Socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in exposure to air and noise pollution in London Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Cathryn Tonne, Carles Milà, Daniela Fecht, Mar Alvarez, John Gulliver, James Smith, Sean Beevers, H. Ross Anderson, Frank Kelly
Background Transport-related air and noise pollution, exposures linked to adverse health outcomes, varies within cities potentially resulting in exposure inequalities. Relatively little is known regarding inequalities in personal exposure to air pollution or transport-related noise. Objectives Our objectives were to quantify socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in London in 1) air pollution exposure at residence compared to personal exposure; and 2) transport-related noise at residence from different sources. Methods We used individual-level data from the London Travel Demand Survey (n = 45,079) between 2006 and 2010. We modeled residential (CMAQ-urban) and personal (London Hybrid Exposure Model) particulate matter <2.5 μm and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), road-traffic noise at residence (TRANEX) and identified those within 50 dB noise contours of railways and Heathrow airport. We analyzed relationships between household income, area-level income deprivation and ethnicity with air and noise pollution using quantile and logistic regression. Results We observed inverse patterns in inequalities in air pollution when estimated at residence versus personal exposure with respect to household income (categorical, 8 groups). Compared to the lowest income group (<£10,000), the highest group (>£75,000) had lower residential NO2 (−1.3 (95% CI −2.1, −0.6) μg/m3 in the 95th exposure quantile) but higher personal NO2 exposure (1.9 (95% CI 1.6, 2.3) μg/m3 in the 95th quantile), which was driven largely by transport mode and duration. Inequalities in residential exposure to NO2 with respect to area-level deprivation were larger at lower exposure quantiles (e.g. estimate for NO2 5.1 (95% CI 4.6, 5.5) at quantile 0.15 versus 1.9 (95% CI 1.1, 2.6) at quantile 0.95), reflecting low-deprivation, high residential NO2 areas in the city centre. Air pollution exposure at residence consistently overestimated personal exposure; this overestimation varied with age, household income, and area-level income deprivation. Inequalities in road traffic noise were generally small. In logistic regression models, the odds of living within a 50 dB contour of aircraft noise were highest in individuals with the highest household income, white ethnicity, and with the lowest area-level income deprivation. Odds of living within a 50 dB contour of rail noise were 19% (95% CI 3, 37) higher for black compared to white individuals. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities in air pollution exposure were different for modeled residential versus personal exposure, which has important implications for environmental justice and confounding in epidemiology studies. Exposure misclassification was dependent on several factors related to health, a potential source of bias in epidemiological studies. Quantile regression revealed that socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in air pollution are often not uniform across the exposure distribution.
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling of human lactational transfer of methylmercury in China Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Langbo Ou, Huanhuan Wang, Cen Chen, Long Chen, Wei Zhang, Xuejun Wang
Methylmercury can readily cross the human placental barrier and the blood-brain barrier and cause damage to the vulnerable developing brains of the fetus and infants. Most of the previous studies on the maternal transfer of methylmercury to the next generation have focused on the prenatal period. In this study, human physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of methylmercury were established for breastfeeding mothers and suckling infants based on the existing model prototypes of previous studies. Relevant parameters of the models were modified, and the validation was conducted based on measured data in North China. The models could effectively describe the human lactational transfer of methylmercury, including the time-dependent methylmercury levels in different tissues and organs of the breastfeeding mothers and suckling infants. The results indicated that 77.2% and 14.9% of methylmercury were excreted via hair and breast milk, respectively, from breastfeeding mothers during the first year after delivery. Meanwhile, 79.2% was excreted from the suckling infants during the first year after delivery via hair. Lactational transfer of methylmercury was considered an important pathway of methylmercury exposure for the breastfeeding infants, which accounted for approximately 80% of the accumulated adverse impacts at the early stages of human development.
Indoor black carbon of outdoor origin and oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Stephanie T. Grady, Petros Koutrakis, Jaime E. Hart, Brent A. Coull, Joel Schwartz, Francine Laden, Junfeng (Jim) Zhang, Jicheng Gong, Marilyn L. Moy, Eric Garshick
Objectives We assessed relationships between indoor black carbon (BC) exposure and urinary oxidative stress biomarkers, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA), in participants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Eighty-two participants completed in-home air sampling for one week prior to providing urine samples up to four times in a year. Weekly indoor and daily outdoor concentrations were used to estimate indoor daily lags and moving averages. There were no reported in-home BC sources, thus indoor levels closely represented outdoor BC infiltration. Mixed effects regression models with a random intercept for each participant were used to assess relationships between indoor BC and 8-OHdG and MDA, adjusting for age, race, BMI, diabetes, heart disease, season, time of urine collection, urine creatinine, and outdoor humidity and temperature. Results There were positive effects of BC on 8-OHdG and MDA, with the greatest effect the day before urine collection (6.9% increase; 95% CI 0.9–13.3%, per interquartile range: 0.22 μg/m3) for 8-OHdG and 1 to 4 days before collection (8.3% increase; 95% CI 0.03–17.3% per IQR) for MDA. Results were similar in models adjusting for PM2.5 not associated with BC and NO2 (10.4% increase, 95% CI: 3.5–17.9 for 8-OHdG; 8.1% increase, 95% CI: −1.1–18.1 for MDA). Effects on 8-OHdG were greater in obese participants. Conclusions We found positive associations between BC exposure and 8-OHdG and MDA, in which associations with 8-OHdG were stronger in obese participants. These results suggest that exposure to low levels of traffic-related pollution results in lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage in individuals with COPD.
Maternal polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes are associated with maternal mercury concentrations and early child neurodevelopment in a population with a fish-rich diet Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Karin Wahlberg, Tanzy M. Love, Daniela Pineda, Karin Engström, Gene E. Watson, Sally W. Thurston, Alison J. Yeates, Maria S. Mulhern, Emeir M. McSorley, J.J. Strain, Tristram H. Smith, Philip W. Davidson, Conrad F. Shamlaye, G.J. Myers, Matthew D. Rand, Edwin van Wijngaarden, Karin Broberg
Drivers of contaminant levels in surface water of China during 2000–2030: Relative importance for illustrative home and personal care product chemicals Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Ying Zhu, Oliver R. Price, John Kilgallon, Yi Qi, Shu Tao, Kevin C. Jones, Andrew J. Sweetman
Electro-peroxone pretreatment for enhanced simulated hospital wastewater treatment and antibiotic resistance genes reduction Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 He-Shan Zheng, Wan-Qian Guo, Qu-Li Wu, Nan-Qi Ren, Jo-Shu Chang
Associations of prenatal environmental phenol and phthalate biomarkers with respiratory and allergic diseases among children aged 6 and 7 years Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Jessie P. Buckley, Lesliam Quirós-Alcalá, Susan L. Teitelbaum, Antonia M. Calafat, Mary S. Wolff, Stephanie M. Engel
Background Prenatal environmental phenol and phthalate exposures may alter immune or inflammatory responses leading to respiratory and allergic disease. Objectives We estimated associations of prenatal environmental phenol and phthalate biomarkers with respiratory and allergic outcomes among children in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study. Methods We quantified urinary biomarkers of benzophenone-3, bisphenol A, paradichlorobenzene (as 2,5-dichlorophenol), triclosan, and 10 phthalate metabolites in third trimester maternal samples and assessed asthma, wheeze, and atopic skin conditions via parent questionnaires at ages 6 and 7 years (n = 164 children with 240 observations). We used logistic regression to estimate covariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) per standard deviation difference in natural log biomarker concentrations and examined effect measure modification by child's sex. Results Associations of prenatal 2,5-dichlorophenol (all outcomes) and bisphenol A (asthma outcomes) were modified by child's sex, with increased odds of outcomes among boys but not girls. Among boys, ORs for asthma diagnosis per standard deviation difference in biomarker concentration were 3.00 (95% CI: 1.36, 6.59) for 2,5-dichlorophenol and 3.04 (95% CI: 1.38, 6.68) for bisphenol A. Wheeze in the past 12 months was inversely associated with low molecular weight phthalate metabolites among girls only (OR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.59) and with benzophenone-3 among all children (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.96). Conclusions Prenatal bisphenol A and paradichlorobenzene exposures were associated with pediatric respiratory outcomes among boys. Future studies may shed light on biological mechanisms and potential sexually-dimorphic effects of select phenols and phthalates on respiratory disease development.
Select antibiotics in leachate from closed and active landfills exceed thresholds for antibiotic resistance development Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 S.S. Chung, J.S. Zheng, S.R. Burket, B.W. Brooks
Though antibiotic resistance (ABR) represents a major global health threat, contributions of landfill leachate to the life cycle of antibiotics and ABR development are poorly understood in rapidly urbanizing regions of developing countries. We selected one of the largest active landfills in Asia and two landfills that have been closed for 20 years to examine antibiotic occurrences in leachates and associated hazards during wet and dry season sampling events. We focused on some of the most commonly used human antibiotics in Hong Kong, one of the most populous Asian cities and the fourth most densely populated cities in the world. Seven antibiotics (cephalexin [CLX], chloramphenicol [CAP], ciprofloxacin [CIP], erythromycin [ERY], roxithromycin [ROX], trimethoprim [TMP], sulfamethoxazole [SMX]) were quantitated using HPLC-MS/MS generally following previously reported methods. Whereas CLX, CAP, ROX and SMX in leachates did not exceed ABR predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs), exceedances were observed for CIP, ERY and TMP in some study locations and on some dates. In fact, an ABR PNEC for CIP was exceeded in leachates during both sampling periods from all study locations, including leachates that are directly discharged to coastal systems. These findings highlight the importance of developing an advanced understanding of pharmaceutical access, usage and disposal practices, effectiveness of intervention strategies (e.g., leachate treatment technologies, drug take-back schemes), and contributions of landfill leachates to the life cycle of antibiotics and ABR development, particularly in rapidly urbanizing coastal regions with less advanced waste management systems than Hong Kong.
Neglected environmental health impacts of China's supply-side structural reform Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Wei Zhang, Lei Zhang, Ying Li, Yuling Tian, Xiaoran Li, Xue Zhang, Arthur P.J. Mol, David A. Sonnenfeld, Jianguo Liu, Zeyu Ping, Long Chen
“Supply-side structural reform” (SSSR) has been the most important ongoing economic reform in China since 2015, but its important environmental health effects have not been properly assessed. The present study addresses that gap by focusing on reduction of overcapacity in the coal, steel, and iron sectors, combined with reduction of emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and projecting resultant effects on air quality and public health across cities and regions in China. Modeling results indicate that effects on air quality and public health are visible and distributed unevenly across the country. This assessment provides quantitative evidence supporting projections of the transregional distribution of such effects. Such uneven transregional distribution complicates management of air quality and health risks in China. The results challenge approaches that rely solely on cities to improve air quality. The article concludes with suggestions on how to integrate SSSR measures with cities' air quality improvement attainment planning and management performance evaluation.
