathways mediates the association of air pollutants with asthma and cardiovascular diseases Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-07 Ayoung Jeong, Giovanni Fiorito, Pekka Keski-Rahkonen, Medea Imboden, Agneta Kiss, Nivonirina Robinot, Hans Gmuender, Jelle Vlaanderen, Roel Vermeulen, Soterios Kyrtopoulos, Zdenko Herceg, Akram Ghantous, Gianfranco Lovison, Claudia Galassi, Andrea Ranzi, Vittorio Krogh, Sara Grioni, Claudia Agnoli, Nicole Probst-Hensch
Background Epidemiologic evidence indicates common risk factors, including air pollution exposure, for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, suggesting the involvement of common altered molecular pathways. Objectives The goal was to find intermediate metabolites or metabolic pathways that could be associated with both air pollutants and health outcomes (“meeting-in-the-middle”), thus shedding light on mechanisms and reinforcing causality. Methods We applied a statistical approach named ‘meet-in-the-middle’ to untargeted metabolomics in two independent case-control studies nested in cohorts on adult-onset asthma (AOA) and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD). We compared the results to identify both common and disease-specific altered metabolic pathways. Results A novel finding was a strong association of AOA with ultrafine particles (UFP; odds ratio 1.80 [1.26, 2.55] per increase by 5000 particles/cm3). Further, we have identified several metabolic pathways that potentially mediate the effect of air pollution on health outcomes. Among those, perturbation of Linoleate metabolism pathway was associated with air pollution exposure, AOA and CCVD. Conclusions Our results suggest common pathway perturbations may occur as a consequence of chronic exposure to air pollution leading to increased risk for both AOA and CCVD.
Persistence and spatial variation of antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial populations change in reared shrimp in South China Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-07 Haochang Su, Xiaojuan Hu, Yu Xu, Wujie Xu, Xiaoshuai Huang, Guoliang Wen, Keng Yang, Zhuojia Li, Yucheng Cao
More attention has been paid to the abundance and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in aquatic environments. However, few studies have investigated the persistence and spatial variation of ARGs in aquatic organisms. This study investigated the occurrence and abundance of ARGs and the bacterial populations in shrimp intestinal tracts during the rearing period in different regions of Guangdong, South China. The results showed that sul1, sul2, qnrD, and floR were the predominant ARGs. Compared with those of juvenile shrimp, the total concentrations of ARGs in the intestinal tract of adult shrimp in three shrimp farms were 2.45–3.92 times higher (p < 0.05), and the bacterial populations in the adult shrimp intestinal tract changed considerably. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the abundance of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Verrucomicrobia in Farms A, B, and C, respectively, were strongly positively correlated with the most abundant and predominant genes (sul1 and qnrD for Farm A; floR and sul2 for Farm B; floR and sul2 for Farm C) in the shrimp intestinal tract. The results of this study indicated that ARGs gained persistence in the developmental stages of the reared shrimp. Different phyla of predominant bacteria were responsible for the increase of ARGs abundance in the shrimp intestinal tract in different regions. This study represents a case study of the persistence and spatial variation of ARGs in aquaculture and can be a reference for the determination of harmful impacts of ARGs on food safety and human health.
Exposure and dietary sources of bisphenol A (BPA) and BPA-alternatives among mothers in the APrON cohort study Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-07 Jiaying Liu, Nour Wattar, Catherine J. Field, Irina Dinu, Deborah Dewey, Jonathan W. Martin,
Diet is regarded as the main source of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure, but comparatively little is known about dietary sources of BPA-alternatives. Here we measured exposure of BPA and BPA-alternatives among pregnant women in Canada, estimated their 24-h intakes and examined the importance of various dietary sources. Free and total BPA, bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) were measured in 467 second trimester maternal urine samples, and in 455 paired samples collected at three months postpartum. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations between urinary concentrations of bisphenols and 24-h dietary recall data. The geometric means of total BPA in second trimester and postpartum urine (1.2 and 0.95 ng/mL, respectively) were 5–7 times higher than corresponding total BPS (0.16 and 0.17 ng/mL). The detection frequency of BPF was only 9% (i.e. >1.0 ng/mL). However, at both time points 95th percentiles of total BPF (7.3 and 4.2 ng/mL, respectively) were similar to total BPA (8.2 and 5.0 ng/mL). Free BPS and BPF were detected in <2% of samples, but were detectable when total BPS or BPF concentrations were highest, always at <1% of the total concentration. The tolerable daily intake for total BPA (i.e. 18 nmol/kg BW/d) was not exceeded, but for BPS the estimated 24-h intake was as high as 14 nmol/kg BW/d (95th percentile: 0.12 nmol/kg BW/d), and for BPF was even higher among the highest centile of exposure (maximum and 95th percentile: 30, 0.81 nmol/kg BW/d). Canned food consumption was associated with higher total BPA, but was not associated with BPS. For BPF, mustard consumption may be an important exposure source, particularly among the highest exposed. Relatively high exposure to BPS and BPF in a minority of pregnant women highlights the need to better understand the associated health risks and exposure sources of BPA-alternatives.
Co-benefits of climate mitigation on air quality and human health in Asian countries Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-07 Yang Xie, Hancheng Dai, Xinghan Xu, Shinichiro Fujimori, Tomoko Hasegawa, Kan Yi, Toshihiko Masui, Gakuji Kurata
Climate change mitigation involves reducing fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, which is expensive, particularly under stringent mitigation targets. The co-benefits of reducing air pollutants and improving human health are often ignored, but can play significant roles in decision-making. In this study, we quantified the co-benefits of climate change mitigation on ambient air quality and human health in both physical and monetary terms with a particular focus on Asia, where air quality will likely be degraded in the next few decades if mitigation measures are not undertaken. We used an integrated assessment framework that incorporated economic, air chemistry transport, and health assessment models. Air pollution reduction through climate change mitigation under the 2 °C goal could reduce premature deaths in Asia by 0.79 million (95% confidence interval: 0.75–1.8 million) by 2050. This co-benefit is equivalent to a life value savings of approximately 2.8 trillion United States dollars (USD) (6% of the gross domestic product [GDP]), which is decidedly more than the climate mitigation cost (840 billion USD, 2% of GDP). At the national level, India has the highest potential net benefit of 1.4 trillion USD, followed by China (330 billion USD) and Japan (68 billion USD). Furthermore, in most Asian countries, per capita GDP gain and life value savings would increase with per capita GDP increasing. We robustly confirmed this qualitative conclusion under several socioeconomic and exposure-response function assumptions.
Carbapenem resistance exposures via wastewaters across New Delhi Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-07 Manisha Lamba, Sonia Gupta, Rishabh Shukla, David W. Graham, T.R. Sreekrishnan, S.Z. Ahammad
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global concern, especially in India where the burden of infectious diseases is high and health care spending is low. Here we quantified total coliform, faecal coliforms (FC), carbapenem-resistant enteric bacteria (CRE), blaNDM-1, and three integron genes in samples collected from wastewater effluent of 12 hospitals, 12 sewage treatment plants (STPs), 20 sewer drains, and five locations along the Yamuna River in New Delhi over two seasons. Significant correlations were found between FC levels, CRE (r = 0.903, p = 0.004, n = 49) and blaNDM-1 (r = 0.787, p = 0.003, n = 49) concentrations across all samples. Concentrations of coliforms, CRE, blaNDM-1, int1, and int3 were highest in hospital effluents compared to other locations in both seasons. Although absolute concentration data indicate greater abundances of CRE and blaNDM-1 in the winter, normalised data indicates greater carriage of blaNDM-1 per cell in summer samples. In general, observed CRE levels were highest in surface water downstream of areas with higher population densities. Among CRE isolates (n = 4077), 82%, 75%, 71% and 43% of the strains from hospitals, sewer drains, river samples, and STPs, respectively, contained blaNDM-1, implying STPs have relatively fewer blaNDM-1 positive CRE in their effluents. The most common CRE isolates in the drains were Pseudomonas putida (39%) followed by Acinetobacter baumanni (20%) and Pseudomonas montelli (19%). The present scenario in New Delhi highlights the urgent need for increased coverage of appropriate waste treatment facilities across the city to reduce CRE exposures from polluted surface waters.
Environmental grass pollen levels in utero and at birth and cord blood IgE: Analysis of three birth cohorts Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-07 Nugroho Harry Susanto, Ann-Marie Malby Schoos, Marie Standl, Adrian J. Lowe, Shyamali C. Dharmage, Cecilie Svanes, Agus Salim, Andrea von Berg, Irina Lehmann, Morten Arendt Rasmussen, Matthias Werchan, Karl-Christian Bergmann, Caroline Lodge, Michael J. Abramson, Joachim Heinrich, Hans Bisgaard, Bircan Erbas
Background Early life factors are associated with allergic respiratory diseases, but the role of high grass pollen concentrations during pregnancy and shortly after birth is not known. Objective To assess outdoor levels of grass pollen during the intrauterine period and at birth during peak pollen season on cord blood IgE in birth cohorts. Methods Three birth cohorts were included: MACS (n = 429), Australia; COPSAC2000 (n = 200), Denmark; and LISA (n = 1968), Germany. Cord blood IgE was categorized (<0.5 kU/L, 0.5–1 kU/L, >1 kU/L) and dichotomized (high IgE ≥ 0.5 kU/L). Birth during the grass pollen season months and cumulative exposure to outdoor grass pollen counts during pregnancy with cord blood IgE were analysed using multinomial regression and analysed in meta-analysis using binomial regression adjusted for potential confounders. Results Birth during the grass pollen season had higher pooled odds of cord blood IgE >0.5 kU/L 1.37 (95% CI 1.06, 1.77) in a meta-analysis with little heterogeneity between the three cohorts. Cumulative exposure to outdoor grass pollen counts during the entire pregnancy was associated with slightly lower pooled odds but significant (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.96 to 0.99). Conclusions Birth during grass pollen seasons were associated with increased risk of high cord blood IgE in cities from both hemispheres, but high pollen loads in the environment during the entire pregnancy appeared protective. As IgE responses develop during the first months of life, our study findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of grass pollen exposure at birth and shortly after on possible allergic respiratory diseases.
