How do glutathione antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant status respond to air pollution exposure? Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-01-08 Zeinab Farhat, Richard W. Browne, Matthew R. Bonner, Lili Tian, Furong Deng, Mya Swanson, Lina Mu
This study aims to investigate how antioxidant enzyme activity and overall antioxidant capacity respond to short-term changes in exposure to air pollution. 201 participants were recruited before- and followed up during- and after- the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Serum levels of antioxidant enzymes including glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured. We used linear mixed-effects models to compare changes in antioxidant enzymes across the three periods after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Among all participants, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels decreased by 12.0% when air pollution dropped by 50–60% during the Olympics and increased by 6.5% when air pollution levels rose after the Olympics. The magnitude of increase among males, smokers, and older individuals was relatively smaller compared to females, nonsmokers, and younger individuals. Among all participants, total antioxidant status (TAS) significantly decreased by 6.23% during the games and continued to decrease by 4.41% after the games. However, among females, nonsmokers, and younger participants, there was an increase in TAS response to the elevated air pollution levels. Our study observed strong responses in GPx and TAS levels to the short-term decrease and increase of air pollution levels and responses varied among subgroups.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hydroxylated PBDE metabolites (OH-PBDEs) in maternal and fetal tissues, and associations with fetal cytochrome P450 gene expression Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-01-06 Ami R. Zota, Susanna D. Mitro, Joshua F. Robinson, Emily G. Hamilton, June-Soo Park, Emily Parry, R. Thomas Zoeller, Tracey J. Woodruff
Background Human fetal exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their metabolites (OH-PBDEs) are unique from adults, and in combination with a different metabolic profile, may make fetal development more sensitive to adverse health outcomes from these exposures. However, we lack data to characterize human fetal PBDE exposures and the metabolic factors that can influence these exposures. Objective We examined differences between 2nd trimester maternal and fetal exposures to PBDEs and OH-PBDEs. We also characterized fetal cytochrome P450 (CYP) mRNA expression and its associations with PBDE exposures. Methods We collected paired samples of maternal serum and fetal liver (n = 86) with a subset having matched placenta (n = 50). We measured PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, and mRNA expression of CYP genes (e.g. CYP1A1, -2E1, -2J2, -2C9) in all samples. As a sensitivity analysis, we measured PBDEs and OH-PBDEs in umbilical cord serum from a subset (n = 22). Results BDE-47 was detected in ≥ 96% of all tissues. Unadjusted ∑PBDEs concentrations were highest in fetal liver (geometric mean (GM) = 0.72 ng/g), whereas lipid-adjusted concentrations were highest in cord serum (111.12 ng/g lipid). In both cases, fetal concentrations were approximately two times higher than maternal serum levels (GM = 0.33 ng/g or 48.75 ng/g lipid). ΣOH-PBDEs were highest in maternal and cord sera and 20–200 times lower than PBDE concentrations. In regression models, maternal BDE-47 explained more of the model variance of liver than of placenta BDE-47 concentrations (adjusted R2 = 0.79 vs 0.48, respectively). In adjusted logistic regression models, ∑PBDEs were positively associated with expression of CYP2E1 and -2J2 (placenta), and -1A1 (liver) (p < 0.05). Conclusion Our findings suggest that under normal conditions of mid-gestation, the human fetus is directly exposed to concentrations of PBDEs that may be higher than previously estimated based on maternal serum and that these exposures are associated with the expression of mRNAs coding for CYP enzymes. These results will help frame and interpret findings from studies that use maternal or cord blood as proxy measures of fetal exposures, and will inform the molecular pathways by which PBDEs affect human health.
Functional metagenomics reveals a novel carbapenem-hydrolyzing mobile beta-lactamase from Indian river sediments contaminated with antibiotic production waste Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-01-06 Nachiket P. Marathe, Anders Janzon, Stathis D. Kotsakis, Carl-Fredrik Flach, Mohammad Razavi, Fanny Berglund, Erik Kristiansson, D. G. Joakim Larsson
The short-term effects of indoor size-fractioned particulate matter and black carbon on cardiac autonomic function in COPD patients Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Lu Pan, Shaowei Wu, Hongyu Li, Junhui Xu, Wei Dong, Jiao Shan, Xuan Yang, Yahong Chen, Masayuki Shima, Furong Deng, Xinbiao Guo
Background Previous studies have reported adverse health effects of indoor air pollutants especially particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been shown to be more likely with cardiovascular comorbidities in which cardiac autonomic dysfunction plays an important role. However, there is little evidence for the effect of indoor PM and BC exposures on cardiac autonomic function in COPD patients. Objectives To evaluate the association between exposure to indoor size-fractioned PM and BC and changes in HRV and HR in COPD patients. Methods Forty-three doctor diagnosed, stable COPD patients were recruited and measured for 24-h HRV and HR. Real-time indoor size-fractioned PM and BC were monitored on the day before and the day of performing health measurements. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate the associations between indoor PM and BC and HRV indices and HR after controlling for potential confounders. Results Increasing levels of size-fractioned PM and BC were associated with decreased HRV indices and increased HR. An IQR (3.14 μg/m3) increase in 8-h BC moving average and an IQR (20.72 μg/m3) increase in 5-min PM0.5 moving average concentrations were associated with declines of 7.45% (95% CI: − 10.89%, − 3.88%) and 16.40% (95% CI: − 21.06%, − 11.41%) in LF, respectively. The smaller the particles size, the greater effects on HRV indices and HR. Patients' BMI modified the associations between size-fractioned PM and BC and their HRV and HR. For an IQR increase in PM0.5, there was decline in HF of 34.85% (95% CI: − 39.08%, − 30.33%) in overweight patients, compared to a 2.01% (95% CI: − 6.44%, 11.19%) increase in normal-weight patients. Conclusions Exposures to indoor PM and BC were associated with altered cardiac autonomic function in COPD patients, and the associations for HRV measures of parasympathetic activity (e.g., HF) were more apparent in overweight patients.
Spatial and length-dependent variation of the risks and benefits of consuming Walleye (Sander vitreus) Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2018-01-03 Ursula Strandberg, Satyendra P. Bhavsar, Tarn Preet Parmar, Michael T. Arts
Restricted fish consumption due to elevated contaminant levels may limit the intake of essential omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n − 3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n − 3) acids. We analyzed lake- and length-specific mercury and EPA + DHA contents in Walleye (Sander vitreus; Mitchell 1818) from 20 waterbodies in Ontario, Canada, and used this information to calculate the theoretical intake of EPA + DHA when the consumption advisories are followed. The stringent consumption advisory resulted in decreased EPA + DHA intake regardless of the EPA + DHA content in Walleye. Walleye length had a strong impact on the EPA + DHA intake mainly because it was positively correlated with the mercury content and thereby consumption advisories. The highest EPA + DHA intake was achieved when smaller Walleye (30–40 cm) were consumed. The strong relationship between the consumption advisory and EPA + DHA intake enabled us to develop a more generic regression equation to estimate EPA + DHA intake from the consumption advisories, which we then applied to an additional 1322 waterbodies across Ontario, and 28 lakes from northern USA for which Walleye contaminant data are available but fatty acid data are missing. We estimate that adequate EPA + DHA intake (> 250 mg day− 1) is achieved in 23% of the studied Ontario lakes, for the general population, when small (30–40 cm) Walleye are eaten. Consumption of medium- (41–55 cm), and large-sized (60–70 cm) Walleye would provide adequate EPA + DHA intake from only 3% and 1% of the lakes, respectively. Our study highlights that mercury contamination, which triggers consumption advisories, strongly limits the suitability of Walleye as the sole dietary source of EPA + DHA to humans.
Long-term exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water and breast cancer in the Spanish multicase-control study on cancer (MCC-SPAIN) ☆ Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Laia Font-Ribera, Esther Gràcia-Lavedan, Nuria Aragonés, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Marina Pollán, Pilar Amiano, Ana Jiménez-Zabala, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Aina Roca-Barceló, Eva Ardanaz, Rosana Burgui, Antonio José Molina, Tania Fernández-Villa, Inés Gómez-Acebo, Trinidad Dierssen-Sotos, Victor Moreno, Guillermo Fernandez-Tardon, Rosana Peiró, Manolis Kogevinas, Cristina M. Villanueva
Background Exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water has consistently been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, but evidence on other cancers including the breast is very limited. Objectives We assessed long-term exposure to THMs to evaluate the association with female breast cancer (BC) risk. Methods A multi case-control study was conducted in Spain from 2008 to 2013. We included 1003 incident BC cases (women 20–85 years old) recruited from 14 hospitals and 1458 population controls. Subjects were interviewed to ascertain residential histories and major recognized risk factors for BC. Mean residential levels of chloroform, brominated THMs (Br-THMs) and the sum of both as total THM (TTHMs) during the adult-lifetime were calculated. Results Mean adult-lifetime residential levels ranged from 0.8 to 145.7 μg/L for TTHM (median = 30.8), from 0.2 to 62.4 μg/L for chloroform (median = 19.7) and from 0.3 to 126.0 μg/L for Br-THMs (median = 9.7). Adult-lifetime residential chloroform was associated with BC (adjusted OR = 1.47; 95%CI = 1.05, 2.06 for the highest (> 24 μg/L) vs. lowest (< 8 μg/L) quartile; p-trend = 0.024). No association was detected for residential Br-THMs (OR = 0.91; 95%CI = 0.68, 1.23 for > 31 μg/L vs. < 6 μg/L) or TTHMs (OR = 1.14; 95%CI = 0.83, 1.57 for > 48 μg/L vs. < 22 μg/L). Conclusions At common levels in Europe, long-term residential total THMs were not related to female breast cancer. A moderate association with chloroform was suggested at the highest exposure category. This large epidemiological study with extensive exposure assessment overcomes several limitations of previous studies but further studies are needed to confirm these results.
Health risk assessment of reclaimed wastewater: A case study of a conventional water reclamation plant in Nanjing, China Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-29 Yongfeng Deng, Melvin Bonilla, Hongqiang Ren, Yan Zhang
Contaminated reclaimed wastewater has the potential to induce adverse effects on the health of wastewater workers and residents. However, few studies have focused on these health risks. In this study, we assessed the health risk of samples collected from different treatment processing units used in a typical water reclamation plant in Nanjing, China. Chemical analysis revealed that 40 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and 6 N-nitrosamines (NAs) persisted after wastewater treatment. A health risk assessment revealed that the SVOCs in effluents pose negligible non-carcinogenic risk to wastewater workers and local residents as both the hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were all below 1.00. However, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and NAs may present a carcinogenic risk, since their risk index via dermal exposure exceeded the safety limit (1.00 × 106), indicating that conventional treatment processes cannot effectively reduce the health risk in reclaimed wastewater. These results strongly suggest the need for the introduction of advanced treatment technologies capable of effectively removing SVOCs and NAs in water reclamation plants.
