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  • Nutrient recovery from anaerobically digested chicken slurry via struvite: Performance optimization and interactions with heavy metals and pathogens
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-12
    Atif Muhmood, Shubiao Wu, Jiaxin Lu, Zeeshan Ajmal, Hongzhen Luo, Renjie Dong
    更新日期:2018-04-17
  • Estimating environmental fate of tricyclic antidepressants in wastewater treatment plant
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Jong-Won Choi, Yufeng Zhao, John Kwame Bediako, Chul-Woong Cho, Yeoung-Sang Yun

    TCAs are known to be toxicants and endocrine disrupting agents. Generally, after being used, TCAs are passed through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to be treated. However, still trace amounts (ng/L to μg/L) of TCAs have been founded even in the treated water. Therefore, the aim of this study is to elucidate the environmental behaviors of TCAs in the sewage water from WWTPs (Jeonju, Korea). For the experiments, seven TCAs (amitriptyline, imipramine, clomipramine, desipramine, protriptyline, nortriptyline, and doxepin) were selected. Hydrolysibility, biodegradability, and adsorbability of the selected seven TCAs were evaluated. Based on the results, it was concluded that TCAs are not readily hydrolyzed in water and also not biodegraded by aerobic sludge. The 60% to 85% of TCAs were adsorbed immediately onto the activated sludge within 1 s via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. It was clearly observed that adsorption affinities were dependent on the types of activated sludge (i.e. anaerobic and aerobic sludge). The affinities of aerobic and anaerobic sludge towards the TCAs at trace concentrations e.g., 1 to 10 μg/L, were estimated to be in the range from 0.021 ± 0.000 to 0.087 ± 0.000 L/μg and from 0.001 ± 0.000 to 0.108 ± 0.001 L/μg, respectively.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Climate change and associated spatial heterogeneity of Pakistan: Empirical evidence using multidisciplinary approach
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Ghaffar Ali

    Climate change is a multidimensional phenomenon, which has various implications for the environment and socio-economic conditions of the people. Its effects are deeper in an agrarian economy which is susceptible to the vagaries of nature. Therefore, climate change directly impacts the society in different ways, and society must pay the cost. Focusing on this truth, the main objective of this research was to investigate the empirical changes and spatial heterogeneity in the climate of Pakistan in real terms using time series data. Climate change and variability in Pakistan, over time, were estimated from 1961 to 2014 using all the climate variables for the very first time. Several studies were available on climate change impacts, mitigation, and adaptation; however, it was difficult to observe exactly how much change occurred in which province and when. A multidisciplinary approach was utilized to estimate the absolute change through a combination of environmental, econometric, and remote sensing methods. Moreover, the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model was used to ascertain the extent of variability in climate change and information was digitalized through ground truthing. Results showed that the average temperature of Pakistan increased by 2 °C between 1960 and 1987 and 4 °C between 1988 and 2014, and R2 was 0.978. The rate of temperature increased 0.09 °C between 1960 and 2014. The mean annual precipitation of Pakistan increased by 478 mm, and its R2 were 0.34–0.64. The mean annual humidity of Pakistan increased by 2.94%, and the rate of humidity has been increased by 0.97% from 1988 to 2014. Notably, Sindh and Balochistan provinces have shown a significant spatial heterogeneity regarding the increase in precipitation. Statistically all variables are significant. This would serve as a baseline information for climate change-related studies in Pakistan and its application in different sectors. This would also serve the plant breeders and policymakers of the country.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Lead exposure in an urban, free-ranging parrot: Investigating prevalence, effect and source attribution using stable isotope analysis
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Aditi Sriram, Wendi Roe, Matu Booth, Brett Gartrell

    Anthropogenic lead use has resulted in widespread environmental lead contamination known to affect wildlife populations worldwide. Ecotoxicological investigations in wild birds have thus far prioritised waterfowl and raptor species and primarily addressed contamination in natural ecosystems. Urban areas are increasingly associated with high levels of heavy metal contamination, however the risk of lead exposure in urban wildlife is less well known. This study investigates lead exposure in an urban population of North Island Kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis), an endemic New Zealand parrot. The inquisitive nature of these birds, an expanding urban population and increased availability of food in the urban environment are the primary factors implicated in their dispersal into urban areas where there is increased exposure to anthropogenic sources of lead. Blood lead concentrations were assessed in free-ranging birds to quantify the prevalence and magnitude of lead exposure. The impact of lead on physiological and neurological function was assessed using behavioural and clinical examinations. Finally, lead stable isotope analysis was employed to investigate lead in roofing material as a potential source of exposure in the urban environment. Results indicate a significant prevalence of lead exposure in this population (43.2%) with a maximum recorded plasma concentration of 50.7 μg/dL. Although no mortality was observed during this study, lead exposure was associated with reduced body condition in kaka. Behavioural changes were present in one individual with the highest recorded blood lead concentration. Lead isotope values of roof-collected rainwater overlapped with kaka blood lead isotope values, suggesting this to be an important source of exposure in this population. The prevalence of lead exposure observed in this study suggests that lead is a toxin of importance to kaka in this urban area. Wildlife intoxications largely result from anthropogenic lead sources and this study identifies a previously undescribed urban source of lead for wildlife.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Assessment of the effects of discontinuous sources of contamination through biomarker analyses on caged mussels
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    A. De los Ríos, B. Echavarri-Erasun, M.-H. Dévier, K. Le Menach, H. Budzinski, M. Ortiz-Zarragoitia, A. Orbea, J.A. Juanes, M.P. Cajaraville

    The present study analysed potential adverse effects of discontinuous sources of contamination, namely the discharge of a combined sewer overflow (CSO) and of runoff in an urban area, the Bay of Santander (North Iberian Peninsula). Water samples and caged mussels were used to analyse concentrations of contaminants and biological responses. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were transplanted to a marina receiving runoff from a petrol station and to a CSO discharge site. Samples were collected in synchrony with heavy rains along 62 days. Lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) and acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity were measured as core biomarkers and were analysed at all sampling times. Histopathology of digestive gland and gonads, transcription levels of vitellogenin gene, volume density of black silver deposits and micronuclei formation were measured at initial and final stages of the transplant. Chemical analyses of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and endocrine disruptors were performed in water samples and mussel flesh. Mussels accumulated low concentrations of contaminants, which is in accordance with results obtained from exposure biomarkers. AOX activity decreased in all transplanted mussels after the first heavy rain, but this change seems to be related to the seasonal pattern of the enzyme activity. Mussels located close to the CSO discharge site showed a reduction in LMS after the first rain event, when compared to mussels before the transplant and to mussels from the reference location. However, this was attributable to natural environmental changes rather than to pollution. Values of the rest of analysed biomarkers were below threshold values reported for the study area.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Environmental and sustainability evaluation of livestock waste management practices in Cyprus
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Lucía Lijó, Nicola Frison, Francesco Fatone, Sara González-García, Gumersindo Feijoo, Maria Teresa Moreira

    The aim of this study was to compare the environmental performance and sustainability of different management options for livestock waste in Cyprus. The two most common practices in the country, i.e. the use of anaerobic lagoons and conventional biogas plants, were compared with the innovative scheme developed in the LiveWaste project (LIFE12 ENV/CY/000544), which aims not only to produce bioenergy, but also to treat the digestate for nutrient recovery and water reuse. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was combined with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare the performance of these alternatives. Four relevant indicators were selected for each dimension of sustainability (environmental, social and economic).The results of the evaluations showed that anaerobic lagoons are not an appropriate option for the sustainable management of livestock waste due to environmental (e.g. climate change, acidification and eutrophication) and social impacts (e.g. noise exposure, visual impact and risk perception for human health). The most important strengths and weaknesses of anaerobic treatment with and without digestate treatment were identified. Compared to conventional anaerobic digestion where digestate is directly applied as an organic fertiliser, the technology proposed in the project entails higher technological complexity due to nitrogen removal and phosphorus recovery. The rise in chemical and electricity requirements increased the impacts on some indicators, such as climate change and operational cost (emissions of greenhouse gases and operation costs were around 50% higher), while reduced impacts in others due to proper nutrient management, as acidification and eutrophication impacts (which were 10 and almost two times lower, respectively).For the specific Cypriot conditions, where the overapplication of nutrients leads to pollution of water bodies, the innovative treatment scheme with higher technological development presents an interesting approach. Nevertheless, the treatment of the digestate should be analysed taking into account the specific characteristics of each scenario.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons production from catalytic cracking of pine wood-derived pyrolytic vapors over Ce-Mo2N/HZSM-5 catalyst
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Qiang Lu, Hao-qiang Guo, Min-xing Zhou, Zhen-xi Zhang, Min-shu Cui, Yuan-yuan Zhang, Yong-ping Yang, Lai-bao Zhang

