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  • Effectiveness of EMAS: A case study of Polish organisations registered under EMAS
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-11-10
    Alina Matuszak-Flejszman, Beata Szyszka, Lára Jóhannsdóttir

    Balanced economic growth in line with environmental care is one of the greatest challenges facing the world nowadays. Entrepreneurs' interest in sustainable production schemes, including Environmental Management Systems (EMS), becomes an important part of many strategies and a frequent requirement of environmentally aware societies. Despite this, the number of organisations registered under the Eco-management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) decreased, while the implementation of EMS based on ISO 14001 continues to be popular. Many organisations registered in the EMAS scheme do not renew their registration; therefore, it is important to analyse the effectiveness of this environmental management tool as it should support sustainable development. This paper includes the results of research on EMAS registered organisations in Poland. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the EMAS based on analysis of (1) the degree of environmental objectives implementation, (2) core environmental performance indicators, and (3) the correlation between establishing environmental objectives and results of environmental indicators in specific areas. The study involves an analysis of secondary data based on organisations' environmental statements published by the EMAS competent body. The findings suggest that there is no linear relationship between the time the EMAS is implemented and its effectiveness and that there is a weak correlation between establishing environmental objectives and changes in environmental performance indicators. These results are unexpected and may be linked to numerous mistakes made by organisations during establishing their environmental objectives. The study results have an impact to the EMAS regulation and shall be considered during review of EMAS scheme and future revisions of EMAS regulatory requirements.

    更新日期:2018-11-10
  • CONCRETop - A multi-criteria decision method for concrete optimization
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-11-02
    Rawaz Kurda, Jorge de Brito, José D. Silvestre
    更新日期:2018-11-05
  • Evaluation of the environmental impact assessment system in Iran
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-10-25
    Fatemeh Khosravi, Urmila Jha-Thakur, Thomas B. Fischer
    更新日期:2018-10-26
  • 更新日期:2018-10-23
  • Experiences of voluntary early participation in Environmental Impact Assessments in Chilean mining
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-10-15
    Anahi Ocampo-Melgar, Lake Sagaris, Jorge Gironás
    更新日期:2018-10-16
  • Strategic Environmental Assessment for development programs and sustainability transition in the Colombian post-conflict context
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-10-09
    Juanita Gallego Dávila, Juan Azcárate, Lone Kørnøv

    This article offers a critical analysis of the applicability and relevance of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the post-conflict period in Colombia as a means to support societal sustainability transition and avoid the depletion of natural resources and the emergence of new conflicts. Colombia, emerging from decades of war between the Colombian government and the FARC-EP (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), is experiencing an urgent need to allocate financial resources to large-scale projects with the aim of supporting post-conflict development activities, potentially resulting in rapid and hyper-development conditions and causing severe environmental impacts. Theoretically, SEA can be seen as one way to assist the Colombian government in their strategic decision-making and planning. However, the use of SEA will be bound by the post-conflict conditions and the more general institutional setting in Colombia. This article is focused on identifying the opportunities and challenges arising from the post-conflict context and the SEA action arena in Colombia. By doing this, the article provides a better understanding of institutional processes and resources in Colombia and contributes to the limited scholarly literature that is available on the application of SEA in post-conflict contexts, including research on the institutional capacity involved.

    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • 更新日期:2018-10-09
  • Determining the ‘optimal’ level of pollution (PM2.5) generated by industrial and residential sources
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-09-28
    Cristian Mardones

    This study provides an optimization model that explicitly determines the ‘optimal’ level of pollution of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by analyzing various options for reducing emissions from industrial and residential sources in the second largest urban area in Chile. Several conclusions that had not been previously addressed or sufficiently highlighted in the literature were discerned. The most notable conclusions included the importance of regulating all emission sources and not just industrial sources (which are typically fewer in number and easier to monitor), the homogeneity in ‘optimal’ levels of pollution from urban districts when considering the long-term effects on human health (which would support the adoption of uniform regulations), and the asymmetry in confidence intervals associated to the ‘optimal’ level of pollution.