Traffic noise, noise annoyance and psychotropic medication use Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-06 Enembe O. Okokon, Tarja Yli-Tuomi, Anu W. Turunen, Pekka Tiittanen, Jukka Juutilainen, Timo Lanki
Background Road-traffic noise can induce stress, which may contribute to mental health disorders. Mental health problems have not received much attention in noise research. People perceive noise differently, which may affect the extent to which noise contributes to poor mental health at the individual level. This paper aims to assess the relationships between outdoor traffic noise and noise annoyance and the use of psychotropic medication. Methods We conducted a survey to assess noise annoyance and psychotropic medication among residents of the Helsinki Capital Region of Finland. We also assessed the associations of annoyance and road-traffic noise with sleep disorders, anxiety and depression. Respondents were randomly sampled from the Finnish Population registry, and data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Outdoor traffic noise was modelled using the Nordic prediction model. Associations between annoyance and modelled façade-noise levels with mental health outcome indicators were assessed using a binary logistic regression while controlling for socioeconomic, lifestyle and exposure-related factors. Results A total of 7321 respondents returned completed questionnaires. Among the study respondents, 15%, 7% and 7% used sleep medication, anxiolytic and antidepressant medications, respectively, in the year preceding the study. Noise annoyance was associated with anxiolytic drug use, OR = 1.41 (95% CI: 1.02–1.95), but not with sedative or antidepressant use. There was suggestive association between modelled noise at levels higher than 60 dB and anxiolytic or antidepressant use. In respondents whose bedroom windows faced the street, modelled noise was definitively associated with antidepressant use. Noise sensitivity did not modify the effect of noise but was associated with an increased use of psychotropic medication. Conclusion We observed suggestive associations between high levels of road-traffic noise and psychotropic medication use. Noise sensitivity was associated with psychotropic medication use.
(Eco)toxicological maps: A new risk assessment method integrating traditional and in silico tools and its application in the Ledra River (Italy) Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-05 Giuseppa Raitano, Daniele Goi, Valentina Pieri, Alice Passoni, Michele Mattiussi, Anna Lutman, Isabella Romeo, Alberto Manganaro, Marco Marzo, Nicola Porta, Diego Baderna, Andrea Colombo, Eleonora Aneggi, Fabrizio Natolino, Marco Lodi, Renzo Bagnati, Emilio Benfenati
Contaminants giving rise to emerging concern like pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) have been detected in wastewaters, as reported in the literature, but little is known about their (eco)toxicological effects and consequent human health impact. The present study aimed at overcoming this lack of information through the use of in silico methods integrated with traditional toxicological risk analysis. This is part of a pilot project involving the management of wastewater treatment plants in the Ledra River basin (Italy). We obtained data to work up a global risk assessment method combining the evaluations of health risks to humans and ecological receptors from chemical contaminants found in this specific area. The (eco)toxicological risk is expressed by a single numerical value, permitting the comparison of different sampling sites and the evaluation of future environmental and technical interventions.
Short- and long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and circulating biomarkers of inflammation in non-smokers: A hospital-based cohort study in South Korea Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-05 Hyewon Lee, Woojae Myung, Byeong-Ho Jeong, Hong Choi, Byung Woo Jhun, Ho Kim
Despite increasing epidemiological evidence of an association between air pollution and adverse health outcomes, the detailed mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of air pollution on medical conditions remain unclear. We evaluated the effects of short- and long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on key inflammatory markers in non-smoking subjects. Serum fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and white blood cell counts were repeatedly measured 3 times in 6589 subjects at the Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, South Korea) between 2010 and 2016. Both short- (≤8-day averages) and long-term (annual averages) exposure measures of 6 air pollutants (particles < 2.5 μm, particles < 10 μm, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and carbon monoxide) were estimated for each subject based on available residential addresses. Linear mixed-effects models were used to relate interquartile range increases in pollutant concentrations to inflammatory marker levels. Short-term exposure to air pollution was associated with increased fibrinogen and ferritin levels. Long-term exposure to air pollution was associated with increased fibrinogen levels and white blood cell counts. The largest short- and long-term associations were observed for ferritin in response to nitrogen dioxide exposure (1.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3–2.5) and fibrinogen exposed to particles < 2.5 μm (3.4%, 95% CI 3.0–3.8), respectively. Significantly higher associations were observed among subjects with elevated levels of inflammatory markers (upper 25th percentile), including C-reactive protein, and those with cardiac infarction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebral infarction, or diabetes. We found clear associations between short- and long-term exposure to air pollution and inflammatory markers, especially among vulnerable subgroups. Our findings provide evidence in support of the hypothesis that air pollution increases systemic inflammation, particularly among susceptible subgroups.
Multi-generational impacts of arsenic exposure on genome-wide DNA methylation and the implications for arsenic-induced skin lesions Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-05 Xiaojuan Guo, Xushen Chen, Jie Wang, Zhiyue Liu, Daniel Gaile, Hongmei Wu, Guan Yu, Guangyun Mao, Zuopeng Yang, Zhen Di, Xiuqing Guo, Li Cao, Peiye Chang, Binxian Kang, Jinyu Chen, Wen Gao, Xuefeng Ren
As a nonmutagenic human carcinogen, arsenic (As)'s carcinogenic activity is likely the result of epigenetic changes, particularly alterations in DNA methylation. While increasing studies indicate a potentially important role for timing of As exposure on DNA methylation patterns and the subsequent differential risks for As toxicity and carcinogenesis, there is a lack of research that tackles these critical questions, particularly in human based populations. Here we reported a family-based study including three generations, in which each generation living in the same household had a distinctive timing of As exposure: in adulthood, in utero and during early childhood, and in germlines exposure for grandparents, parents, and grandchildren, respectively. We generated genome-wide DNA methylation data for 18 As-exposed families, nine control families, as well as 18 arsenical skin lesion patients. Our analysis showed that As exposure may leave detectable DNA methylation changes even though exposure occurred decades ago, and the most significant changes of global DNA methylation were observed among patients afflicted with arsenical skin lesions. As exposure across generations shared common differentially methylated DNA loci and regions (744 DML and 15 DMRs) despite the distinctive exposure timing in each generation. Importantly, based on these DML, clustering analysis grouped skin lesion patients together with grandparents in exposed families in the same cluster, separated from grandparents in control families. Further analysis identified a number of DML and several molecular pathways that were significantly distinguished between controls, exposed populations, as well as skin lesion patients. Finally, our exploratory analysis suggested that some of these DML altered by As exposure, may have the potential to be inherited affecting not only those directly exposed but also later generations. Together, our results suggest that common DML and/or DMRs associated with an increased risk for disease development could be identified regardless of when exposure to As occurred during their life span, and thus may be able to serve as biomarkers for identifying individuals at risk for As-induced skin lesions and possible cancers.
A nested case-control study of the association between exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-04 Xin Liu, Lei Zhang, Jingguang Li, Guimin Meng, Min Chi, Tiantian Li, Yunfeng Zhao, Yongning Wu
Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is rapidly increasing worldwide. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) is thought to be a contributor to GDM, independent of diet and physical activity. Objective The prospective association between PBDEs body burden in early pregnancy and GDM risk was investigated. Methods A nested case-control study of 439 pregnant women was conducted between 2013 and 2015 in Beijing, China. Seven predominant PBDE congeners were measured in first trimester maternal serum by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Pregnant women were screened for GDM at 24–28 weeks of gestation using the oral glucose tolerance test. GDM was defined based on the diagnostic criteria set by China Ministry of Health. Conditional logistic and linear regression were used to estimate the association between PBDEs exposure and GDM risk, and PBDEs exposure and glucose level, respectively. Results A total of 77 (17.5%) women developed GDM in this study. Median concentrations of PBDEs were higher in women with GDM. Analyses parameterizing PBDE concentrations as continuous variables suggested significant associations between BDE-153, -154, -183 and GDM risk with an estimated odds ratio of 4.04 (95%CI: 1.92, 8.52), 1.88 (95%CI: 1.15, 3.09) and 1.91 (95%CI: 1.31, 2.08), respectively. In the quartile analyses, a significant increase in the odds ratio of GDM was associated with the highest levels of BDE-153 (OR = 3.42 95%CI: 1.49, 7.89) and BDE-183 (OR = 3.70, 95%CI: 1.58, 8.65), whereas, BDE-154 demonstrated an inverted U-shaped association with GDM. In addition, BDE-153 and -154 were significantly positively associated with fasting glucose, and both 1 h and 2 h glucose level (p < 0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that exposure to PBDEs disturbs maternal glucose homeostasis and increases the risk of GDM. These findings should be replicated in future studies with a larger population and wider range of exposure.
Childhood perfluoroalkyl substance exposure and executive function in children at 8 years Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-04 Ann M. Vuong, Kimberly Yolton, Zhiyang Wang, Changchun Xie, Glenys M. Webster, Xiaoyun Ye, Antonia M. Calafat, Joseph M. Braun, Kim N. Dietrich, Bruce P. Lanphear, Aimin Chen
Background Toxicological studies highlight the potential neurotoxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) during fetal development. However, few epidemiological studies have examined the impact of childhood PFAS on neurodevelopment. Methods We employed data from 208 children in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a birth cohort (Cincinnati, OH), to examine associations of six serum PFAS concentrations measured at 3 and 8 years with executive function assessed at 8 years using the validated parent-completed Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function survey. We used multiple informant models to identify susceptible windows of neurotoxicity to PFAS and executive function. We investigated trajectories of PFAS concentrations and whether sex modified these associations. Results Each ln-increase in perfluorononanoate (PFNA) at 8 years was associated with a 3.4-point increase (95% CI 0.4, 6.3) in metacognition score, indicating poorer function. Children with PFNA above the median at 8 years had poorer global executive functioning compared to children with concentrations consistently below median levels (β = 6.5, 95% CI 0.2, 12.9). Higher concurrent PFNA was associated with poorer behavior regulation among males, while associations among females were null (pPFNA×sex = 0.018). Children with higher concurrent perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) had increased odds of being at risk of having clinical impairments in metacognition (OR = 3.18, 95% CI 1.17, 8.60). There were no associations between perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorohexane sulfonate and executive function. Conclusions PFNA and PFOA at 8 years, but not 3 years, may be related to poorer executive function at 8 years. Results need to be confirmed in cohort studies with larger sample sizes.