    A series of Mo2N/HZSM-5 and transition metal modified Mo2N/HZSM-5 catalysts were prepared for the catalytic upgrading of pine wood-derived pyrolytic vapors for the selective production of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), while restraining the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) experiments were performed to determine the effects of several factors on selective MAHs production, including Mo2N loading on HZSM-5, transition metal (Fe, Ce, La, Cu, Cr) modification of Mo2N/HZSM-5, pyrolysis temperature, and catalyst-to-biomass ratio. In addition, quantitative experiments were conducted to determine the actual yields of major aromatic hydrocarbons and the source of aromatic hydrocarbons from basic biomass components. Results indicated that among the various catalysts, the Ce-10%Mo2N/HZSM-5 exhibited the best performance on promoting the formation of MAHs and restraining the generation of PAHs. Under the optimal conditions, the actual yields of MAHs and PAHs from Ce-10%Mo2N/HZSM-5 catalytic process were 99.8 mg/g and 7.5 mg/g, while those from HZSM catalyst were only 77.2 mg/g and 23.7 mg/g respectively. Furthermore, the possible catalytic mechanism of the Ce-Mo2N/HZSM-5 catalyst was proposed based on the catalyst characterization.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Elevated temperature and CO2 affect responses of European aspen (Populus tremula) to soil pyrene contamination
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Yaodan Zhang, Virpi Virjamo, Norul Sobuj, Wenchao Du, Ying Yin, Line Nybakken, Hongyan Guo, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto

    High northern latitudes are climatic sensitive areas, and are also regions to which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) easily transport and accumulate with potential risk to natural ecosystems. However, the effect of PAHs on northern woody plant growth and defense under climate change is very little studied. Here, we conducted a unique experiment in greenhouses to investigate sex-related responses of the dioecious Populus tremula to pyrene (50 mg kg−1) and residue of pyrene in soils under ambient and elevated temperature (+1.8 °C on average) and CO2 (740 ppm). Pyrene decreased stem biomass and leaf area by 9% and 6%, respectively under ambient conditions, and the reduction of leaf area was more severe under elevated temperature (38%), elevated CO2 (37%), and combined T + CO2 (42%). Other growth parameters were unchanged by pyrene. Pyrene did not affect the concentration of leaf total phenolics under ambient conditions, but increased it by 16%, 1%, and 20% compared to controls under elevated temperature, elevated CO2, and T + CO2, respectively. Pyrene had only minor sex-specific effects on plant growth and phenolics. The concentration of residual pyrene in pyrene-spiked soils was higher under elevated CO2 than under ambient, elevated temperature, and combined T + CO2. The results suggest that both sexes of P. tremula have the capacity to regulate growth and metabolism to adjust to the stress of the tested pyrene contamination under elevated temperature and CO2, but potential risk of pyrene to plants still exists in the future changing climate.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Heavy metal pollution in reservoirs in the hilly area of southern China: Distribution, source apportionment and health risk assessment
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Xiaolong Wang, Lu Zhang, Zhonghua Zhao, Yongjiu Cai

    Reservoirs play more and more important role in providing potable water in many developing countries, including the China. In the present study, pollution characteristics, source and health risk of dissolved heavy metals in 19 representative reservoirs in the hilly area of southern China were investigated. The results presented great spatial heterogeneity in heavy metal concentrations among the studied reservoirs due to the disturbances by different anthropogenic activities. Several reservoirs had significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals compared with others, FengTan (FT) reservoir (0.34 μg/L in dry season), Cr in reservoirs of HuangShi (HS) and ZheLin (ZL) with values of 4.16 μg/L and 3.45 μg/L in dry season respectively, and Al in reservoirs of JiaoKou (JK), GuTian (GT) and DouShui (DS) with values of 1011 μg/L, 1036 μg/L and 1001 μg/L in wet season, respectively. Furthermore, there was a great difference in the seasonal variation of heavy metals, especially for Al and Pb in wet season characterized with relatively high values of 643 μg/L and 0.67 μg/L, respectively. Accordingly, Al was identified with a great health risk to living beings in view of its mean value in wet season, which greatly exceeded the criteria for drinking water of China, WHO and US EPA. Furthermore, As might be the greatest concern of health risk in this region considering its high carcinogenic risk to the local residents around the reservoirs of OuYangHai (OYH), DS, ZhiXi (ZX) and HS. Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that there was great heterogeneity in the sources of these heavy metals in the hilly area of southern China. Therefore, specific measures, such as controls on point source pollution control and tailings, should be taken for maintaining drinking water safety and aquatic ecosystem health.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Drivers of the accumulation of mercury and organochlorine pollutants in Mediterranean lean fish and dietary significance
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Eva Junqué, Mercè Garí, Rosa Maria Llull, Joan O. Grimalt

    An integrated assessment of lean fish of commercial value as Hg and organochlorine compound source into the population of the Balearic Islands were reported. Dependences between pollutant concentrations, trophic level, fish species, specimen weight and physical-chemical properties were evaluated.Hg and total DDTs showed highest variability between fish species whereas PCBs and HCB displayed more constant median values. The organochlorine compounds found in highest concentrations were those with highest hydrophobicity, consistently with their higher bioaccumulation potential. These pollutant concentrations were higher in Mediterranean than Atlantic fish. Higher median total DDT and PCBs concentrations were also observed in the third than the second trophic level species. The observed concentrations were below the threshold recommended by the EU for human consumption (75 ng/g wet weight).The Hg concentrations were higher in Mediterranean than Atlantic fish, with average values of 1.5 μg/g ww and 0.43 μg/g ww, respectively. Forty-one percent of the specimens from the Mediterranean and 25% of dusky grouper specimens from the Atlantic Ocean showed Hg concentrations above the EU recommended limits for human consumption, either 0.5 μg/g ww or 1 μg/g ww.In the third trophic level, a significant dependence between median Hg concentrations and weight of each studied species was observed, which remained significant in specimen weight correlations. Independent species correlations of Hg concentrations vs individual weight generally showed higher concentrations at higher weight. Weight/size of the individuals was therefore an important factor for Hg accumulation but the trend was modulated by a species effect.Extrapolation of the observed Hg concentrations in Mediterranean fish to Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intakes (PTWIs) showed higher intakes than the thresholds recommended by EFSA for adults and children, 110% and 140%, respectively. The estimated PTWIs for MeHg corresponded to 310% and 400% of the recommended threshold values. The PTWI values for organochlorine compounds were lower than those recommended.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • 更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Sorption and desorption of Pb(II) to biochar as affected by oxidation and pH
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Qian Wang, Bing Wang, Xinqing Lee, Johannes Lehmann, Bin Gao

    The use of biochar for the removal of heavy metals from water has environmental benefits. In order to elucidate the potential application of highly functionalized biochar for the removal of Pb(II) in aqueous solution, maple wood biochar was oxidized using hydrogen peroxide. The pH values of oxidized biochar ranged from 8.1 to 3.7, with one set being adjusted to a pH of 7 as a comparison. It was found that oxidizing the biochars increased their Pb(II) adsorption capacity if the pH remained below 6 (strong oxidation), but decreased their Pb(II) adsorption ability above pH 6 (weak oxidation). After adjusting the pH of oxidized biochar to pH 7, the Pb(II) adsorption capacity further increased two to sixfold for oxidized biochars originally at pH 3.7–6. The adsorption characteristics of Pb(II) were well described by the Langmuir equation. Adsorption of Pb(II) was not fully reversible in water. Less than 6% of Pb(II) desorbed in water in two consecutive steps than was previously adsorbed, for biochars with a pH below 7, irrespective of oxidation. Recovery using an extraction with 0.1 M NaNO3 increased from 0.7% to 32.7% of Pb(II) undesorbed by both preceding water extractions with increasing oxidation, for biochars with a pH below 7. Unextractable Pb(II) was lower at low oxidation but increased to 99.0% of initially adsorbed amounts at low pH, which indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) on oxidized biochar is pH independent.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Effect of different carbon sources on denitrification performance, microbial community structure and denitrification genes
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Zhongshuo Xu, Xiaohu Dai, Xiaoli Chai