    更新日期:2018-09-29
  • Moving from reactive to proactive development planning to conserve Indigenous community and biodiversity values
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-09-28
    Michael Heiner, David Hinchley, James Fitzsimons, Frank Weisenberger, Wayne Bergmann, Tina McMahon, Joseph Milgin, Linda Nardea, James Oakleaf, Damien Parriman, Anne Poelina, Harry Watson, Kimberley Watson, Joseph Kiesecker
    更新日期:2018-09-29
  • Challenges to EIA consultants whilst dealing with stakeholders in Punjab, Pakistan
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Mehreen Khan, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhary, Sajid Rashid Ahmad, Samia Saif, Asim Mehmood

    Consultants play a pivotal role in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process because they are the ones who carry out assessments, deal with multiple stakeholders and thus face the most pressure. Considering the ineffectiveness of the EIA process, the current study attempts to identify the challenges faced by consultants in Punjab whilst dealing with stakeholders. Participant observation, professional practice and unstructured interviews were employed as data collection methods. Key challenges identified include the lack of equal treatment, insufficient capability of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and consultants, and the lack of awareness on the parts of the proponents and the public. Legislations accompanied with procedural controls exist in Punjab regarding EIA but the implementation is weak. A strong political will is necessary for implementation of EIA rules and regulation, awareness of the proponents and the public and capacity building of EPA. Registration and accreditation can help bring competent consultants in the field who can improve the process.

    更新日期:2018-09-20
  • Environmental impact assessment of online advertising
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    M. Pärssinen, M. Kotila, R. Cuevas, A. Phansalkar, J. Manner
    更新日期:2018-09-20
  • A framework for assessing tall buildings' impact on the city skyline: Aesthetic, visibility, and meaning dimensions
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-09-13
    Mehrdad Karimimoshaver, Philipp Winkemann

    The impact of tall buildings on cities can be evaluated on several aspects. One of these aspects is the impression of these tall buildings on the cityscape, whereby observers judge these buildings based on their three-dimensional status in the city. Some of the criteria that influence this judgment are the status of visibility, meaning, and aesthetics of tall buildings in the city. In this research, the three aforementioned criteria have been investigated using an analytical network process (ANP) method. This multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method is used to weigh the criteria and sub criteria of the research (according to 22 experts and by using Super Decisions 2.8 software). After determining the weight of each criteria, three tall buildings in Frankfurt including Main Tower, OpernTurm, and the European Central Bank were selected to compare their impact on the skyline of the city based on the three variables and their weight. To calculate the visual impact of these three buildings, the idea of square degree score has been used, in which the ratio of the visible surface of these buildings to the visual field of observers in urban open spaces, and in an area of 2500 m radius with a centralized building structure has been investigated by ArcGIS Desktop 10.5 software. In order to determine the effect of the meaning and aesthetics of these three buildings on the city skyline, a pictorial questionnaire was prepared and distributed among 420 participants. The participant's preferences were taken into account to assess the impact of tall buildings on the city skyline. In the next step, the weight of the criteria, which was obtained in the ANP method, was considered for the results of the visual, meaning, and aesthetic criteria of the three tall buildings of Frankfurt. Based on the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), the priority of these buildings was identified in terms of impact on the city skyline. With regard to the impact of tall buildings on the city skyline, these three criteria, according to their weights, ranked as follows: the meaning criteria (with a weight of 0.436) had the highest impact, followed by the aesthetic criteria (with a weight of 0.340), and visual (with a weight of 0.234), respectively. Thus, based on these results it was found that the European Central Bank had the most positive impact (with a score of 0.471) on the city skyline, then Main Tower (with a weight of 0.467), and OpernTurm (with a weight of 0.061) respectively.

    更新日期:2018-09-14
  • Strategic environmental assessment in Swedish municipal planning. Trends and challenges
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-09-07
    B. Balfors, J. Wallström, K. Lundberg, T. Söderqvist, C. Hörnberg, J. Högström

    More than a decade after the implementation of the EU Directive on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) into Swedish legislation, a comprehensive study has been conducted to analyze the development of SEA practice in municipal planning. The analysis was based on a nationwide mapping of SEA in Swedish municipal comprehensive plans and municipal sector plans, such as energy plans and waste plans, which were adopted in the period 2004–2014. The mapping was used for obtaining evidence of, and explanations for, the extent to which SEAs have been carried out and to enable an identification of the presence of alternatives and specified purposes of the plan. In this paper, the result of the analysis of the development of SEA practice is presented, which shows that municipal comprehensive plans had an SEA to an increasingly greater extent, up to on average 90% for the period 2010–2014. For waste plans and energy plans, corresponding figures for the same period were significantly lower. In addition, the result shows a decreasing trend between 2006 and 2014 regarding the proportion of SEAs that included more than one plan alternative. The use of a zero alternative, however, increased from 2006 to 2014. A regression analysis was conducted to identify determinants that explain the variation in the degree to which screening and SEAs were conducted. The findings of the study show that a systematic mapping of SEA practice provides empirical basis for the development of policy measures to enhance the use of SEAs in municipal planning. Furthermore, it is argued that strengthening the link between alternatives and the purposes of the plan may foster a more strategic thinking when identifying reasonable alternatives on how to promote sustainable development within the planning. Moreover, it is argued that mandatory SEA should be considered in municipal comprehensive and sector planning.