Low-mineral direct drinking water in school may retard height growth and increase dental caries in schoolchildren in China Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Yujing Huang, Jia Wang, Yao Tan, Lingqiao Wang, Hui Lin, Lan Lan, Yu Xiong, Wei Huang, Weiqun Shu
Although direct drinking water (DDW) systems that utilize a reverse-osmosis technique are thought to be harmful to children's development by reducing their daily mineral intake, few population data are available regarding this topic. We conducted an eco-epidemiological study to investigate the influence of low-mineral DDW on the development of schoolchildren. We collected developmental parameters of 13,723 girls and 16,161 boys before and after the introduction of DDW systems in 25 schools and measured the mineral levels in the DDW of each school. The DDW in 22 schools had lower-than-recommended levels of magnesium and calcium (magnesium, 10 mg/L and calcium, 20 mg/L, WHO). We found that children exposed to low-mineral DDW exhibited reduced height and diminished height increases as well as higher prevalences and incidences of hypoevolutism and dental caries (p < 0.01). This exposure was a risk factor for a greater incidence of both hypoevolutism and dental caries in children (RR = 7.110 (1.688, 29.953) and 1.813 (1.309, 2.509), respectively; p < 0.01). Our results suggest that low-mineral DDW may retard height growth and promote the incidence of dental caries in schoolchildren; thus, schools should choose DDW treatment systems that retain the minerals in water.
Household incense burning and infant gross motor development: Results from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Chih-Fu Wei, Mei-Huei Chen, Ching-Chun Lin, Yueliang Leon Guo, Shio-Jean Lin, Wu-Shiun Hsieh, Pau-Chung Chen
Background Air pollution from biomass burning were associated with neurodevelopmental deceleration, but limited studies concerned about the effect of indoor biomass burning. Incense burning is a common household ritual practice in Taiwan, while past studies mainly focused on birth weight and allergic disease. Objectives We aimed to find the association between incense burning exposure and children's neurodevelopment. Methods In Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS), a nationwide representative birth cohort study, children were assessed upon home interview with structured questionnaires upon six and eighteen months old. Multivariate logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression adjusting confounding factors were applied to explore the odds ratio (OR) and hazard ratio (HR) between household incense burning exposure and caregiver-reported neurodevelopment milestones. Results In this study, 15,310 term singletons were included, and household incense burning was associated with delay in gross motor neurodevelopment milestone, such as walking with support (Occasional incense burning: OR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08 to 1.47, HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.11; persistent incense burning: OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.69, HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.16) and walking steadily (Occasional incense burning: OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.32, HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.11, persistent incense burning: OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.45, HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13). Conclusions Our study suggested household incense burning exposure was associated with delay in gross motor neurodevelopmental milestones. Further research is warranted to elucidate the possible mechanism and causal relationship.
Elevated biomarkers of sympatho-adrenomedullary activity linked to e-waste air pollutant exposure in preschool children Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Xiaowei Cong, Xijin Xu, Long Xu, Minghui Li, Cheng Xu, Qilin Qin, Xia Huo
Air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cardiovascular regulatory changes in childhood contribute to the development and progression of cardiovascular events at older ages. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air pollutant exposure on the child sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) system, which plays a vital role in regulating and controlling the cardiovascular system. Two plasma biomarkers (plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine) of SAM activity and heart rate were measured in preschool children (n = 228) living in Guiyu, and native (n = 104) and non-native children (n = 91) living in a reference area (Haojiang) for >1 year. Air pollution data, over the 4-months before the health examination, was also collected. Environmental PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 and CO, plasma norepinephrine and heart rate of the e-waste recycling area were significantly higher than for the non-e-waste recycling area. However, there was no difference in plasma norepinephrine and heart rate between native children living in the non-e-waste recycling area and non-native children living in the non-e-waste recycling area. PM2.5, PM10, SO2 and NO2 data, over the 30-day and the 4-month average of pollution before the health examination, showed a positive association with plasma norepinephrine level. PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 and CO concentrations, over the 24 h of the day of the health examination, the 3 previous 24-hour periods before the health examination, and the 24 h after the health examination, were related to increase in heart rate. At the same time, plasma norepinephrine and heart rate on children in the high air pollution level group (≤50-m radius of family-run workshops) were higher than those in the low air pollution level group. Our results suggest that air pollution exposure in e-waste recycling areas could result in an increase in heart rate and plasma norepinephrine, implying e-waste air pollutant exposure impairs the SAM system in children.
Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in early pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Lei Zhang, Xin Liu, Guimin Meng, Min Chi, Jingguang Li, Shuaixing Yin, Yunfeng Zhao, Yongning Wu
Several studies support a plausible association of human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, little is known about the potential link between circulating PCBs levels in early pregnancy and development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Here, we conducted a prospective study with a nested case-control design to determine the association of PCB exposure in early pregnancy with GDM risk. Concentrations of selected so-called ‘indicator PCBs’ were determined in sera of women in the first trimester of pregnancy via gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. Pregnant women were screened for GDM at 24–28 weeks of gestation using the oral glucose test (OGTT). GDM was defined based on the diagnostic criteria set by China Ministry of Health. Conditional logistic and linear regression models were employed to evaluate the association of PCB exposure with GDM risk and OGTT values, respectively. The odds ratios (OR) of PCB-28, PCB-52, and PCB-101 for GDM were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.05–3.27), 1.90 (95% CI: 1.28–2.82) and 1.85 (95% CI: 1.22–2.82), respectively. No statistical association was evident for other PCBs. However, after adjusting for confounders including some PCB congeners, only PCB-52 remained significantly associated with GDM with OR of 1.97 (95% CI: 1.27–3.07). Moreover, PCB-52 was positively associated with all blood glucose values of OGTT (p < 0.05). Our findings collectively suggest that serum levels of specific non-dioxin-like PCBs in early pregnancy disturb the glucose metabolism and increase the risk of GDM.
Phage particles harboring antibiotic resistance genes in fresh-cut vegetables and agricultural soil Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Olatz Larrañaga, Maryury Brown-Jaque, Pablo Quirós, Clara Gómez-Gómez, Anicet R. Blanch, Lorena Rodríguez-Rubio, Maite Muniesa
Characterizing exposure to household air pollution within the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Raphael E. Arku, Aaron Birch, Matthew Shupler, Salim Yusuf, Perry Hystad, Michael Brauer
Background Household air pollution (HAP) from combustion of solid fuels is an important contributor to disease burden in low- and middle-income countries (LIC, and MIC). However, current HAP disease burden estimates are based on integrated exposure response curves that are not currently informed by quantitative HAP studies in LIC and MIC. While there is adequate evidence supporting causal relationships between HAP and respiratory disease, large cohort studies specifically examining relationships between quantitative measures of HAP exposure with cardiovascular disease are lacking. Objective We aim to improve upon exposure proxies based on fuel type, and to reduce exposure misclassification by quantitatively measuring exposure across varying cooking fuel types and conditions in diverse geographies and socioeconomic settings. We leverage technology advancements to estimate household and personal PM2.5 (particles below 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) exposure within the large (N~250,000) multi-country (N~26) Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) cohort study. Here, we detail the study protocol and the innovative methodologies being used to characterize HAP exposures, and their application in epidemiologic analyses. Methods/design This study characterizes HAP PM2.5 exposures for participants in rural communities in ten PURE countries with >10% solid fuel use at baseline (Bangladesh, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, India, Pakistan, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe). PM2.5 monitoring includes 48-h cooking area measurements in 4500 households and simultaneous personal monitoring of male and female pairs from 20% of the selected households. Repeat measurements occur in 20% of households to assess impacts of seasonality. Monitoring began in 2017, and will continue through 2019. The Ultrasonic Personal Aerosol Sampler (UPAS), a novel, robust, and inexpensive filter based monitor that is programmable through a dedicated mobile phone application is used for sampling. Pilot study field evaluation of cooking area measurements indicated high correlation between the UPAS and reference Harvard Impactors (r = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.95; slope = 0.95). To facilitate tracking and to minimize contamination and analytical error, the samplers utilize barcoded filters and filter cartridges that are weighed pre- and post-sampling using a fully automated weighing system. Pump flow and pressure measurements, temperature and RH, GPS coordinates and semi-quantitative continuous particle mass concentrations based on filter differential pressure are uploaded to a central server automatically whenever the mobile phone is connected to the internet, with sampled data automatically screened for quality control parameters. A short survey is administered during the 48-h monitoring period. Post-weighed filters are further analyzed to estimate black carbon concentrations through a semi-automated, rapid, cost-effective image analysis approach. The measured PM2.5 data will then be combined with PURE survey information on household characteristics and behaviours collected at baseline and during follow-up to develop quantitative HAP models for PM2.5 exposures for all rural PURE participants (~50,000) and across different cooking fuel types within the 10 index countries. Both the measured (in the subset) and the modelled exposures will be used in separate longitudinal epidemiologic analyses to assess associations with cardiopulmonary mortality, and disease incidence. Discussion The collected data and resulting characterization of cooking area and personal PM2.5 exposures in multiple rural communities from 10 countries will better inform exposure assessment as well as future epidemiologic analyses assessing the relationships between quantitative estimates of chronic HAP exposure with adult mortality and incident cardiovascular and respiratory disease. This will provide refined and more accurate exposure estimates in global CVD related exposure-response analyses.
Human and animal evidence of potential transgenerational inheritance of health effects: An evidence map and state-of-the-science evaluation Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Vickie R. Walker, Abee L. Boyles, Katherine E. Pelch, Stephanie D. Holmgren, Andrew J. Shapiro, Chad R. Blystone, Michael J. Devito, Retha R. Newbold, Robyn Blain, Pamela Hartman, Kristina A. Thayer, Andrew A. Rooney
Background An increasing number of reports suggest early life exposures result in adverse effects in offspring who were never directly exposed; this phenomenon is termed “transgenerational inheritance.” Given concern for public health implications for potential effects of exposures transmitted to subsequent generations, it is critical to determine how widespread and robust this phenomenon is and to identify the range of exposures and possible outcomes. Objectives This scoping report examines the evidence for transgenerational inheritance associated with exposure to a wide range of stressors in humans and animals to identify areas of consistency, uncertainty, data gaps, and to evaluate general risk of bias issues for the transgenerational study design. Methods A protocol was developed to collect and categorize the literature into a systematic evidence map for transgenerational inheritance by health effects, exposures, and evidence streams following the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) approach for conducting literature-based health assessments. Results A PubMed search yielded 63,758 unique records from which 257 relevant studies were identified and categorized into a systematic evidence map by evidence streams (46 human and 211 animal), broad health effect categories, and exposures. Data extracted from the individual studies are available in the Health Assessment Workspace Collaborative (HAWC) program. There are relatively few bodies of evidence where multiple studies evaluated the same exposure and the same or similar outcomes. Studies evaluated for risk of bias generally had multiple issues in design or conduct. Conclusions The evidence mapping illustrated that risk of bias, few studies, and heterogeneity in exposures and endpoints examined present serious limitations to available bodies of evidence for assessing transgenerational effects. Targeted research is suggested to addressed inconsistencies and risk of bias issues identified, and thereby establish more robust bodies of evidence to critically assess transgenerational effects - particularly by adding data on exposure-outcome pairs where there is some evidence (i.e., reproductive, metabolic, and neurological effects).