    Solid and liquid organic substances as carbon sources for denitrification process were deeply explored. In this study, the effect of three carbon sources, referred to as poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/poly (lactic acid) (PHBV/PLA) polymer, glucose and CH3COONa, on denitrification performance, microbial community and functional genes were investigated. It was found that maximum denitrification rates of 0.37, 0.46 and 0.39 g N/(L·d) were achieved in PHBV/PLA, glucose and CH3COONa supported denitrification systems, respectively. Meanwhile, Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed that three carbon sources led to different microbial community structures. It can be seen that Brevinema/Thauera/Dechloromonas, Tolumonas/Thauera/Dechloromonas, Thauera dominated in the PHBV/PLA, glucose and CH3COONa supported denitrification systems, respectively. Transcriptome-based analysis further indicated that the glucose supported denitrification system showed the highest FPKM values (the fragments per kilobase per million mapped reads) of the genes participating in the dissimilatory nitrate reduction process, corresponding to the greatest effluent NH4+-N concentration. A better knowledge of effect of different carbon sources on denitrification process will be significant for nitrate removal in practice.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Stable isotopes in water indicate sources of nutrients that drive algal blooms in the tributary bay of a subtropical reservoir
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Zhengjian Yang, Bao Cheng, Yaqian Xu, Defu Liu, Jun Ma, Daobin Ji

    Eutrophication has become a severe environmental problem in some tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China. A two-year field investigation of nutrients, oxygen stable isotopes (δ18O), and hydrogen stable isotopes (δD) was performed from January 2010 to December 2011 to determine the sources of nutrients in Xiangxi Bay (XXB). The results showed that nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon varied seasonally depending on hydrodynamic changes. The bottom-layer intrusive density current decreased nitrogen and silicon concentrations and increase phosphorus concentrations in XXB, while the middle-layer intrusive density current increased nitrogen and silicon concentrations and decrease phosphorus concentrations. The differences in δ18O and δD among the Yangtze River (YR), XXB and the region upstream of XXB were significant, and according to the tracer method, the estimated contribution ratios of nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon from the YR to XXB were much larger than those from the region upstream of XXB. These findings suggest that water quality in the TGR can be improved by reducing the pollution load throughout the upstream basin of the YR but not through decentralized efforts in only one or two tributary basins.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Framework for the use of odour wheels to manage odours throughout wastewater biosolids processing
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Ruth M. Fisher, Radoslaw J. Barczak, I.H. “Mel” Suffet, James E. Hayes, Richard M. Stuetz

    Odorous emissions from wastewater biosolids processing can cause nuisance impacts to the surrounding community. Odour Wheels are an effective tool for environmental odour management, but have yet to be provided for wastewater biosolids processing. Emissions throughout the biosolids processing from eight wastewater treatment plants, each with different unit operation configurations, were surveyed to identify odorants present and their olfactory properties. Chemical and olfactory methods identified a range of odorants and odours emitted throughout biosolids processing. Within the biosolids processing locations studied Sulfur type odours, described as rotten eggs or cabbage, were typically encountered. However, there was also a varying presence of Rancid/putrid and Faecal/manure type odours. Odour Wheels were generated to communicate both the olfactory and chemical components of emissions which were measured throughout biosolids processing. Examples based on the operation of the eight wastewater treatment plants were used to demonstrate how the Odour Wheels can be used as an onsite odour management aid. The paper demonstrates how Odour Wheels can be prepared using chemical and olfactory measurements and then used to communicate olfactory properties, as well as identify the causes of nuisance emissions throughout biosolids processing at wastewater treatment plants. The linking of odours and odorants to process conditions throughout biosolids processing facilitates effective abatement and management practices.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Efficiency of surfactant-enhanced bioremediation of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil: Link with bioavailability and the dynamics of the bacterial community
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Martina Cecotti, Bibiana M. Coppotelli, Verónica C. Mora, Marisa Viera, Irma S. Morelli

    Shifts in the bacterial-community dynamics, bioavailability, and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of chronically contaminated soil were analyzed in Triton X-100–treated microcosms at the critical micelle concentration (T-CMC) and at two sub-CMC doses. Only the sub-CMC-dose microcosms reached sorbed-PAH concentrations significantly lower than the control: 166 ± 32 and 135 ± 4 mg kg−1 dry soil versus 266 ± 51 mg kg−1; consequently an increase in high- and low-molecular-weight PAHs biodegradation was observed. After 63 days of incubation pyrosequencing data evidenced differences in diversity and composition between the surfactant-modified microcosms and the control, with those with sub-CMC doses containing a predominance of the orders Sphingomonadales, Acidobacteriales, and Gemmatimonadales (groups of known PAHs-degrading capability). The T-CMC microcosm exhibited a lower richness and diversity index with a marked predominance of the order Xanthomonadales, mainly represented by the Stenotrophomonas genus, a PAHs- and Triton X-100–degrading bacterium. In the T-CMC microcosm, whereas the initial surface tension was 35 mN m−1, after 63 days of incubation an increase up to 40 mN m−1 was registered. The previous observation and the gas-chromatography data indicated that the surfactant may have been degraded at the CMC by a highly selective bacterial community with a consequent negative impact on PAHs biodegradation. This work obtained strong evidence for the involvement of physicochemical and biologic influences determining the different behaviors of the studied microcosms. The results reported here contribute significantly to an optimization of, surfactant-enhanced bioremediation strategies for chronically contaminated soil since the application of doses below the CMC would reduce the overall costs.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Differential contribution of animal and vegetable food items on persistent organic pollutant serum concentrations in Spanish adults. Data from BIOAMBIENT.ES project
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Juan Pedro Arrebola, Argelia Castaño, Marta Esteban, Mónica Bartolomé, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Juan José Ramos

    Diet is considered the main source of Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP) exposure in the general population, although there are still several gaps of knowledge regarding the differential contribution of main food groups. The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns that contribute to human exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs).Study population (n = 1880, 18–65 years old) was recruited during 2009–2010 in all the main geographical areas of Spain. For this work, exposure was estimated by chemical analyses of serum levels of 6 PCBs (n = 1880), 13 OCPs (n = 934), and 6 (PFASs) in a subsample of 755 (n = 755). Dietary habits and covariates were gathered via self-administered questionnaires. Data analyses were performed by means of multivariable linear regression and weighted quantile sum regression.Both the consumption of animal-based and plant-based food were positively associated with the individual concentrations of p,p´-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, and PCB-congeners −138, −153, and − 180. The contribution of animal-based products was 2.1–4.0× stronger except in p,p´-DDE, to which both patterns had similar contributions. In PFASs only animal food was positively associated with the exposure levels. The main animal-based contributors to PCB exposure were fish (49–64%) and eggs (19–36%), while OCP concentrations were mainly influenced by dairy products (32–48%) and fish (47–48%). PFOA and PFHxS were mainly explained by cold-meat (34–37%), fish (25–26%), and eggs (19–21%), while PFOS and PFDA were primarily influenced by fish consumption (44–77%). In the case of plant-based items, fruits (25–82%) and vegetables (18–63%) accounted for the majority of the variability of PCB and OCP concentrations.Our results highlight the relevance of dietary POP exposure as well as the need for the consideration of nutritional interventions in public health programs aiming to reduce POP exposure in the general population.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Implementation of UV-based advanced oxidation processes in algal medium recycling
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Wenxuan Wang, Jun Sha, Zhiying Lu, Senlin Shao, Peizhe Sun, Qiang Hu, Xuezhi Zhang