    更新日期:2018-09-09
  • Regional power system modeling for evaluating renewable energy development and CO2 emissions reduction in China
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-09-01
    Yuanzhe Yang, Hongyu Zhang, Weiming Xiong, Da Zhang, Xiliang Zhang

    This study demonstrates how a regional power system modeling tool could be applied to evaluate renewable energy development and emissions reduction with technology change and market reform. We introduce a capacity expansion and operation model with provincial details for China's power system – the Renewable Electricity Planning and Operation (REPO) Model. We compare the spatial and temporal variation of renewable energy development under three alternative scenarios that depict three potentially important technology and reform directions – flexible district heating technology, ultra-high voltage transmission technology and complete spot market to the reference scenario. Under the reference scenario, the share of non-hydro renewable energy in China's power sector will reach 11.3% and carbon emissions of the power sector will increase to 5.1 billion metric tons in 2050. With assumptions made in the flexible district heating technology, ultra-high voltage transmission technology and complete spot market scenario, the share of non-hydro renewable energy in the power sector could increase to 14.3%, 11.5%, and 23.7%, and carbon emissions of power sector will change by −0.3, +0.0, and −1.0 billion metric tons in 2050, respectively. Similar analyses could be extended to other developing countries that plan to deregulate and decarbonize their power systems.

    更新日期:2018-09-03
  • Cross-boundary collaboration in waste management research: A network analysis
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-09-01
    Jinying Xu, Weisheng Lu, Fan Xue, Ke Chen, Meng Ye, Jing Wang, Xi Chen

    This paper aims to illustrate the cross-boundary research collaboration (CBRC) landscape of waste management (WM) by various collaboration networks. Through a set of rigorous procedures, a total of 15,396 research papers were extracted from eight subject-related journals published between 1981 and 2016. The authors utilized CiteSpace, a Java programme that helps visualize and dissect patterns in scientific literature, to evaluate the content through individual, institutional, national, and disciplinary perspectives. The evaluations of three former perspectives revealed a steady rise in CBRC within WM over the last thirty-five years, although the overall intensities proved fairly low. Inter-individual collaboration groups were limited to their respective regions and only loosely connected, but as more and more academic institutions and universities engaged in WM research, the number and quality of the collaborations increased. Developed countries, chiefly in North America and Western Europe, comprised the bulk of the WM research, whilst the mounting contributions from developing countries, China in particular, forecasts greater diversity in the future. The analysis also suggested that the intensity of the interdisciplinary collaboration network declined slightly, however, the intensity proved low to begin with. Previous WM research focused more on “hard” technologies than “soft” measures. Future endeavors to encourage CBRC in WM should promote more innovative research to tackle waste challenges globally in a sustainable way.

    更新日期:2018-09-03
  • Public participation in EIA: A comparative study of the projects run by government and non-governmental organizations
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-05-08
    Md Arif Hasan, Kh Md Nahiduzzaman, Adel S. Aldosary