Exposure to aflatoxin and fumonisin in children at risk for growth impairment in rural Tanzania Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Chen Chen, Nicole J. Mitchell, Jean Gratz, Eric R. Houpt, Yunyun Gong, Patricia A. Egner, John D. Groopman, Ronald T. Riley, Jency L. Showker, Erling Svensen, Estomih R. Mduma, Crystal L. Patil, Felicia Wu
Growth impairment is a major public health issue for children in Tanzania. The question remains as to whether dietary mycotoxins play a role in compromising children's growth. We examined children's exposures to dietary aflatoxin and fumonisin and potential impacts on growth in 114 children under 36 months of age in Haydom, Tanzania. Plasma samples collected from the children at 24 months of age (N = 60) were analyzed for aflatoxin B1-lysine (AFB1-lys) adducts, and urine samples collected between 24 and 36 months of age (N = 94) were analyzed for urinary fumonisin B1 (UFB1). Anthropometric, socioeconomic, and nutritional parameters were measured and growth parameter z-scores were calculated for each child. Seventy-two percent of the children had detectable levels of AFB1-lys, with a mean level of 5.1 (95% CI: 3.5, 6.6) pg/mg albumin; and 80% had detectable levels of UFB1, with a mean of 1.3 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.8) ng/ml. This cohort had a 75% stunting rate [height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) < −2] for children at 36 months. No associations were found between aflatoxin exposures and growth impairment as measured by stunting, underweight [weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) < −2], or wasting [weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ) < −2]. However, fumonisin exposure was negatively associated with underweight (with non-detectable samples included, p = 0.0285; non-detectable samples excluded, p = 0.005) in this cohort of children. Relatively low aflatoxin exposure at 24 months was not linked with growth impairment, while fumonisin exposure at 24–36 months based on the UFB1 biomarkers may contribute to the high growth impairment rate among children of Haydom, Tanzania; which may be associated with their breast feeding and weaning practices.
Exposure risks to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by humans and livestock (cattle) due to hydrocarbon spill from petroleum products in Niger-delta wetland Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Uzochukwu C. Ugochukwu, Alfred Ochonogor, Chika M. Jidere, Chizoba Agu, Frida Nkoloagu, John Ewoh, Virginia U. Okwu-Delunzu
In this study, the human and livestock (cattle) health risks of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a wetland of Obuaku, Abia State Nigeria contaminated by hydrocarbon spill due to incidents of hydrocarbon theft and pipeline vandalization were assessed. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry were employed in analyzing the TPH and PAHs respectively. The contaminated soil was delineated into sub-locations AOC-1, AOC-2, AOC-3, AOC-4, AOC-5 and AOC-6 to reflect the discrete patches (areas) of the contaminated site and for effective planning of remedial actions. The concentration of the PAHs in AOC-4 was insignificant but was quite significant in AOC-1, AOC-2, AOC-3 and AOC-6. The average percentage distribution of the PAHs in all the sites is 9.8% carcinogenic and 91.2% non-carcinogenic. The ecological risk assessment revealed that only sub-location AOC-4 contains PAH to a level of insignificant biological impairment while sub-locations AOC-1, AOC-2 and AOC-6 contain PAHs that pose the highest ecological risks. The assessment of health risk exposure to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic PAHs indicated insignificant risks for all sub-locations whereas the assessment of health risks using PAH toxicity method indicates that only sub-locations AOC-1, AOC-2 and AOC-6 were toxic. These sub-locations were also found to be of significant health risks to livestock (cattle). Robust empirical models describing the relationships between TPH and any of the risk parameters were generated such that TPH can be used in predicting the risk parameters for spillage peculiar to petroleum products.
An epigenome-wide study of cord blood DNA methylations in relation to prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance exposure: The Hokkaido study Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Ryu Miura, Atsuko Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Sachiko Kobayashi, Shu-Li Wang, Chung-Hsing Chen, Kunio Miyake, Mayumi Ishizuka, Yusuke Iwasaki, Yoichi M. Ito, Takeo Kubota, Reiko Kishi
Background Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) influences fetal development and later in life. Objective To investigate cord blood DNA methylation changes associated with prenatal exposure to PFASs. Methods We assessed DNA methylation in cord blood samples from 190 mother-child pairs from the Sapporo cohort of the Hokkaido Study (discovery cohort) and from 37 mother-child pairs from the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study (replication cohort) using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. We examined the associations between methylation and PFAS levels in maternal serum using robust linear regression models and identified differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and regions (DMRs). Results We found four DMPs with a false discovery rate below 0.05 in the discovery cohort. Among the top 20 DMPs ranked by the lowest P-values for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure, four DMPs showed the same direction of effect and P-value < 0.05 in the replication assay: cg16242615 mapped to ZBTB7A, cg21876869 located in the intergenic region (IGR) of USP2-AS1, cg00173435 mapped to TCP11L2, and cg18901140 located in IGR of NTN1. For DMRs, we found a region associated with PFOA exposure with family-wise error rate < 0.1 located in ZFP57, showing the same direction of effect in the replication cohort. Among the top five DMRs ranked by the lowest P-values that were associated with exposure to PFOS and PFOA, in addition to ZFP57, DMRs in the CYP2E1, SMAD3, SLC17A9, GFPT2, DUSP22, and TCERG1L genes showed the same direction of effect in the replication cohort. Conclusion We suggest that prenatal exposure to PFASs may affect DNA methylation status at birth. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether methylation changes observed are associated with differential health outcomes.
Association between persistent endocrine-disrupting chemicals (PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, PCBs, and PFASs) and biomarkers of inflammation and cellular aging during pregnancy and postpartum Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Ami R. Zota, Ruth J. Geller, Laura E. Romano, Kimberly Coleman-Phox, Nancy E. Adler, Emily Parry, Miaomiao Wang, June-Soo Park, Angelo F. Elmi, Barbara A. Laraia, Elissa S. Epel
Background Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can target immune and metabolic pathways. However, few epidemiologic studies have examined the influence of EDCs on measures of inflammation and cellular aging during pregnancy and postpartum. Objective We investigated associations between prenatal exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDE metabolites (OH-PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and per- and polyfluorochemicals (PFASs) with repeated biomarker measurements of inflammation and cellular aging in women during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Methodology Overweight or obese pregnant women were recruited from the San Francisco Bay area (n = 103) during their first or second trimester of pregnancy. Blood samples were collected from participants at baseline (median 16 weeks gestation) and at three and nine months postpartum. Serum concentrations of PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, PCBs, and PFASs were measured at baseline. Inflammation biomarkers (interleukin 6 [IL-6], interleukin 10 [IL-10], and tumor necrosis factor [TNF-α]) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a biomarker of cellular aging, were measured at all three time points. Associations between serum chemical concentrations and repeated measures of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and LTL were examined using linear mixed models. We also examined the potential for effect modification by time (visit) and obesity. Results In adjusted models, we observed positive relationships between PBDEs and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α). A doubling in ∑PBDEs was associated with a 15.26% (95% CI 1.24, 31.22) and 3.74% (95% CI −0.19, 7.82) increase in IL-6 and TNF-α, respectively. Positive associations were also observed for PFASs and IL-6. A two-fold increase in ∑PFASs was associated with a 20.87% (95% CI 3.46, 41.22) increase in IL-6. 5-OHBDE-47 was inversely associated with anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Some EDC-outcome associations, including those of PBDEs with TNF-α, were stronger during pregnancy (compared to three or nine months postpartum) and among obese (compared to overweight) women (p-interaction <0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that exposure to specific EDCs is associated with increased inflammation among women during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Future studies should replicate these findings in additional study populations and examine the implications of these associations for maternal and child health.
Asthma and rhinitis among Chinese children — Indoor and outdoor air pollution and indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Dan Norbäck, Chan Lu, Juan Wang, Yinping Zhang, Baizhan Li, Zhuohui Zhao, Chen Huang, Xin Zhang, Hua Qian, Yuexia Sun, Jan Sundell, Qihong Deng
Background Few data exist on asthma and rhinitis across China in relation to indoor and outdoor air pollution, climate and socioeconomic factors. The main aim was to study associations between asthma, rhinitis and current respiratory symptoms among pre-school children across China and selected indoor and outdoor exposure and indicators of socio-economic status (SES) in mutually adjusted models. Methods Chinese children (3–6 yr.) (n = 39,782) were recruited from randomly selected day care centres in seven cities in China. Data on asthma, respiratory symptoms, rhinitis, indoor and outdoor exposure at home and SES were assessed by a parentally administered questionnaire. Lifetime mean ambient temperature, PM10, NO2, and GDP per capita on city level were calculated. Results Totally 7.4% had ever doctors' diagnosed (DD) asthma and 8.7% DD-rhinitis, 19.7% had current wheeze, 45.0% rhinitis and 16.9% cough. DD-asthma was associated with ambient temperature (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.11–1.20 per °C), NO2 (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.02–1.33 per 10 μg/m3), indoor mould/dampness (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.13–1.39) and living near major roads (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.25). DD-rhinitis was associated with ambient temperature (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.05–1.10 per °C), NO2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.09–1.32 per 10 μg/m3), GDP (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.06 per 10,000 RenMinBi/year), indoor mould/dampness (OR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.11–1.35), passive smoking (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.01–1.21), and living near major roads (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.03–1.25). Children in suburban or rural areas, in larger families (≥5 persons) and with prenatal farm exposure had less DD-asthma and DD-rhinitis. Conclusions Economic development level of the city, higher SES, ambient temperature, NO2, PM10, traffic air pollution and mould/dampness can be risk factors for asthma and rhinitis and respiratory symptoms among pre-school children in China. Breastfeeding, large family size and early-life farm exposure could be protective factors.
Comparison of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure levels in different everyday microenvironments in an international context Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Sanjay Sagar, Seid M. Adem, Benjamin Struchen, Sarah P. Loughran, Michael E. Brunjes, Lisa Arangua, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie, Rodney J. Croft, Michael Jerrett, Joel M. Moskowitz, Tony Kuo, Martin Röösli
Background The aim of this study was to quantify RF-EMF exposure applying a tested protocol of RF-EMF exposure measurements using portable devices with a high sampling rate in different microenvironments of Switzerland, Ethiopia, Nepal, South Africa, Australia and the United States of America. Method We used portable measurement devices for assessing RF-EMF exposure in 94 outdoor microenvironments and 18 public transport vehicles. The measurements were taken either by walking with a backpack with the devices at the height of the head and a distance of 20–30 cm from the body, or driving a car with the devices mounted on its roof, which was 170–180 cm above the ground. The measurements were taken for about 30 min while walking and about 15–20 min while driving in each microenvironment, with a sampling rate of once every 4 s (ExpoM-RF) and 5 s (EME Spy 201). Results Mean total RF-EMF exposure in various outdoor microenvironments varied between 0.23 V/m (non-central residential area in Switzerland) and 1.85 V/m (university area in Australia), and across modes of public transport between 0.32 V/m (bus in rural area in Switzerland) and 0.86 V/m (Auto rickshaw in urban area in Nepal). For most outdoor areas the major exposure contribution was from mobile phone base stations. Otherwise broadcasting was dominant. Uplink from mobile phone handsets was generally very small, except in Swiss trains and some Swiss buses. Conclusions This study demonstrates high RF-EMF variability between the 94 selected microenvironments from all over the world. Exposure levels tended to increase with increasing urbanity. In most microenvironments downlink from mobile phone base stations is the most relevant contributor.