Environmental phenols and parabens in adipose tissue from hospitalized adults in Southern Spain Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-04 F. Artacho-Cordón, M.F. Fernández, H. Frederiksen, L.M. Iribarne-Durán, I. Jiménez-Díaz, F. Vela-Soria, A.M. Andersson, P. Martin-Olmedo, F.M. Peinado, N. Olea, J.P. Arrebola
Urinary concentrations of non-persistent environmental pollutants (npEPs) are widely assessed in biomonitoring studies under the assumption that they are metabolised and eliminated in urine. However, some of these chemicals are moderately lipophilic, and their presence in other biological matrices should also be evaluated to estimate mid/long-term exposure to npEPs and its impact on human health. The present study aims to explore concentrations and potential determinants of npEPs in adipose tissue from a hospital-based adult cohort (GraMo cohort, Southern Spain). Concentrations of bisphenol-A (BPA), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), triclosan (TCS), three chlorophenols (2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP and 2,4,5-TCP) and two phenylphenols (2-PP and 4-PP), triclocarban (TCCB) and parabens [methyl- (MeP), ethyl- (EtP), propyl- (n-PrP and i-PrP), butyl- (n-BuP and i-BuP) and benzyl-paraben (BzP)] were analysed in adipose tissue samples from a subcohort of 144 participants. Spearman correlation tests were performed, followed by stepwise multivariable linear regression analyses to assess determinants of the exposure. Detection frequencies and median concentrations were: BPA (86.8%, 0.54 ng/g tissue), BP-3 (79.2%, 0.60 ng/g tissue), TCS (45.8%,
Cardiovascular function and ozone exposure: The Multicenter Ozone Study in oldEr Subjects (MOSES) Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-04 David Q. Rich, John R. Balmes, Mark W. Frampton, Wojciech Zareba, Paul Stark, Mehrdad Arjomandi, Milan J. Hazucha, Maria G. Costantini, Peter Ganz, Danielle Hollenbeck-Pringle, Nicholas Dagincourt, Philip A. Bromberg
Background To date, there have been relatively few studies of acute cardiovascular responses to controlled ozone inhalation, although a number of observational studies have reported significant positive associations between both ambient ozone levels and acute cardiovascular events and long-term ozone exposure and cardiovascular mortality. Objectives We hypothesized that short-term controlled exposure to low levels of ozone in filtered air would induce autonomic imbalance, repolarization abnormalities, arrhythmia, and vascular dysfunction. Methods This randomized crossover study of 87 healthy volunteers 55–70 years of age was conducted at three sites using a common protocol, from June 2012 to April 2015. Subjects were exposed for 3 h in random order to 0 ppb (filtered air), 70 ppb ozone, and 120 ppb ozone, alternating 15 min of moderate exercise with 15 min of rest. A suite of cardiovascular endpoints was measured the day before, the day of, and up to 22 h after each exposure. Mixed effect linear and logit models evaluated the impact of exposure to ozone on pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes. Site and time were included in the models. Results We found no significant effects of ozone exposure on any of the primary or secondary measures of autonomic function, repolarization, ST segment change, arrhythmia, or vascular function (systolic blood pressure and flow-mediated dilation). Conclusions In this multicenter study of older healthy women and men, there was no convincing evidence for acute effects of 3-h, relatively low-level ozone exposures on cardiovascular function. However, we cannot exclude the possibility of effects with higher ozone concentrations, more prolonged exposure, or in subjects with underlying cardiovascular disease. Further, we cannot exclude the possibility that exposure to ambient ozone and other pollutants in the days before the experimental exposures obscured or blunted cardiovascular biomarker response to the controlled ozone exposures.
Fine particulate matter constituents and stress hormones in the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-27 Yue Niu, Renjie Chen, Yongjie Xia, Jing Cai, Zhekang Ying, Zhijing Lin, Cong Liu, Chen Chen, Li Peng, Zhuohui Zhao, Wenhao Zhou, Jianmin Chen, Dongfang Wang, Juntao Huo, Xinning Wang, Qingyan Fu, Haidong Kan
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has recently been associated with the activation of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, increasing cardiometabolic risks. However, it is unknown which constituents of PM2.5 were mainly responsible for these associations. In a longitudinal panel study with 4 repeated measurements among 43 college students in Shanghai, China, we measured serum levels of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol, as indicators of HPA axis activation. Then, we evaluated the associations of 22 constituents of PM2.5 with these stress hormones using linear mixed-effect models. During the study period, the average daily concentration of PM2.5 was 41.1 μg/m3. We found that short-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with elevated levels of the 3 stress hormones. We observed that water-soluble inorganic ions, especially nitrate (NO3−) and ammonium, had stronger influences on 3 hormones. Six metallic elements, including Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, Br, and Cr, had positive but generally instable associations with 3 hormones. The effects of organic carbon and elemental carbon on hormones were generally weak. When correcting for multiple comparisons using false discovery rate, NO3− was still significantly associated with CRH, but other important associations turned to be insignificant. An interquartile range increase in NO3− on the previous day were associated with 12.13% increase (95% confidence interval: 4.45%, 20.37%) in CRH. Our findings suggested that water-soluble inorganic constituents of PM2.5 (especially, NO3−) might have stronger influences on the activation of HPA axis than carbonaceous and elemental components.
Determinants of plasma concentrations of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in pregnant women from a birth cohort in Shanghai, China Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-27 Youping Tian, Yan Zhou, Maohua Miao, Ziliang Wang, Wei Yuan, Xiao Liu, Xin Wang, Zhikai Wang, Sheng Wen, Hong Liang
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widely used in commercial applications and have been commonly detected in pregnant women in Europe and North America. However, data on PFAS concentrations in pregnant women in China are limited. Additionally, the determinants of maternal PFAS concentrations with respect to diet habits have been less extensively described, especially in Asian countries. In the present study, we aimed to measure PFAS concentrations in pregnant women and evaluate sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors as potential determinants of PFAS concentrations. We analyzed eleven PFASs in maternal blood samples (N = 981) collected at 12–16 weeks of gestation between April and December 2012 at Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Minhang District in Shanghai, China. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine the associations of PFAS concentrations with maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Eight PFASs, including perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA), were detected in >85% of the samples. PFOA and PFOS were the predominant PFASs with high median concentrations (19.97 ng/mL and 10.81 ng/mL, respectively). Pregnant women who were older, multiparous, well educated, passive smokers, with lower per capita household incomes, and had lived in rooms decorated within the past two years had higher PFAS concentrations, after mutual adjustment for maternal sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyles. With regard to dietary factors, intake of red meat, poultry, animal offal, fish, pastries and fried food, and drinking tap water during pregnancy contributed to higher concentrations of most PFASs, after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyles. Furthermore, higher intake of wheat, coarse cereals, tubers, and soy products was associated with lower maternal PFAS concentrations. Our findings indicate that PFASs were ubiquitous among pregnant women in Shanghai. We provide new evidence for the association between dietary factors and maternal PFAS exposure in China.
Modeling spatial distribution of population for environmental epidemiological studies: Comparing the exposure estimates using choropleth versus dasymetric mapping Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-26 Weeberb J. Requia, Petros Koutrakis, Altaf Arain
Precise population information is critical for identifying more accurate environmental exposures for air pollution impacts analysis. Basically, there are two methods for estimating spatial distribution of population, choropleth and dasymetric mapping. While the choropleth approach accounts for linear distribution of population over area based on census tract units, the dasymetric model accounts for a more heterogeneous population density by quantifying the association between the area-class map data categories and values of the statistical surface as encoded in the census dataset. Environmental epidemiological studies have indicated the dasymetric mapping as a more accurate approach to estimate and characterize population densities in large urban areas. However, investigations that have attempted to compare the exposure estimates from choropleth versus dasymetric mapping in environmental health analysis are still missing. This paper addresses this gap and compares the impact of using choropleth and dasymetric mapping in different exposure metrics. We compare the impact of using choropleth and dasymetric mapping in three case studies, defined here as case study A (relationship between urban structure types and health), case study B (PM2.5 emissions and human exposure), and case study C (distance-decays of mortality risk related to PM2.5 emitted by traffic along major highways). These case studies represent previous investigations performed by our research group where spatial distribution of population was an essential input for analysis. Our findings indicate that the method used to estimate spatial distribution of population impacts significantly the exposure estimates. We observed that the choropleth mapping overestimated exposure for the case study A and B, while for the case study C the exposure was underestimated by the choropleth approach. Our findings show that the dasymetric model is a preferred method for creating spatially-explicit information about population distribution for health exposure studies. The results presented here can be useful for the environmental health community to more accurately assess the relationship between environmental factors and health risks.
In vitro assessment of pyrethroid bioaccessibility via particle ingestion Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-26 Jie Wang, Kunde Lin, Allison Taylor, Jay Gan
Estimating household air pollution exposures and health impacts from space heating in rural China Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-27 Yilin Chen, Huizhong Shen, Kirk R. Smith, Dabo Guan, Yuanchen Chen, Guofeng Shen, Junfeng Liu, Hefa Cheng, Eddy Y. Zeng, Shu Tao
Exposure to and the related burden of diseases caused by pollution from solid fuel cooking, known as household air pollution (HAP), has been incorporated in the assessment of the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) project. In contrast, HAP from space heating using solid fuels, prevalent in countries at middle or high altitudes, is less studied and missing from the GBD assessment. China is an ideal example to estimate the bias of exposure and burden of diseases assessment when space heating is neglected, considering its remarkably changing demands for heating from the north to the south and a large solid-fuel-dependent rural population. In this study, based on a meta-analysis of 27 field measurement studies in rural China, we derive the indoor PM2.5 (fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm) concentration for both the heating and non-heating seasons. Combining this dataset with time-activity patterns and percentage of households using solid fuels, we assess the population-weighted annual mean exposure to PM2.5 (PWE) and the health impacts associated with HAP in mainland rural China by county for the year 2010. We find that ignoring heating impacts leads to an underestimation in PWE estimates by 38 μg/m3 for the nationwide rural population (16 to 40 as interquartile range) with substantial negative bias in northern provinces. Correspondingly, premature deaths and disability-adjusted life years will be underestimated by approximately 30 × 103 and 60 × 104 in 2010, respectively. Our study poses the need for incorporating heating effects into HAP risk assessments in China as well as globally.