    Algae show great potential as sustainable feedstock for numerous bioproducts. However, large volume of water consumption during algal biomass production makes that the culture media recycling is a necessity due to economic and environmental concern. To avoid the negative effect of enriched organic matters in the harvested culture media, pre-treatment prior to medium replenishment and reuse is required. In this study, degradation of algenitic organic matters (AOM) in the culture media by UV-based photolysis processes (i.e., direct UV, UV/peroxydisulfate (PDS), UV/H2O2, and UV/NH2Cl) was explored. The results showed that UV, UV/PDS, UV/H2O2 and UV/NH2Cl caused a decrease of SUVA for 29.9%, 35.4%, 40.45%, and 22.6%, respectively, though the organic matter was almost not mineralized. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix combined with parallel factor analysis indicated that UV/PDS and UV/H2O2 degraded 47.26%–56.31% of the flulvic-like and humic-like fractions in AOM. Powder activated carbon absorption and growth evaluation for the AOPs-treated media indicated that UV/PDS and UV/H2O2 processes not only could remove the growth inhibitors in the media, but were also beneficial to the algae growth. These results suggested that UV/PDS and UV/H2O2 could effectively degrade the hydrophobic components in AOM and converted the growth inhibition fraction of AOM in the recycled media into nutrient source for algal growth. Different from the general application of UV-based AOP in the wastewater treatment, this study provided an innovative idea about how to pre-treat AOM in the media recycling: utilization rather than removal, which was a more sustainable and environment-friendly technology.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Occurrence, partitioning and bioaccumulation of emerging and legacy per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in Taihu Lake, China
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Meng Chen, Qiang Wang, Guoqiang Shan, Lingyan Zhu, Liping Yang, Menglin Liu

    There are many studies about the occurrence of legacy perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in fresh water ecosystem, but related information about emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is limited. In this study, along with ten legacy PFAAs, twelve non-PFAAs, including precursors of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and emerging PFASs in the water, sediment and organisms in Taihu Lake, China, were investigated. As one replacement product of PFOS, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) (mean: 69.3 ng/L) was the predominant PFAA in the water samples. Perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) (mean: 0.190 ng/L) and 6:2 fluorotelomer phosphate diester (6:2 diPAP) (0.034 ng/L) were detected in all the water samples. Other emerging PFASs, such as N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoa-cetic acid (NEtFOSAA), bis(perfluorohexyl) phosphinic acid (6:6 PFPiA) were frequently detected in the sediment and/or organisms. The organic carbon normalized sediment-water distribution coefficients (KOC) and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of the PFASs generally increased with their log KOW values. However, PFOSA, NEtFOSAA, 6:2 diPAP and 6:6 PFPiA displayed lower log BAFs, and/or lower log KOC than expected, which may be due to biotransformation potentials and/or large molecular size. PFOSA was not biomagnified in the food web. For other emerging PFASs, the low detection frequencies in the organisms hampered us to evaluate their biomagnification potentials. The lower percentage of most of the branched PFOS isomers while higher percentage of 1 m-PFOS in the organisms suggested that there was indirect source of PFOS in the organisms. Similar to PFOS and PFOA, linear PFHxS isomer was preferentially enriched in organisms relative to its branched isomers.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Prolonged exposure of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces multigenerational toxic effects in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Shang-Wei Li, Chun Ming How, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan Liao

    The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an emerging organic contaminant that has represented a risk for organisms present in the environment. However, there is still limited information regarding DEHP-induced multigenerational toxicity and the underlying mechanisms. In this study we investigated the multigenerational toxic effects including locomotive behaviors and reproduction upon prolonged DEHP exposure (from larval L1 to adult) and the underlying mechanisms in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The multigenerational effects were examined over 6 generations (F0–F5) with only parental C. elegans (F0) was exposed to DEHP from larval L1 to adults (72 h), and the subsequent offsprings (F1–F5) were grown under DEHP-free conditions. The results showed that prolonged exposure (72 h) to various concentrations of DEHP caused dose-dependent locomotive impairments and reproduction defects in C. elegans and that a concentration of 0.2 mg/L DEHP was enough to cause such sublethal effects. The results showed that after prolonged exposure to DEHP in the F0 generation, abnormal locomotive behaviors such as reduced body bends and head thrashes were observed from generations F0 to F5. Additionally, prolonged exposure to DEHP (20 mg/L) in F0 significantly reduced total brood size in F0, and this parental exposure was sufficient to cause multigenerational reproductive toxicity in the offspring generations (F1–F5) as well. Furthermore, the expressions of reproduction-related genes such as vit-2 and vit-6 were down-regulated by about 20% until F3, and the expression of H3Kme2 demethylase, spr-5, was downregulated in F1 by about 40%. Results from this study demonstrate that prolonged exposure to DEHP only at F0 adversely affected reproduction and locomotive behaviors in C. elegans across generations and might be associated with inadequate vitellogenin production and malfunction of H3Kme2 demethylase. This study implies that parentally prolonged exposure to DEHP caused multigenerational defects in both reproduction and locomotive behaviors raising the potential health and ecological risk.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Speciation of organic fractions does matter for aerosol source apportionment. Part 2: Intensive short-term campaign in the Paris area (France)
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    D. Srivastava, O. Favez, N. Bonnaire, F. Lucarelli, M. Haeffelin, E. Perraudin, V. Gros, E. Villenave, A. Albinet

    The present study aimed at performing PM10 source apportionment, using positive matrix factorization (PMF), based on filter samples collected every 4 h at a sub-urban station in the Paris region (France) during a PM pollution event in March 2015 (PM10 > 50 μg m−3 for several consecutive days). The PMF model allowed to deconvolve 11 source factors. The use of specific primary and secondary organic molecular markers favoured the determination of common sources such as biomass burning and primary traffic emissions, as well as 2 specific biogenic SOA (marine + isoprene) and 3 anthropogenic SOA (nitro-PAHs + oxy-PAHs + phenolic compounds oxidation) factors. This study is probably the first one to report the use of methylnitrocatechol isomers as well as 1-nitropyrene to apportion secondary OA linked to biomass burning emissions and primary traffic emissions, respectively. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) fractions were found to account for 47% of the total OC. The use of organic molecular markers allowed the identification of 41% of the total SOC composed of anthropogenic SOA (namely, oxy-PAHs, nitro-PAHs and phenolic compounds oxidation, representing 15%, 9%, 11% of the total OC, respectively) and biogenic SOA (marine + isoprene) (6% in total). Results obtained also showed that 35% of the total SOC originated from anthropogenic sources and especially PAH SOA (oxy-PAHs + nitro-PAHs), accounting for 24% of the total SOC, highlighting its significant contribution in urban influenced environments. Anthropogenic SOA related to nitro-PAHs and phenolic compounds exhibited a clear diurnal pattern with high concentrations during the night indicating the prominent role of night-time chemistry but with different chemical processes involved.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Indonesia's globally significant seagrass meadows are under widespread threat
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Richard K.F. Unsworth, Rohani Ambo-Rappe, Benjamin L. Jones, Yayu A. La Nafie, A. Irawan, Udhi E. Hernawan, Abigail M. Moore, Leanne C. Cullen-Unsworth

    Indonesia's marine ecosystems form a fundamental part of the world's natural heritage, representing a global maxima of marine biodiversity and supporting the world's second largest production of seafood. Seagrasses are a key part of that support. In the absence of empirical data we present evidence from expert opinions as to the state of Indonesia's seagrass ecosystems, their support for ecosystem services, with a focus on fisheries, and the damaging activities that threaten their existence. We further draw on expert opinion to elicit potential solutions to prevent further loss. Seagrasses and the ecosystem services they support across the Indonesian archipelago are in a critical state of decline. Declining seagrass health is the result of shifting environmental conditions due largely to coastal development, land reclamation, and deforestation, as well as seaweed farming, overfishing and garbage dumping. In particular, we also describe the declining state of the fisheries resources that seagrass meadows support. The perilous state of Indonesia's seagrasses will compromise their resilience to climate change and result in a loss of their high ecosystem service value. Community supported management initiatives provide one mechanism for seagrass protection. Exemplars highlight the need for increased local level autonomy for the management of marine resources, opening up opportunities for incentive type conservation schemes.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Spatial heterogeneity of leaf area index in a temperate old-growth forest: Spatial autocorrelation dominates over biotic and abiotic factors
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Zhili Liu, Feng Jiang, Yu Zhu, Fengri Li, Guangze Jin