Diesel exhaust exposure, its multi-system effects, and the effect of new technology diesel exhaust Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Haley Reis, Cesar Reis, Akbar Sharip, Wenes Reis, Yong Zhao, Ryan Sinclair, Lawrence Beeson
Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) from vehicles and industry is hazardous and affects proper function of organ systems. DE can interfere with normal physiology after acute and chronic exposure to particulate matter (PM). Exposure leads to potential systemic disease processes in the central nervous, visual, hematopoietic, respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal systems. In this review, we give an overview of the epidemiological evidence supporting the harmful effects of diesel exhaust, and the numerous animal studies conducted to investigate the specific pathophysiological mechanisms behind DE exposure. Additionally, this review includes a summary of studies that used biomarkers as an indication of biological plausibility, and also studies evaluating new technology diesel exhaust (NTDE) and its systemic effects. Lastly, this review includes new approaches to improving DE emissions, and emphasizes the importance of ongoing study in this field of environmental health.
Placental circadian pathway methylation and in utero exposure to fine particle air pollution Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Tim S. Nawrot, Nelly D. Saenen, Julie Schenk, Bram G. Janssen, Valeria Motta, Letizia Tarantini, Bianca Cox, Wouter Lefebvre, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Cristina Maggioni, Valentina Bollati
In mammals, a central clock maintains the daily rhythm in accordance with the external environment. At the molecular level, the circadian rhythm is maintained by epigenetic regulation of the Circadian pathway. Here, we tested the role of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) exposure during gestational life on human placental Circadian pathway methylation, as an important molecular target for healthy development. In 407 newborns, we quantified placental methylation of CpG sites within the promoter regions of the following genes: CLOCK, BMAL1, NPAS2, CRY1-2 and PER1-3 using bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing. Daily PM2.5 exposure levels were estimated for each mother's residence, using a spatiotemporal interpolation model. We applied mixed-effects models to study the methylation status of the Circadian pathway genes and in utero PM2.5 exposure, while adjusting for a priori chosen covariates. In a multi-gene model, placental Circadian pathway methylation was positively and significantly (p < 0.0001) associated with 3rd trimester PM2.5 exposure. Consequently, the single-gene models showed relative methylation differences [Log(fold change)] in placental NPAS2 (+0.16; p = 0.001), CRY1 (+0.59; p = 0.0023), PER2 (+0.36; p = 0.0005), and PER3 (+0.42; p = 0.0008) for an IQR increase (8.9 μg/m3) in 3rd trimester PM2.5 exposure. PM2.5 air pollution, an environmental risk factor leading to a pro-inflammatory state of the mother and foetus, is associated with the methylation pattern of genes in the Circadian pathway. The observed alterations in the placental CLOCK epigenetic signature might form a relevant molecular mechanism through which fine particle air pollution exposure might affect placental processes and foetal development.
Levels, variability and determinants of environmental phenols in pairs of Norwegian mothers and children Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Amrit Kaur Sakhi, Azemira Sabaredzovic, Eleni Papadopoulou, Enrique Cequier, Cathrine Thomsen
Background Exposure to environmental phenols including parabens, bisphenols (BPs), oxybenzone/benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and triclosan (TCS) is ubiquitous. Due to evidence of their estrogenic activity, they have been considered as chemicals of concern. The exposure of the Norwegian population to these compounds is presently unknown. Aims To measure urinary levels of twelve different environmental phenols including four emerging bisphenols: S, F, B and AF (abbreviated as BPS, BPF, BPB and BPAF, respectively) in a healthy Norwegian population. We have calculated short-term variability, estimated daily intakes and investigated important determinants of exposure. Methods Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 48) and their children (n = 56) during spring/summer 2012 in two counties in Norway. Results Six environmental phenols namely methyl, ethyl and propyl paraben, BPA, BP-3 and TCS were detected in almost 100% of the urine samples. Among the emerging bisphenols, BPS was detected most frequently in the urine samples (42–48%) followed by BPF (4–15%). Parabens were positively and significantly correlated to each other in both mothers and children. Levels of parabens and BP-3 were higher in mothers compared to children. All mothers and children had lower estimated daily intakes (back calculated from the urinary concentrations) of parabens and BPA than the respective acceptable and tolerable daily intakes (ADIs and TDIs) established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Observed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) indicated moderate to high reliability of spot urine measurements for all the environmental phenols (ICCs: 0.70–0.97). Use of hair products, deodorants, face and hand creams were significantly associated with higher urinary levels of parabens. Conclusions Occurrence of environmental phenols in healthy Norwegian women and children is abundant. Among emerging bisphenols, there is widespread exposure to BPS. A single spot urine sample can be used for estimating short-term exposures of environmental phenols. Urinary levels of parabens were associated with use of PCPs.
Substantial reductions in ambient PAHs pollution and lives saved as a co-benefit of effective long-term PM2.5 pollution controls Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Shaofei Kong, Qin Yan, Huang Zheng, Haibiao Liu, Wei Wang, Shurui Zheng, Guowei Yang, Mingming Zheng, Jian Wu, Shihua Qi, Guofeng Shen, Lili Tang, Yan Yin, Tianliang Zhao, Huan Yu, Dantong Liu, Delong Zhao, Tao Zhang, Jujun Ruan, Mingzhi Huang
Under great efforts in fighting against serious haze problem of China since 2013, decreasing of air pollutants especially for fine particles (PM2.5) has been revealed for several key regions. This study tried to answer whether the reduction of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was coincident with PM2.5 because of long-term pollution control measures (PCM), and to assess source-oriented health risks associated with inhalation exposure to PAHs. Field measurements were carried out before and after the publishing of local air pollution protection plan for Nanjing, a mega-city in east China. Results indicated that the air quality was substantially improving, with a significant reduction in annual average PM2.5 by 34%, and moreover, PM2.5-bound PAHs significantly reduced by 63% (p < 0.001). The remarkable reduction was mainly attributable to the change of emission sources, compared to the influence of atmospheric circulation patterns, surface meteorological conditions, and atmospheric chemical reaction. Four PAHs sources including coal combustion (CC), petroleum and oil burning (PO), wood burning (WB) and vehicle emission (VE) were identified. On an annual basis, contributions to ambient PM2.5-PAHs from WB, PO, CC and VE sources in the period before the action of control measures were 2.26, 2.20, 1.96 and 5.62 ng m−3, respectively. They reduced to 1.09, 0.37, 1.31 and 1.77 ng m−3 for the four source types, with the reduction percentages as 51, 83, 33 and 68%, respectively. The estimated reduction in lifetime lung cancer risk was around 61%. The study that firstly assessed the health effects of PAHs reduction as a co-benefit raised by air PCM sustained for a long period is believed to be applicable and referential for other mega-cities around the world for assessing the benefits of PCM.
Petrol and diesel exhaust particles accelerate the horizontal transfer of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance genes Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Ye Zhang, April Z. Gu, Tianyu Cen, Xiangyang Li, Dan Li, Jianmin Chen
Adverse health effects of ferronickel manufacturing factory on local residents: An interrupted time series analysis Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Changwoo Han, Yun-Chul Hong
Environmental and public health related risk of veterinary zinc in pig production - Using Denmark as an example Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-05 John Jensen, Niels Christian Kyvsgaard, Antonio Battisti, Keith Edward Baptiste
At great economic cost, important steps have been taken over the last many decades to reduce and control emissions of heavy metals in order to protect the environment and public health. Monitoring has confirmed the success of these policies with progressive declines of heavy metals in for example air, sewage sludge and environmental samples. For zinc, such improvements may nevertheless be counter-acted by its widely usage as a feed additive and veterinary medicinal product to piglets in the post-weaning period resulting in reduced occurrence of diarrhea and improvement of daily weight gain. This review therefore focuses on two major concerns associated with veterinary use of zinc, namely the quantifiable risks to the environment and promotion of (multi) resistant bacteria like LA-MRSA in pig farms. Denmark is used as an informed and realistic worst-case scenario, representing the largest pig production per capita in Europe. It is furthermore, one of the countries where most recent information can be found regarding soil monitoring data and zinc consumption within the pig production. An average increase in soil concentration by >45% was recently reported within the period 1998–2014. In order to predict future risk, this review presents new and simplified model predictions using current soil concentrations, annual load rates and predicted accumulation rates. In conclusion, it is estimated that within 25 years, continued agricultural practice of current zinc loads may result in a situation where almost all soils receiving manure from intensive piglet production may be at risk, but also other pig production types may result in scenarios with predicted risk to soil dwelling species, especially in sandy soils. Besides the quantifiable risks to soil ecosystems, high levels of zinc furthermore co-select for the persistence of LA-MRSA CC398 and other resistant bacteria on pig farms.
Road traffic noise, air pollution and incident cardiovascular disease: A joint analysis of the HUNT, EPIC-Oxford and UK Biobank cohorts Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-05 Yutong Cai, Susan Hodgson, Marta Blangiardo, John Gulliver, David Morley, Daniela Fecht, Danielle Vienneau, Kees de Hoogh, Tim Key, Kristian Hveem, Paul Elliott, Anna L. Hansell
Background This study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in three large cohorts: HUNT, EPIC-Oxford and UK Biobank. Methods In pooled complete-case sample of the three cohorts from Norway and the United Kingdom (N = 355,732), 21,081 incident all CVD cases including 5259 ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 2871 cerebrovascular cases were ascertained between baseline (1993–2010) and end of follow-up (2008–2013) through medical record linkage. Annual mean 24-hour weighted road traffic noise (Lden) and air pollution (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm [PM10], ≤2.5 μm [PM2.5] and nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) exposure at baseline address was modelled using a simplified version of the Common Noise Assessment Methods in Europe (CNOSSOS-EU) and European-wide Land Use Regression models. Individual-level covariate data were harmonised and physically pooled across the three cohorts. Analysis was via Cox proportional hazard model with mutual adjustments for both noise and air pollution and potential confounders. Results No significant associations were found between annual mean Lden and incident CVD, IHD or cerebrovascular disease in the overall population except that the association with incident IHD was significant among current-smokers. In the fully adjusted models including adjustment for Lden, an interquartile range (IQR) higher PM10 (4.1 μg/m3) or PM2.5 (1.4 μg/m3) was associated with a 5.8% (95%CI: 2.5%–9.3%) and 3.7% (95%CI: 0.2%–7.4%) higher risk for all incident CVD respectively. No significant associations were found between NO2 and any of the CVD outcomes. Conclusions We found suggestive evidence of a possible association between road traffic noise and incident IHD, consistent with current literature. Long-term particulate air pollution exposure, even at concentrations below current European air quality standards, was significantly associated with incident CVD.