Environmental phenol associations with ultrasound and delivery measures of fetal growth Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-30 Kelly K. Ferguson, John D. Meeker, David E. Cantonwine, Bhramar Mukherjee, Gerry G. Pace, David Weller, Thomas F. McElrath
Environmental phenols are used commonly in personal care products and exposure is widespread in pregnant women. In this study, we sought to assess the association between maternal urinary phenol concentrations in pregnancy and fetal growth. The study population included 476 mothers who participated in the prospective LIFECODES birth cohort between 2006 and 2008 at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Dichlorophenols (DCPs), benzophenone-3, parabens, triclosan, triclocarban, and bisphenol-S were measured in urine from three time points during pregnancy and averaged. Outcome measures were all standardized to create gestational-age specific z-scores and included: 1) birth weight; 2) ultrasound parameters measured at up to two time points in pregnancy (head and abdominal circumference and femur length); and 3) ultrasound estimates of fetal weight from two time points in combination with birth weight. Models were stratified to investigate sex differences. Inverse associations were observed between average 2,4- and 2,5-DCP concentrations and birth weight z-scores in males. For example, an interquartile range difference in 2,4-DCP was associated with a 0.18 standard deviation decrease in birth weight z-score (95% confidence interval [CI] = − 0.33, − 0.02). These associations were observed in models that included repeated ultrasound estimates of fetal weight during gestation as well. Also in males, we noted inverse associations between average triclosan exposure over pregnancy and estimated fetal weight combined with birth weight in repeated measures models. For females, associations were generally null. However, mothers with a detectable concentration of bisphenol-S at any of the study visits had lower weight females. In conclusion, we observed inverse associations between indicators of maternal phenol exposure during pregnancy and fetal growth, with several differences observed by sex.
Endotoxin predictors and associated respiratory outcomes differ with climate regions in the U.S. Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-23 Angelico Mendy, Jesse Wilkerson, Pӓivi M. Salo, Richard D. Cohn, Darryl C. Zeldin, Peter S. Thorne
Rationale Although endotoxin is a recognized cause of environmental lung disease, how its relationship with respiratory outcomes varies with climate is unknown. Objective To examine the endotoxin predictors as well as endotoxin association with asthma, wheeze, and sensitization to inhalant allergens in various US climate regions. Methods We analyzed data on 6963 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Endotoxin measurements of house dust from bedroom floor and bedding were performed at the University of Iowa. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to identify endotoxin predictors and assess endotoxin association with health outcomes. Results The overall median house dust endotoxin was 16.2 EU/mg; it was higher in mixed-dry/hot-dry regions (19.7 EU/mg) and lower in mixed-humid/marine areas (14.8 EU/mg). Endotoxin predictors and endotoxin association with health outcomes significantly differed across climate regions. In subarctic/very cold/cold regions, log10-endotoxin was significantly associated with higher prevalence of wheeze outcomes (OR:1.48, 95% CI:1.19–1.85 for any wheeze, OR:1.48, 95% CI:1.22–1.80 for exercise-induced wheeze, OR:1.50, 95% CI:1.13–1.98 for prescription medication for wheeze, and OR:1.95, 95% CI:1.50–2.54 for doctor/ER visit for wheeze). In hot-humid regions, log10-endotoxin was positively associated with any wheeze (OR:1.66, 95% CI:1.04–2.65) and current asthma (OR:1.56, 95% CI:1.11–2.18), but negatively with sensitization to any inhalant allergens (OR:0.83, 95% CI:0.74–0.92). Conclusion Endotoxin predictors and endotoxin association with asthma and wheeze differ across U.S. climate regions. Endotoxin is associated positively with wheeze or asthma in cold and hot-humid regions, but negatively with sensitization to inhalant allergens in hot-humid climates.
Environmental arsenic exposure: From genetic susceptibility to pathogenesis Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-22 Brenda C. Minatel, Adam P. Sage, Christine Anderson, Roland Hubaux, Erin A. Marshall, Wan L. Lam, Victor D. Martinez
More than 200 million people in 70 countries are exposed to arsenic through drinking water. Chronic exposure to this metalloid has been associated with the onset of many diseases, including cancer. Epidemiological evidence supports its carcinogenic potential, however, detailed molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Despite the global magnitude of this problem, not all individuals face the same risk. Susceptibility to the toxic effects of arsenic is influenced by alterations in genes involved in arsenic metabolism, as well as biological factors, such as age, gender and nutrition. Moreover, chronic arsenic exposure results in several genotoxic and epigenetic alterations tightly associated with the arsenic biotransformation process, resulting in an increased cancer risk. In this review, we: 1) review the roles of inter-individual DNA-level variations influencing the susceptibility to arsenic-induced carcinogenesis; 2) discuss the contribution of arsenic biotransformation to cancer initiation; 3) provide insights into emerging research areas and the challenges in the field; and 4) compile a resource of publicly available arsenic-related DNA-level variations, transcriptome and methylation data. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of arsenic exposure and its subsequent health effects will support efforts to reduce the worldwide health burden and encourage the development of strategies for managing arsenic-related diseases in the era of personalized medicine.
Quantifying regional consumption-based health impacts attributable to ambient air pollution in China Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-22 Yanxia Zhang, Shen Qu, Jing Zhao, Ge Zhu, Yanxu Zhang, Xi Lu, Clive E. Sabel, Haikun Wang
Serious air pollution has caused about one million premature deaths per year in China recently. Besides cross-border atmospheric transport of air pollution, trade also relocates pollution and related health impacts across China as a result of the spatial separation between consumption and production. This study proposes an approach for calculating the health impacts of emissions due to a region's consumption based on a multidisciplinary methodology coupling economic, atmospheric, and epidemiological models. These analyses were performed for China's Beijing and Hebei provinces. It was found that these provinces' consumption-based premature deaths attributable to ambient PM2.5 were respectively 22,500 and 49,700, which were 23% higher and 37% lower than the numbers solely within their boundaries in 2007. The difference between the effects of trade and trade-related emissions on premature deaths attributable to air pollution in a region has also been clarified. The results illustrate the large and broad impact of domestic trade on regional air quality and the need for comprehensive consideration of supply chains in designing policy to mitigate the negative health impacts of air pollution across China.
The influence of specific atmospheric circulation types on PM10-bound benzo(a)pyrene inhalation related lung cancer risk in Barcelona, Spain Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : Konstantinos Dimitriou, Pavlos Kassomenos
Maternal cumulative exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and pregnancy outcomes in the Elfe cohort Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-22 L. Migault, C. Piel, C. Carles, F. Delva, A. Lacourt, E. Cardis, C. Zaros, R. de Seze, I. Baldi, G. Bouvier
ObjectivesTo study the relations between maternal cumulative exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) and the risk of moderate prematurity and small for gestational age within the Elfe cohort.MethodsThe Elfe study included 18,329 infants born at 33 weeks of gestation or more in France in 2011 and was designed to follow the children until 20 years of age. Gestational age and anthropometric data at birth were collected in medical records and small for gestational age was defined according to a French customized growth standard. During interviews, mothers were asked to report their job status during pregnancy. If employed, their occupation was coded according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 and the date on which they stopped their work was recorded. Cumulative exposure to ELF EMF during pregnancy was assessed, for both mothers who worked and those who did not during pregnancy, using a recently-updated job-exposure matrix (JEM). Cumulative exposure was considered as a categorical variable (< 17.5, 17.5–23.8, 23.8–36.2, 36.2–61.6 or ≥ 61.6 μT-days), a binary variable (< 44.1 and ≥ 44.1 μT-days) and a continuous variable. Associations were analyzed by logistic regression, adjusting for the mother's lifestyle factors, sociodemographic characteristics and some mother's medical history during and before pregnancy. Analyses were restricted to single births and to complete values for the pregnancy outcomes (n = 16,733).ResultsCumulative exposure was obtained for 96.0% of the mothers. Among them, 37.5% were classified in the 23.8–36.2 μT-days category, but high exposures were rare: 1.3% in the ≥ 61.6 μT-days category and 5.5% in the ≥ 44.1 μT-days category. No significant association was observed between maternal cumulative exposure and moderate prematurity and small for gestational age in this exposure range.ConclusionThis large population-based study does not suggest that maternal exposure to ELF EMF during pregnancy is highly associated with risks of moderate prematurity or small for gestational age.
Cytogenetics alteration in adult men involved in the recycling of electronic wastes Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-22 Yanan Du, Yan Wang, Liqing Du, Chang Xu, Kaihua Ji, Jinhan Wang, Qiang Liu
Association of co-exposure to heavy metals with renal function in a hypertensive population Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-22 Weixiang Wu, Ke Zhang, Shunli Jiang, Dayang Liu, Hao Zhou, Rong Zhong, Qiang Zeng, Liming Cheng, Xiaoping Miao, Yeqing Tong, Qing Lu
BackgroundChronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing health problem worldwide. Recent studies have suggested the potential associations between exposure to metals and CKD events, particularly in participants with hypertension. However, relevant studies are limited.ObjectivesWe aimed to explore the associations of metal exposure with renal function in participants with essential hypertension.MethodsNine hundred and thirty-four participants with essential hypertension were recruited at the Department of Cardiology, Union Hospital, Wuhan, China. We measured the levels of chromium, cadmium, thallium and uranium in urine and calculated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for renal function. Multivariable linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders were applied.ResultsAfter adjusting for potential confounders and other metals, doubling of urinary chromium or uranium levels decreased eGFR by 2.90 (95% confidence interval, 2.04 to 3.76) and 1.87 (0.58 to 3.15) mL/min per 1.73 m2, respectively. Co-exposure to chromium and uranium was found to greatly decrease eGFR, particularly in women. Compared with those in the low exposure group, women with high exposure to chromium and uranium had a 11.36 (3.66 to 19.07) mL/min per 1.73 m2 adjusted decline in eGFR. Higher urinary thallium levels were positively related to elevated eGFR in men. The adjusted increase in eGFR with doubling of thallium levels was 3.12 (1.14 to 5.10) mL/min per 1.73 m2. Sex-difference in the associations of exposure to heavy metals with eGFR was also suggested.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that environmental exposure to chromium and uranium might contribute to a decline in eGFR in individuals with hypertension. The associations of exposure to heavy metals with eGFR might be sex-different. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and clarify the underlying mechanisms.
Reduced serum club cell protein as a pulmonary damage marker for chronic fine particulate matter exposure in Chinese population Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-22 Yanhua Wang, Huawei Duan, Tao Meng, Meili Shen, Qianpeng Ji, Jie Xing, Qingrong Wang, Ting Wang, Yong Niu, Tao Yu, Zhong Liu, Hongbing Jia, Yuliang Zhan, Wen Chen, Zhihu Zhang, Wenge Su, Yufei Dai, Xuchun Zhang, Yuxin Zheng
BackgroundExposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases. However, few population-based studies have been conducted to assess the alterations in circulating pulmonary proteins due to long-term PM2.5 exposure.MethodsWe designed a two-stage study. In the first stage (training set), we assessed the associations between PM2.5 exposure and levels of pulmonary damage markers (CC16, SP-A and SP-D) and lung function in a coke oven emission (COE) cohort with 558 coke plant workers and 210 controls. In the second stage (validation set), significant initial findings were validated by an independent diesel engine exhaust (DEE) cohort with 50 DEE exposed workers and 50 controls.ResultsSerum CC16 levels decreased in a dose response manner in association with both external and internal PM2.5 exposures in the two cohorts. In the training set, serum CC16 levels decreased with increasing duration of occupational PM2.5 exposure history. An interquartile range (IQR) (122.0 μg/m3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 5.76% decrease in serum CC16 levels, whereas an IQR (1.06 μmol/mol creatinine) increase in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) concentration was associated with a 5.36% decrease in serum CC16 levels in the COE cohort. In the validation set, the concentration of serum CC16 in the PM2.5 exposed group was 22.42% lower than that of the controls and an IQR (1.24 μmol/mol creatinine) increase in urinary 1-OHP concentration was associated with a 12.24% decrease in serum CC16 levels in the DEE cohort.ConclusionsSerum CC16 levels may be a sensitive marker for pulmonary damage in populations with high PM2.5 exposure.