Transport mode choice and body mass index: Cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence from a European-wide study Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-24 Evi Dons, David Rojas-Rueda, Esther Anaya-Boig, Ione Avila-Palencia, Christian Brand, Tom Cole-Hunter, Audrey de Nazelle, Ulf Eriksson, Mailin Gaupp-Berghausen, Regine Gerike, Sonja Kahlmeier, Michelle Laeremans, Natalie Mueller, Tim Nawrot, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Juan Pablo Orjuela, Francesca Racioppi, Elisabeth Raser, Thomas Götschi
Background In the fight against rising overweight and obesity levels, and unhealthy urban environments, the renaissance of active mobility (cycling and walking as a transport mode) is encouraging. Transport mode has been shown to be associated to body mass index (BMI), yet there is limited longitudinal evidence demonstrating causality. We aimed to associate transport mode and BMI cross-sectionally, but also prospectively in the first ever European-wide longitudinal study on transport and health. Methods Data were from the PASTA project that recruited adults in seven European cities (Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Oerebro, Rome, Vienna, Zurich) to complete a series of questionnaires on travel behavior, physical activity levels, and BMI. To assess the association between transport mode and BMI as well as change in BMI we performed crude and adjusted linear mixed-effects modeling for cross-sectional (n = 7380) and longitudinal (n = 2316) data, respectively. Results Cross-sectionally, BMI was 0.027 kg/m2 (95%CI 0.015 to 0.040) higher per additional day of car use per month. Inversely, BMI was −0.010 kg/m2 (95%CI −0.020 to −0.0002) lower per additional day of cycling per month. Changes in BMI were smaller in the longitudinal within-person assessment, however still statistically significant. BMI decreased in occasional (less than once per week) and non-cyclists who increased cycling (−0.303 kg/m2, 95%CI −0.530 to −0.077), while frequent (at least once per week) cyclists who stopped cycling increased their BMI (0.417 kg/m2, 95%CI 0.033 to 0.802). Conclusions Our analyses showed that people lower their BMI when starting or increasing cycling, demonstrating the health benefits of active mobility.
Urinary levels of pyrethroid pesticides and determinants in pregnant French women from the Elfe cohort Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-23 Clémentine Dereumeaux, Abdesattar Saoudi, Sarah Goria, Vérène Wagner, Perrine De Crouy-Chanel, Marie Pecheux, Bénédicte Berat, Cécile Zaros, Laurence Guldner
Pyrethroids are insecticides which are widely used for agricultural and domestic purposes. The general population can be exposed to them. Given the suspected effects of pesticides on the development of the foetus, exposure to pyrethroids during pregnancy is a major public health concern. The objective of this paper is to describe the urinary levels of the following five pyrethroid metabolites and their associated determinants among pregnant French women in 2011 enrolled in the Elfe cohort (n = 1077): a) 3-phenoxy benzoic (3-PBA), b) 4‑fluoro‑3‑phenoxy benzoic acid (4-F-3-PBA), c) Cis‑3‑(2,2dibromovinyl)‑2,2‑dimethyl cyclopropane-carboxylic acid (Cis-DBCA); d) Cis‑3‑(2,2dichlorovinyl)‑2,2‑dimethyl cyclopropane-carboxylic acid (Cis-DCCA) and e) Trans-3‑(2,2dichlorovinyl)‑2,2‑dimethyl cyclopropane-carboxylic acid (Trans-DCCA). The distribution levels were estimated for each pyrethroid metabolite. Multivariable analyses helped determine the predictors of these levels. All metabolites except 4-F-3-PBA were detected in all the urine samples. The mean urinary concentration of the sum of the metabolites (3-PBA, Cis-DBCA, Cis-DCCA, Trans-DCCA) was 1.18 μg/L, with the highest concentrations observed for 3-PBA. A comparison of these levels with other studies showed that pregnant French women tend to be more exposed to pyrethroids than their American counterparts, less exposed than Chinese and Caribbean mothers, and have similar exposure to Japanese mothers. In our study, urinary levels of pyrethroid metabolites were positively related to smoking during pregnancy, consuming fish and alcohol, domestic pesticide use and living in the vicinity of crops during pregnancy. These findings highlight the importance of non-dietary pathways when evaluating exposure to pyrethroids.
Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and predisposition to frustration at 7 months: Results from the MIREC study Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-22 Youssef Oulhote, Émilie Tremblay, Tye E. Arbuckle, William D. Fraser, Jean-Pascal Lemelin, Jean R. Séguin, Emmanuel Ouellet, Nadine Forget-Dubois, Pierre Ayotte, Michel Boivin, Ginette Dionne, Bruce P. Lanphear, Gina Muckle
Background Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has been associated with cognitive deficits and behavioral problems in children. To date, no study has examined this exposure in association with neurobehavioral development in infants younger than 12 months assessed with observational tasks. Objectives This study examined the relation between prenatal PBDE concentrations and predisposition to frustration, assessed by the arm restraint task (ART), in Canadian infants. Methods In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in Canada, exposure to nine PBDE congeners was measured in maternal plasma during the first trimester of pregnancy. The ART was used to measure predisposition to frustration in infancy (N = 333; mean age = 6.9 months), as assessed by negative vocalizations (crying and screaming) and physical reactivity (discomfort movements). Results Maternal plasma PBDE-47 concentrations collected during pregnancy were associated with negative vocalizations using the ART (adjusted Relative Risk [aRR] = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.09). Prenatal PBDE-99 concentrations during pregnancy were also related to a shift to the left in the tail of the distribution of onset of negative vocalizations as measured by a decrease of 38 s (95% CI: −78.1, 1.3) in the 75th quantile of the distribution for infants whose mothers had detectable levels of PBDE-99 compared to infants of mothers with undetectable levels. Similarly, infants whose mothers had detectable levels of PBDE-100 showed an increase of 24.1 s (95% CI: 4.1, 44.1) in the 75th quantile of the distribution of proportion of time in negative vocalizations compared with infants of mothers with undetectable levels. Finally, the association between PBDE-47 and PBDE-153, and physical reactivity was significantly modified by sex (p < 0.1), with opposite patterns in girls and boys. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to PBDEs was associated with increased incidence of crying and screaming with delayed onset of discomfort movement, which may indicate a predisposition to frustration and lack of habituation in infants younger than 12 months from the general population.
Deriving predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for emerging contaminants in the river Po, Italy, using three approaches: Assessment factor, species sensitivity distribution and AQUATOX ecosystem modelling Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Andrea Gredelj, Alberto Barausse, Laura Grechi, Luca Palmeri
Endocrine disruptors in the diet of male Sparus aurata: Modulation of the endocannabinoid system at the hepatic and central level by Di-isononyl phthalate and Bisphenol A Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-19 Isabel Forner-Piquer, Constantinos C. Mylonas, Josep Calduch-Giner, Francesca Maradonna, Giorgia Gioacchini, Marco Allarà, Fabiana Piscitelli, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez, Oliana Carnevali
The increasing manufacture of plastics and their mismanagement has turned plastic into a ubiquitous waste in the marine environment. Among all the substances conforming the plastic items, the effects of a dietary Bisphenol A (BPA) and Di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) have been evaluated in adult male gilthead sea bream, focusing on their effects in the modulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS). In zebrafish, the ECS has been recently chosen as a new target for the activity of some Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDC), since it represents a complex lipid signaling network essential for the well-being of the organisms. The results obtained in gilthead seabream showed that BPA and DiNP altered the structure and the biochemical composition of liver, increasing the presence of lipids and triglycerides and decreasing the glycogen and phospholipids. Moreover, the addition of BPA or DiNP in the gilthead sea bream diet altered the levels of endocannabinoids (EC) and EC-like mediators in the liver. These alterations were also associated to changes at the transcriptomic level of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and ECS metabolism. At the central level, both BPA and DiNP reduced the expression of the endocannabinoid receptor type I (cnr1) and the neuropeptide Y (npy) as well as the levels of the endocannabinoid Anandamide (AEA), suggesting a downregulation of appetite. The results herein reported highlighted the negative effects of chronic dietary exposure to DiNP or BPA on ECS functions and lipid metabolism of male gilthead sea bream liver, showing a similar disruptive activity of these contaminants at metabolic level. Moreover, the novelty of the biomarkers used evidenced possible innovative endpoints for the development of novel OEDCS test guidelines.
Mitochondrial DNA content in blood and carbon load in airway macrophages. A panel study in elderly subjects Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-19 Yang Bai, Lidia Casas, Hans Scheers, Bram G. Janssen, Benoit Nemery, Tim S. Nawrot
Background Mitochondria are sensitive to air pollutants due to their lack of repair capacity. Changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) or content is a proxy of mitochondrial damage and has been associated with recent exposure to traffic-derived air pollutants, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and black carbon (BC). Inhaled BC can be phagocytosed by airway macrophages (AMs), and its amount in AM reflects personal exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Objectives The present study investigated the relation between the internal marker AM BC and ambient NO2 concentration and examined the associations of mtDNAcn with NO2 and AM BC. Methods A panel of 20 healthy retired participants (10 couples) living in Belgium underwent repeated assessments of health and air pollution exposure at 11 time points over one year. We increased exposure contrast temporarily by moving participants for 10 days to Milan, Italy (high exposure) and to Vindeln, Sweden (low exposure). Personal exposure to NO2 was measured during 5 consecutive days prior to each assessment time point. The amount of BC was assessed by image analysis in AMs retrieved from induced sputum collected at 7 time points. Blood mtDNAcn was determined by qPCR at each time point. Associations between AM BC and NO2, and of mtDNAcn with NO2 and AM BC were estimated using linear mixed effect models adjusted for covariates and potential confounders. Results Mean concentrations of 5-day average NO2 were higher in Milan (64 μg/m3) and lower in Vindeln (4 μg/m3) than Belgium (26 μg/m3). Each 10 μg/m3 increment in NO2 exposure during the last 5 days was associated with 0.07 μm2 (95% CI: 0.001 to 0.012) increase in median area of AM BC. A 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 was associated with 3.9% (95% CI: 2.2 to 5.5%) decrease in mtDNAcn. Consistently, each 1 μm2 increment in median area of AM BC was associated with 24.8% (95% CI: 6.8 to 39.3%) decrease in mtDNAcn. Conclusion In this quasi-experimental setting involving moving persons to places with high and low ambient air pollution, we found changes in AM BC according to ambient air pollution levels measured during the previous 5 days. Both higher ambient NO2 and the internal lung BC load, paralleled mitochondrial compromises as exemplified by lower mtDNA content.