Aerosol exposure and risk assessment for green jobs involved in biomethanization Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-05 Deborah Traversi, Ilaria Gorrasi, Cristina Pignata, Raffaella Degan, Elisa Anedda, Giulia Carletto, Greta Vercellino, Stefania Fornasero, Antonino Bertino, Francesca Filippi, Maria Gullo, Giorgio Gilli
Persistent organic pollutants and penile bone mineral density in East Greenland and Canadian polar bears (Ursus maritimus) during 1996–2015 Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Tobias Daugaard-Petersen, Rikke Langebæk, Frank F. Rigét, Markus Dyck, Robert J. Letcher, Lars Hyldstrup, Jens-Erik Bech Jensen, Rune Dietz, Christian Sonne
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are long-range transported to the Arctic via atmospheric and oceanic currents, where they biomagnify to high concentrations in the tissues of apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). A major concern of POP exposure is their physiological effects on vital organ-tissues posing a threat to the health and survival of polar bears. Here we examined the relationship between selected POPs and baculum bone mineral density (BMD) in the East Greenland and seven Canadian subpopulations of polar bears. BMD was examined in 471 bacula collected between years 1996–2015 while POP concentrations in adipose tissue were determined in 67–192 of these individuals collected from 1999 to -2015. A geographical comparison showed that baculum BMD was significantly lowest in polar bears from East Greenland (EG) when compared to Gulf of Boothia (GB), Southern Hudson (SH) and Western Hudson (WH) Bay subpopulations (all p < 0.05). The calculation of a T-score osteoporosis index for the EG subpopulation using WH bears as a reference group gave a T-score of −1.44 which indicate risk of osteopenia. Concentrations of ΣPCB74 (polychlorinated biphenyls), ΣDDT3 (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes), p,p′-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), ΣHCH3 (hexachlorohexane) and α-HCH was significantly highest in EG bears while ΣPBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), BDE-47 and BDE-153 was significantly highest in SH bears (all p < 0.04). Statistical analyses of individual baculum BMD vs. POP concentrations showed that BMD was positively correlated with ΣPCB74, CB-153, HCB (hexachlorobenzene), ΣHCH, β-HCH, ClBz (chlorobenzene), ΣPBDE and BDE-153 (all p < 0.03). In conclusion, baculum density was significantly lowest in East Greenland polar bears despite the positive statistical correlations of BMD vs. POPs. Other important factors such as nutritional status, body mass and body condition was not available for the statistical modelling. Since on-going environmental changes are known to affect these, future studies need to incorporate nutritional, endocrine and genetic parameters to further understand how POP exposure may disrupt bone homeostasis and affect baculum BMD across polar bear subpopulations.
Occurrence and spatial distribution of chemical contaminants in edible fish species collected from UK and proximate marine waters Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 A.R. Fernandes, D. Mortimer, M. Holmes, M. Rose, L. Zhihua, X. Huang, F. Smith, S. Panton, L. Marshall
The occurrence of a range of regulated and emerging organic environmental contaminants was investigated in 182 samples of edible marine fish sampled mainly from UK marine regions, but extending northerly to the coast of Norway and south to the Algarve. These species (sprats, mackerel, turbot, halibut, herring, grey mullet, sea bass, grey mullet, sardines, etc.) are among those considered to be at the highest risk of contamination with regulated contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but the occurrence of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) was also investigated. Sub-sets of samples (50–75) were also analysed for emerging contaminants: polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated and mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls (PBDD/Fs, PXDD/Fs and PXBs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Contaminant occurrence varied with species and location, but all measured contaminants were detected, with sprats, sea bass, sardines, mackerel, and herring showing higher tissue concentrations. The concentrations of the different contaminants in the various samples were mapped utilising the GPS coordinate data of the capture locations to visualise spatial distribution levels. In terms of catch location, fish sampled from the coasts of southern Britain, north-western France and the Irish Sea appeared to contain proportionately higher levels of some contaminants - e.g. samples from the Irish Sea tended to show higher PCN concentrations, whereas higher levels of PCBs were observed in some fish sampled off the coasts of northern France. Similarly, samples of mullet from the southeast coast of UK showed much higher concentrations of BDE-99 than the other regions. In terms of occurrence trends, PCDD/F and PCB concentrations show a modest decline over the last decade but where limited background data is available for emerging contaminants, there is no evidence of downward trends.
Presence of antibiotic residues in various environmental compartments of Shandong province in eastern China: Its potential for resistance development and ecological and human risk Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-02 Nada Hanna, Pan Sun, Qiang Sun, Xuewen Li, Xiwei Yang, Xiang Ji, Huiyun Zou, Jakob Ottoson, Lennart E. Nilsson, Björn Berglund, Oliver James Dyar, Ashok J. Tamhankar, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
Objectives To investigate the occurrence of antibiotic residues in different types of environmental samples including water samples in rural Shandong province, China. Further, to characterize the potential ecological risk for development of antibiotic resistance in the environment, and the potential direct human health risk of exposure to antibiotics via drinking water and vegetables. Methods Environmental samples (n = 214) (river water, waste water, drinking water, sediments, manure, soil and edible parts of vegetables) were collected in twelve villages in Shandong province in eastern China. High performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) was used to determine the concentration of antibiotic residues. The ratio of the measured environmental concentrations (MEC) to the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) was used to evaluate the ecological risk (risk quotient, RQ) for development of antibiotic resistance. The potential risks to human health through exposure to antibiotics in drinking water were assessed by comparing measured environmental concentrations (MEC) and predicted no-effect concentration in drinking water (PNECDW), and in vegetables by comparing estimated daily intake (EDI) to ADI. Results Sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, doxycycline, and metronidazole were detected at concentrations ranging between 0.3 and 3.9 ng/L in river water, 1.3 and 12.5 ng/L in waste water, 0.5 and 21.4 ng/L in drinking water, 0.31 and 1.21 μg/kg in river sediment, 0.82 and 1.91 μg/kg in pig manure, 0.1 and 11.68 μg/kg in outlet sediment, 0.5 and 2.5 μg/kg in soil, and 6.3 and 27.2 μg/kg in vegetables. The RQs for resistance development were >1 for enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, and ranged between 0.1 and 1 for ciprofloxacin. MECs/PNECDW ratios were <1 from exposure to antibiotics through drinking water for both adults and children. EDI/ADI ratios were <0.1 from exposure to antibiotics by vegetable consumption. Conclusions Antibiotic pollutants were ubiquitous in various environmental compartments of Shandong province of China. Risk estimates indicated a potential for the measured levels of enrofloxacin, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in waste water to pose an ecological risk for resistance selection, and further studies are needed to validate this finding. The investigated antibiotics did not appear to pose an appreciable direct human health risk from environmental exposure through drinking water or vegetables consumption. However, they might still pose a risk for resistance development.
Simulated discharge of treated landfill leachates reveals a fueled development of antibiotic resistance in receiving tidal river Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-02 Dong Wu, Ruoqi Ma, Huawei Wei, Kai Yang, Bing Xie
Around 350 million tons of solid waste is disposed of in landfills every year globally, with millions of cubic meters of landfill leachates released into neighboring environment. However, to date, little is known about the variations of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in on-site leachate treatment systems and its development in leachate-receiving water environment. Here, we quantified 7 subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), 3 types of culturable antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and 6 subtypes of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the effluents from a combined leachate treatment process, including biological treatment (MBR), physical separation (UF), ultraviolet (UV) disinfection and advanced oxidation process (AOP). The contents of ARGs, ARB and MGEs were generally enriched by the MBR, but then decreased significantly along with the tertiary treatment process. However, in the effluent-receiving water samples, the abundance of dominant ARGs (i.e. ermB, sul1, blaTEM) increased by 1.5 orders of magnitude within 96 h, alongside a general increase of MGEs (~10.0 log10(copies/mL) and total ARB (~1100 CFU/mL). Structural correlation analyses reveal that target ARGs were closely associated with MGEs, particularly in effluent-receiving samples (Procrustes test; M2 = 0.49, R = 0.71, P = 0.001); and occurrences of ARB were majorly affected by ARG's distribution and environmental conditions (e.g. nitrogen speciation) in effluent and recipient groups, respectively. This study indicates that current treatment technologies and operation protocols are not feasible in countering the development of AMR in effluent-receiving water environment, particularly in tidal rivers that are capable of retaining contaminants for a long residence time.
Prenatal urinary triclosan concentrations and child neurobehavior Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-02 Taylor Etzel, Gina Muckle, Tye E. Arbuckle, William D. Fraser, Emmanuel Ouellet, Jean R. Séguin, Bruce Lanphear, Joseph M. Braun
Background Exposure to triclosan, an antimicrobial chemical, is ubiquitous among pregnant women and may reduce thyroid hormone levels that are important for fetal neurodevelopment. Few studies have examined the association between prenatal triclosan exposure and children's neurobehavior. Objective We investigated the relationship of prenatal urinary triclosan concentrations with children's behavior and cognitive abilities at age three years in a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort in Canada. Methods We measured triclosan in urine samples collected at ~12 weeks of gestation in 794 Canadian women enrolled in a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort study (MIREC) from 2008 to 2011. Around age 3 years, we assessed children's cognitive abilities using the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence-III (WPPSI-III), and two scales of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool (BRIEF-P). Parents reported children's problem and reciprocal social behaviors using the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2) and Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2), respectively. Results After adjusting for confounders using multivariable linear regression, triclosan was not associated with most of the 30 examined neurobehavioral scales. Each 10-fold increase in triclosan was associated with better WPPSI-III picture completion scores (β: 0.2; 95% CI: 0,0.5) and BASC-2 externalizing (β: −0.5; 95% CI: −1.1, 0) and hyperactivity (β: −0.6; 95% CI: −1.2, −0.1) scores, suggesting less externalizing and hyperactive behaviors. Child sex did not modify these associations. Conclusions In this cohort, urinary triclosan concentrations measured once in early pregnancy were not associated with most assessed aspects of neurobehavior and weakly associated with a few others, but not in the hypothesized direction.
Short-term nighttime wind turbine noise and cardiovascular events: A nationwide case-crossover study from Denmark Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-02 Aslak Harbo Poulsen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Alfredo Peña, Andrea N. Hahmann, Rikke Baastrup Nordsborg, Matthias Ketzel, Jørgen Brandt, Mette Sørensen
Aims The number of people exposed to wind turbine noise (WTN) is increasing. WTN is reported as more annoying than traffic noise at similar levels. Long-term exposure to traffic noise has consistently been associated with cardiovascular disease, whereas effects of short-term exposure are much less investigated due to little day-to-day variation of e.g. road traffic noise. WTN varies considerably due to changing weather conditions allowing investigation of short-term effects of WTN on cardiovascular events. Methods and results We identified all hospitalisations and deaths from stroke (16,913 cases) and myocardial infarction (MI) (17,559 cases) among Danes exposed to WTN between 1982 and 2013. We applied a time-stratified, case-crossover design. Using detailed data on wind turbine type and hourly wind data at each wind turbine, we simulated mean nighttime outdoor (10–10,000 Hz) and nighttime low frequency (LF) indoor WTN (10–160 Hz) over the 4 days preceding diagnosis and reference days. For indoor LF WTN between 10 and 15 dB(A) and above 15 dB(A), odds ratios (ORs) for MI were 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97–1.67; cases = 198) and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.76–3.45; cases = 21), respectively, when compared to indoor LF WTN below 5 dB(A). For stroke, corresponding ORs were 1.17 (95% CI: 0.95–1.69; cases = 166) and 2.30 (95% CI: 0.96–5.50; cases = 15). The elevated ORs above 15 dB(A) persisted across sensitivity analyses. When looking at specific lag times, noise exposure one day before MI events and three days before stroke events were associated with the highest ORs. For outdoor WTN at night, we observed both increased and decreased risk estimates. Conclusion This study did not provide conclusive evidence of an association between WTN and MI or stroke. It does however suggest that indoor LF WTN at night may trigger cardiovascular events, whereas these events seemed largely unaffected by nighttime outdoor WTN. These findings need reproduction, as they were based on few cases and may be due to chance.