Impacts of future urban expansion on summer climate and heat-related human health in eastern China Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Qian Cao, Deyong Yu, Matei Georgescu, Jianguo Wu, Wei Wang
China is the largest and most rapidly urbanizing nation in the world, and is projected to add an additional 200 million city dwellers by the end of 2030. While this rapid urbanization will lead to vast expansion of built-up areas, the possible climate effect and associated human health impact remain poorly understood. Using a coupled urban-atmospheric model, we first examine potential effects of three urban expansion scenarios to 2030 on summer climate in eastern China. Our simulations indicate extensive warming up to 5 °C, 3 °C, and 2 °C in regard to low- (> 0%), high- (> 75%), and 100% probability urban growth scenarios, respectively. The partitioning of available energy largely explains the changes in 2-m air temperatures, and increased sensible heat flux with higher roughness length of the underlying urban surface is responsible for the increase of nighttime planetary boundary layer height. In the extreme case (the low-probability expansion pathway), the agglomeration of impervious surfaces substantially reduces low-level atmospheric moisture, consequently resulting in large-scale precipitation reduction. However, the effect of near-surface warming far exceeds that of moisture reduction and imposes non-negligible thermal loads on urban residents. Our study, using a scenario-based approach that accounts for the full range of urban growth uncertainty by 2030, helps better evaluate possible regional climate effects and associated human health outcomes in the most rapidly urbanizing areas of China, and has practical implications for the development of sustainable urban regions that are resilient to changes in both mean and extreme conditions.
Urinary trans-anti-7,8,9,10-tetrahydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene as the most relevant biomarker for assessing carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Damien Barbeau, Simon Lutier, Luc Choisnard, Marie Marques, Renaud Persoons, Anne Maitre
Oral contraceptive use as a determinant of plasma concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances among women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) study Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Elise L. Rush, Alison B. Singer, Matthew P. Longnecker, Line S. Haug, Azemira Sabaredzovic, Elaine Symanski, Kristina W. Whitworth
ObjectiveBecause oral contraceptives (OC) tends to lessen menstrual fluid loss – a route of excretion for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) – we hypothesized that such use would be positively associated with PFAS concentrations.MethodsThis analysis was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) study. We included 1090 women from two previous substudies of women enrolled from 2003 to 2007. Characteristics of OC use were obtained at baseline: use in the past 12 months, duration and recency of use, age at first use. We examined log-transformed plasma concentrations of seven PFASs (perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptane sulfonate (PFHpS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)). Linear regression analyses, adjusted for maternal age, menstrual cycle length, parity, and education, were used to examine whether OC use characteristics were determinants of PFAS concentrations.ResultsExcept for PFDA and PFUnDA, women who used OCs in the 12 months preceding the baseline interview had 12.9–35.7% higher PFAS concentrations than never OC users. To a lesser extent, past OC use was positively associated with PFASs (estimates ranged from 7.2–32.1%). Compared with never users, using OCs for 10 or more years was associated with increased PFAS concentrations, except for PFDA and PFUnDA (estimates for other PFASs ranged from 18.9–46.2%). We observed little effect of age at first OC use.ConclusionsThis analysis shows that characteristics of OC use, and duration of use in particular, may be important considerations when investigating relationships between women's reproductive outcomes and PFASs.
Ambient air pollution, adipokines, and glucose homeostasis: The Framingham Heart Study Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Wenyuan Li, Kirsten S. Dorans, Elissa H. Wilker, Mary B. Rice, Itai Kloog, Joel D. Schwartz, Petros Koutrakis, Brent A. Coull, Diane R. Gold, James B. Meigs, Caroline S. Fox, Murray A. Mittleman
ObjectiveTo examine associations of proximity to major roadways, sustained exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and acute exposure to ambient air pollutants with adipokines and measures of glucose homeostasis among participants living in the northeastern United States.MethodsWe included 5958 participants from the Framingham Offspring cohort examination cycle 7 (1998–2001) and 8 (2005–2008) and Third Generation cohort examination cycle 1 (2002–2005) and 2 (2008–2011), who did not have type 2 diabetes at the time of examination visit. We calculated 2003 annual average PM2.5 at participants' home address, residential distance to the nearest major roadway, and daily PM2.5, black carbon (BC), sulfate, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and ozone concentrations. We used linear mixed effects models for fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) which were measured up to twice, and used linear regression models for adiponectin, resistin, leptin, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) which were measured only once, adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic position, lifestyle, time, and seasonality.ResultsThe mean age was 51 years and 55% were women. Participants who lived 64 m (25th percentile) from a major roadway had 0.28% (95% CI: 0.05%, 0.51%) higher fasting plasma glucose than participants who lived 413 m (75th percentile) away, and the association appeared to be driven by participants who lived within 50 m from a major roadway. Higher exposures to 3- to 7-day moving averages of BC and NOx were associated with higher glucose whereas the associations for ozone were negative. The associations otherwise were generally null and did not differ by median age, sex, educational attainment, obesity status, or prediabetes status.ConclusionsLiving closer to a major roadway or acute exposure to traffic-related air pollutants were associated with dysregulated glucose homeostasis but not with adipokines among participants from the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts.
Heat and health in Antwerp under climate change: Projected impacts and implications for prevention Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Gerardo Sanchez Martinez, Julio Diaz, Hans Hooyberghs, Dirk Lauwaet, Koen De Ridder, Cristina Linares, Rocio Carmona, Cristina Ortiz, Vladimir Kendrovski, Raf Aerts, An Van Nieuwenhuyse, Maria Bekker-Nielsen Dunbar
BackgroundExcessive summer heat is a serious environmental health problem in several European cities. Heat-related mortality and morbidity is likely to increase under climate change scenarios without adequate prevention based on locally relevant evidence.MethodsWe modelled the urban climate of Antwerp for the summer season during the period 1986–2015, and projected summer daily temperatures for two periods, one in the near (2026–2045) and one in the far future (2081–2100), under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5. We then analysed the relationship between temperature and mortality, as well as with hospital admissions for the period 2009–2013, and estimated the projected mortality in the near future and far future periods under changing climate and population, assuming alternatively no acclimatization and acclimatization based on a constant threshold percentile temperature.ResultsDuring the sample period 2009–2013 we observed an increase in daily mortality from a maximum daily temperature of 26 °C, or the 89th percentile of the maximum daily temperature series. The annual average heat-related mortality in this period was 13.4 persons (95% CI: 3.8–23.4). No effect of heat was observed in the case of hospital admissions due to cardiorespiratory causes. Under a no acclimatization scenario, annual average heat-related mortality is multiplied by a factor of 1.7 in the near future (24.1 deaths/year CI 95%: 6.78–41.94) and by a factor of 4.5 in the far future (60.38 deaths/year CI 95%: 17.00–105.11). Under a heat acclimatization scenario, mortality does not increase significantly in the near or in the far future.ConclusionThese results highlight the importance of a long-term perspective in the public health prevention of heat exposure, particularly in the context of a changing climate, and the calibration of existing prevention activities in light of locally relevant evidence.
Short-term effects of ultrafine particles on daily mortality by primary vehicle exhaust versus secondary origin in three Spanish cities Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Aurelio Tobías, Ioar Rivas, Cristina Reche, Andrés Alastuey, Sergio Rodríguez, Rocío Fernández-Camacho, Ana M. Sánchez de la Campa, Jesús de la Rosa, Jordi Sunyer, Xavier Querol
BackgroundEvidence on the short-term effects of ultrafine particles (with diameter < 100 nm, UFP) on health is still inconsistent. New particles in ambient urban air are the result of direct emissions and also the formation of secondary UFP from gaseous precursors. We segregated UFP into these two components and investigated their impact on daily mortality in three Spanish cities affected by different sources of air pollution.MethodsWe separated the UFP using a method based on the high correlation between black carbon (BC) and particle number concentration (N). The first component accounts for aerosol constituents emitted by vehicle exhaust (N1) and the second for the photochemical new particle formation enhancements (N2). We applied city-specific Poisson regression models, adjusting for long-term trends, temperature and population dynamics.ResultsMean BC levels were higher in Barcelona and Tenerife (1.8 and 1.2 μg·m− 3, respectively) than in Huelva (0.8 μg·m− 3). While mean UFP concentrations were similar in the three cities, from which N1 was 40% in Barcelona, 46% in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and 27% in Huelva. We observed an association with N1 and daily mortality in Barcelona, by increasing approximately 1.5% between lags 0 and 2, per an interquartile increase (IQR) of 3277 cm− 3, but not with N2. A similar pattern was found in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, although none of the associations were significant. Conversely, in the industrial city of Huelva mortality was associated with N2 at lag 0, by increasing 3.9% per an IQR of 12,032·cm− 3.ConclusionThe pattern and origin of UFP determines their short-term effect on human health. BC is possibly the better parameter to evaluate the health effects of particulate vehicle exhaust emissions, although in areas influenced by domestic solid fuel combustion this should also be taken into account.
Pregnancy outcomes and ethanol cook stove intervention: A randomized-controlled trial in Ibadan, Nigeria ☆ Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Donee A. Alexander, Amanda Northcross, Theodore Karrison, Oludare Morhasson-Bello, Nathaniel Wilson, Omolola M. Atalabi, Anindita Dutta, Damilola Adu, Tope Ibigbami, John Olamijulo, Dayo Adepoju, Oladosu Ojengbede, Christopher O. Olopade
BackgroundHousehold air pollution (HAP) exposure has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes.ObjectivesA randomized controlled trial was undertaken in Ibadan, Nigeria to determine the impact of cooking with ethanol on pregnancy outcomes.MethodsThree-hundred-twenty-four pregnant women were randomized to either the control (continued cooking using kerosene/firewood stove, n = 162) or intervention group (received ethanol stove, n = 162). Primary outcome variables were birthweight, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and occurrence of miscarriage/stillbirth.ResultsMean birthweights for ethanol and controls were 3076 and 2988 g, respectively; the difference, 88 g, (95% confidence interval: − 18 g to 194 g), was not statistically significant (p = 0.10). After adjusting for covariates, the difference reached significance (p = 0.020). Rates of preterm delivery were 6.7% (ethanol) and 11.0% (control), (p = 0.22). Number of miscarriages was 1(ethanol) vs. 4 (control) and stillbirths was 3 (ethanol) vs. 7 (control) (both non-significant). Average gestational age at delivery was significantly (p = 0.015) higher in ethanol-users (39.2 weeks) compared to controls (38.2 weeks). Perinatal mortality (stillbirths and neonatal deaths) was twice as high in controls compared to ethanol-users (7.9% vs. 3.9%; p = 0.045, after adjustment for covariates). We did not detect significant differences in exposure levels between the two treatment arms, perhaps due to large seasonal effects and high ambient air pollution levels.ConclusionsTransition from traditional biomass/kerosene fuel to ethanol reduced adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the difference in birthweight was statistically significant only after covariate adjustment and the other significant differences were in tertiary endpoints. Our results are suggestive of a beneficial effect of ethanol use. Larger trials are required to validate these findings.