    Leaf area index (LAI) controls many eco-physiological processes and can be widely used to scale-up leaf processes to ecosystem, landscape and regional levels. However, the macro-scale spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors are not fully understood. We estimated annual maximum LAI using an LAI-2200 plant canopy analyzer in a 9-ha, old-growth, mixed broadleaved-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest in China. We analyzed the spatial heterogeneity of LAI and mapped its distribution using geostatistical methods; then, through variance partitioning, we examined the influences of several biotic factors, abiotic factors and spatial autocorrelation on the LAI distribution. Variance partitioning showed that these factors altogether explained 59% of the variation in the distribution of LAI. Compared to biotic and abiotic factors, spatial autocorrelation controlled more spatial heterogeneity of LAI by explaining 51.4% of the total variation in LAI. For biotic and abiotic factors, the mean diameter at breast height (DBH) of large trees (DBH > 10 cm), elevation, soil temperature and soil mass moisture content significantly affected the LAI distribution (P < 0.01). Notably, spatial autocorrelation unexpectedly explained the most variation in the LAI values, and it also varies with cardinal direction and is a key descriptor of LAI spatial variability. These results suggest that the influence of spatial autocorrelation on LAI distribution should attract more attention and that both the relative importance of and interactions among different determining factors is helpful for better understanding the mechanistic determinants of LAI distributions in temperate mixed forests.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the Yangtze Estuary sediments: Abundance, distribution and implications for the bioavailibility of metals
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Zuo-shun Niu, Hui Pan, Xing-pan Guo, Da-pei Lu, Jing-nan Feng, Yu-ru Chen, Fei-yun Tou, Min Liu, Yi Yang

    Ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are considered one of the dominant microorganisms involved in the degradation of sulphate. This study focused on the spatial and temporal distributions of SRB in the Scirpus triquter rhizosphere sediments with a comparison to non-rhizosphere sediments and evaluated the implication of SRB to the bioavailability of metals in the Yangtze Estuary. The results showed that taking dsrB as the target gene, SRB abundances in rhizosphere sediments were significantly higher than those in non-rhizosphere sediments (P < 0.01). SRB abundances were relatively higher in April and January than other seasons. Moreover, redundancy discriminate analysis (RDA) results indicated that sulphate, pH and TOC were the major environmental factors affecting the SRB abundance in rhizosphere sediments. The concentrations of most metals were significantly related to SRB abundance, and sulphide concentrations showed a significantly positive correlation to metal concentrations, indicating metal sulphide/metal associated sulphide could be regulated by SRB. Furthermore, electron microscope analysis found that nano-sized metal sulphide particles were ubiquitous in rhizosphere sediments and could be further taken up by plants. This study provides new insights into the immobilization and removal of heavy metals and the ecological value of the sulphate-reducing bacteria in the Yangtze Estuary.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Leaching of natural colloids from forest topsoils and their relevance for phosphorus mobility
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Anna Missong, Stefan Holzmann, Roland Bol, Volker Nischwitz, Heike Puhlmann, Klaus v. Wilpert, Jan Siemens, Erwin Klumpp

    The leaching of P from the upper 20 cm of forest topsoils influences nutrient (re-)cycling and the redistribution of available phosphate and organic P forms. However, the effective leaching of colloids and associated P forms from forest topsoils was so far sparsely investigated. We demonstrated through irrigation experiments with undisturbed mesocosm soil columns, that significant proportions of P leached from acidic forest topsoils were associated with natural colloids. These colloids had a maximum size of 400 nm. By means of Field-flow fractionation the leached soil colloids could be separated into three size fractions. The size and composition was comparable to colloids present in acidic forest streams known from literature. The composition of leached colloids of the three size classes was dominated by organic carbon. Furthermore, these colloids contained large concentrations of P which amounted between 12 and 91% of the totally leached P depending on the type of the forest soil. The fraction of other elements leached with colloids ranged between 1% and 25% (Fe: 1–25%; Corg: 3–17%; Al: <4%; Si, Ca, Mn: all <2%). The proportion of colloid–associated P decreased with increasing total P leaching. Leaching of total and colloid-associated P from the forest surface soil did not increase with increasing bulk soil P concentrations and were also not related to tree species. The present study highlighted that colloid-facilitated P leaching can be of higher relevance for the P leaching from forest surface soils than dissolved P and should not be neglected in soil water flux studies.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • The impact of nanoplastics on marine dissolved organic matter assembly
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Chi-Shuo Chen, Clarence Le, Meng-Hsuen Chiu, Wei-Chun Chin

    The environmental impact of nanoplastics (NPs) released into natural aquatic surroundings is an increasing concern. NPs are widely generated from our daily waste disposal and eventually reach the ocean, wherein consequent influences on aquatic environments remain unclear. In this regard, there are few studies investigating NP-related ecological impacts. Comprising one of Earth's major carbon pools, marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) serves an essential role in global carbon dynamics. The spontaneous assembly of DOM into particulate organic matter (POM) plays important roles in the marine carbon cycle, and is involved in hemostasis of various ecological communities. Here, we report that 10 ppb NPs (polystyrene/polymethyl methacrylate, 25 nm) appeared in a water column accelerate the kinetic assembly rate of DOM-POM transition. NPs with various characteristics show similar influences on DOM assembly, and seawater samples collected from disparate sites were used to further confirm this unanticipated phenomenon. In this study, we demonstrated that hydrophobic interactions contribute to the facilitation of NP-DOM aggregations. Our results illustrate that NPs alter DOM-POM assembly, which may potentiate unanticipated perturbation to the largest marine carbon pool. Such effects would warrant increased vigilance on current practices of plastic usage and disposal.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • 更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Investigating in-sewer transformation products formed from synthetic cathinones and phenethylamines using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Juliet Kinyua, Noelia Negreira, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Tim Boogaerts, Christoph Ort, Adrian Covaci, Alexander L.N. van Nuijs

    Recent studies have demonstrated the role of biofilms on the stability of drug residues in wastewater. These factors are pertinent in wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) when estimating community-level drug use. However, there is scarce information on the biotransformation of drug residues in the presence of biofilms and the potential use of transformation products (TPs) as biomarkers in WBE.The purpose of this work was to investigate the formation of TPs in sewage reactors in the presence of biofilm mimicking conditions during in-sewer transport. Synthetic cathinones (methylenedioxypyrovalerone, methylone, mephedrone) and phenethylamines (4-methoxy-methamphetamine and 4-methoxyamphetamine) were incubated in individual reactors over a 24 h period. Analysis of parent species and TPs was carried out using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToFMS). Identification of TPs was done using suspect and non-target workflows.In total, 18 TPs were detected and identified with reduction of β-keto group, demethylenation, demethylation, and hydroxylation reactions observed for the synthetic cathinones. For the phenethylamines, N- and O-demethylation reactions were identified. Overall, the experiments showed varying stability for the parent species in wastewater in the presence of biofilms. The newly identified isomeric forms of TPs particularly for methylone and mephedrone can be used as potential target biomarkers for WBE studies due to their specificity and detectability within a 24 h residence time.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Water use patterns of co-occurring C3 and C4 shrubs in the Gurbantonggut desert in northwestern China
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Bahejiayinaer Tiemuerbieke, Xiao-Jun Min, Yong-Xin Zang, Peng Xing, Jian-Ying Ma, Wei Sun