Effects of exposure to ambient ultrafine particles on respiratory health and systemic inflammation in children Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-03-04 Sam Clifford, Mandana Mazaheri, Farhad Salimi, Wafaa Nabil Ezz, Bijan Yeganeh, Samantha Low-Choy, Katy Walker, Kerrie Mengersen, Guy B. Marks, Lidia Morawska
It is known that ultrafine particles (UFP, particles smaller than 0.1 μm) can penetrate deep into the lungs and potentially have adverse health effects. However, epidemiological data on the health effects of UFP is limited. Therefore, our objective was to test the hypothesis that exposure to UFPs is associated with respiratory health status and systemic inflammation among children aged 8 to 11 years. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 655 children (43.3% male) attending 25 primary (elementary) schools in the Brisbane Metropolitan Area, Australia. Ultrafine particle number concentration (PNC) was measured at each school and modelled at homes using Land Use Regression to derive exposure estimates. Health outcomes were respiratory symptoms and diagnoses, measured by parent-completed questionnaire, spirometric lung function, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and serum C reactive protein (CRP). Exposure-response models, adjusted for potential personal and environmental confounders measured at the individual, home and school level, were fitted using Bayesian methods. PNC was not independently associated with respiratory symptoms, asthma diagnosis or spirometric lung function. However, PNC was positively associated with an increase in CRP (1.188-fold change per 1000 UFP cm−3 day/day (95% credible interval 1.077 to 1.299)) and an increase in FeNO among atopic participants (1.054 fold change per 1000 UFP cm−3 day/day (95% CrI 1.005 to 1.106)). UFPs do not affect respiratory health outcomes in children but do have systemic effects, detected here in the form of a positive association with a biomarker for systemic inflammation. This is consistent with the known propensity of UFPs to penetrate deep into the lung and circulatory system.
Perfluoroalkyl substances in adolescents in northern Norway: Lifestyle and dietary predictors. The Tromsø study, Fit Futures 1 Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-28 Maria Averina, Jan Brox, Sandra Huber, Anne-Sofie Furberg
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are environmentally persistent chemicals widely used in many consumer products due to water and oil proofing and fire-resistant properties. Several PFASs are recognized as environmental pollutants. This study investigated serum concentrations of 18 different PFASs and their associations with diet and lifestyle variables in 940 adolescents (age 15–19 years) who participated in the Fit Futures 1 study in the Troms arctic district of Norway. Serum concentrations of PFASs were analyzed by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS). The most abundant PFASs in this population were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) that were found in 99% of the participants. Perfluoroheptane sulfonate (PFHpS) was found in 98% of the participants. Median concentrations were: PFOS 6.20 ng/mL, PFOA 1.92 ng/mL, PFHxS 0.71 ng/mL, PFNA 0.50 ng/mL, PFDA 0.21 ng/mL and PFHpS 0.15 ng/mL. Median of PFASs sum concentration (∑PFAS) was 10.7 ng/mL, the concentration range was 2.6–200.8 ng/mL. Intake of fat fish, fish liver, seagull eggs, reindeer meat and drinks with sugar were the main dietary predictors of several PFASs. Intake of junk food (pizza, hamburger, sausages) was positively associated with PFNA, intake of canned food was positively associated with PFHxS. Intake of fruits and vegetables, milk products, snacks and candy was not associated with PFASs concentrations. Lean fish intake was positively associated with PFUnDA, but not with other PFASs. There was a positive association of ∑PFAS, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA and PFDA with chewed tobacco use.
High-throughput profiling of seasonal variations of antibiotic resistance gene transport in a peri-urban river Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Ji Zheng, Zhenchao Zhou, Yuanyuan Wei, Tao Chen, Wanqiu Feng, Hong Chen
The rapid expansion of human activity in a region can exacerbate human health risks induced by antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Peri-urban ecosystems serve at the symbiotic interface between urban and rural ecosystems, and investigations into the dissemination of ARGs in peri-urban areas provide a basic framework for tracking the spread of ARGs and potential mitigations. In this study, through the use of high-throughput quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, seasonal and geographical distributions of ARGs and their host bacterial communities were characterized in a peri-urban river. The abundance of ARGs in downstream was 5.2–33.9 times higher than upstream, which indicated distinct antibiotic resistance pollution in the areas where human lives. With the comparison classified based on land use nearby, the abundance of ARGs in samples near farmland and villages was higher than in the background (3.47–5.58 times), pointing to the high load in the river caused by farming and other human activities in the peri-urban areas. With the co-occurrence pattern revealed by network analysis, blaVEB and tetM were proposed to be indicators of ARGs which get together in the same module. Furthermore, seasonal variations in ARGs and the transport of bacterial communities were observed. The effects of seasonal temperature on the dissemination of ARGs along the watershed was also evaluated. The highest absolute abundance of ARGs occurred in summer (2.81 × 109 copies/L on average), the trends of ARG abundances in four seasons were similar with local air temperature. The Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) suggested that nine bacterial genera were implicated as biomarkers for the corresponding season. Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) showed significant positive correlation with ARGs (P < 0.01) and MGEs were also identified as the key-contributing factor driving ARG alteration. This study provides an overview of seasonal and geographical variations in ARGs distribution in a peri-urban river and draws attention to controlling pollutants in peri-urban ecosystems.
Mixture effects in samples of multiple contaminants – An inter-laboratory study with manifold bioassays Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-28 Rolf Altenburger, Martin Scholze, Wibke Busch, Beate I. Escher, Gianina Jakobs, Martin Krauss, Janet Krüger, Peta A. Neale, Selim Ait-Aissa, Ana Catarina Almeida, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, François Brion, Klára Hilscherová, Henner Hollert, Jiří Novák, Rita Schlichting, Hélène Serra, Ying Shao, Andrew Tindall, Knut-Erik Tolefsen, Gisela Umbuzeiro, Tim D. Williams, Andreas Kortenkamp
Radiocesium contamination in house dust within evacuation areas close to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-28 Naohide Shinohara, Hiroko Yoshida-Ohuchi
Outdoor decontamination efforts have been ongoing since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident; however, little is known about indoor contamination. Therefore, house dust was sampled based on particle size in 21 wooden buildings (19 residential houses and 2 community centers) within the evacuation area close to the FDNPP, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Activities of radiocesium (137Cs) per gram of house dust increased with decreasing particle size (mean: 6.1 × 103, 2.6 × 103, 1.6 × 103, 7.5 × 102, 5.0 × 102, and 4.6 × 102 Bq/g for <4–20, 20–63, 63–180, 180–500, 500–1000, and 1000–2000 μm, respectively). The 137Cs concentrations in house dust were inversely related to the square of distance from the FDNPP for <4–1000 μm particles. From the results of the multiple linear regression analysis, distance from the FDNPP and direction from the FDNPP (northwest) were significantly related to the radioactivity of house dust. It was found that 19%, 33%, and 48% of 137Cs in house dust were extracted in water, 1 M HCl, and not extracted, respectively. Considering the bioaccessibility and assuming a 20 mg/day daily intake of house dust, the daily doses would be 7.2 Bq/day (mean) and 18 Bq/day (95th percent quantile). These results provide valuable insight into indoor radioactive Cs contamination in the area around the FDNPP and possible oral exposure to indoor radioactive Cs after returning home.
Ambient concentrations of particulate matter and hospitalization for depression in 26 Chinese cities: A case-crossover study Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-28 Feng Wang, Hui Liu, Hui Li, Jiajia Liu, Xiaojie Guo, Jie Yuan, Yonghua Hu, Jing Wang, Lin Lu
Objective Air pollution with high ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) has been frequently reported in China. However, no Chinese study has looked into the short-term effect of PM on hospitalization for depression. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design to identify possible links between ambient PM levels and hospital admissions for depression in 26 Chinese cities. Methods Electronic hospitalization summary reports (January 1, 2014–December 31, 2015) were used to identify hospital admissions related to depression. Conditional logistic regression was applied to determine the association between PM levels and hospitalizations for depression, with stratification by sex, age, and comorbidities. Results Both PM2.5 and PM10 levels were positively associated with the number of hospital admissions for depression. The strongest effect was observed on the day of exposure (lag day 0) for PM10, with an interquartile range increase in PM10 associated with a 3.55% (95% confidence interval: 1.69–5.45) increase in admissions for depression. For PM2.5, the risks of hospitalization peaked on lag day 0 (2.92; 1.37–4.50) and lag day 5 (3.65; 2.09–5.24). The elderly (>65) were more sensitive to PM2.5 exposure (9.23; 5.09–13.53) and PM10 exposure (6.35; 3.31–9.49) on lag day 0, and patients with cardiovascular disease were likely to be hospitalized for depression following exposure to high levels of PM10 (4.47; 2.13–6.85). Conclusions Short-term elevations in PM may increase the risk of hospitalization for depression, particularly in the elderly and in patients with cardiovascular disease.
Epigenetics as a mechanism linking developmental exposures to long-term toxicity Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 R. Barouki, E. Melén, Z. Herceg, J. Beckers, J. Chen, M. Karagas, A. Puga, Y. Xia, L. Chadwick, W. Yan, K. Audouze, R. Slama, J. Heindel, P. Grandjean, T. Kawamoto, K. Nohara
A variety of experimental and epidemiological studies lend support to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept. Yet, the actual mechanisms accounting for mid- and long-term effects of early-life exposures remain unclear. Epigenetic alterations such as changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and the expression of certain RNAs have been suggested as possible mediators of long-term health effects of environmental stressors. This report captures discussions and conclusions debated during the last Prenatal Programming and Toxicity meeting held in Japan. Its first aim is to propose a number of criteria that are critical to support the primary contribution of epigenetics in DOHaD and intergenerational transmission of environmental stressors effects. The main criteria are the full characterization of the stressors, the actual window of exposure, the target tissue and function, the specificity of the epigenetic changes and the biological plausibility of the linkage between those changes and health outcomes. The second aim is to discuss long-term effects of a number of stressors such as smoking, air pollution and endocrine disruptors in order to identify the arguments supporting the involvement of an epigenetic mechanism. Based on the developed criteria, missing evidence and suggestions for future research will be identified. The third aim is to critically analyze the evidence supporting the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in intergenerational and transgenerational effects of environmental exposure and to particularly discuss the role of placenta and sperm. While the article is not a systematic review and is not meant to be exhaustive, it critically assesses the contribution of epigenetics in the long-term effects of environmental exposures as well as provides insight for future research.