The health impacts of weekday traffic: A health risk assessment of PM2.5 emissions during congested periods Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Weeberb J. Requia, Christopher D. Higgins, Matthew D. Adams, Moataz Mohamed, Petros Koutrakis
Assessment of long-term exposure to airborne dioxin and cadmium concentrations in the Lyon metropolitan area (France) Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 T. Coudon, H. Hourani, C. Nguyen, E. Faure, F.R. Mancini, B. Fervers, P. Salizzoni
Identifying the long-term effects of airborne pollutants requires the computation of the spatial and temporal variability of their concentration in air to estimate the exposure of the population. To estimate exposure levels of individuals in a breast cancer case control study nested in a national prospective cohort, we determine here the differential impact of a variety of cadmium and dioxin sources on urban air over a large urban area and over a period of almost 20 years.To that end, we couple an emission model, to estimate dioxin and cadmium atmospheric annual releases, with an urban dispersion model in order to compute pollutant concentration fields at a fine temporal (1 h) and spatial (25 m) resolution. The reliability of the modelling chain is compared to two types of measurement: i) localized industrial emissions and ii) dioxin and cadmium air monitoring data (from 2007 to 2008), collected at a fixed station, placed in the city centre, as well as at three mobile short-term dioxin monitoring stations, located in the suburbs (the latter providing dioxin data, only). Comparisons between measured and estimated emissions show non-negligible difference, with a correlations for dioxin (rs = 0.42) and cadmium (rs = 0.41). Despite this, mean values between estimated emissions and emission measurements are close to each other, in particular for cadmium. Weekly average modelled concentrations show an overall good agreement with weekly average measured concentrations in spring and summer but are generally lower than monitored data in winter due to peak concentrations from diffuse sources representing an important proportion of emissions in 2007/2008. The model provides better results for cadmium than for dioxin. Despite the relevant errors in the model predictions, the model meets the validation criteria, defined by Chang and Hanna for an urban dispersion model.Simulation scenarios of air pollutant concentrations, reconstructed over the last 20 years, show the effects of the variability of the pollutant sources over time with decreasing levels of dioxin and cadmium concentrations in air. This is primarily due to the reduction in localized industrial releases, which results in a general trend of homogenization of the exposure of the population.The model further allows us to dissociate the contribution of different types of pollutant sources on the population exposure. The impact on local concentrations due to industrial emissions, which were originally responsible for the major impact on air quality, is shown to drop over the years by 99% and 92% for dioxin and cadmium, respectively. Today, the major contributions are due to diffuse miscellaneous sources in the case of dioxin and to traffic-related emissions for cadmium.Average modelled concentrations at the study subjects' residential locations range from 10.2 to 82.1 fg-TEQ/m3 for dioxin and 0.10 to 1.6 ng/m3 for cadmium and are comparable with data from the literature.The study results will be essential to increase the accuracy of the assessment of long-term airborne dioxin and cadmium exposure and improve the results of epidemiological studies.
Perfluoroalkyl acid levels in first-time mothers in relation to offspring weight gain and growth Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Irina Gyllenhammar, Barbro Diderholm, Jan Gustafsson, Urs Berger, Peter Ridefelt, Jonathan P. Benskin, Sanna Lignell, Erik Lampa, Anders Glynn
We investigated if maternal body burdens of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) at the time of delivery are associated with birth outcome and if early life exposure (in utero/nursing) is associated with early childhood growth and weight gain. Maternal PFAA body burdens were estimated by analysis of serum samples from mothers living in Uppsala County, Sweden (POPUP), sampled three weeks after delivery between 1996 and 2011. Data on child length and weight were collected from medical records and converted into standard deviation scores (SDS). Multiple linear regression models with appropriate covariates were used to analyze associations between maternal PFAA levels and birth outcomes (n = 381). After birth Generalized Least Squares models were used to analyze associations between maternal PFAA and child growth (n = 200). Inverse associations were found between maternal levels of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and birth weight SDS with a change of − 0.10 to − 0.18 weight SDS for an inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in ng/g PFAA. After birth, weight and length SDS were not significantly associated with maternal PFAA. However, BMI SDS was significantly associated with PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS at 3 and 4 years of age, and with PFOS at 4 and 5 years of age. If causal, these associations suggest that PFAA affects fetal and childhood body development in different directions.
Associations between long-term PM2.5 and ozone exposure and mortality in the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CANCHEC), by spatial synoptic classification zone Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Sabit Cakmak, Chris Hebbern, Lauren Pinault, Eric Lavigne, Jennifer Vanos, Dan Lawson Crouse, Michael Tjepkema
Studies suggest that long-term chronic exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution can increase lung cancer mortality. We analyzed the association between long term PM2.5 and ozone exposure and mortality due to lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, accounting for geographic location, socioeconomic status, and residential mobility. Subjects in the 1991 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC) were followed for 20 years, and assigned to regions across Canada based on spatial synoptic classification weather types. Hazard ratios (HR) for mortality, were related to PM2.5 and ozone using Cox proportional hazards survival models, adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics and individual confounders. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in long term PM2.5 exposure resulted in an HR for lung cancer mortality of 1.26 (95% CI 1.04, 1.53); the inclusion in the model of SSC zone as a stratum increased the risk estimate to HR 1.29 (95% CI 1.06, 1.57). After adjusting for ozone, HRs increased to 1.49 (95% CI 1.23, 1.88), and HR 1.54 (95% CI 1.27, 1.87), with and without zone as a model stratum. HRs for ischemic heart disease fell from 1.25 (95% CI 1.21, 1.29) for exposure to PM2.5, to 1.13 (95% CI 1.08, 1.19) when PM2.5 was adjusted for ozone. For COPD, the 95% confidence limits included 1.0 when climate zone was included in the model. HRs for all causes of death showed spatial differences when compared to zone 3, the most populated climate zone. Exposure to PM2.5 was related to an increased risk of mortality from lung cancer, and both ozone and PM2.5 exposure were related to risk of mortality from ischemic heart disease, and the risk varied spatially by climate zone.
Development of artificial intelligence approach to forecasting oyster norovirus outbreaks along Gulf of Mexico coast Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Shima Shamkhali Chenar, Zhiqiang Deng
Prenatal and childhood perfluoroalkyl substances exposures and children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8 years Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Hongmei Zhang, Kimberly Yolton, Glenys M. Webster, Xiaoyun Ye, Antonia M. Calafat, Kim N. Dietrich, Yingying Xu, Changchun Xie, Joseph M. Braun, Bruce P. Lanphear, Aimin Chen
BackgroundExposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may impact children's neurodevelopment.ObjectiveTo examine the association of prenatal and early childhood serum PFAS concentrations with children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8 years.MethodsWe used data from 167 mother-child pairs recruited during pregnancy (2003–2006) in Cincinnati, OH, quantified prenatal serum PFAS concentrations at 16 ± 3 weeks of gestation and childhood sera at ages 3 and 8 years. We assessed children's reading skills using Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III at age 5 years and Wide Range Achievement Test-4 at age 8 years. We used general linear regression to quantify the covariate-adjusted associations between natural log-transformed PFAS concentrations and reading skills, and used multiple informant model to identify the potential windows of susceptibility.ResultsMedian serum PFASs concentrations were PFOS > PFOA > PFHxS > PFNA in prenatal, 3-year, and 8-year children. The covariate-adjusted general linear regression identified positive associations between serum PFOA, PFOS and PFNA concentrations and children's reading scores at ages 5 and 8 years, but no association between any PFHxS concentration and reading skills. The multiple informant model showed: a) Prenatal PFOA was positively associated with higher children's scores in Reading Composite (β: 4.0, 95% CI: 0.6, 7.4 per a natural log unit increase in exposure) and Sentence Comprehension (β: 4.2, 95% CI: 0.5, 8.0) at age 8 years; b) 3-year PFOA was positively associated with higher children's scores in Brief Reading (β: 7.3, 95% CI: 0.9, 13.8), Letter Word Identification (β: 6.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 12.0), and Passage Comprehension (β: 5.9, 95% CI: 1.5, 10.2) at age 5 years; c) 8-year PFOA was positively associated with higher children's Word Reading scores (β: 5.8, 95% CI: 0.8, 10.7) at age 8 years. Prenatal PFOS and PFNA were positively associated with children's reading abilities at age 5 years, but not at age 8 years; 3-year PFOS and PFNA were positively associated with reading scores at age 5 years. But PFHxS concentrations, at any exposure windows, were not associated with reading skills.ConclusionPrenatal and childhood serum PFOA, PFOS and PFNA concentrations were positively associated with better children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8 years, but no association was found between serum PFHxS and reading skills.
Paternal urinary concentrations of organophosphate flame retardant metabolites, fertility measures, and pregnancy outcomes among couples undergoing in vitro fertilization Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Courtney C. Carignan, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Paige L. Williams, John D. Meeker, Heather M. Stapleton, Craig M. Butt, Thomas L. Toth, Jennifer B. Ford, Russ Hauser
A multi-country analysis on potential adaptive mechanisms to cold and heat in a changing climate Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Ana M. Vicedo-Cabrera, Francesco Sera, Yuming Guo, Yeonseung Chung, Katherine Arbuthnott, Shilu Tong, Aurelio Tobias, Eric Lavigne, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, Paulo Hilario Nascimento Saldiva, Patrick G. Goodman, Ariana Zeka, Masahiro Hashizume, Yasushi Honda, Ho Kim, Martina S. Ragettli, Martin Röösli, Antonella Zanobetti, Joel Schwartz, Ben Armstrong, Antonio Gasparrini
Multi-pathway human exposure assessment of phthalate esters and DINCH Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Georgios Giovanoulis, Thuy Bui, Fuchao Xu, Eleni Papadopoulou, Juan A. Padilla-Sanchez, Adrian Covaci, Line S. Haug, Anna Palm Cousins, Jörgen Magnér, Ian T. Cousins, Cynthia A. de Wit
Phthalate esters are substances mainly used as plasticizers in various applications. Some have been restricted and phased out due to their adverse health effects and ubiquitous presence, leading to the introduction of alternative plasticizers, such as DINCH. Using a comprehensive dataset from a Norwegian study population, human exposure to DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, DEHP, DINP, DIDP, DPHP and DINCH was assessed by measuring their presence in external exposure media, allowing an estimation of the total intake, as well as the relative importance of different uptake pathways. Intake via different uptake routes, in particular inhalation, dermal absorption, and oral uptake was estimated and total intake based on all uptake pathways was compared to the calculated intake from biomonitoring data. Hand wipe results were used to determine dermal uptake and compared to other exposure sources such as air, dust and personal care products. Results showed that the calculated total intakes were similar, but slightly higher than those based on biomonitoring methods by 1.1 to 3 times (median), indicating a good understanding of important uptake pathways. The relative importance of different uptake pathways was comparable to other studies, where inhalation was important for lower molecular weight phthalates, and negligible for the higher molecular weight phthalates and DINCH. Dietary intake was the predominant exposure route for all analyzed substances. Dermal uptake based on hand wipes was much lower (median up to 2000 times) than the total dermal uptake via air, dust and personal care products. Still, dermal uptake is not a well-studied exposure pathway and several research gaps (e.g. absorption fractions) remain. Based on calculated intakes, the exposure for the Norwegian participants to the phthalates and DINCH was lower than health based limit values. Nevertheless, exposure to alternative plasticizers, such as DPHP and DINCH, is expected to increase in the future and continuous monitoring is required.
Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol S in humans after single oral administration Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Jiwon Oh, Jeong Weon Choi, Young-Ah Ahn, Sungkyoon Kim
Bisphenol S (BPS) has been introduced as a substitute for bisphenol A (BPA), and widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins and thermal papers. Despite its adverse health outcomes and widespread exposure, pharmacokinetic data of BPS are not available for either animals or humans. The objective of the study is to describe pharmacokinetic characteristics of BPS in human body after a single oral administration with a compartmental pharmacokinetic model. Seven healthy young adults were orally exposed to 8.75 μg/bw of d4-BPS, and serum and urine samples were collected for 48 h. The concentrations of total and unconjugated d4-BPS in samples were measured using HPLC-MS/MS. Based on the time-concentration profiles in serum and urine, non-compartmental analysis was performed, and two-compartment model was constructed and validated. As a result of non-compartmental analysis, total d4-BPS was rapidly absorbed within 1 h (0.7 ± 0.3 h) after oral administration, and excreted in urine with terminal half-life of < 7 h (6.8 ± 0.7 h). Fractional urinary excretion (Fue) of total d4-BPS for 48 h was 92 ± 17% (67–104%) for men and 70 ± 36% (59–77%) for women. The two-compartment model well described pharmacokinetic properties of BPS, and its parameter estimates were consistent with those from non-compartmental analysis. This study provides information on absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of BPS in human body, and the pharmacokinetic model can be utilized for estimating exposure dose of BPS, contributing to more realistic exposure assessment.