    In water-limited ecosystems, spatial and temporal partitioning of water sources is an important mechanism that facilitates plant survival and lessens the competition intensity of co-existing plants. Insights into species-specific root functional plasticity and differences in the water sources of co-existing plants under changing water conditions can aid in accurate prediction of the response of desert ecosystems to future climate change. We used stable isotopes of soil water, groundwater and xylem water to determine the seasonal and inter- and intraspecific differences variations in the water sources of six C3 and C4 shrubs in the Gurbantonggut desert. We also measured the stem water potentials to determine the water stress levels of each species under varying water conditions. The studied shrubs exhibited similar seasonal water uptake patterns, i.e., all shrubs extracted shallow soil water recharged by snowmelt water during early spring and reverted to deeper water sources during dry summer periods, indicating that all of the studied shrubs have dimorphic root systems that enable them to obtain water sources that differ in space and time. Species in the C4 shrub community exhibited differences in seasonal water absorption and water status due to differences in topography and rooting depth, demonstrating divergent adaptations to water availability and water stress. Haloxylon ammodendron and T. ramosissima in the C3/C4 mixed community were similar in terms of seasonal water extraction but differed with respect to water potential, which indicated that plant water status is controlled by both root functioning and shoot eco-physiological traits. The two Tamarix species in the C3 shrub community were similar in terms of water uptake and water status, which suggests functional convergence of the root system and physiological performance under same soil water conditions. In different communities, Haloxylon ammodendron differed in terms of summer water extraction, which suggests that this species exhibits plasticity with respect to rooting depth under different soil water conditions. Shrubs in the Gurbantonggut desert displayed varying adaptations across species and communities through divergent root functioning and shoot eco-physiological traits.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Spring-fen habitat islands in a warming climate: Partitioning the effects of mesoclimate air and water temperature on aquatic and terrestrial biota
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Michal Horsák, Vendula Polášková, Marie Zhai, Jindřiška Bojková, Vít Syrovátka, Vanda Šorfová, Jana Schenková, Marek Polášek, Tomáš Peterka, Michal Hájek

    Climate warming and associated environmental changes lead to compositional shifts and local extinctions in various ecosystems. Species closely associated with rare island-like habitats such as groundwater-dependent spring fens can be severely threatened by these changes due to a limited possibility to disperse. It is, however, largely unknown to what extent mesoclimate affects species composition in spring fens, where microclimate is buffered by groundwater supply. We assembled an original landscape-scale dataset on species composition of the most waterlogged parts of isolated temperate spring fens in the Western Carpathian Mountains along with continuously measured water temperature and hydrological, hydrochemical, and climatic conditions. We explored a set of hypotheses about the effects of mesoclimate air and local spring-water temperature on compositional variation of aquatic (macroinvertebrates), semi-terrestrial (plants) and terrestrial (land snails) components of spring-fen biota, categorized as habitat specialists and other species (i.e. matrix-derived). Water temperature did not show a high level of correlation with mesoclimate. For all components, fractions of compositional variation constrained to temperature were statistically significant and higher for habitat specialists than for other species. The importance of air temperature at the expense of water temperature and its fluctuation clearly increased with terrestriality, i.e. from aquatic macroinvertebrates via vegetation (bryophytes and vascular plants) to land snails, with January air temperature being the most important factor for land snails and plant specialists. Some calcareous-fen specialists with a clear distribution centre in temperate Europe showed a strong affinity to climatically cold sites in our study area and may hence be considered as threatened by climate warming. We conclude that prediction models solely based on air temperature may provide biased estimates of future changes in spring fen communities, because their aquatic and semiterrestrial components are largely affected by water temperature that is modified by local hydrological and landscape settings.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Arsenic species in wheat, raw and cooked rice: Exposure and associated health implications
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Hifza Rasheed, Paul Kay, Rebecca Slack, Yun Yun Gong

    Arsenic concentrations above 10 μg L−1 were previously found in 89% of ground water sources in six villages of Pakistan. The present study has ascertained the health risks associated with exposure to total arsenic (tAs) and its species in most frequently consumed foods. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) concentrations were found to be 92.5 ± 41.88 μg kg−1, 79.21 ± 76.42 μg kg−1, and 116.38 ± 51.38 μg kg−1 for raw rice, cooked rice and wheat respectively. The mean tAs concentrations were 47.47 ± 30.72 μg kg−1, 71.65 ± 74.7 μg kg−1, 105 ± 61.47 μg kg−1. Wheat is therefore demonstrated to be a significant source of arsenic exposure. Dimethylarsinic acid was the main organic species detected in rice, whilst monomethylarsonic acid was only found at trace levels. Total daily intake of iAs exceeded the provisional tolerable daily intake of 2.1 μg kg−1 day−1 body weight in 74% of study participants due to concurrent intake from water (94%), wheat (5%) and raw rice (1%). A significant association between tAs in cooked rice and cooking water resulted in tAs intake 43% higher in cooked rice compared to raw rice. The study suggests that arsenic intake from food, particularly from wheat consumption, holds particular significance where iAs is relatively low in water. Chronic health risks were found to be significantly higher from wheat intake than rice, whilst the risk in terms of acute effects was below the USEPA's limit of 1.0. Children were at significantly higher health risk than adults due to iAs exposure from rice and/or wheat. The dietary exposure of participants to tAs was attributable to staple food intake with ground water iAs <10 μg L−1, however the preliminary advisory level (200 μg kg−1) was achievable with rice consumption of ≤200 g day−1 and compliance with ≤10 μg L−1 iAs in drinking water. Although the daily iAs intake from food was lower than total water intake, the potential health risk from exposure to arsenic and its species still exists and requires exposure control measures.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • River recharge versus O2 supply from the unsaturated zone in shallow riparian groundwater: A case study from the Selke River (Germany)
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Michael Mader, André M. Roberts, David Porst, Christian Schmidt, Nico Trauth, Robert van Geldern, Johannes A.C. Barth

    Besides gas-water-exchange in surface waters, respiratory consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO) in adjacent riparian groundwater may trigger the addition of so far hardly explored sources from the unsaturated zone. These processes also systematically influence stable isotope ratios of DO and were investigated together with Cl− as a conservative tracer for water mixing in a near-river riparian groundwater system. The study focused on a losing stream section of the Selke River at the foot of the Harz Mountains (Germany). The study area exposed steep DO gradients between the stream water and riparian groundwater between April 2016 and May 2017. Our results indicated dominant influences of microbial community respiration with observed DO concentration gradients. These observations can be explained by DO from the river that is subject to fractionation by microbial respiration with a typical fractionation factor (αr) of 0.982. However, with such respiration dominance, we expected a simultaneous enrichment of δ18ODO towards values that are more positive than the well-known atmospheric O2 signal of +23.9‰ versus the Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water standard (VSMOW). Surprisingly, our measurements revealed much lower δ18ODO values between +22‰ and +18‰ in the near-river groundwater. Mass balance calculations revealed that the DO pool in the shallow and unconfined aquifer receives contributions of up to about 80% by diffusion of oxygen from the vadose zone with a distinctly lower isotope value than the one of the atmosphere. This finding about additional oxygen sources from the unsaturated zone has numerous ramifications for oxygen related processes in near-river environments including the oxidation of pollutants, nutrients and ecosystem health.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Biodiversity responds to increasing climatic extremes in a biome-specific manner
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Aaron C. Greenville, Emma Burns, Christopher R. Dickman, David A. Keith, David B. Lindenmayer, John W. Morgan, Dean Heinze, Ian Mansergh, Graeme R. Gillespie, Luke Einoder, Alaric Fisher, Jeremy Russell-Smith, Daniel J. Metcalfe, Peter T. Green, Ary A. Hoffmann, Glenda M. Wardle

    An unprecedented rate of global environmental change is predicted for the next century. The response to this change by ecosystems around the world is highly uncertain. To address this uncertainty, it is critical to understand the potential drivers and mechanisms of change in order to develop more reliable predictions. Australia's Long Term Ecological Research Network (LTERN) has brought together some of the longest running (10–60 years) continuous environmental monitoring programs in the southern hemisphere. Here, we compare climatic variables recorded at five LTERN plot network sites during their period of operation and place them into the context of long-term climatic trends. Then, using our unique Australian long-term datasets (total 117 survey years across four biomes), we synthesize results from a series of case studies to test two hypotheses: 1) extreme weather events for each plot network have increased over the last decade, and; 2) trends in biodiversity will be associated with recent climate change, either directly or indirectly through climate-mediated disturbance (wildfire) responses. We examined the biodiversity responses to environmental change for evidence of non-linear behavior. In line with hypothesis 1), an increase in extreme climate events occurred within the last decade for each plot network. For hypothesis 2), climate, wildfire, or both were correlated with biodiversity responses at each plot network, but there was no evidence of non-linear change. However, the influence of climate or fire was context-specific. Biodiversity responded to recent climate change either directly or indirectly as a consequence of changes in fire regimes or climate-mediated fire responses. A national long-term monitoring framework allowed us to find contrasting species abundance or community responses to climate and disturbance across four of the major biomes of Australia, highlighting the need to establish and resource long-term monitoring programs across representative ecosystem types, which are likely to show context-specific responses.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Ecological and ecotoxicological responses in the assessment of the ecological status of freshwater systems: A case-study of the temporary stream Brejo of Cagarrão (South of Portugal)
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    P. Palma, C. Matos, P. Alvarenga, M. Köck-Schulmeyer, I. Simões, D. Barceló, M.J. López de Alda