Serum polyfluoroalkyl chemicals are associated with risk of cardiovascular diseases in national US population Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-19 Mengmeng Huang, Jingjing Jiao, Pan Zhuang, Xinyu Chen, Jun Wang, Yu Zhang
Biomarkers of exposure to SVOCs in children and their demographic associations: The TESIE Study Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-18 Kate Hoffman, Stephanie C. Hammel, Allison L. Phillips, Amelia M. Lorenzo, Albert Chen, Antonia M. Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Thomas F. Webster, Heather M. Stapleton
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are used extensively in consumer and personal care products; electronics; furniture; and building materials and are detected in most indoor environments. As a result, human exposure to mixtures of SVOCs is wide-spread. However, very few studies have measured biomarkers of exposure to multiple SVOC classes, and exposure determinants have not been thoroughly explored, particularly for young children. In this study, we investigated biomarkers of exposure to SVOCs among children (age 3–6 years), who may experience higher exposures and be more susceptible to adverse health outcomes than other age groups. We enrolled 203 participants in the Toddlers Exposure to SVOCs in Indoor Environments (TESIE) study (181 provided urine samples and 90 provided serum samples).We quantified 44 biomarkers of exposure to phthalates, organophosphate esters (OPEs), parabens, phenols, antibacterial agents and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs); we detected 29 of the 44 biomarkers in >95% of samples, and many biomarkers were detected at higher median concentrations than those previously reported in the U.S. general population. Demographic characteristics were associated with differences in concentrations. In general, non-Hispanic white race and higher maternal education were associated with lower concentrations, even after adjusting for other potential confounding variables. Our results suggest that outdoor temperature at the time of biospecimen collection may be a particularly important and under-evaluated predictor of biomarker concentrations; statistically significant relationships were observed between 10 biomarkers and outdoor temperature at the time of collection. A complex correlation structure was also observed among the biomarkers assessed. By and large, statistically significant correlations between biomarkers of exposure to phthalates, parabens, phenols, and OPEs were positive. Conversely, although PFASs were positively correlated with one another, they tended to be negatively correlated with other biomarkers where significant associations were observed. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the assessments of SVOC-associated health impacts should focus on chemical mixtures.
Isolated hypospadias: The impact of prenatal exposure to pesticides, as determined by meconium analysis Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-18 Elodie Haraux, Pierre Tourneux, Christelle Kouakam, Erwan Stephan-Blanchard, Bernard Boudailliez, Andre Leke, Celine Klein, Karen Chardon
Although endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs, including pesticides) are thought to increase the risk of hypospadias, no compounds have been formally identified in this context. Human studies may now be possible via the assessment of meconium as a marker of chronic prenatal exposure. The objective of the present study was to determine whether or not prenatal exposure to pesticides (as detected in meconium) constitutes a risk factor for isolated hypospadias. In a case-control study performed between 2011 and 2014 in northern France, male newborns with isolated hypospadias (n = 25) were matched at birth with controls (n = 58). Newborns with obvious genetic or hormonal anomalies, undescended testis, micropenis, a congenital syndrome or a family history of hypospadias were not included. Neonatal and parental data were collected. Foetal exposure was assessed by determining the meconium concentrations of the pesticides or metabolites (organophosphates, carbamates, phenylurea, and phenoxyherbicides) most commonly used in the region. Risk factors were assessed in a multivariate analysis. The pesticides most commonly detected in meconium were organophosphates (in up to 98.6% of samples, depending on the substance) and phenylurea (>85.5%). A multivariate analysis revealed an association between isolated hypospadias and the presence in meconium of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon and of the phenoxyherbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 5.94 [1.03–34.11] and 4.75 [1.20–18.76]) respectively). We conclude that prenatal exposure to these two herbicides (as assessed by meconium analysis) was correlated with the occurrence of isolated hypospadias. The results of our case-control study (i) suggest that prenatal exposure to pesticides interferes with the development of the male genitalia, and (ii) emphasize the importance of preventing pregnant women from being exposed to EDCs in general and pesticides in particular.
WHO/ILO work-related burden of disease and injury: Protocol for systematic reviews of exposure to long working hours and of the effect of exposure to long working hours on stroke Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-10 Alexis Descatha, Grace Sembajwe, Michael Baer, Fabio Boccuni, Cristina Di Tecco, Clément Duret, Bradley A. Evanoff, Diana Gagliardi, Ivan D. Ivanov, Nancy Leppink, Alessandro Marinaccio, Linda L. Magnusson Hanson, Anna Ozguler, Frank Pega, John Pell, Fernando Pico, Annette Prüss-Üstün, Matteo Ronchetti, Sergio Iavicoli
Background The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. In this paper, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from stroke attributable to exposure to long working hours, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology. Objectives We aim to systematically review studies on occupational exposure to long working hours (called Systematic Review 1 in the protocol) and systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of long working hours on stroke (called Systematic Review 2), applying the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology as an organizing framework, conducting both systematic reviews in tandem and in a harmonized way. Data sources Separately for Systematic Reviews 1 and 2, we will search electronic academic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, CISDOC and PsychINFO. We will also search electronic grey literature databases, Internet search engines and organizational websites; hand-search reference list of previous systematic reviews and included study records; and consult additional experts. Study eligibility and criteria We will include working-age (≥15 years) workers in the formal and informal economy in any WHO and/or ILO Member State, but exclude children (<15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. For Systematic Review 1, we will include quantitative prevalence studies of relevant levels of occupational exposure to long working hours (i.e. 35–40, 41–48, 49–54 and ≥55 h/week) stratified by country, sex, age and industrial sector or occupation, in the years 2005–2018. For Systematic Review 2, we will include randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other non-randomized intervention studies with an estimate of the relative effect of a relevant level of long working hours on the incidence of or mortality due to stroke, compared with the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (i.e. 35–40 h/week). Study appraisal and synthesis methods At least two review authors will independently screen titles and abstracts against the eligibility criteria at a first stage and full texts of potentially eligible records at a second stage, followed by extraction of data from qualifying studies. At least two review authors will assess risk of bias and the quality of evidence, using the most suited tools currently available. For Systematic Review 2, if feasible, we will combine relative risks using meta-analysis. We will report results using the guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (GATHER) for Systematic Review 1 and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines (PRISMA) for Systematic Review 2. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017060124.
Avian influenza virus ecology and evolution through a climatic lens Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-04 Cory W. Morin, Benjamin Stoner-Duncan, Kevin Winker, Matthew Scotch, Jeremy J. Hess, John S. Meschke, Kristie L. Ebi, Peter M. Rabinowitz
Avian influenza virus (AIV) is a major health threat to both avian and human populations. The ecology of the virus is driven by numerous factors, including climate and avian migration patterns, yet relatively little is known about these drivers. Long-distance transport of the virus is tied to inter- and intra-continental bird migration, while enhanced viral reassortment is linked to breeding habitats in Beringia shared by migrant species from North America and Asia. Furthermore, water temperature, pH, salinity, and co-existing biota all impact the viability and persistence of the virus in the environment. Changes in climate can potentially alter the ecology of AIV through multiple pathways. Warming temperatures can change the timing and patterns of bird migration, creating novel assemblages of species and new opportunities for viral transport and reassortment. Water temperature and chemistry may also be altered, resulting in changes in virus survival. In this review, we explain how these shifts have the potential to increase viral persistence, pathogenicity, and transmissibility and amplify the threat of pandemic disease in animal and human hosts. Better understanding of climatic influences on viral ecology is essential to developing strategies to limit adverse health effects in humans and animals.
Synthesizing water quality indicators from standardized geospatial information to remedy water security challenges: A review Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-07-04 Vincent de Paul Obade, Richard Moore
Water is vital not only for food, energy and sanitation but also for ecosystem functioning, human health, socio-economic progress and poverty reduction. Water security exists when all people have physical and economical access to sufficient, safe, and clean water that meets basic needs. However, water security is threatened by growing human population, episodic environmental disasters, indiscriminate land management practices, contaminants, and escalation in geopolitical conflicts. <3% of the estimated 1.4 billion cubic kilometers of water on earth is available for consumption. Although there exist a range of laboratory and field methods for measuring the chemical, physical and biological properties of water, the information available to the public remains inconsistent and patchy. To this end, we advance a new theory of a single-value objective water quality index (WQI) that considers the interaction between the above properties, to provide concise information for source water quality surveillance and monitoring. Although geospatial technologies such as remote sensing is credited as a high frequency spatiotemporal mapping tool, exiguous information is available on its application for constructing single-value WQIs. Besides, no remote sensing device exists that directly measures water quality, which must indirectly be inferred through modeling sensed remote sensing signals with measured water properties. This review not only highlights the water security conundrum but also provides an overview of methods for integrating geolocated qualitative (e.g., management data) with quantitative (i.e., measured water constituent properties) into a WQI.
WHO/ILO work-related burden of disease and injury: Protocol for systematic reviews of occupational exposure to dusts and/or fibres and of the effect of occupational exposure to dusts and/or fibres on pneumoconiosis Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-27 Daniele Mandrioli, Vivi Schlünssen, Balázs Ádám, Robert A. Cohen, Claudio Colosio, Weihong Chen, Axel Fischer, Lode Godderis, Thomas Göen, Ivan D. Ivanov, Nancy Leppink, Stefan Mandic-Rajcevic, Federica Masci, Ben Nemery, Frank Pega, Annette Prüss-Üstün, Daria Sgargi, Yuka Ujita, Paul T.J. Scheepers
Background The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. In this paper, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years attributable to pneumoconiosis from occupational exposure to dusts and/or fibres, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology. Objectives We aim to systematically review studies on occupational exposure to dusts and/or fibres (Systematic Review 1) and systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of occupational exposure to dusts and/or fibres on pneumoconiosis (Systematic Review 2), applying the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology as an organizing framework. Data sources Separately for Systematic Reviews 1 and 2, we will search electronic academic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science and CISDOC. We will also search electronic grey literature databases, Internet search engines and organizational websites; hand-search reference list of previous systematic reviews and included study records; and consult additional experts. Study eligibility and criteria We will include working-age (≥15 years) study participants in the formal and informal economy in any WHO and/or ILO Member State but exclude children (<15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. Eligible risk factors will be dusts and/or fibres from: (i) asbestos; (ii) silica; and/or (iii) coal (defined as pure coal dust and/or dust from coal mining). Included outcomes will be (i) asbestosis; (ii) silicosis; (iii) coal worker pneumoconiosis; and (iv) unspecified pneumoconiosis. For Systematic Review 1, we will include quantitative prevalence studies of occupational exposure to dusts and/or fibres (i.e. no versus any exposure) stratified by country, sex, age and industrial sector or occupation. For Systematic Review 2, we will include randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other non-randomized intervention studies with an estimate of any occupational exposure to dusts and/or fibres on the prevalence of, incidence of or mortality due to pneumoconiosis, compared with the theoretical minimum risk exposure level of no exposure. Study appraisal and synthesis methods At least two review authors will independently screen titles and abstracts against the eligibility criteria at a first stage and full texts of potentially eligible records at a second stage, followed by extraction of data from qualifying studies. At least two review authors will assess risk of bias and the quality of evidence, using the most suited tools currently available. For Systematic Review 2, if feasible, we will combine relative risks using meta-analysis. We will report results using the guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (GATHER) for Systematic Review 1 and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines (PRISMA) for Systematic Review 2. PROSPERO registration number CRD42018084131.