Presence of diphenyl phosphate and aryl-phosphate flame retardants in indoor dust from different microenvironments in Spain and the Netherlands and estimation of human exposure Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-18 Maria K. Björnsdotter, Encarnación Romera-García, Josep Borrull, Jacob de Boer, Soledad Rubio, Ana Ballesteros-Gómez
Distribution, variability, and predictors of urinary bisphenol A levels in 50 North Carolina adults over a six-week monitoring period Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-18 Marsha K. Morgan, Maliha Nash, Dana Boyd Barr, James M. Starr, M. Scott Clifton, Jon R. Sobus
Bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly manufactured to make polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins for use in consumer products and packaged goods. BPA has been found in several different types of environmental media (e.g., food, dust, and air). Many cross-sectional studies have frequently detected BPA concentrations in adult urine samples. However, limited data are available on the temporal variability and important predictors of urinary BPA concentrations in adults. In this work, the major objectives were to: 1) quantify BPA levels in duplicate-diet solid food, drinking water, hard floor surface wipe, and urine samples (first-morning void [FMV], bedtime, and 24-h) collected from adults over a six-week monitoring period; 2) determine the temporal variability of urinary BPA levels using concentration, specific gravity (SG) adjusted, creatinine (CR) adjusted, and excretion rate values, and; 3) examine associations between available study factors and urinary BPA concentrations. In 2009–2011, a convenience sample of 50 adults was recruited from residential settings in North Carolina. The participants completed diaries and collected samples during weeks 1, 2, and/or 6 of a six-week monitoring period. BPA was detected in 38%, 4%, and 99% of the solid food (n = 775), drinking water (n = 50), and surface wipe samples (n = 138), respectively. Total BPA (free plus conjugated) was detected in 98% of the 2477 urine samples. Median urinary BPA levels were 2.07 ng/mL, 2.20 ng/mL-SG, 2.29 ng/mg, and 2.31 ng/min for concentration, SG-adjusted, CR-adjusted, and excretion rate values, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) estimates for BPA showed poor reproducibility (≤ 0.35) for all urine sample types and methods over a day, week, and six weeks. CR-adjusted bedtime voids collected over six-weeks required the fewest, realistic number of samples (n = 11) to obtain a reliable biomarker estimate (ICC = 0.80). Results of linear mixed-effects models showed that sex, race, season, and CR-level were all significant predictors (p < 0.05) of the adults' urinary BPA concentrations. BPA levels in the solid food and surface wipe samples did not contribute significantly to the participants' urinary BPA concentrations. However, a significant positive relationship was observed between solid food intake and urine-based estimates of BPA dose, when aggregated over 24-h periods. Ingestion of BPA via solid food explained only about 20% of the total dose (at the median of the dose distribution), suggesting that these adults were likely exposed to other major unknown (non-dietary) sources of BPA in their everyday environments.
Prenatal particulate matter exposure and mitochondrial dysfunction at the maternal-fetal interface: Effect modification by maternal lifetime trauma and child sex Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-15 Kelly J. Brunst, Marco Sanchez-Guerra, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda Chiu, Ander Wilson, Brent A. Coull, Itai Kloog, Joel Schwartz, Kasey J. Brennan, Michelle Bosquet Enlow, Robert O. Wright, Andrea A. Baccarelli, Rosalind J. Wright
Background Prenatal ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and maternal chronic psychosocial stress have independently been linked to changes in mithochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn), a marker of mitochondrial response and dysfunction. Further, overlapping research shows sex-specific effects of PM2.5 and stress on developmental outcomes. Interactions among PM2.5, maternal stress, and child sex have not been examined in this context. Methods We examined associations among exposure to prenatal PM2.5, maternal lifetime traumatic stressors, and mtDNAcn at birth in a sociodemographically diverse pregnancy cohort (N = 167). Mothers' daily exposure to PM2.5 over gestation was estimated using a satellite-based spatio-temporally resolved prediction model. Lifetime exposure to traumatic stressors was ascertained using the Life Stressor Checklist-Revised; exposure was categorized as high vs. low based on a median split. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine mtDNAcn in placenta and cord blood leukocytes. Bayesian Distributed Lag Interaction regression models (BDLIMs) were used to statistically model and visualize the PM2.5 timing-dependent pattern of associations with mtDNAcn and explore effect modification by maternal lifetime trauma and child sex. Results Increased PM2.5 exposure across pregnancy was associated with decreased mtDNAcn in cord blood (cumulative effect estimate = − 0.78; 95%CI − 1.41, − 0.16). Higher maternal lifetime trauma was associated with reduced mtDNAcn in placenta (β = − 0.33; 95%CI − 0.63, − 0.02). Among women reporting low trauma, increased PM2.5 exposure late in pregnancy (30–38 weeks gestation) was significantly associated with decreased mtDNAcn in placenta; no significant association was found in the high trauma group. BDLIMs identified a significant 3-way interaction between PM2.5, maternal trauma, and child sex. Specifically, PM2.5 exposure between 25 and 40 weeks gestation was significantly associated with increased placental mtDNAcn among boys of mothers reporting high trauma. In contrast, PM2.5 exposure in this same window was significantly associated with decreased placental mtDNAcn among girls of mothers reporting low trauma. Similar 3-way interactive effects were observed in cord blood. Conclusions These results indicate that joint exposure to PM2.5 in late pregnancy and maternal lifetime trauma influence mtDNAcn at the maternal-fetal interface in a sex-specific manner. Additional studies will assist in understanding if the sex-specific patterns reflect distinct pathophysiological processes in addition to mitochondrial dysfunction.
Air pollution and occurrence of type 2 diabetes in a large cohort study Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-16 Matteo Renzi, Francesco Cerza, Claudio Gariazzo, Nera Agabiti, Silvia Cascini, Riccardo Di Domenicantonio, Marina Davoli, Francesco Forastiere, Giulia Cesaroni
The few cohort studies that have investigated the association between exposure to air pollution and occurrence of diabetes have reported conflicting results. We aimed to evaluate the association of long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone (O3), with baseline prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes in a large administrative cohort in Rome, Italy. A total of 1,425,580 subjects aged 35 + years (January 1st, 2008) were assessed and followed for six years. We estimated PM10, PM2.5–10, PM2.5, NO2, and NOx exposures at residence using land use regression models, and summer O3 exposure using dispersion modeling. To estimate the association between air pollutant exposures and prevalence and incidence of diabetes, we used logistic and Cox regression models, considering individual, environmental (noise and green areas), and contextual characteristics. We identified 106,387 prevalent cases at baseline and 65,955 incident cases during the follow-up period. We found positive associations between nitrogen oxides exposures and prevalence of diabetes with odds ratios (ORs) up to 1.010 (95% CI: 1.002, 1.017) and 1.015 (1.009, 1.021) for NO2 and NOx, respectively, per fixed increases (per 10 μg/m3 and 20 μg/m3, respectively). We also found some evidence of an association between NOx and O3 and incidence of diabetes, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.011 (95%CI: 1.003–1.019) and 1.015 (1.002–1.027) per 20 and 10 μg/m3 increases, respectively. The association with O3 with incident diabetes was stronger in women than in men and among those aged < 50 years. In sum, long-term exposure to nitrogen oxides was associated with prevalent diabetes while NOx and O3 exposures were associated with incident diabetes.
An analysis of cumulative risks based on biomonitoring data for six phthalates using the Maximum Cumulative Ratio Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-16 Jeanette M. Reyes, Paul S. Price
Long-term projections of temperature-related mortality risks for ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and acute ischemic heart disease under changing climate in Beijing, China Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-11 Tiantian Li, Radley M. Horton, Daniel A. Bader, Fangchao Liu, Qinghua Sun, Patrick L. Kinney
Background Changing climates have been causing variations in the number of global ischemic heart disease and stroke incidences, and will continue to affect disease occurrence in the future. Objectives To project temperature-related mortality for acute ischemic heart disease, and ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke with concomitant climate warming. Methods We estimated the exposure-response relationship between daily cause-specific mortality and daily mean temperature in Beijing. We utilized outputs from 31 downscaled climate models and two representative concentration pathways (RCPs) for the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. This strategy was used to estimate future net temperature along with heat- and cold-related deaths. The results for predicted temperature-related deaths were subsequently contrasted with the baseline period. Results In the 2080s, using the RCP8.5 and no population variation scenarios, the net total number of annual temperature-related deaths exhibited a median value of 637 (with a range across models of 434–874) for ischemic stroke; this is an increase of approximately 100% compared with the 1980s. The median number of projected annual temperature-related deaths was 660 (with a range across models of 580–745) for hemorrhagic stroke (virtually no change compared with the 1980s), and 1683 (with a range across models of 1351–2002) for acute ischemic heart disease (a slight increase of approximately 20% compared with the 1980s). In the 2080s, the monthly death projection for hemorrhagic stroke and acute ischemic heart disease showed that the largest absolute changes occurred in summer and winter while the largest absolute changes for ischemic stroke occurred in summer. Conclusions We projected that the temperature-related mortality associated with ischemic stroke will increase dramatically due to climate warming. However, projected temperature-related mortality pertaining to acute ischemic heart disease and hemorrhagic stroke should remain relatively stable over time.
Spatiotemporal influence of temperature, air quality, and urban environment on cause-specific mortality during hazy days Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-12 Hung Chak Ho, Man Sing Wong, Lin Yang, Wenzhong Shi, Jinxin Yang, Muhammad Bilal, Ta-Chien Chan
Haze is an extreme weather event that can severely increase air pollution exposure, resulting in higher burdens on human health. Few studies have explored the health effects of haze, and none have investigated the spatiotemporal interaction between temperature, air quality and urban environment that may exacerbate the adverse health effects of haze. We investigated the spatiotemporal pattern of haze effects and explored the additional effects of temperature, air pollution and urban environment on the short-term mortality risk during hazy days. We applied a Poisson regression model to daily mortality data from 2007 through 2014, to analyze the short-term mortality risk during haze events in Hong Kong. We evaluated the adverse effect on five types of cause-specific mortality after four types of haze event. We also analyzed the additional effect contributed by the spatial variability of urban environment on each type of cause-specific mortality during a specific haze event. A regular hazy day (lag 0) has higher all-cause mortality risk than a day without haze (odds ratio: 1.029 [1.009, 1.049]). We have also observed high mortality risks associated with mental disorders and diseases of the nervous system during hazy days. In addition, extreme weather and air quality contributed to haze-related mortality, while cold weather and higher ground-level ozone had stronger influences on mortality risk. Areas with a high-density environment, lower vegetation, higher anthropogenic heat, and higher PM2.5 featured stronger effects of haze on mortality than the others. A combined influence of haze, extreme weather/air quality, and urban environment can result in extremely high mortality due to mental/behavioral disorders or diseases of the nervous system. In conclusion, we developed a data-driven technique to analyze the effects of haze on mortality. Our results target the specific dates and areas with higher mortality during haze events, which can be used for development of health warning protocols/systems.