    The objective of the study was to assess the integrated use of macroinvertebrate indexes and ecotoxicological parameters in the evaluation of the ecological status of a temporary stream with a strong agricultural influence. Water quality was analysed at two sampling sites along the stream, considering: chemical supporting parameters; hazardous substances (pesticides); benthic macroinvertebrate communities, through quality (Iberian Biological Monitoring Working Party and Iberian Average Score Per Taxon) and multi-metric indices (Southern Portuguese Index of Invertebrates and Ecological Quality Ratio); and ecotoxicological responses using lethal and sub-lethal bioassays. The water chemical characterization showed high levels of organic matter and nutrients, mainly in the dry period ((biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5): 18.5–25.5 mg L−1, chemical oxygen demand (COD): 60.8–193.7 mg L−1; total phosphorus (TP): 0.17–0.33 mg L−1)), which may compromise the support of biological life. In accordance with the physicochemical results, the stream had an ecological status less than good. Of the 25 pesticides analysed, only five, namely terbuthylazine, 2-methyl-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, bentazone, mecoprop and metolachlor were quantified. In general, the concentrations of pesticides detected were low, except at the source of the stream in January 2012 (sum of pesticides 2.29 μg L−1), mainly due to the concentration of bentazone (1.77 μg L−1), both values surpassing the European Commission threshold values. The analysis of benthic macroinvertebrates showed low levels of abundance and family diversity, with communities dominated by resistant groups to organic pollution and pesticides, such as the Chironomidae family. In general, the reproduction ecotoxicological results showed a very marked decrease in the number of juveniles per female. The Spearman correlation identified pesticides, namely MCPA (R = −0.89; p < 0.05), as the main responsible for the observed effect. The results showed the linearity and complementarity of the two groups of biological responses, allowing to cover the interactions between the ecosystem's species and the different types of pollutants.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Promoting inclusive water governance and forecasting the structure of water consumption based on compositional data: A case study of Beijing
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Yigang Wei, Zhichao Wang, Huiwen Wang, Tang Yao, Yan Li

    Water is centrally important for agricultural security, environment, people's livelihoods, and socio-economic development, particularly in the face of extreme climate changes. Due to water shortages in many cities, the conflicts between various stakeholders and sectors over water use and allocation are becoming more common and intense. Effective inclusive governance of water use is critical for relieving water use conflicts. In addition, reliable forecasting of the structure of water usage among different sectors is a basic need for effective water governance planning. Although a large number of studies have attempted to forecast water use, little is known about the forecasted structure and trends of water use in the future. This paper aims to develop a forecasting model for the structure of water usage based on compositional data. Compositional data analysis is an effective approach for investigating the internal structure of a system. A host of data transformation methods and forecasting models were adopted and compared in order to derive the best-performing model. According to mean absolute percent error for compositional data (CoMAPE), a hyperspherical-transformation-based vector autoregression model for compositional data (VAR-DRHT) is the best-performing model. The proportions of the agricultural, industrial, domestic and environmental water will be 6.11%, 5.01%, 37.48% and 51.4% by 2020. Several recommendations for water inclusive development are provided to give a better account for the optimization of the water use structure, alleviation of water shortages, and improving stake holders' wellbeing. Overall, although we focus on groundwater, this study presents a powerful framework broadly applicable to resource management.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Applying β-cyclodextrin to amaranth inoculated with white-rot fungus for more efficient remediation of soil co-contaminated with Cd and BDE-209
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Xing Li, Ao Yu Chen, Yang Wu, Li Wu, Lei Xiang, Hai Ming Zhao, Quan Ying Cai, Yan Wen Li, Ce Hui Mo, Ming Hung Wong, Hui Li

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a series of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) concentrations on bioremediation of soil co-contaminated with Cd and BDE-209 using amaranth and the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, with BDE-209 degrading ability. Results showed that the white-rot fungus was beneficial to the growth of amaranth, Cd uptake and BDE-209 degradation. Addition of β-CD further increased biomass of both shoots and roots, shoot Cd concentrations and contents, chlorophyll concentrations and soil manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities. Furthermore, well-organized mesophyll cells were observed in β-CD treatments, implying that the combination of white-rot fungus and β-CD can alleviate the stresses of Cd and BDE-209 to mesophyll cells. The BDE-209 degradation rate was positively correlated to β-CD concentration and MnP activity in soil. Our results also revealed that RF + β0.8 treatment possessed the greatest Cd removal efficiency due to its well-configured mesophyll cells and the highest shoot biomass, chlorophyll concentration, and shoot Cd concentration. Considering simultaneous removal of Cd and BDE-209 from soil, using 0.8% β-CD to amaranth inoculated with white-rot fungus is a promising way forward for the phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with Cd and BDE-209. A high percentage of mono-BDE was detected in inoculated amaranth, suggesting that BDE-209 was debrominated into low brominated PBDEs by the fungus in soil, which were then absorbed and further debrominated into mono-BDE in the plant.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Probabilistic risk assessment of nitrate groundwater contamination from greenhouses in Albenga plain (Liguria, Italy) using lysimeters
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Ombretta Paladino, Mahdi Seyedsalehi, Marco Massabò

    The use of fertilizers in greenhouse-grown crops can pose a threat to groundwater quality and, consequently, to human beings and subterranean ecosystem, where intensive farming produces pollutants leaching. Albenga plain (Liguria, Italy) is an alluvial area of about 45 km2 historically devoted to farming. Recently the crops have evolved to greenhouses horticulture and floriculture production. In the area high levels of nitrates in groundwater have been detected.Lysimeters with three types of reconstituted soils (loamy sand, sandy clay loam and sandy loam) collected from different areas of Albenga plain were used in this study to evaluate the leaching loss of nitrate (NO3−) over a period of 12 weeks. Leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was selected as a representative green-grown crop. Each of the soil samples was treated with a slow release fertilizer, simulating the real fertilizing strategy of the tillage. In order to estimate the potential risk for aquifers as well as for organisms exposed via pore water, nitrate concentrations in groundwater were evaluated by applying a simplified attenuation model to the experimental data. Results were refined and extended from comparison of single effects and exposure values (Tier I level) up to the evaluation of probabilistic distributions of exposure and related effects (Tier II, III IV levels).HHRA suggested HI >1 and about 20% probability of exceeding RfD for all the greenhouses, regardless of the soil. ERA suggested HQ > 100 for all the greenhouses; 93% probability of PNEC exceedance for greenhouses containing sand clay loam. The probability of exceeding LC50 for 5% of the species was about 40% and the probability corresponding to DBQ of DEC/EC50 > 0.001 was >90% for all the greenhouses. The significantly high risk, related to the detected nitrate leaching loss, can be attributed to excessive and inappropriate fertigation strategies.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Balancing macronutrient stoichiometry to alleviate eutrophication
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    M.I. Stutter, D. Graeber, C.D. Evans, A.J. Wade, P.J.A. Withers