Estimation of residential radon exposure and definition of Radon Priority Areas based on expected lung cancer incidence Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 J. Elío, Q. Crowley, R. Scanlon, J. Hodgson, L. Zgaga
Radon is a naturally occurring gas, classified as a Class 1 human carcinogen, being the second most significant cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. A robust spatial definition of radon distribution in the built environment is therefore essential for understanding the relationship between radon exposure and its adverse health effects on the general population. Using Ireland as a case study, we present a methodology to estimate an average indoor radon concentration and calculate the expected radon-related lung cancer incidence. We use this approach to define Radon Priority Areas at the administrative level of Electoral Divisions (EDs). Geostatistical methods were applied to a data set of almost 32,000 indoor radon measurements, sampled in Ireland between 1992 and 2013. Average indoor radon concentrations by ED range from 21 to 338 Bq m−3, corresponding to an effective dose ranging from 0.8 to 13.3 mSv y−1 respectively. Radon-related lung cancer incidence by ED was calculated using a dose-effect model giving between 15 and 239 cases per million people per year, depending on the ED. Based on these calculations, together with the population density, we estimate that of the approximately 2,300 lung cancer cases currently diagnosed in Ireland annually, about 280 may be directly linked to radon exposure. This figure does not account for the synergistic effect of radon exposure with other factors (e.g. tobacco smoking), so likely represents a minimum estimate. Our approach spatially defines areas with the expected highest incidence of radon-related lung cancer, even though indoor radon concentrations for these areas may be moderate or low. We therefore recommend that both indoor radon concentration and population density by small area are considered when establishing national radon action plans.
Dependence of future mortality changes on global CO2 concentrations: A review Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Jae Young Lee, Hayoung Choi, Ho Kim
The heterogeneity among previous studies of future mortality projections due to climate change has often hindered comparisons and syntheses of resulting impacts. To address this challenge, the present study introduced a novel method to normalize the results from projection studies according to different baseline and projection periods and climate scenarios, thereby facilitating comparison and synthesis. This study reviewed the 15 previous studies involving projected climate change-related mortality under Representative Concentration Pathways. To synthesize their results, we first reviewed the important study design elements that affected the reported results in previous studies. Then, we normalized the reported results by CO2 concentration in order to eliminate the effects of the baseline period, projection period, and climate scenario choices. For twenty-five locations worldwide, the normalized percentage changes in temperature-attributable mortality per 100 ppm increase in global CO2 concentrations ranged between 41.9% and 330%, whereas those of total mortality ranged between 0.3% and 4.8%. The normalization methods presented in this work will guide future studies to provide their results in a normalized format and facilitate research synthesis to reinforce our understanding on the risk of climate change.
Cardiopulmonary effects of overnight indoor air filtration in healthy non-smoking adults: A double-blind randomized crossover study Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Xiaoxing Cui, Feng Li, Jianbang Xiang, Lin Fang, Ming Kei Chung, Drew B. Day, Jinhan Mo, Charles J. Weschler, Jicheng Gong, Linchen He, Dong Zhu, Chengjian Lu, Hailong Han, Yinping Zhang, Junfeng (Jim) Zhang
Background More than 90% of the world's population lives in areas where outdoor air pollution levels exceed health-based limits. In these areas, individuals may use indoor air filtration, often on a sporadic basis, in their residences to reduce exposure to respirable particles (PM2.5). Whether this intervention can lead to improvements in health outcomes has not been evaluated. Methods Seventy non-smoking healthy adults, aged 19 to 26 years, received both true and sham indoor air filtration in a double-blinded randomized crossover study. Each filtration session was approximately 13 h long. True and sham filtration sessions were separated by a two-week washout interval. The study was carried out in a suburb of Shanghai. Results During the study period, outdoor PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 18.6 to 106.9 μg/m3, which overlapped with levels measured in Western Europe and North America. Compared to sham filtration, true filtration on average decreased indoor PM2.5 concentration by 72.4% to 10.0 μg/m3 and particle number concentration by 59.2% to 2316/cm3. For lung function measured immediately after the end of filtration, true filtration significantly lowered airway impedance at 5 Hz (Z5) by 7.1% [95% CI: 2.4%, 11.9%], airway resistance at 5 Hz (R5) by 7.4% [95% CI: 2.4%, 12.5%], and small airway resistance (R5-R20) by 20.3% [95% CI: 0.1%, 40.5%], reflecting improved airway mechanics especially for the small airways. However, no significant improvements for spirometry indicators (FEV1, FVC) were observed. True filtration also significantly lowered von Willebrand factor (VWF) by 26.9% [95% CI: 7.3%, 46.4%] 24 h after the end of filtration, indicating reduced risk for thrombosis. Stratified analysis in male and female participants showed that true filtration significantly decreased pulse pressure by 3.3% [95% CI: 0.8%, 7.4%] in females, and significantly reduced VWF by 42.4% [95% CI: 17.4%, 67.4%] and interleukin-6 by 22.6% [95% CI: 0.4%, 44.9%] in males. Effect modification analyses indicated that filtration effects in male and female participants were not significantly different. Conclusion A single overnight residential air filtration, capable of reducing indoor particle concentrations substantially, can lead to improved airway mechanics and reduced thrombosis risk.
Long-term trends and health impact of PM2.5 and O3 in Tehran, Iran, 2006–2015 Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Sasan Faridi, Mansour Shamsipour, Michal Krzyzanowski, Nino Künzli, Heresh Amini, Faramarz Azimi, Mazen Malkawi, Fatemeh Momeniha, Akbar Gholampour, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Kazem Naddafi
Preconception and prenatal urinary concentrations of phenols and birth size of singleton infants born to mothers and fathers from the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) study Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Carmen Messerlian, Vicente Mustieles, Lidia Minguez-Alarcon, Jennifer B. Ford, Antonia M. Calafat, Irene Souter, Paige L. Williams, Russ Hauser
Background Although pregnancy concentrations of some phenols have been associated with infant size at birth, there is limited data on the effect of preconception exposure. Objective We aimed to examine paternal and maternal preconception and maternal prenatal urinary phenol concentrations in relation to birth weight and head circumference. Methods We evaluated 346 singletons born to 346 mothers and 184 fathers (184 couples) from a prospective preconception cohort of subfertile couples from the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study in Boston, USA. We used multiple urine samples collected before the index pregnancy in both men and women to estimate mean preconception urinary benzophenone-3, triclosan, butylparaben, propylparaben, methylparaben, or ethylparaben concentrations. We also estimated mean maternal prenatal urinary phenol concentrations by averaging trimester-specific urine samples. Birth weight and head circumference were abstracted from delivery records. We estimated the association of natural log-phenol concentrations with birth outcomes using multivariable linear regression models, adjusting for known confounders. Results In adjusted models, each log-unit increase in paternal preconception benzophenone-3 concentration was associated with a 137 g increase in birth weight (95% CI: 60, 214). Additional adjustment for prenatal benzophenone-3 concentration strengthened this association. None of the maternal preconception phenol concentrations were associated with birth weight. However, maternal prenatal triclosan concentrations were associated with a 38 g decrease in birth weight (95% CI: −76, 0). Few associations were observed between phenols and head circumference except for a decrease of 0.27 cm (95% CI: −54, 0) in relation to maternal preconception methylparaben concentration. Conclusions Although our findings should be interpreted in light of inherent study limitations, these results suggest potential evidence of associations between some paternal or maternal phenol concentrations and birth size.
Perfluoroalkyl substances, glucose homeostasis, and gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese pregnant women: A repeat measurement-based prospective study Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-20 Hexing Wang, Jiaqi Yang, Hongyi Du, Linji Xu, Shuping Liu, Jianping Yi, Xu Qian, Yue Chen, Qingwu Jiang, Gengsheng He
Background Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can affect glucose homeostasis and has been suggested as a potential risk of diabetes mellitus, but data are limited for pregnant women. Objectives We aimed to explore the associations of exposure to PFASs with glucose homeostasis and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese pregnant women. Methods The current study was conducted in Hebei Province of Northern China between 2013 and 2014 and 560 pregnant women were recruited in their early term of pregnancy and two representative serum PFASs, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were measured. In 385 pregnant women who completed oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the associations of serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations with fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FIns), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the early, middle, and late terms of pregnancy and occurrence of GDM were examined using linear and Cox proportional hazard regression models. The reproducibility of serum PFASs during pregnancy was assessed in 230 pregnant women. Results The intraclass correlation coefficients of serum PFASs, covariates, and outcomes based on averaged repeat measurement (0.35–0.96) were higher than those based on single measurement (0.16–0.92). Serum PFOA was positively associated with averaged FIns and HOMA-IR in the early, middle, and late terms of pregnancy and averaged blood glucose level at 1 h and 2 h of OGTT, but serum PFOS tended to be negatively associated with averaged FBG and OGTT blood glucose. The adjusted hazard ratios of GDM associated with serum PFOA and PFOS were 1.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.70–5.57; p-value: 0.197) and 0.71 (0.29–1.75; 0.453), respectively. Conclusions Our data raised a possibility that exposure to PFASs might have different influences on glucose homeostasis and GDM in Chinese pregnant women. More lab and human studies are needed to further test the hypothesis and investigate potential mechanisms.
Association between phthalate exposure and lower lung function in an urban elderly population: A repeated-measures longitudinal study Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-08 Kyoung-Nam Kim, Mee-Ri Lee, Yoon-Hyeong Choi, Bo-Eun Lee, Yun-Chul Hong
Background Lung function is a major predictor of morbidity and mortality. Only a few studies have explored the association between phthalate exposure and lung function. Objective To evaluate the association between phthalate exposure and lung function in the elderly. Methods A total of 3 repeated-measures surveys were conducted in 559 elderly individuals aged ≥60 years in Seoul, Korea, at 1-year intervals (2012–2015). During each survey, urinary mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydrohexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) (geometric mean, 15.68 μg/L), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) (11.97 μg/L), and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) (2.09 μg/L) levels were measured; moreover, lung function tests and a structured questionnaire interview were performed. We constructed linear mixed models to assess the association between urinary phthalate metabolite levels and lung function. Results A doubling of creatinine-adjusted urinary phthalate metabolite levels was inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (L) (β = −0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.02, 0.004 for MEHHP; β = −0.02, 95% CI: −0.03, −0.01 for MEOHP; β = −0.01, 95% CI: −0.03, −0.003 for MnBP) and forced vital capacity (L) (β = −0.02, 95% CI: −0.03, −0.001 for MEHHP; β = −0.02, 95% CI: −0.03, −0.004 for MEOHP; β = −0.02, 95% CI: −0.03, −0.001 for MnBP). A doubling of creatinine-adjusted MnBP levels was associated with increased rates of annual decline in forced vital capacity (L/year) (β = −0.01, 95% CI: −0.02, −0.001). Conclusions Urinary phthalate metabolite levels were associated with lower lung function and an increased rate of decline in lung function in an elderly population.