Prenatal arsenic exposure, child marriage, and pregnancy weight gain: Associations with preterm birth in Bangladesh Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-12 Mohammad L. Rahman, Molly L. Kile, Ema G. Rodrigues, Linda Valeri, Anita Raj, Maitreyi Mazumdar, Golam Mostofa, Quazi Quamruzzaman, Mahmudur Rahman, Russ Hauser, Andrea Baccarelli, Liming Liang, David C. Christiani
Background Preterm birth is a disease of multifactorial etiologies that has environmental, social, and maternal health components. Individual studies have shown that exposure to arsenic contaminated drinking water, child marriage, and low maternal weight gain during pregnancy contribute to preterm birth. These factors are highly prevalent and often co-exist in Bangladesh, a country in South Asia with one of the world's highest prevalences of preterm birth. Objective To evaluate the individual and interactive effects of prenatal arsenic exposure, child marriage, and pregnancy weight gain on preterm birth in a prospective birth cohort in Bangladesh. Methods During 2008–2011, we recruited 1613 pregnant women aged ≥ 18 years at ≤ 16 weeks of gestation and followed them until 1-month post-partum. We measured total arsenic in drinking water (n = 1184) and in maternal toenails (n = 1115) collected at enrollment and ≤ 1-month post-partum, respectively using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Child marriage (< 18 years old) was defined using self-report, and 2nd and 3rd trimester pregnancy weight gain was calculated using monthly records. Gestational age was determined at enrollment by ultrasound. Results In multivariate adjusted Poisson regression models, the risk ratios (RR) for preterm birth were 1.12 (95% CI: 1.07–1.18) for a unit change in natural log water arsenic exposure, 2.28 (95% CI: 1.76–2.95) for child marriage, and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.42–0.97) for a pound per week increase in maternal weight during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. In stratified analysis by child marriage, pregnancy weight gain was inversely associated with preterm birth among women with a history of child marriage (RR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.37–0.92), but not among women with no history of child marriage (RR = 86; 95% CI: 0.37–2.01). Mediation analysis revealed that both arsenic exposure and child marriage had small but significant associations with preterm birth via lowering pregnancy weight gain. Similar associations were observed when arsenic exposure was assessed using maternal toenail arsenic concentrations. Conclusions Reducing arsenic exposure and ending child marriage could reduce the risk of preterm birth in Bangladesh. Furthermore, enhancing nutritional support to ensure adequate weight gain during pregnancy may provide additional benefits especially for women with a history of child marriage.
Time of the day dictates the variability of biomarkers of exposure to disinfection byproducts Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Stephanie Gängler, Pantelis Charisiadis, Ratanesh Seth, Saurabh Chatterjee, Konstantinos C. Makris
Organophosphate flame retardants in dust collected from United States fire stations Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Beverly Shen, Todd P. Whitehead, Ranjit Gill, Joginder Dhaliwal, F. Reber Brown, Myrto Petreas, Sharyle Patton, S. Katharine Hammond
Firefighters are exposed to chemicals during fire events and we previously demonstrated that fire station dust has high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In conducting the Fire Station Dust Study, we sought to further characterize the chemicals to which firefighters could be exposed – measuring the emerging class of phosphorous-containing flame retardants (PFRs) in fire stations, for the first time, as well as PBDEs. Dust samples from 26 fire stations in five states were collected from vacuum-cleaner bags and analyzed for PFRs and PBDEs. PFR concentrations were found to be on the same order of magnitude as PBDE concentrations (maximum PFR: 218,000 ng/g; maximum PBDE: 351,000 ng/g). Median concentrations of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), tris (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), and tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDCIPP) in dust from fire stations were higher than those previously reported in homes and other occupational settings around the world. Total PFR levels did not vary significantly among states. Levels of TDCIPP were higher in stations where vacuum cleaners were used to clean surfaces other than the floor. PBDE levels were comparable to those found in our previous study of 20 California fire stations and much higher than levels in California residences. PFR and PBDE levels in fire station dust are higher than in other occupational and residential settings, underscoring the need to identify and control sources of this contamination.
Early life exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and mid-childhood lipid and alanine aminotransferase levels Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-11-20 Ana M. Mora, Abby F. Fleisch, Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman, Jennifer A. Woo Baidal, Larissa Pardo, Thomas F. Webster, Antonia M. Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Emily Oken, Sharon K. Sagiv
Background Growing evidence suggests that exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may disrupt lipid homeostasis and liver function, but data in children are limited. Objective We examined the association of prenatal and mid-childhood PFAS exposure with lipids and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in children. Methods We studied 682 mother-child pairs from a Boston-area pre-birth cohort. We quantified PFASs in maternal plasma collected in pregnancy (median 9.7 weeks gestation, 1999–2002) and in child plasma collected in mid-childhood (median age 7.7 years, 2007–2010). In mid-childhood we also measured fasting total (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and ALT. We then derived low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from TC, HDL-C, and TG using the Friedewald formula. Results Median (interquartile range, IQR) perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA) concentrations in child plasma were 6.2 (5.5), 4.3 (3.0), and 0.3 (0.3) ng/mL, respectively. Among girls, higher child PFOS, PFOA, and PFDeA concentrations were associated with detrimental changes in the lipid profile, including higher TC and/or LDL-C [e.g., β per IQR increment in PFOS = 4.0 mg/dL (95% CI: 0.3, 7.8) for TC and 2.6 mg/dL (−0.5, 5.8) for LDL-C]. However, among both boys and girls, higher plasma concentrations of these child PFASs were also associated with higher HDL-C, which predicts better cardiovascular health, and slightly lower ALT, which may indicate better liver function. Prenatal PFAS concentrations were also modestly associated with improved childhood lipid and ALT levels. Conclusions Our data suggest that prenatal and mid-childhood PFAS exposure may be associated with modest, but somewhat conflicting changes in the lipid profile and ALT levels in children.
A review of emerging adsorbents and current demand for defluoridation of water: Bright future in water sustainability Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-01 Krishna Kumar Yadav, Neha Gupta, Vinit Kumar, Shakeel Ahmad Khan, Amit Kumar
Fluoride contamination of groundwater is a serious problem in several countries of the world because of the intake of excessive fluoride caused by the drinking of the contaminated groundwater. Geological and anthropogenic factors are responsible for the contamination of groundwater with fluoride. Excess amounts of fluoride in potable water may cause irreversible demineralisation of bone and tooth tissues, a condition called fluorosis, and long-term damage to the brain, liver, thyroid, and kidney. There has long been a need for fluoride removal from potable water to make it safe for human use. From among several defluoridation technologies, adsorption is the technology most commonly used due to its cost-effectiveness, ease of operation, and simple physical process. In this paper, the adsorption capacities and fluoride removal efficiencies of different types of adsorbents are compiled from relevant published data available in the literature and represented graphically. The most promising adsorbents tested so far from each category of adsorbents are also highlighted. There is still a need to discover the actual feasibility of usage of adsorbents in the field on a commercial scale and to define the reusability of adsorbents to reduce cost and the waste produced from the adsorption process. The present paper reviews the currently available methods and emerging approaches for defluoridation of water.
Urinary concentrations of biomarkers of phthalates and phthalate alternatives and IVF outcomes Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-11-20 Ronit Machtinger, Audrey J. Gaskins, Catherine Racowsky, Abdallah Mansur, Michal Adir, Andrea A. Baccarelli, Antonia M. Calafat, Russ Hauser
Phthalates are a class of chemicals found in a large variety of consumer products. Available experimental and limited human data show adverse effects of some phthalates on ovarian function, which has raised concerns regarding potential effects on fertility. The aim of the current study was to determine whether urinary concentrations of metabolites of phthalates and phthalate alternatives are associated with intermediate and clinical in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. We enrolled 136 women undergoing IVF in a Tertiary University Affiliated Hospital. Participants provided one to two urine samples per cycle during ovarian stimulation and before oocyte retrieval. IVF outcomes were abstracted from medical records. Concentrations of 17 phthalate metabolites and two metabolites of the phthalate alternative di(isononyl) cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH) were measured. Multivariable Poisson regression models with log link were used to analyze associations between tertiles of specific gravity adjusted phthalate or DINCH metabolites and number of total oocytes, mature oocytes, fertilized oocytes, and top quality embryos. Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the association between tertiles of specific gravity adjusted phthalate or DINCH metabolites and probability of live birth. Urinary concentrations of the sum of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites (∑ DEHP) and the individual metabolites mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, and mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate were negatively associated with the number of total oocytes, mature oocytes, fertilized oocytes, and top quality embryos. Of the low molecular weight phthalates, higher monoethyl phthalate and mono-n-butyl phthalate concentrations were associated with significantly fewer total, mature, and fertilized oocytes. None of the urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations were associated with a reduced probability implantation, clinical pregnancy or live birth. Metabolites of DINCH were not associated with intermediate or clinical IVF outcomes. Our results suggest that DEHP may impair early IVF outcomes, specifically oocyte parameters. Additional research is needed to elucidate the potential effect of DEHP on female fertility in the general population.
Quantifying the exposure of humans and the environment to oil pollution in the Niger Delta using advanced geostatistical techniques Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-11-21 Christopher B. Obida, G. Alan Blackburn, J. Duncan Whyatt, Kirk T. Semple
The Niger Delta is one of the largest oil producing regions of the world. Large numbers and volumes of oil spills have been reported in this region. What has not been quantified is the putative exposure of humans and/or the environment to this hydrocarbon pollution. In this novel study, advanced geostatistical techniques were applied to an extensive database of oil spill incidents from 2007 to 2015. The aims were to (i) identify and analyse spill hotspots along the oil pipeline network and (ii) estimate the exposure of the hydrocarbon pollution to the human population and the environment within the Niger Delta. Over the study period almost 90 million litres of oil were released. Approximately 29% of the human population living in proximity to the pipeline network has been potentially exposed to oil contamination, of which 565,000 people live within high or very high spill intensity sectors. Over 1000 km2 of land has been contaminated by oil pollution, with broadleaved forest, mangroves and agricultural land the most heavily impacted land cover types. Proximity to the coast, roads and cities are the strongest spatial factors contributing to spill occurrence, which largely determine the accessibility of sites for pipeline sabotage and oil theft. Overall, the findings demonstrate the high levels of environmental and human exposure to hydrocarbon pollutants in the Niger Delta. These results provide evidence with which to spatially target interventions to reduce future spill incidents and mitigate the impacts of previous spills on human communities and ecosystem health.
Nutritional status and diet as predictors of children's lead concentrations in blood and urine Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-11-21 Katarzyna Kordas, Rachael Burganowski, Aditi Roy, Fabiana Peregalli, Valentina Baccino, Elizabeth Barcia, Soledad Mangieri, Virginia Ocampo, Nelly Mañay, Gabriela Martínez, Marie Vahter, Elena I. Queirolo
Lead exposure remains an important public health problem. Contaminated foods may act as a source of lead exposure, while certain nutrients may reduce lead absorption. We examined the cross-sectional associations of dietary patterns and the intake of several nutrients and foods with blood (Pb-B) and urinary (Pb-U) lead concentrations in children (5–8 y) from Montevideo, Uruguay. From two 24-hour recalls completed by caregivers, we derived the mean daily intake of select nutrients and food groups (dairy, milk, fruit, root vegetables, foods rich in heme and non-heme iron), as well as “nutrient dense” and “processed” food patterns. Pb-B (n = 315) was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry; Pb-U (n = 321) using ICP-MS. Pb-U was adjusted for specific gravity and log-transformed to approximate a normal distribution. Iron deficiency (ID) and dietary variables were tested as predictors of Pb-B and log-Pb-U in covariate-adjusted regressions. Median [5%, 95%] Pb-B and Pb-U were 3.8 [0.8–7.8] μg/dL and 1.9 [0.6–5.1] μg/L, respectively; ~ 25% of Pb-B above current U.S. CDC reference concentration of 5 μg/dL. ID was associated with 0.75 μg/dL higher Pb-B, compared to non-ID (p < 0.05). Consumption of root vegetables was not associated with Pb-B or log-Pb-U. Higher scores on the nutrient-dense pattern were related with higher Pb-Bs, possibly due to consumption of green leafy vegetables. Dietary intake of iron or iron-rich foods was not associated with biomarkers of lead. Conversely, children consuming more calcium, dairy, milk and yogurt had lower Pb-B and log-Pb-U. Our findings appear consistent with existing recommendations on including calcium-rich, but not iron- or vitamin-C-rich foods in the diets of lead-exposed children, especially where the consumption of these foods is low.