The impact of environmental contamination on the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species – Consequences for plants and humans Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-26 Joanna Drzeżdżon, Dagmara Jacewicz, Lech Chmurzyński
Environmental contaminants, such as heavy metals, nanomaterials, and pesticides, induce the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). Plants interact closely with the atmosphere, water, and soil, and consequently RONS intensely affect their biochemistry. For the past 30 years researchers have thoroughly examined the role of RONS in plant organisms and oxidative modifications to cellular components. Hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, nitrogen(II) oxide, and hydroxyl radicals have been found to take part in many metabolic pathways. In this review the various aspects of the oxidative stress induced by environmental contamination are described based on an analysis of literature. The review reinforces the contention that RONS play a dual role, that is, both a deleterious and a beneficial one, in plants. Environmental contamination affects human health, also, and so we have additionally described the impact of RONS on the coupled human – environment system.
Nanoparticle-plant interaction: Implications in energy, environment, and agriculture Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-14 Prabhat Kumar Rai, Vanish Kumar, SangSoo Lee, Nadeem Raza, Ki-Hyun Kim, Yong Sik Ok, Daniel C.W. Tsang
In the recent techno-scientific revolution, nanotechnology has gained popularity at a rapid pace in different sectors and disciplines, specifically environmental, sensing, bioenergy, and agricultural systems. Controlled, easy, economical, and safe synthesis of nanomaterials is desired for the development of new-age nanotechnology. In general, nanomaterial synthesis techniques, such as chemical synthesis, are not completely safe or environmentally friendly due to harmful chemicals used or to toxic by-products produced. Moreover, a few nanomaterials are present as by-product during washing process, which may accumulate in water, air, and soil system to pose serious threats to plants, animals, and microbes. In contrast, using plants for nanomaterial (especially nanoparticle) synthesis has proven to be environmentally safe and economical. The role of plants as a source of nanoparticles is also likely to expand the number of options for sustainable green renewable energy, especially in biorefineries. Despite several advantages of nanotechnology, the nano-revolution has aroused concerns in terms of the fate of nanoparticles in the environment because of the potential health impacts caused by nanotoxicity upon their release. In the present panoramic review, we discuss the possibility that a multitudinous array of nanoparticles may find applications convergent with human welfare based on the synthesis of diverse nanoparticles from plants and their extracts. The significance of plant–nanoparticle interactions has been elucidated further for nanoparticle synthesis, applications of nanoparticles, and the disadvantages of using plants for synthesizing nanoparticles. Finally, we discuss future prospects of plant–nanoparticle interactions in relation to the environment, energy, and agriculture with implications in nanotechnology.
Threshold effects of moderately excessive fluoride exposure on children's health: A potential association between dental fluorosis and loss of excellent intelligence Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-02 Xingchen Yu, Jingwen Chen, Yonggang Li, Hongliang Liu, Changchun Hou, Qiang Zeng, Yushan Cui, Liang Zhao, Pei Li, Ziquan Zhou, Shuo Pang, Sha Tang, Kunming Tian, Qian Zhao, Lixin Dong, Chunyan Xu, Xiao Zhang, Shun Zhang, Aiguo Wang
Background Excessive fluoride exposure is associated with adverse health outcomes, but little is known of the effects of moderately chronic fluoride exposure on children's health. Objectives We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the health impact of moderately excessive fluoride in drinking water. Methods We recruited 2886 resident children, aged 7 to 13 years, randomly from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas in Tianjin, China. The fluoride levels in drinking water and urine were measured using the national standardized ion selective electrode method. We examined the dose-response effects of low-to-moderate fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis (DF) and intelligence quotient (IQ), and evaluated the potential relationships between DF grades and intelligence levels using piecewise linear regression and multiple logistic regression, respectively. Results The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of DF were 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.02 to 2.48) for every 0.1 mg/L increment in the water fluoride concentration in the range of 0.80 to 1.50 mg/L, and 2.61 (95% CI: 2.32 to 2.93) for every 0.5 mg/L increment in the urinary fluoride level up to 1.80 mg/L. Every 0.5 mg/L increment in the water fluoride level was associated with a reduction of 4.29 in the IQ score (95% CI: −8.09 to −0.48) in the range of 3.40 to 3.90 mg/L, and a decreased probability of developing excellent intelligence (IQ ≥ 130, OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.77) in the range of 0.20–1.40 mg/L, respectively. Every 0.5 mg/L increment in the urinary fluoride level was related to a decrease of 2.67 in the IQ scores (95% CI: −4.67 to −0.68) between 1.60 mg/L to 2.50 mg/L. Excellent intelligence decreased by 51% in children with higher urinary fluoride, and by 30% with each degree increment of DF. Conclusions Our study suggests threshold and saturation effects of moderately excessive fluoride exposure on DF and intelligence loss in children, and a potential association between DF and the loss of excellent intelligence.
Pregnancy exposure to atmospheric pollution and meteorological conditions and placental DNA methylation Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-21 Emilie Abraham, Sophie Rousseaux, Lydiane Agier, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Jörg Tost, Julien Galineau, Agnès Hulin, Valérie Siroux, Daniel Vaiman, Marie-Aline Charles, Barbara Heude, Anne Forhan, Joel Schwartz, Florent Chuffart, Ekaterina Bourova-Flin, Saadi Khochbin, Rémy Slama, Johanna Lepeule,
Background Air pollution exposure represents a major health threat to the developing foetus. DNA methylation is one of the most well-known molecular determinants of the epigenetic status of cells. Blood DNA methylation has been proven sensitive to air pollutants, but the molecular impact of air pollution on new-borns has so far received little attention. Objectives We investigated whether nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM10), temperature and humidity during pregnancy are associated with differences in placental DNA methylation levels. Methods Whole-genome DNA-methylation was measured using the Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in the placenta of 668 newborns from the EDEN cohort. We designed an original strategy using a priori biological information to focus on candidate genes with a specific expression pattern in placenta (active or silent) combined with an agnostic epigenome-wide association study (EWAS). We used robust linear regression to identify CpGs and differentially methylated regions (DMR) associated with each exposure during short- and long-term time-windows. Results The candidate genes approach identified nine CpGs mapping to 9 genes associated with prenatal NO2 and PM10 exposure [false discovery rate (FDR) p < 0.05]. Among these, the methylation level of 2 CpGs located in ADORA2B remained significantly associated with NO2 exposure during the 2nd trimester and whole pregnancy in the EWAS (FDR p < 0.05). EWAS further revealed associations between the environmental exposures under study and variations of DNA methylation of 4 other CpGs. We further identified 27 DMRs significantly (FDR p < 0.05) associated with air pollutants exposure and 13 DMRs with meteorological conditions. Conclusions The methylation of ADORA2B, a gene whose expression was previously associated with hypoxia and pre-eclampsia, was consistently found here sensitive to atmospheric pollutants. In addition, air pollutants were associated to DMRs pointing towards genes previously implicated in preeclampsia, hypertensive and metabolic disorders. These findings demonstrate that air pollutants exposure at levels commonly experienced in the European population are associated with placental gene methylation and provide some mechanistic insight into some of the reported effects of air pollutants on preeclampsia.
Quantification and feed to food transfer of total and inorganic arsenic from a commercial seaweed feed Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Michéal Mac Monagail, Enda Cummins, Ricardo Bermejo, Eve Daly, Declan Costello, Liam Morrison
A cross-sectional study of water arsenic exposure and intellectual function in adolescence in Araihazar, Bangladesh Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Gail A. Wasserman, Xinhua Liu, Faruque Parvez, Yu Chen, Pam Factor-Litvak, Nancy J. LoIacono, Diane Levy, Hasan Shahriar, Mohammed Nasir Uddin, Tariqul Islam, Angela Lomax, Roheeni Saxena, Elizabeth A. Gibson, Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Olgica Balac, Tiffany Sanchez, Jennie K. Kline, David Santiago, Joseph H. Graziano
Background Exposure to inorganic arsenic (As) from drinking water is associated with modest deficits in intellectual function in young children; it is unclear whether deficits occur during adolescence, when key brain functions are more fully developed. Objectives We sought to determine the degree to which As exposure is associated with adolescent intelligence, and the contributory roles of lead, cadmium, manganese and selenium. Methods We recruited a cross-section of 726 14–16 year olds (mean age = 14.8 years) whose mothers are participants in the Bangladesh Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), and whose household well water As levels, which varied widely, were well characterized. Using a culturally modified version of the WISC-IV, we examined raw Full Scale scores, and Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory and Processing Speed Indices. Blood levels of As (BAs), Mn, Pb, Cd and Se were assessed at the time of the visit, as was creatinine-adjusted urinary As (UAs/Cr). Results Linear regression analyses revealed that BAs was significantly negatively associated with all WISC-IV scores except for Perceptual Reasoning. With UAs/Cr as the exposure variable, we observed significantly negative associations for all WISC-IV scores. Except for Se, blood levels of other metals, were also associated with lower WISC-IV scores. Controlling for covariates, doubling BAs, or UAs/Cr, was associated with a mean decrement (95% CI) of 3.3 (1.1, 5.5), or 3.0 (1.2, 4.5) points, respectively, in raw Full scale scores with a sample mean of 177.6 (SD = 36.8). Confirmatory analyses using Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression, which identifies important mixture members, supported these findings; the primary contributor of the mixture was BAs, followed by BCd. Conclusions Our data indicate that the adverse consequences of As exposure on neurodevelopment observed in other cross-sectional studies of younger children are also apparent during adolescence. They also implicate Cd as a neurotoxic element that deserves more attention.