    Assuring public participation in different stages of environmental impact assessment (EIA) is essential since the success of a project largely depends on its type, nature, and process. Before starting a development project in Bangladesh, both government organizations (GOs) and non-government organizations (NGOs) need to conduct an EIA. However, in most of the governmental projects, there is still no significant influence of public participation in EIA. Contrarily, under NGO administered projects, the systematic participation in EIA is quite unknown and often goes without being acknowledged. This paper, thus, studies public participation practice in EIA through an investigation of two NGO governed projects (i.e., BRAC's fisheries and sericulture project and CARE's integrated food for work program) and compares with two projects by GOs (i.e., Rampal coal-based thermal power plant project and Jamuna multipurpose bridge project) to critically understand the prevailing differences. As well, pivotal factors responsible for differentiated nature and type of public participation being practiced within a certain institutional context are examined. The study indicates that NGOs tend to ensure participation of the pertinent stakeholders at different stages of an EIA while harnessing their inputs to successfully complete a project. By contrast, public participation in government's run projects is mostly found to be carried out towards the end of an EIA exercise, which severely limits the stakeholders' ability to contribute and questions the legitimacy of such attempt. This process of neglect systematically overlooks stakeholders' concerns, critics, and suggestions while pre-emptive motive of the project gets glorified and implemented. By tapping these voids, this study attempts to offer an insightful understanding of the gap between conventional ‘practice’ and formal ‘pledge’ when comes to ensuring public participation in various stages of EIA. This study expects to benefit other countries where NGOs are considerably involved in development projects.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • The nexus between water, energy, and food in the context of the global risks: An analysis of the interactions between food, water, and energy security
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-05-08
    Wellyngton Silva de Amorim, Isabela Blasi Valduga, João Marcelo Pereira Ribeiro, Victoria Guazzelli Williamson, Grace Ellen Krauser, Mica Katrina Magtoto, José Baltazar Salgueirinho Osório de Andrade Guerra

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the interactions between water, energy, and food security, referenced in this study as the nexus between water, energy, and food, and the impacts of global risks using the World Economic Forum's, 2017 Global Risks Report as a guideline. In this analysis, the authors reveal that water, energy, and food are interdependent and essential resources demanding sustainable, integrated and intelligent management. These vital resources are susceptible to many global risks which are maximized by extreme weather events, mass involuntary human migrations, and other hazards that predominantly endanger the vulnerable communities of less developed countries. In conclusion, policies carried out by the international community, decision-makers, civil society, and the private sector, must align to target and mitigate global risks, specifically, water, energy and food security.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Power lines and impacts on biodiversity: A systematic review
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-05-07
    Larissa D. Biasotto, Andreas Kindel

    The growth of energy consumption demands a large expansion of transmission line (TL) networks worldwide. The reduction of the environmental impacts of these infrastructures will depend on the effectiveness of environmental impact assessments, that ultimately depend on the quality of the screening phase, the scoping phase, and the prioritization of potential environmental consequences. We conducted the first systematic review that encompasses all known potential impacts on biodiversity of the installation and operation of energy TLs, documented in the scientific literature and in a sample of Environmental Impact Studies (EIS). We examined 206 articles and 19 EIS and identified 28 impacts that correspond to biotic outcomes at the individual, population and community levels. Although scientific interest on TL impact evaluation is increasing, most studies have been focused on vertebrate taxa, especially birds. There are few published studies concerning habitat loss and the responses of functional groups with lower mobility or sensitive to physical alterations, such as amphibians. Most impacts appear in early stages of a project, during TL construction, but persist during operation. We summarized the biotic impacts in a framework that may guide the screening of relevant impacts to be included in the EIS and consequently improve the outcomes of the environmental licensing process of transmission line projects.

    更新日期:2018-05-09
  • The role of time and social churn in impact assessment: An engagement-based model
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-04-30
    Kim A. Johnston, Anne B. Lane

    To participate in social impact assessments, members of a community need to understand both the nature and complexity of impacts at the individual and social level. This study considers the role of engagement in developing community understanding of social impacts by documenting and analyzing organizational and community actions and responses in the Adani Carmichael mine case. Findings suggest engagement facilitates the conduct of social churn. We define social churn as a process of collective level discussion, meaning-making, and consensus-building from multiple information inputs in response to equivocality or uncertainty resulting from organizational behavior, out of which is generated an articulation of community level perceptions of that organizational behavior and its impacts at an individual, community, and societal level. Theoretically, the findings of this study challenge traditional linear notions of social impact assessments and offer an alternative engagement-based model. Practically, the model identifies ways in which organizations can recognize and participate in the social processes that both create and represent the differing levels of social reality determining perceptions of those impacts.