Mortality risks from a spectrum of causes associated with wide-ranging exposure to fine particulate matter: A case-crossover study in Beijing, China Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-11-22 Tiantian Li, Meilin Yan, Qinghua Sun, G. Brooke Anderson
Background Exposure to fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5) has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of mortality due to cardiovascular, respiratory, and other pulmonary diseases. However, fewer studies have investigated the relationship between ambient PM2.5 and human mortality for a wider range of causes of death, or for more specific causes of death within these broader categories, especially at the high PM2.5 concentrations currently experienced in Chinese megacities. Beijing, China, has a very large population and a wide range of PM2.5 exposures, allowing a prime opportunity to estimate such risks across a broad spectrum of causes, including rarer causes of death. Objective To estimate the relative risk of cause-specific mortality associated with PM2.5 for a spectrum of causes of death, as well as characterize the time course of cause-specific mortality following PM2.5 exposure, in a location where PM2.5 concentrations are representative of common exposures in Chinese megacities. Methods We collected daily data on mortality counts of Beijing residents and Beijing weather and air pollution measurements for January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2012. We used a time-stratified case-crossover study design to estimate the association between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and risk of death from several broad causes of death and from more refined specific causes within these broader categories. Primary results were estimated for risks the day of and the day following exposure (lag 0–1), but the time pattern of associated risk was also explored up to seven days following exposure. Results Increased concentrations of PM2.5 were associated with increased risks at lag days 0–1 of all-cause mortality (0.26% increase per 10 μg/m3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.12%–0.39%), non-accidental deaths (0.25%; 95% CI: 0.11%–0.38%), circulatory deaths (0.39%; 95% CI: 0.21%–0.59%), respiratory deaths (0.43%; 95% CI: 0.05%–0.81%), intentional self-harm deaths (1.94%; 95% CI: 0.19%–3.73%) and nervous system deaths (0.9%; 95% CI: − 0.2%–2%), although the observed increase was not statistical significant for the final one rarer cause of death. In addition to these five broad death outcomes, risk also increased following PM2.5 exposure at lag days 0–1 for deaths from several specific causes, including most of the specific circulatory causes considered. The largest observed increased risk by far was for one of the rarest causes of death considered, extrapyramidal and movement disorders (2.35%; 95% CI: 0.03%–4.72%). Conclusions This study indicates that exposure to PM2.5 in a study location more representative of exposures in developing cities is associated with an increased risk of mortality from broad range of causes of death, including some causes rarely studied previously in association with PM2.5 exposure.
Effects of exposure to water disinfection by-products in a swimming pool: A metabolome-wide association study Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-11-24 Karin van Veldhoven, Pekka Keski-Rahkonen, Dinesh K. Barupal, Cristina M. Villanueva, Laia Font-Ribera, Augustin Scalbert, Barbara Bodinier, Joan O. Grimalt, Christian Zwiener, Jelle Vlaanderen, Lützen Portengen, Roel Vermeulen, Paolo Vineis, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Manolis Kogevinas
Modeling the potential health benefits of lower household air pollution after a hypothetical liquified petroleum gas (LPG) cookstove intervention ☆ Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-11-26 Kyle Steenland, Ajay Pillarisetti, Miles Kirby, Jennifer Peel, Maggie Clark, Will Checkley, Howard H. Chang, Thomas Clasen
Introduction: Improved biomass and advanced fuel cookstoves can lower household air pollution (HAP), but levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) often remain above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended interim target of 35 μg/m3. Methods: Based on existing literature, we first estimate a range of likely levels of personal PM2.5 before and after a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) intervention. Using simulations reflecting uncertainty in both the exposure estimates and exposure-response coefficients, we estimate corresponding expected health benefits for systolic blood pressure (SBP) in adults, birthweight, and pneumonia incidence among children < 2 years old. We also estimate potential avoided premature mortality among those exposed. Results: Our best estimate is that an LPG stove intervention would decrease personal PM2.5 exposure from approximately 270 μg/m3 to approximately 70 μg/m3, due to likely continued use of traditional open-fire stoves. We estimate that this decrease would lead to a 5.5 mmHg lower SBP among women over age 50, a 338 g higher birthweight, and a 37% lower incidence of severe childhood pneumonia. We estimate that decreased SBP, if sustained, would result in a 5%–10% decrease in mortality for women over age 50. We estimate that higher birthweight would reduce infant mortality by 4 to 11 deaths per 1000 births; for comparison, the current global infant mortality rate is 32/1000 live births. Reduced exposure is estimated to prevent approximately 29 cases of severe pneumonia per year per 1000 children under 2, avoiding approximately 2–3 deaths/1000 per year. However, there are large uncertainties around all these estimates due to uncertainty in both exposure estimates and in exposure-response coefficients; all health effect estimates include the null value of no benefit. Conclusions: An LPG stove intervention, while not likely to lower exposure to the WHO interim target level, is still likely to offer important health benefits.
Daily exceedance concentration hours: A novel indicator to measure acute cardiovascular effects of PM2.5 in six Chinese subtropical cities Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-11-28 Hualiang Lin, Xiaojie Wang, Zhengmin (Min) Qian, Shu Guo, Zhenjiang Yao, Michael G. Vaughn, Guanghui Dong, Tao Liu, Jianpeng Xiao, Xing Li, Weilin Zeng, Yanjun Xu, Wenjun Ma
Background Daily mean concentration cannot fully address the hourly variations of air pollution within one day. As such, we proposed a new indicator, daily exceedance concentration hours (DECH), to explore the acute cardiovascular effects of ambient PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm). The DECH in PM2.5 was defined as daily total concentration-hours > 25 μg/m3. Methods A generalized additive model with a quasi-Poisson link was applied to estimate the associations between day-to-day variation in PM2.5 DECH and day-to-day variation in cardiovascular mortality in six subtropical cities in Guangdong Province, China. Results The analysis revealed significant associations between PM2.5 DECHs and cardiovascular mortality. A 500 μg/m3 ∗ h increase in PM2.5 DECHs at lag03 was associated with an increase of 4.55% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.59%, 5.52%) in cardiovascular mortality, 4.45% (95% CI: 2.81%, 6.12%) in ischemic cardiovascular mortality, 5.02% (95% CI: 3.41%, 6.65%) in cerebrovascular mortality, and 3.00% (95% CI: 1.13%, 4.90%) in acute myocardial infarction mortality. We further observed a greater mortality burden using PM2.5 DECHs than daily mean PM2.5 (6478 (95% CI: 5071, 7917) VS 5136 (95% CI: 3990, 6305)). Conclusion This study reveals that PM2.5 DECH is one important exposure indicator of ambient PM2.5 to measure its cardiovascular mortality effects in Pearl River Delta region; and that using daily mean concentration could under-estimate the mortality burden compared with this new indicator.
Urinary metabolites of organophosphate esters: Concentrations and age trends in Australian children Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-11-28 Chang He, Leisa-Maree L. Toms, Phong Thai, Nele Van den Eede, Xianyu Wang, Yan Li, Christine Baduel, Fiona A. Harden, Amy L. Heffernan, Peter Hobson, Adrian Covaci, Jochen F. Mueller
There is growing concern around the use of organophosphate esters (OPEs) due to their suspected reproductive toxicity, carcinogenicity, and neurotoxicity. OPEs are used as flame retardants and plasticizers, and due to their extensive application in consumer products, are found globally in the indoor environment. Early life exposure to OPEs is an important risk factor for children's health, but poorly understood. To study age and sex trends of OPE exposures in infants and young children, we collected, pooled, and analysed urine samples from children aged 0–5 years from Queensland, Australia for 9 parent OPEs and 11 metabolites. Individual urine samples (n = 400) were stratified by age and sex, and combined into 20 pools. Three individual breast milk samples were also analysed to provide a preliminary estimate on the contribution of breast milk to the intake of OPEs. Bis(1-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (BCIPP), 1-hydroxy-2-propyl bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPHIPP), bis(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (BDCIPP), dibutyl phosphate (DBP), diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEP), bis(2-butoxyethyl) 3-hydroxyl-2-butoxyethyl phosphate (3OH-TBOEP), and bis(2-butoxyethyl) hydroxyethyl phosphate (BBOEHEP) were detected in all urine samples, followed by bis(methylphenyl) phosphate (80%), and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (BEHP, 20%), and bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP, 15%). Concentrations of tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), BCEP, tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP), and DBP decreased with age, while bis(methylphenyl) phosphate (BMPP) increased with age. Significantly higher concentrations of DPHP (p = 0.039), and significantly lower concentrations of TEHP (p = 0.006) were found in female samples compared to males. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) via breastfeeding, were 4.6, 26 and 76 ng/kg/day for TCEP, TBP and TEHP, respectively, and were higher than that via air and dust, suggesting higher exposure through consumption of breast milk.
Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites, Club cell secretory protein and lung function Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-12-01 Yun Zhou, Ge Mu, Yuewei Liu, Lili Xiao, Jixuan Ma, Bin Wang, Tingming Shi, Aijun Tan, Jing Yuan, Weihong Chen
Background Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with lung function decline. However, the underlying mechanisms for the association remain unclear. Objectives To explore potential role of a lung epithelial biomarker, Club cell secretory protein (CC16), in associations between PAH exposures and lung function decline. Methods We investigated 3384 adults from the Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort, and followed up at three years after first examination. Linear mixed models was used to quantify dose-response relationships between urinary monohydroxylated PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) and lung function, as well as OH-PAHs and plasma CC16. Mediation analysis was conducted to investigate role of CC16 in the association between OH-PAHs and lung function. We also estimated the relationships between OH-PAHs and lung function change in three years among participants with different levels of CC16. Results Each 1-unit increase of log-transformed total urinary high and low molecular weight OH-PAHs (∑ HMW OH-PAH and ∑ LMW OH-PAHs) were associated with a 22.59 and 25.25 ml reduction of FEV1 respectively, while ∑ HMW OH-PAH was associated with a 30.38 ml reduction of FVC. Moreover, these negative associations between OH-PAHs and lung function levels were significant only among low CC16 group (< 15.83 ng/ml). CC16 concentration decreased monotonically with increased high molecular weight OH-PAHs (∑ HMW OH-PAHs) when ∑ HMW OH-PAH concentration was over 0.67 μg/mmol Cr. CC16 mediated 22.13% of the association between ∑ HMW OH-PAH and FVC among individuals with higher ∑ HMW OH-PAH. After three years of follow-up, subjects with low level of plasma CC16 had a significant decline of FVC when exposed to high level of ∑ HMW OH-PAH. Conclusions CC16 play an important role in the association between high molecular weight PAHs and FVC. Individuals with low plasma CC16 level might suffer a decline in lung function when exposed to high level of high molecular weight PAHs.