Toxicological risk assessment and prioritization of drinking water relevant contaminants of emerging concern Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-14 Kirsten A. Baken, Rosa M.A. Sjerps, Merijn Schriks, Annemarie P. van Wezel
Incident thyroid disease in female spouses of private pesticide applicators Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-13 Srishti Shrestha, Christine G. Parks, Whitney S. Goldner, Freya Kamel, David M. Umbach, Mary H. Ward, Catherine C. Lerro, Stella Koutros, Jonathan N. Hofmann, Laura E. Beane Freeman, Dale P. Sandler
Background Little is known about modifiable risk factors for thyroid disease. Several pesticides have been implicated in thyroid disruption, but clinical implications are not clear. Objective We assessed associations between pesticide use and other farm exposures and incident hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in female spouses of farmers in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Methods We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for risk of thyroid disease in 24,092 spouses who completed at least one follow-up questionnaire. Results We identified 1627 hypothyroid and 531 hyperthyroid cases over 20 years of follow-up. The fungicides benomyl, maneb/mancozeb, and metalaxyl, the herbicide pendimethalin, and among those over 60 years of age the insecticides parathion and permethrin (applied to crops) were associated with elevated hypothyroidism risk, with HR ranging from 1.56–2.44. Conversely, the insecticide phorate, and the herbicides imazethapyr and metolachlor were associated with decreased risk (HR ranging 0.63–0.73), as were long-term farm residence and other farm-related activities (HR ranging 0.69–0.84). For hyperthyroidism, the insecticide diazinon, the fungicides maneb/mancozeb, and the herbicide metolachlor were associated with increased risk (HR ranging 1.35–2.01) and the herbicide trifluralin with decreased risk (HR: 0.57). Conclusions Several individual pesticides were associated with increased risk of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, although some pesticides were associated with decreased risk. Some of the findings, specifically associations with fungicides, are consistent with results from an earlier analysis of prevalent diseases in AHS spouses.
Does the biological treatment or membrane separation reduce the antibiotic resistance genes from swine wastewater through a sequencing-batch membrane bioreactor treatment process Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-12 Qianwen Sui, Chao Jiang, Junya Zhang, Dawei Yu, Meixue Chen, Yawei Wang, Yuansong Wei
Environmental determinants of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure at home, at kindergartens and during a commute Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-14 Mohammad Miri, Ahmad Alahabadi, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush, Hamid Reza Ghaffari, Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi, Mahboube Eskandari, Abolfazl Rad, Mohammad Hassan Lotfi, Mohammad Hassan Sheikhha
The aim of this study was to assess the potential health risk of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at home and kindergarten for pre-school children. The urine samples were taken from 200 pre-school children aged 5–7 years and analyzed for 1-OHP as a biomarker of PAHs. Mixed effect models were applied to investigate the association between effective environmental parameters (mode of transport, distance to major roads, traffic density, greenness, tobacco exposure, home ventilation, and grill foods) and urinary 1-OHP levels. A Monte-Carlo simulation technique was applied to calculate the risk of exposure to PAHs and to check the uncertainty of input variables and the sensitivity of the estimated risk. The median and inter quartile range (IQR) of 1-OHP was 257 (188.5) ng L−1. There was a positive significant association between distance from the kindergartens to the green space with surface area ≥5000 m2 and 1-OHP concentration (β = 0.844, 95% CI: 0.223, 1.46, P-value = 0.009). Also, urinary 1-OHP was found to be inversely associated with the time the window was open at the home (β = −12.56, 95% CI: −23.52, −1.596, P-value = 0.025) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in a 100 m buffer around the homes. The mean (9.76 E-3) and 95th percentile (3.28 E-2) of the hazard quotient (HQ) indicated that the concentration of urinary 1-OHP is at a safe level for the target population (HQ < 1). According to the sensitivity analysis results, the concentration of 1-OHP is the most influential variable in the estimated risk. Our findings indicated that the proximity of homes and kindergartens to green space areas and their remoteness from the main streets and heavy traffic areas are associated with reduced exposure to PAHs.
Non-antibiotic antimicrobial triclosan induces multiple antibiotic resistance through genetic mutation Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-11 Ji Lu, Min Jin, Son Hoang Nguyen, Likai Mao, Jie Li, Lachlan J.M. Coin, Zhiguo Yuan, Jianhua Guo
Aggregate consumer exposure to isothiazolinones via household care and personal care products: Probabilistic modelling and benzisothiazolinone risk assessment Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-14 Elena Garcia-Hidalgo, Dovilé Schneider, Natalie von Goetz, Christiaan Delmaar, Michael Siegrist, Konrad Hungerbühler
Consumers regularly use household care and personal care products (HC&PCPs). Isothiazolinones are included in HC&PCPs as preservatives and are being held responsible for an epidemic rise in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The objective of this study was to assess the origin and extent of dermal exposure in order to evaluate the risk of ACD from isothiazolinones in HC&PCP. Individual-based aggregate dermal exposure to four isothiazolinones was estimated using the newly proposed Probabilistic Aggregated Consumer Exposure Model–Kinetic, Dermal (PACEM-KD) by combining the reported individual use patterns for HC&PCP in Switzerland (N = 669 (558 adults), ages 0–91) with isothiazolinone concentrations measured in products used by the individual person. PACEM-KD extends the original PACEM by considering exposure duration, product dilution and skin permeability. PACEM-KD-based higher-tier exposure on palms (99th percentile) was 15.4 ng/cm2, 1.3 ng/cm2, 0.9 ng/cm2, and 0.08 ng/cm2 for the isothiazolinones 1,2‑Benzisothiazol‑3‑(2H)‑one (BIT), 2‑Octyl‑3(2H)‑isothiazolinone (OIT), 2‑Methylisothiazolin‑3(2H)‑one (MI), and 5‑Chloro‑2‑methyl‑4‑isothiazolin‑3‑one (CMI), respectively. Major sources of exposure to BIT included all-purpose cleaners, dishwashing detergent, and kitchen cleaner, while exposure to OIT mainly stems from a fungicide. For MI, the main contributors were dishwashing detergent and all-purpose wet wipes, and for CMI all-purpose cleaner. A Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for BIT using Sensitization Assessment Factors (SAFs) indicates that around 1% of the Swiss population is at risk to be sensitized by BIT in cosmetics and household chemicals. For isothiazolinones in general the presented higher-tier modelling approach suggests that household cleaners are currently more important sources of exposure than cosmetics.
Health impact assessment of a skin sensitizer: Analysis of potential policy measures aimed at reducing geraniol concentrations in personal care products and household cleaning products Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-08 W.P. Jongeneel, J.E. Delmaar, B.G.H. Bokkers
A methodology to assess the health impact of skin sensitizers is introduced, which consists of the comparison of the probabilistic aggregated exposure with a probabilistic (individual) human sensitization or elicitation induction dose. The health impact of potential policy measures aimed at reducing the concentration of a fragrance allergen, geraniol, in consumer products is analysed in a simulated population derived from multiple product use surveys. Our analysis shows that current dermal exposure to geraniol from personal care and household cleaning products lead to new cases of contact allergy and induce clinical symptoms for those already sensitized. We estimate that this exposure results yearly in 34 new cases of geraniol contact allergy per million consumers in Western and Northern Europe, mainly due to exposure to household cleaning products. About twice as many consumers (60 per million) are projected to suffer from clinical symptoms due to re-exposure to geraniol. Policy measures restricting geraniol concentrations to <0.01% will noticeably reduce new cases of sensitization and decrease the number of people with clinical symptoms as well as the frequency of occurrence of these clinical symptoms. The estimated numbers should be interpreted with caution and provide only a rough indication of the health impact.
The impact on air quality of energy saving measures in the major cities signatories of the Covenant of Mayors initiative Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-14 Fabio Monforti-Ferrario, Albana Kona, Emanuela Peduzzi, Denise Pernigotti, Enrico Pisoni
This study is a first attempt to evaluate how the major efforts made by several European cities in the frame of the Covenant of Mayors (CoM) initiative can impact the air pollution levels in the participating cities. CoM is by no mean one of the major cities initiatives aimed at mitigating climate change, supporting local authorities in the implementation of their climate action plans. Energy savings measures reported in the CoM cities' action plans have been analysed from the air quality perspective in order to find quantitative relations in the way local authorities deal with mitigation and how these practices are expected to have consequences on the air quality at urban level and finally positively impacting the citizens' health. In the paper, the air quality 2713 energy saving measures proposed by 146 cities located in 23 countries in the frame of the CoM are selected and their co-benefits for air quality and public health estimated by means of SHERPA, a fast modelling tool that mimics the behaviour of a full physically-based Chemical Transport Model. Besides evaluating the overall benefits of this subset of mitigation measures for the air quality, the study also investigates the relevance of some factors such as the implementation sector, the city size and the pollution levels in achieving the highest possible co-benefits. The results presented refer to the special field covered by the study, i.e. energy saving measures and are not automatically referable to other types of measures. Nevertheless, they clearly show how climate mitigation and air quality policies are deeply interconnected at the urban level.
Maternal ambient heat exposure during early pregnancy in summer and spring and congenital heart defects – A large US population-based, case-control study Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-08 Shao Lin, Ziqiang Lin, Yanqiu Ou, Aida Soim, Srishti Shrestha, Yi Lu, Scott Sheridan, Thomas J. Luben, Edward Fitzgerald, Erin Bell, Gary M. Shaw, Jennita Reefhuis, Peter H. Langlois, Paul Romitti, Marcia L. Feldkamp, Sadia Malik, Cristian Pantea, Seema Nayak, Marilyn Browne
Background/objective Few studies have assessed the effect of ambient heat during the fetal development period on congenital heart defects (CHDs), especially in transitional seasons. We examined and compared the associations between extreme heat and CHD phenotypes in summer and spring, assessed their geographical differences, and compared different heat indicators. Methods We identified 5848 CHD cases and 5742 controls (without major structural defects) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a US multicenter, population-based case-control study. Extreme heat events (EHEs) were defined by using the 95th (EHE95) or 90th (EHE90) percentile of daily maximum temperature and its frequency and duration during postconceptional weeks 3–8. We used a two-stage Bayesian hierarchical model to examine both regional and study-wide associations. Exposure odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analyses, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Results Overall, we observed no significant relationships between maternal EHE exposure and CHDs in most regions during summer. However, we found that 3–11 days of EHE90 during summer and spring was significantly associated with ventricular septal defects (VSDs) study-wide (ORs ranged: 2.17–3.24). EHE95 in spring was significantly associated with conotruncal defects and VSDs in the South (ORs: 1.23–1.78). Most EHE indicators in spring were significantly associated with increased septal defects (both VSDs and atrial septal defects (ASDs)) in the Northeast. Conclusion While generally null results were found, long duration of unseasonable heat was associated with the increased risks for VSDs and ASDs, mainly in South and Northeast of the US. Further research to confirm our findings is needed.