    更新日期:2018-05-01
  • Potential impacts of China's climate policies on energy security
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-04-27
    Hongbo Duan, Shouyang Wang

    Energy security, as an indispensable constituent of economic security, has long been a top research priority, and the dynamics of energy security become particularly complicated with the involvement of climate change. In this work, we combined a one-sector integrated assessment framework with a series of well-proposed energy security metrics to extensively explore the unidirectional consistency between climate policy and energy security from the national perspective. Implementation of climate policy is generally beneficial for improving energy security. Specifically, climate policy helps to reduce the systematic risk of China's energy system according to the metrics of energy (oil) intensity, energy (oil) expenditures and per capita energy (oil) consumption independent of time scale options. As observed from the perspective of energy diversity, co-benefits arising from climate policy primarily emerge in the first half of this century, and they may gradually decline as emission constraints and the phasing out of fossil fuels are enhanced. Additionally, the macroeconomic costs required to reach China's committed carbon-peaking target might be far lower than the costs required to fulfill the emission budgets under the global 2-degree warming rise threshold. If the co-benefits of energy security are considered, the economics of climate policy is expected to significantly improve.

    更新日期:2018-04-28
  • Can urbanization process and carbon emission abatement be harmonious? New evidence from China
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 
    Xilong Yao, Dong Kou, Shuai Shao, Xiaoyu Li, Wenxi Wang, Chentao Zhang

    As the largest carbon emitter and developing country in the world, China's rapid urbanization in recent decades plays a significant role in carbon emissions. However, there is still no consensus on whether urbanization process and carbon emission abatement in China can achieve a harmonious state. Based on the panel data of China's 30 provincial-level regions during 2001–2014, this paper uses the threshold regression model and the mediating effect model to investigate the effect and its mechanism of urbanization process on carbon emissions measured by three indicators: carbon emission scale, per capita carbon emissions, and carbon intensity. The results show that urbanization can contribute to declines in carbon emission scale, per capita carbon emissions, and carbon intensity. That is to say, urbanization can present an abatement effect on carbon emissions. However, such an abatement effect is diminishing with a deepening urbanization. Moreover, the relationship between urbanization and carbon emissions is mediated by four mediating variables, i.e., technological progress, industrial structure, energy consumption structure, and foreign direct investment. Therefore, a harmonious relationship between urbanization and carbon emission abatement can be achieved if policy-makers attempt to arouse the positive mediation roles of such factors when formulating relevant policies.

    更新日期:2018-04-27
  • Decoupling relationship between economic output and carbon emission in the Chinese construction industry
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    Ya Wu, K.W. Chau, Weisheng Lu, Liyin Shen, Chenyang Shuai, Jindao Chen

    By positioning in the discourse that economic output is always coupled with natural resource depletion, pollution, and carbon emission, decoupling analysis is widely adopted to evaluate how “quality” economic growth can lead to fewer such downsides so as to encourage sustainable development. This paper aims at examining the decoupling relationship between economic output and carbon emission by focusing on China's construction industry, which is a pillar industry for national economic growth, meanwhile contributes a huge amount of carbon emission. The method of Tapio decoupling model is used to examine the decoupling relationships at both national and provincial levels from 2005 to 2015. It continues to identify the driving force leading to a certain decoupling state by adopting the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI). Results show that: (1) there existed an expansive decoupling relationship between economic growth and construction carbon emission in most provinces of China during 2005–2015; (2) Shanghai presented the best decoupling performance, while in contrast, other provinces such as Guizhou and Fujian displayed expansive negative decoupling state; and (3) “Economic output” played the most significant role in inhibiting the decoupling at both national and provincial levels, while “Indirect carbon intensity” was the main driver for promoting the national decoupling. Although the paper refers to the specific construction of China, the decoupling analysis approach can be extended to other countries as well as to other pollutants such as land pollution, waste water and haze. The understanding of driving forces for the decoupling state in China's construction industry provides international policy-makers with valuable reference for formulating effective measures to balance the dilemma between economic output and carbon emission.

    更新日期:2018-04-25
  • Health Impact Assessment of transportation projects, plans and policies: A scoping review
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-04-14
    Faiza Waheed, Glenn M. Ferguson, Christopher A. Ollson, James I. MacLellan, Lindsay C. McCallum, Donald C. Cole

    BackgroundTransportation has significant direct and indirect impacts on health beyond the physical effects due to change in air quality or noise levels. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) analyzes a project or policy through a broad health lens. However, the practice of HIA varies widely with significant knowledge and data gaps.ObjectivesWe aimed to summarize the current state of transportation HIAs, develop a framework of promising practices recommended for HIA practitioners within the transportation sector, and identify knowledge and data gaps in transportation HIA practice and science.MethodsThis scoping review was designed using a systematic primary and grey literature search strategy to identify 158 transportation HIAs. Data extraction of descriptive and analytic information from the HIAs was completed and descriptive analyses conducted.ResultsAlthough transportation HIA practice varied within and between sectors and countries, there were some core similarities. Non-Governmental Organization funding of HIAs in the United States provided a significant boost to the HIA community of practice. We noted that most transportation HIAs conduct screening and scoping, but these steps were neither methodical nor clearly defined. Most HIAs included in this review also lacked quantitative assessment methods and did not perform evaluation of the HIA process or effectiveness.ConclusionsThis scoping review demonstrated a need for greater rigour and clarity in transportation HIAs. We recommend several practice changes to improve HIA quality and credibility.