Review of antibiotic resistance in China and its environment Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-10-27 Min Qiao, Guang-Guo Ying, Andrew C. Singer, Yong-Guan Zhu
Has the question of e-waste opened a Pandora's box? An overview of unpredictable issues and challenges Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-11-06 Bouchra Bakhiyi, Sabrina Gravel, Diana Ceballos, Michael A. Flynn, Joseph Zayed
Despite regulatory efforts and position papers, electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) remains ill-managed as evidenced by the extremely low rates of proper e-waste recycling (e-recycling) worldwide, ongoing illegal shipments to developing countries and constantly reported human health issues and environmental pollution. The objectives of this review are, first, to expose the complexity of e-waste problems, and then to suggest possible upstream and downstream solutions. Exploring e-waste issues is akin to opening a Pandora's box. Thus, a review of prevailing e-waste management practices reveals complex and often intertwined gaps, issues and challenges. These include the absence of any consistent definition of e-waste to date, a prevalent toxic potential still involving already banned or restricted hazardous components such as heavy metals and persistent and bioaccumulative organic compounds, a relentless growth in e-waste volume fueled by planned obsolescence and unsustainable consumption, problematic e-recycling processes, a fragile formal e-recycling sector, sustained and more harmful informal e-recycling practices, and more convoluted and unpredictable patterns of illegal e-waste trade. A close examination of the e-waste legacy contamination reveals critical human health concerns, including significant occupational exposure during both formal and informal e-recycling, and persistent environmental contamination, particularly in some developing countries. However, newly detected e-waste contaminants as well as unexpected sources and environmental fates of contaminants are among the emerging issues that raise concerns. Moreover, scientific knowledge gaps remain regarding the complexity and magnitude of the e-waste legacy contamination, specifically, a comprehensive characterization of e-waste contaminants, information on the scale of legacy contamination in developing countries and on the potential environmental damage in developed countries, and a stronger body of evidence of adverse health effects specifically ascribed to e-waste contaminants. However, the knowledge accumulated to date is sufficient to raise awareness and concern among all stakeholders. Potential solutions to curb e-waste issues should be addressed comprehensively, by focusing on two fronts: upstream and downstream. Potential upstream solutions should focus on more rational and eco-oriented consumer habits in order to decrease e-waste quantities while fostering ethical and sustained commitments from manufacturers, which include a limited usage of hazardous compounds and an optimal increase in e-waste recyclability. At the downstream level, solutions should include suitable and pragmatic actions to progressively reduce the illegal e-waste trade particularly through international cooperation and coordination, better enforcement of domestic laws, and monitoring in both exporting and receiving countries, along with the supervised integration of the informal sector into the recycling system of developing countries and global expansion of formal e-waste collection and recycling activities. Downstream solutions should also introduce stronger reverse logistics, together with upgraded, more affordable, and eco-friendly and worker-friendly e-recycling technologies to ensure that benefits are derived fully and safely from the great economic potential of e-waste.
Prenatal organochlorine pesticide exposure and the disruption of steroids and reproductive hormones in cord blood: The Hokkaido study Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-10-19 Atsuko Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Takahiko Mitsui, Houman Goudarzi, Futoshi Mizutani, Youichi Chisaki, Sachiko Itoh, Seiko Sasaki, Kazutoshi Cho, Kimihiko Moriya, Nobuo Shinohara, Katsuya Nonomura, Reiko Kishi
Certain organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are designated as persistent organic pollutants and are regulated in many countries. The effects of OCPs on pediatric endocrinology are a concern; however, only limited data exist from human studies on maternal OCP exposure and its effects on infants' hormone levels. This study was conducted as part of the Hokkaido Study Sapporo Cohort, a prospective birth cohort study in Japan. Participants included 514 women who enrolled at 23–35 weeks of gestation between 2002 and 2005; maternal blood samples were collected in late pregnancy, and 29 OCPs were measured. Reproductive and steroid hormone levels in cord blood were also determined. Characteristics of mothers and their infants were obtained from self-administered questionnaires and medical records. Ultimately, 232 samples with both OCP and hormone data were analyzed. Fifteen of 29 investigated OCPs were detected in over 80% of the samples, with p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showing the highest concentration (median value: 619 pg/g-wet). The association between OCPs and sex hormone levels varied by sex. Linear regression models after sex stratification showed that chlordanes, cis-hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor epoxide, Mirex, and toxaphenes in maternal blood were inversely associated with testosterone, cortisol, cortisone, sex hormone-binding globin, prolactin, and androstenedione-dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone-androstenediones ratios among boys. Furthermore, these OCPs were positively correlated with DHEA, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and adrenal androgen-glucocorticoid and FSH-inhibin B ratios among boys. In categorical quartile models, testosterone and DHEA were inversely and positively associated with OCPs, respectively. Estradiol-testosterone and adrenal androgen-glucocorticoid ratios tended to increase with increasing OCP concentrations in the higher quartile, while the testosterone-androstenedione ratio tended to decrease. Sex hormone-binding globulin and prolactin showed an inverse association with OCPs. Among girls, the linear regression model showed that only p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane was inversely associated with the level of DHEA and the adrenal androgen-glucocorticoid ratio, but was positively associated with cortisone levels. However, no associations were observed using the quartile categorical model. These results suggest that prenatal exposure to OCPs disrupt reproductive hormones of fetuses in utero among boys, even at relatively low levels.
Blood mercury concentration, fish consumption and anthropometry in Chinese children: A national study Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-11-04 Zhen-Yan Gao, Min-Ming Li, Ju Wang, Jin Yan, Can-Can Zhou, Chong-Huai Yan
Objective This study sought to obtain national cross-sectional data for blood mercury levels and risk factors for mercury exposure in Chinese children aged 0 to 6 years to provide evidence to support preventive measures for reducing childhood blood mercury levels. Methods A multi-stage, stratified, clustered random sampling survey was conducted May 2013–Mar 2015. Shanghai, Jilin, Shanxi, Guangdong, Qinghai, Yunnan and Hubei, which are located in seven different geographical regions in China, were selected as the study field. A total of 14,202 children aged 0–6 years participated in the study. Whole-blood venous samples (3 ml) were collected from the subjects for mercury exposure assessment. The DMA-80 was applied for mercury detection, and a health questionnaire gathering information on related confounders was completed by the subjects' parents of the subjects after they received guidance from the investigators. A general linear model was used for the primary descriptive statistical analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95%CIs for the risk factors were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Results A total of 14,202 eligible samples were collected. The mean mercury level was 1.39 μg/L. Other results were as follows: median 1.23 μg/L, p25 0.86 μg/L, p75 1.73 μg/L, and GM 1.10 μg/L. Of the seven geographical regions, Qinghai, in northwestern China, had a median mercury level of 0.37 μg/L, which was significantly lower than the mercury level in Guangdong, in southeastern China (2.01 μg/L). The median blood mercury level of children in suburban areas was 1.34 μg/L, which was remarkably higher than that of children in rural areas (1.09 μg/L). Dichotomous subgroups were generated using the median mercury concentration. Unconditional logistic regression analysis revealed that fish consumption may contribute to increased blood mercury levels (p < 0.05). Additionally, we observed significantly positive associations between mercury concentrations and the children's anthropometric characteristics (BMI; p < 0.05). Conclusions Blood mercury concentrations among Chinese children aged 0–6 years were considered low, and children who consumed more marine fish, freshwater fish and shellfish tended to have higher mercury concentrations. Our study suggests that children's growth is likely affected by the positive effects of mercury, which may have implications concerning the positive effects of fish consumption.
Morbidity in New Zealand pesticide producers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-10-12 Andrea 't Mannetje, Amanda Eng, Chris Walls, Evan Dryson, Jeroen Douwes, Pier Bertazzi, Simon Ryder-Lewis, David Scott, Collin Brooks, Dave McLean, Soo Cheng, Neil Pearce
Objectives To conduct a cross-sectional morbidity survey among 245 former employees of a pesticide production plant exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in New Zealand. Methods Demographic factors and health information were collected in face-to-face interviews. TCDD, lipids, thyroid hormones, glucose and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in non-fasting blood. For 111 participants, a neurological examination was conducted. Associations between health outcomes and working in a TCDD exposed job (prevalence 49%) and serum TCDD concentration ≥ 10 pg/g lipid (18%) were assessed using logistic regression whilst controlling for age, gender, smoking, body mass index and ethnicity. Results Diabetes was more common in those who had worked in TCDD exposed jobs (OR 4.0, 95%CI 1.0–15.4) and in those with serum TCDD ≥ 10 pg/g (OR 3.1, 95%CI 0.9–10.7). Non-fasting glucose levels > 6.6 mmol/l were more common in those with TCDD exposed jobs (OR 3.6, 95%CI 1.0–12.9), as were serum free thyroxine 4 < 12.8 pmol/l (OR 4.5, 95%CI 1.4–14.4), triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.1–5.7) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) < 1 mmol/l (OR 4.0, 95%CI 1.2–13.2). IgG was negatively associated with TCDD (linear regression p = 0.05). The neurological examination revealed a higher frequency of abnormal reflexes in those with serum TCDD ≥ 10 pg/g (OR 4.8, 95%CI 1.1–21.0). Conclusions In this occupationally exposed population, TCDD was associated with an increased risk of diabetes and a range of subclinical responses in multiple systems (peripheral nervous system, immune system, thyroid hormones and lipid metabolism), several decades after last exposure. These results need to be interpreted with caution due to the small study size and the cross-sectional nature of the study.
Exposure to organophosphate flame retardant chemicals in the U.S. general population: Data from the 2013–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Environ. Int. (IF 7.088) Pub Date : 2017-11-06 Maria Ospina, Nayana K. Jayatilaka, Lee-Yang Wong, Paula Restrepo, Antonia M. Calafat
Background Use of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) including tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, triphenyl phosphate, tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate, and tris-2-chloroethyl phosphate, in consumer products is on the rise because of the recent phase out of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. Some of these chemicals are also used as plasticizers or lubricants in many consumer products. Objectives To assess human exposure to these chlorinated and non-chlorinated organophosphates, and non-PBDE brominated chemicals in a representative sample of the U.S. general population 6 years and older from the 2013–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We used solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after enzymatic hydrolysis of conjugates to analyze 2666 NHANES urine samples for nine biomarkers: diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP), bis-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPP), bis-2-chloroethyl phosphate (BCEP), di-n-butyl phosphate (DNBP), di-p-cresylphosphate (DpCP), di-o-cresylphosphate (DoCP), dibenzyl phosphate (DBzP), and 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoic acid (TBBA). We calculated the geometric mean (GM) and distribution percentiles for the urinary concentrations (both in micrograms per liter [μg/L] and in micrograms per gram of creatinine). We only calculated GMs for analytes with an overall weighted frequency of detection > 60%. For those analytes, we also a) determined weighted Pearson correlations among the log10-transformed concentrations, and b) used regression models to evaluate associations of various demographic parameters with urinary concentrations of these biomarkers. Results We detected BDCIPP and DPHP in approximately 92% of study participants, BCEP in 89%, DNBP in 81%, and BCIPP in 61%. By contrast, we detected the other biomarkers much less frequently: DpCP (13%), DoCP (0.1%), TBBA (5%), and did not detect DBzP in any of the participants. Concentration ranges were highest for DPHP (< 0.16–193 μg/L), BDCIPP (< 0.11–169 μg/L), and BCEP (< 0.08–110 μg/L). Regardless of race/ethnicity, 6–11 year old children had significantly higher BCEP adjusted GMs than other age groups. Females had significantly higher DPHP and BDCIPP adjusted GM than males, and were more likely than males to have DPHP concentrations above the 95th percentile (odds ratio = 3.61; 95% confidence interval, 2.01–6.48). Conclusions Our results confirm findings from previous studies suggesting human exposure to OPFRs, and demonstrate, for the first time, widespread exposure to several OPFRs among a representative sample of the U.S. general population 6 years of age and older. The observed differences in concentrations of certain OPFRs biomarkers by race/ethnicity, in children compared to other age groups, and in females compared to males may reflect differences in lifestyle and exposure patterns. These NHANES data can be used to stablish a nationally representative baseline of exposures to OPFRs and when combined with future 2-year survey data, to evaluate exposure trends.
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