Evaluating effects of prenatal exposure to phthalate mixtures on birth weight: A comparison of three statistical approaches Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-20 Yu-Han Chiu, Andrea Bellavia, Tamarra James-Todd, Katharine F. Correia, Linda Valeri, Carmen Messerlian, Jennifer B. Ford, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Antonia M. Calafat, Russ Hauser, Paige L. Williams
Objectives We applied three statistical approaches for evaluating associations between prenatal urinary concentrations of a mixture of phthalate metabolites and birth weight. Methods We included 300 women who provided 732 urine samples during pregnancy and delivered a singleton infant. We measured urinary concentrations of metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate, di-isobutyl-, di-n-butyl-, butylbenzyl-, and diethyl phthalates. We applied 1) linear regressions; 2) classification methods [principal component analysis (PCA) and structural equation models (SEM)]; and 3) Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR), to evaluate associations between phthalate metabolite mixtures and birth weight adjusting for potential confounders. Data were presented as mean differences (95% CI) in birth weight (grams) as each phthalate increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile. Results When analyzing individual phthalate metabolites using linear regressions, each metabolite demonstrated a modest inverse association with birth weight [from −93 (−206, 21) to −49 (−164, 65)]. When simultaneously including all metabolites in a multivariable model, inflation of the estimates and standard errors were noted. PCA identified two principal components, both inversely associated with birth weight [−23 (−68, 22), −27 (−71, 17), respectively]. These inverse associations were confirmed when applying SEM. BKMR further identified that monoethyl and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and phthalate concentrations were linearly related to lower birth weight [−51(−164, 63) and −122 (−311, 67), respectively], and suggested no evidence of interaction between metabolites. Conclusions While none of the methods produced significant results, we demonstrated the potential issues arising using linear regression models in the context of correlated exposures. Among the other selected approaches, classification techniques identified common sources of exposures with implications for interventions, while BKMR further identified specific contributions of individual metabolites.
Associations of household renovation materials and periods with childhood asthma, in China: A retrospective cohort study Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-20 Jialing Zhang, Chanjuan Sun, Wei Liu, Zhijun Zou, Yinping Zhang, Baizhan Li, Zhuohui Zhao, Qihong Deng, Xu Yang, Xin Zhang, Hua Qian, Yuexia Sun, Jan Sundell, Chen Huang
Background Childhood asthma is prevalent in China. However, there is a lack of evidence on whether household renovation, including the materials used and the periods, are associated with the disease. Objectives To investigate the associations between household decoration materials and renovation periods, and childhood asthma and its related symptoms. Methods During 2010–2012, a retrospective cohort study was initiated in seven cities of China, and 40,010 children, aged 3–6 years, were recruited. Data on demographics, health status, and home decoration conditions were collected using a parent-administered questionnaire. Two-level (city-child) logistic regression analyses with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were performed to show the target associations. Sensitivity analysis was performed by stratifying data for children in the southern and northern cities. Results Children whose homes underwent renovation or the addition of new furniture within 1 year before pregnancy, during pregnancy, at age 0–1 year, and after age 1 year had significantly (p < 0.05) higher prevalence of childhood asthma and its related symptoms. The use of solid wood floors and wallpaper had significant associations (cement: AOR, 95% CI: 1.59, 1.17–2.17; lime: AOR, 95% CI: 1.31, 1.00–1.71) with an increased risk of lifetime asthma. Household renovation and the addition of new furniture during pregnancy had significant associations with lifetime asthma (renovation: AOR, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.01–1.51); lifetime wheeze (renovation: AOR, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.05–1.39; furniture: AOR, 95% CI: 1.24, 1.14–1.36), current wheeze (renovation: AOR, 95% CI, 1.21 1.05–1.40; furniture: AOR, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.12–1.34), and current dry cough (renovation: AOR, 95% CI: 1.41, 1.23–1.63; furniture: AOR, 95% CI: 1.28, 1.17–1.41). Similar associations were found between the addition of new furniture during early childhood and lifetime asthma and its related symptoms. Except for the association between lifetime wheeze and flooring materials, the studied associations were generally stronger among children from the northern cities. Conclusions We confirmed that using cellulose based materials in home decoration and renovation, and adding new furniture during early childhood and pregnancy could be risk factors for childhood asthma. The association between household decoration during early childhood and childhood asthma may be stronger in the northern cities of China.
Cadmium exposure and cognitive abilities and behavior at 10 years of age: A prospective cohort study Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-17 Klara Gustin, Fahmida Tofail, Marie Vahter, Maria Kippler
Background We have previously reported inverse associations of prenatal and childhood cadmium exposure with cognition in 5-year-old Bangladeshi children. Objectives To assess if cadmium exposure affected cognition and behavior in the Bangladeshi children at 10 years. Methods Cadmium exposure was assessed by urinary concentrations at 10 (n = 1498) and 5 years of age (n = 1453), and of the mothers in early pregnancy (n = 1299), measured by ICP-MS. Cognitive abilities were assessed with Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (4th edition) and behavior with the parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results In multivariable-adjusted models, urinary cadmium at 10 years was inversely associated with Full scale IQ and most of the sub-scales. Associations were mainly observed in boys, in whom the difference in Full scale IQ was 7.0 scores (95% CI: –11, −2.7), corresponding to 0.21 SD, when comparing those in the highest (range: 0.30–2.6 μg/L) and lowest tertile of urinary cadmium (0.036–0.18 μg/L). Urinary cadmium at 5 years was inversely, but not significantly, associated with IQ. Children in the highest exposure tertile at 10 years also had poorer Prosocial behavior scores. The association appeared strongest in girls, in whom the corresponding OR for Prosocial scores in relation to cadmium exposure at 10 years and prenatally was 0.58 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.99) and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.93), respectively. Conclusion Childhood cadmium exposure was associated with lower intelligence in boys, and there were indications of altered behavior in girls for both prenatal and childhood exposures. Findings are of concern as similar exposure levels are common world-wide.
Transcriptional differences between smokers and non-smokers and variance by obesity as a risk factor for human sensitivity to environmental exposures Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-16 Maria Nikodemova, Jeremiah Yee, Patrick R. Carney, Christopher A. Bradfield, Kristen MC. Malecki
Background Obesity has been shown to alter response to air pollution and smoking but underlying biological mechanisms are largely unknown and few studies have explored mechanisms by which obesity increases human sensitivity to environmental exposures. Objective Overall study goals were to investigate whole blood gene expression in smokers and non-smokers to examine associations between cigarette smoke and changes in gene expression by obesity status and test for effect modification. Methods Relative fold-change in mRNA expression levels of 84 genes were analyzed using a Toxicity and Stress PCR array among 50 21–54 year old adults. Data on smoking status was confirmed using urinary cotinine levels. Adjusted models included age, gender, white blood cell count and body-mass index. Results Models comparing gene expression of smokers vs. non-smokers identified six differentially expressed genes associated with smoking after adjustments for covariates. Obesity was associated with 29 genes differentially expressed compared to non-obese. We also identified 9 genes with significant smoking/obesity interactions influencing mRNA levels in adjusted models comparing expression between smokers vs non-smokers for four DNA damage related genes (GADD45A, DDB2, RAD51 and P53), two oxidative stress genes (FTH1, TXN), two hypoxia response genes (BN1P3lL, ARNT), and one gene associated with unfolded protein response (ATF6B). Conclusions Findings suggest that obesity alters human sensitivity to smoke exposures through several biological pathways by modifying gene expression. Additional studies are needed to fully understand the clinical impact of these effects, but risk assessments should consider underlying phenotypes, such as obesity, that may modulate sensitivity of vulnerable populations to environmental exposures.
Quantitative estimation of mercury intake by toxicokinetic modelling based on total mercury levels in humans Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-16 K. Abass, A. Huusko, H.K. Knutsen, P. Nieminen, P. Myllynen, H.M. Meltzer, K. Vahakangas, A. Rautio
Mercury is a toxic metal that can be disseminated into the environment from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Human exposure to the metal stems mainly from food, and more particularly from the consumption of fish and other seafoods. Examining dietary exposure and measuring mercury levels in body tissues are two ways of estimating exposure to mercury. In this study, we utilized a modelling system consisting of three linear toxicokinetic models for describing the fate of methyl mercury, inorganic mercury, and metallic mercury in the body, in order to estimate daily intake of mercury as measured through total mercury concentrations in the blood. We then compared the results stemming from our modelling system to those of the detailed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) of the Norwegian Fish and Game (NFG) Study, a project that focused on dietary mercury exposure. The results indicate that toxicokinetic modelling based on blood levels gave higher daily intake values of mercury compared to those of the FFQ. Furthermore, the former had a wider range of estimates than the latter. The properties of the toxicokinetic model or limitations in the dietary exposure assessment could be posited as reasons for the differences between the respective methods. Moreover, the results may have been influenced by sources of mercury exposure that cannot be described as dietary, such as amalgam fillings.
Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of environmental semi-volatile organic compounds via inhalation: A review of methods and models Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 Wenjuan Wei, Nathalie Bonvallot, Åsa Gustafsson, Gaëlle Raffy, Philippe Glorennec, Annette Krais, Olivier Ramalho, Barbara Le Bot, Corinne Mandin
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) present in indoor environments are known to cause adverse health effects through multiple routes of exposure. To assess the aggregate exposure, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of SVOCs need to be determined. In this review, we discussed measurements of the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of SVOCs after inhalation. Published literature related to this issue is available for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and a few polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene. Then, we reviewed common modeling approaches for the characterization of the gas- and particle-phase partitioning of SVOCs during inhalation. The models are based on mass transfer mechanisms as well as the structure of the respiratory system, using common computational techniques, such as computational fluid dynamics. However, the existing models are restricted to special conditions and cannot predict SVOC bioaccessibility and bioavailability in the whole respiratory system. The present review notes two main challenges for the estimation of SVOC bioaccessibility and bioavailability via inhalation in humans. First, in vitro and in vivo methods need to be developed and validated for a wide range of SVOCs. The in vitro methods should be validated with in vivo tests to evaluate human exposures to SVOCs in airborne particles. Second, modeling approaches for SVOCs need to consider the whole respiratory system. Alterations of the respiratory cycle period and human biological variability may be considered in future studies.
Botanical essential oils and uses as mosquitocides and repellents against dengue Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 Muthiah Chellappandian, Prabhakaran Vasantha-Srinivasan, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Sengodan Karthi, Annamalai Thanigaivel, Athirstam Ponsankar, Kandaswamy Kalaivani, Wayne B. Hunter
Plants naturally produce bioactive compounds along with many secondary metabolites which serve as defensive chemical against herbivorers including insect pests. One group of these phytochemicals are the ‘Essential Oils’ (EO's), which possess an extensive range of biological activity especially insecticidal and insect repellents. This review provides a comprehensive viewpoint on potential modes of action of biosafety plant derived Essential Oils (EO's) along with their principal chemical derivatives against larvae and adult mosquito vectors of dengue virus. The development and use of Essential Oils (EO's) effectively applied in small rural communities provides an enormous potential for low cost effective management of insect vectors of human pathogens which cause disease.
Selenium distribution in the Chinese environment and its relationship with human health: A review Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-10 Quang Toan Dinh, Zewei Cui, Jie Huang, Thi Anh Thu Tran, Dan Wang, Wenxiao Yang, Fei Zhou, Mengke Wang, Dasong Yu, Dongli Liang
Identifying the key catastrophic variables of urban social-environmental resilience and early warning signal Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-02-09 Yi Li, Yangfan Li, Martin Kappas, Mitchell Pavao-Zuckerman
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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