Association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity in children Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-07 Parinaz Poursafa, Payam Dadvand, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Yaghoub Hajizadeh, Karim Ebrahimpour, Marjan Mansourian, Hamidreza Pourzamani, Jordi Sunyer, Roya Kelishadi
A limited body of evidence exists on the association of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity in children. No study has evaluated these associations in subgroups of children with and without excess weight, and those with and without cardiometabolic risk factors. We aimed to investigate the association between PAH exposure and cardiometabolic risk factors in children independent of their weight status. The secondary aim was to evaluate the obesogen properties of PAHs in children independent of their cardiometabolic risk factors. This study was based on a representative sample of 186 children (aged 6–18 years) living in Isfahan, Iran (2014–2016). We enrolled four groups of participants with and without excess weight and with and without cardiometabolic risk factor. Urinary levels of monohydroxy PAHs (OH-PAHs) were measured twice, six months apart. Logistic regression models were developed to estimate the associations of tertiles of urinary OH-PAH concentrations with cardiometabolic risk factors and excess weight, adjusted for the relevant covariates. The findings in all participants combined showed that increased risk of cardiometabolic risk factors and excess weight was associated with exposure to most of evaluated PAHs. Exposure to 1-hydroxypyrene was associated with higher risk of cardiometabolic risk factors in participants with excess weight. Exposure to 2-Naphtol was also associated with higher risk of cardiometabolic risk factors in both groups, but the associations were not significant (p < 0.1). For participants without cardiometabolic risk factors, exposure to 2-naphtol, 9-phenanthrol, and ∑ OH-PAH was associated with increased risk of obesity. For participants with cardiometabolic risk factors, we observed similar pattern of associations for 2-naphtol and ∑ OH-PAH, but the associations were not statistically significant (p < 0.1). We found that exposure to PAHs could possibly explain, in part, the cardiometabolic risk factors in children with excess weight as well as obesity in children with normal cardiometabolic profile.
Estimation of personal PM2.5 and BC exposure by a modeling approach – Results of a panel study in Shanghai, China Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-06 Chen Chen, Jing Cai, Cuicui Wang, Jingjin Shi, Renjie Chen, Changyuan Yang, Huichu Li, Zhijing Lin, Xia Meng, Ang Zhao, Cong Liu, Yue Niu, Yongjie Xia, Li Peng, Zhuohui Zhao, Steven Chillrud, Beizhan Yan, Haidong Kan
Background Epidemiologic studies of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) and black carbon (BC) typically use ambient measurements as exposure proxies given that individual measurement is infeasible among large populations. Failure to account for variation in exposure will bias epidemiologic study results. The ability of ambient measurement as a proxy of exposure in regions with heavy pollution is untested. Objective We aimed to investigate effects of potential determinants and to estimate PM2.5 and BC exposure by a modeling approach. Methods We collected 417 24 h personal PM2.5 and 130 72 h personal BC measurements from a panel of 36 nonsmoking college students in Shanghai, China. Each participant underwent 4 rounds of three consecutive 24-h sampling sessions through December 2014 to July 2015. We applied backwards regression to construct mixed effect models incorporating all accessible variables of ambient pollution, climate and time-location information for exposure prediction. All models were evaluated by marginal R2 and root mean square error (RMSE) from a leave-one-out-cross-validation (LOOCV) and a 10-fold cross-validation (10-fold CV). Results Personal PM2.5 was 47.6% lower than ambient level, with mean (±Standard Deviation, SD) level of 39.9 (±32.1) μg/m3; whereas personal BC (6.1 (±2.8) μg/m3) was about one-fold higher than the corresponding ambient concentrations. Ambient levels were the most significant determinants of PM2.5 and BC exposure. Meteorological and season indicators were also important predictors. Our final models predicted 75% of the variance in 24 h personal PM2.5 and 72 h personal BC. LOOCV analysis showed an R2 (RMSE) of 0.73 (0.40) for PM2.5 and 0.66 (0.27) for BC. Ten-fold CV analysis showed a R2 (RMSE) of 0.73 (0.41) for PM2.5 and 0.68 (0.26) for BC. Conclusion We used readily accessible data and established intuitive models that can predict PM2.5 and BC exposure. This modeling approach can be a feasible solution for PM exposure estimation in epidemiological studies.
Bacterial lineages putatively associated with the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in a full-scale urban wastewater treatment plant Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-05 Carlos Narciso-da-Rocha, Jaqueline Rocha, Ivone Vaz-Moreira, Felipe Lira, Javier Tamames, Isabel Henriques, José Luis Martinez, Célia M. Manaia
Immunologic, reproductive, and carcinogenic risk assessment from POP exposure in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) during 1983–2013 Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-05 Rune Dietz, Jean-Pierre Desforges, Kim Gustavson, Frank F. Rigét, Erik W. Born, Robert J. Letcher, Christian Sonne
Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are among the world's highest trophic level marine predators and as such have some of the highest tissue concentrations of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) among Arctic biota. In this paper we present the results of a three decade (1983–2013) risk assessment of OHC exposure and effects on reproduction, immunity, and cancer (genotoxicity) in polar bears from Central East Greenland. Risk of adverse effects are evaluated using a risk quotient (RQ) approach with derivation from measured OHC concentrations in polar bear tissue and critical body residues (CBR) extrapolated for polar bears using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling (PBPK). The additive RQs for all OHCs in polar bears were above the threshold for all effect categories (RQ > 1) in every year, suggesting this population has been at significant and continuous risk of contaminant-mediated effects for over three decades. RQs peaked in 1983 (RQ > 58) and again in 2013 (RQ > 50) after a period of decline. These trends follow ΣPCB levels during that time, and contributed almost all of the risk to immune, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects (71–99% of total RQ). The recent spike in RQs suggests a major shift in polar bear contaminant exposure from climate related changes in food composition and hereby the increased risk of adverse health effects. In the context of lifetime exposure ΣPCB and PFOS levels showed the interactive importance of year of birth, age, and emission history. In conclusion, the results indicate that East Greenland polar bears have been exposed to OHC levels over the period of 1983–2013 that potentially and continuously affected individual and theoretically also population health, with a peaking risk in the more recent years.
Toward a panoramic perspective of the association between environmental factors and cardiovascular disease: An environment-wide association study from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2014 Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-04 Xiaodong Zhuang, Yue Guo, Ao Ni, Daya Yang, Lizhen Liao, Shaozhao Zhang, Huimin Zhou, Xiuting Sun, Lichun Wang, Xueqin Wang, Xinxue Liao
Objectives An environment-wide association study (EWAS) may be useful to comprehensively test and validate associations between environmental factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in an unbiased manner. Approach and results Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2014) were randomly 50:50 spilt into training set and testing set. CVD was ascertained by a self-reported diagnosis of myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease or stroke. We performed multiple linear regression analyses associating 203 environmental factors and 132 clinical phenotypes with CVD in training set (false discovery rate < 5%) and significant factors were validated in the testing set (P < 0.05). Random forest (RF) model was used for multicollinearity elimination and variable importance ranking. Discriminative power of factors for CVD was calculated by area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC). Overall, 43,568 participants with 4084 (9.4%) CVD were included. After adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, blood pressure and socio-economic level, we identified 5 environmental variables and 19 clinical phenotypes associated with CVD in training and testing dataset. Top five factors in RF importance ranking were: waist, glucose, uric acid, and red cell distribution width and glycated hemoglobin. AUROC of the RF model was 0.816 (top 5 factors) and 0.819 (full model). Sensitivity analyses reveal no specific moderators of the associations. Conclusion Our systematic evaluation provides new knowledge on the complex array of environmental correlates of CVD. These identified correlates may serve as a complementary approach to CVD risk assessment. Our findings need to be probed in further observational and interventional studies.
Ultrafine particles in domestic environments: Regional doses deposited in the human respiratory system Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-02 Maurizio Manigrasso, Matteo Vitali, Carmela Protano, Pasquale Avino
Based on aerosol measurements carried out in a test room, particle regional respiratory doses have been estimated for both combustion and non-combustion aerosol sources currently encountered in domestic environments. The general population chronically receives doses that, pooled together, are well above those due to urban outdoor pollution. At the end of each source operation, from 75% to 99% and from 27% to 93% of these doses are due to ultrafine particle, respectively on particle number and surface area metrics. Depending on the source, the pattern of exposure may be, for very short time laps, very intense (up to 8.0 × 109 particles s−1) and involve a fraction of particles with mode at about 10 nm. For appliance operated by brush electric motors, this mode is the major one and is due to the generation of copper nanoparticles. The health relevance of such particles deserves particular attention due to their possible translocation to the brain and in the light of the associations between copper ions and Alzheimer's disease, proposed by several studies.
Wild corvid birds colonized with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium of human origin harbor epidemic vanA plasmids Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-02 Veronika Oravcová, Luísa Peixe, Teresa M. Coque, Carla Novais, Maria V. Francia, Ivan Literák, Ana R. Freitas
Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of CuO nanoparticles in sea urchin spermatozoa through oxidative stress Environ. Int. (IF 7.297) Pub Date : 2018-06-28 Alessandra Gallo, Loredana Manfra, Raffaele Boni, Alice Rotini, Luciana Migliore, Elisabetta Tosti
Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are extensively used in various industrial and commercial applications. Despite their wide application may lead to the contamination of marine ecosystem, their potential environmental effects remain to be determined. Toxicity assessment studies have primarily focused on investigating the effects of CuO NPs on fertilization success and embryo development of different sea urchin species while the impact on sperm quality have never been assessed. In this line, this study aims to assess the effects of CuO NPs on the spermatozoa of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. After sperm exposure to CuO NPs, biomarkers of sperm viability, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity as well as morphology were evaluated. Results showed that CuO NPs exposure decreased sperm viability, impaired mitochondrial activity and increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, CuO NPs exposure caused DNA damage and morphological alterations. Together with the antioxidant rescue experiments, these results suggest that oxidative stress is the main driver of CuO NP spermiotoxic effects. The mechanism of toxicity is here proposed: the spontaneous generation of ROS induced by CuO NPs and the disruption of the mitochondrial respiratory chain lead to production of ROS that, in turn, induce lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and result in defective spermatozoa up to induce sperm cytotoxicity. Investigating the effects of CuO NPs on sea urchin spermatozoa, this study provides valuable insights into the mechanism of reproductive toxicity induced by CuO NPs.
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