    更新日期:2018-04-25
  • Improving carbon footprinting of agricultural systems: Boundaries, tiers, and organic farming
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-04-19
    Cornelius Adewale, John P. Reganold, Stewart Higgins, R.D. Evans, Lynne Carpenter-Boggs

    PurposeThe purpose of this commentary is to call for consistent and improved methodology for agricultural carbon footprint (CF) studies.MethodsThe methods of published agricultural CF studies were compared to identify areas of inconsistency. Organic agriculture has been proposed as an approach to reduce net agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sequester carbon. Therefore we used organic agriculture as a focal system to explore the impact on CF estimates of using inconsistent boundaries, soil emission accounting, and emission factor (EF) tiers.Results and discussionStudies of agricultural CF use inconsistent boundaries and most use EFs based on national averages or regional models. As a result the local and farm-to-farm variability of EFs are obscured and the comparability of CFs from different studies is dubious. We propose three principles for agricultural CF calculation: use of consistent broad agricultural system CF boundaries, incorporation of soil emissions and sequestration, and development and use of fine-scale EFs for agricultural inputs. The potential use of organic practices in GHG mitigation efforts, along with the annual inspection process for certified organic farms, justify the future use of organic farms as a longitudinal national or international study population using the proposed principles.ConclusionsUsing different boundaries, or generalized vs. site-specific EFs, can give not only different levels of precision but also fundamentally different answers. Policy based on averaged data or incomplete estimates may be misdirected. To support effective policy and individual decision-making that reduce GHG emissions and/or sequester more carbon, accurate and consistent assessments of the GHG emissions of agricultural practices and systems at a finer temporal and spatial scale are needed.

    更新日期:2018-04-25
  • Behaviour related flight speeds of Sandwich Terns and their implications for wind farm collision rate modelling and impact assessment
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-04-07
    Ruben C. Fijn, Abel Gyimesi

    Accurate quantification of flight speeds is a prerequisite to accurately predict the numbers of collision victims of proposed wind farms using collision rate models that are a vital part of Environmental Impact Assessments. We used GPS-loggers on Sandwich Terns to collect novel data on instantaneous flight speeds during foraging trips, separated for different behavioural stages, and applied these estimates in a widely used collision rate model. Average flight speed during a foraging trip corrected for individual variation and flight type was 36.9 ± 12.3 SD km h−1 and flight speed was highest during inbound commuting (44.4 ± 12.0 km h−1) and lowest during foraging (29.9 ± 10.7 km h−1). Our results show significant differences in flight speeds of Sandwich Terns between behaviour stages during foraging trips, which resulted in divergent estimates of collision victims due to wind turbines depending on the function of the area in which wind farms are proposed. Since these conclusions are likely to hold for many other bird species, we conclude that behaviour of birds in a proposed wind farm is a factor to take into account when modelling collision rates as part of the Environmental Impact Assessment.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Analysis of strategic environmental assessment in Taiwan energy policy and potential for integration with life cycle assessment
    Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (IF 3.054) Pub Date : 2018-04-04
    Yen-yu Wu, Hwong-wen Ma

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has been implemented in many policies in the European Union since 2001. In Taiwan, SEA has been implemented for 28 cases since 2001, which includes various types of policies. National energy policy is the most challenging type. There are three most important steps in SEA process: alternative planning, scoping, and impact assessment. However, the current limitation of method application affects the effectiveness of SEA. In this case, life cycle assessment (LCA) is integrated with SEA for clarifying the role of LCA in whole SEA process. The method of combining LCA and SEA has been developed and is applied in a case of Taiwan's energy policy. Benefits from LCA in alternative planning, scoping, and impact assessment steps are explored. Finally, suggestions for enhancing LCA's application, for scoping operation, and for the improvement of SEA are proposed.

    更新日期:2018-04-06
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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