    Reactive nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs to surface waters modify aquatic environments, affect public health and recreation. Source controls dominate eutrophication management, whilst biological regulation of nutrients is largely neglected, although aquatic microbial organisms have huge potential to process nutrients. The stoichiometric ratio of organic carbon (OC) to N to P atoms should modulate heterotrophic pathways of aquatic nutrient processing, as high OC availability favours aquatic microbial processing. Heterotrophic microbial processing removes N by denitrification and captures N and P as organically-complexed, less eutrophying forms. With a global data synthesis, we show that the atomic ratios of bioavailable dissolved OC to either N or P in rivers with urban and agricultural land use are often distant from a “microbial optimum”. This OC-deficiency relative to high availabilities of N and P likely overwhelms within-river heterotrophic processing. We propose that the capability of streams and rivers to retain N and P may be improved by active stoichiometric rebalancing. Although autotrophic OC production contributes to heterotrophic rates substantial control on nutrient processing from allochthonous OC is documented for N and an emerging field for P. Hence, rebalancing should be done by reconnecting appropriate OC sources such as wetlands and riparian forests that have become disconnected from rivers concurrent with agriculture and urbanisation. However, key knowledge gaps require research prior to the safe implementation of this approach in management: (i) to evaluate system responses to catchment inputs of dissolved OC forms and amounts relative to internal production of autotrophic dissolved OC and aquatic and terrestrial particulate OC and (ii) evaluate risk factors in anoxia-mediated P desorption with elevated OC scenarios. Still, we find stoichiometric rebalancing through reconnecting landscape beneficial OC sources has considerable potential for river management to alleviate eutrophication, improve water quality and aquatic ecosystem health, if augmenting nutrient source control.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Urbanization gradient of selected pharmaceuticals in surface water at a watershed scale
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Bing Hong, Qiaoying Lin, Shen Yu, Yongshan Chen, Yuemin Chen, Penchi Chiang

    Ubiquitous detection of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment around the world raises a great public concern. Aquatic residuals of pharmaceuticals have been assumed to relate to land use patterns and various human activities within a catchment or watershed. This study generated a gradient of human activity in the Jiulong River watershed, southeastern China by urban land use percentage in 20 research subwatersheds. Thirty-three compounds from three-category pharmaceuticals [26 compounds of 5 antibiotic groups, 6 compounds of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and 1 compound of respiratory system drugs (RSDs)] were quantified in stream water before the research subwatershed confluences with two sampling events in dry and wet seasons. In total, 27 out of the 33 pharmaceutical compounds of interest were found in stream waters. Seasonality of instream pharmaceuticals was observed, with less compounds and lower concentrations in the wet season sampling event than in the dry season one. Urban land use in the research subwatershed was identified as the main factor influencing in stream pharmaceutical concentrations and composition regardless of season. Rural land uses contributed a mixture of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals possibly from agricultural application of manure and sewage sludge and aquaculture in the research subwatersheds. Erythromycin in both sampling events showed medium to high risks to aquatic organisms. Results of this study suggest that urban pharmaceutical management, such as a strict prescription regulations and high-efficient removal of pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment, is critical in reducing aquatic pharmaceutical loads.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Mudbank off Alleppey, India: A bane for foraminifera but not so for carbon burial
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Rupal Dubey, Rajeev Saraswat, Rajiv Nigam

    Calm conditions and extensive fishing, during monsoon season in the mudbank off Alleppey (Kerala), India creates a unique environment, associated with high suspended particulate matter. The effect of processes associated with mudbank formation, on benthic foraminifera, however, has not been documented. We have studied, seasonal foraminiferal distribution, to understand foraminiferal response to physico-chemical changes associated with the mudbank formation. Additionally, seasonal changes in total carbon, calcium carbonate (CaCO3), organic carbon (Corg) and Corg/nitrogen (Corg/N) were also measured to understand the effect of mudbank formation on carbon burial. We report a low foraminiferal abundance in the mudbank. Benthic foraminiferal diversity is also low in the mudbank, during both pre-monsoon and monsoon season, clearly suggesting a stressed environment. Agglutinated foraminifera dominate the living benthic foraminiferal population in the mudbank, suggesting that the area is carbonate undersaturated and under fresh-water influence. Ammobaculites dilatatus and Ammobaculites exiguus are the dominant agglutinated species abundant in the mudbank and thus can be used to reconstruct past changes in the mudbank. The CaCO3 is consistently low during all seasons, at one of the core mudbank stations. The %Corg is, however, higher in the core mudbank as well as the northern peripheral region. The Corg/N is consistently uniform at all the stations indicating a similar source of organic matter in all the seasons. The higher %Corg and constant Corg/N suggest, that food availability and its source is not a major factor affecting benthic foraminifera in the mudbank. Instead, increased turbidity and low bottom water salinity are the main cause of seasonally stressed environment in the mudbank. Additionally, Corg degradation coupled with fresh water influx induced drop in bottom water pH is responsible for low foraminiferal population in mudbank region, in all the seasons. The reduced calcareous benthic foraminiferal abundance, however, does not affect the carbon burial in the mudbank, due to higher %Corg.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Distribution of trifluoroacetic acid in gas and particulate phases in Beijing from 2013 to 2016
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Boya Zhang, Zihan Zhai, Jianbo Zhang

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) was measured at an urban site in Beijing from April 2013 to April 2016 and examined its characteristics and particle/gas distributions. The average monthly atmospheric TFA concentration fluctuated significantly and presented marked seasonal variations. The concentration levels of gas-phase TFA were significantly higher in spring and summer than in fall and winter. The PM2.5 mass concentration and ambient temperature were important factors affecting the concentration of particulate-phase TFA. Hence, at higher PM2.5 concentrations and lower temperatures, atmospheric TFA tended to be enriched in particulate matter. Our findings suggest that the percentage of gas-phase TFA in Beijing is higher than that in the steady state; thus, gas-phase TFA can still be transformed to the particulate phase and increase the contribution of TFA to haze formation.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Mechanisms of developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) induced by boscalid
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Le Qian, Feng Cui, Yang Yang, Yuan Liu, Suzhen Qi, Chengju Wang

    Boscalid has been widely used for controlling various plant diseases. It is one of the most frequently detected pesticides in main coastal estuaries in California, with concentrations as high as 36 μg/L, but its ecotoxicology information is scarce. To assess the aquatic risk of boscalid, acute toxicity and sub-lethal developmental toxicity toward zebrafish embryos were determined in the present study. In the acute toxicity test, a series of toxic symptoms of embryos were observed, including abnormal spontaneous movement, slow heartbeat, yolk sac oedema, pericardial oedema, spine deformation and hatching inhibition, and 96-h-LC50 (50% lethal concentration) of boscalid toward zebrafish embryos was 2.65 (2.506–2.848) mg/L. From the results of the sub-lethal developmental toxicity test, boscalid was confirmed to have a great impact on development mechanisms of zebrafish embryos. Cell apoptosis in embryos was induced by boscalid with upregulation of genes in the cell apoptosis and an increase of capspase-3 and caspase-9 activity in the present study. Lipid metabolism was affected in embryos due to changes in gene expression and the contents of total triacylglyceride and cholesterol. Melanin synthesis and deposition was caused in embryos due to alterations in related gene expression. Overall, changes in cell apoptosis, lipid metabolism and melanin synthesis and deposition might be responsible for developmental toxicity of boscalid to zebrafish embryos.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
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    更新日期:2018-04-05
  • Mechanisms for rhamnolipids-mediated biodegradation of hydrophobic organic compounds
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-03
    Zhuotong Zeng, Yang Liu, Hua Zhong, Rong Xiao, Guangming Zeng, Zhifeng Liu, Min Cheng, Cui Lai, Chen Zhang, Guansheng Liu, Lei Qin

    The widespread existence of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in soil and water poses a potential health hazard to human, such as skin diseases, heart diseases, carcinogenesis, etc. Surfactant-enhanced bioremediation has been regarded as one of the most viable technologies to treat HOCs contaminated soil and groundwater. As a biosurfactant that has been intensively studied, rhamnolipids have shown to enhance biodegradation of HOCs in the environment, however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully disclosed. In this paper, properties and production of rhamnolipids are summarized. Then effects of rhamnolipids on the biodegradation of HOCs, including solubilization, altering cell affinity to HOCs, and facilitating microbial uptake are reviewed in detail. Special attention is paid to how rhamnolipids change the bioavailability of HOCs, which are crucial for understanding the mechanism of rhamnolipids-mediated biodegradation. The biodegradation and toxicity of rhamnolipids are also discussed. Finally, perspectives and future research directions are proposed. This review adds insight to rhamnolipids-enhanced biodegradation process, and helps in application of rhamnolipids in bioremediation.

    更新日期:2018-04-04
  • Comment on: “Synchronizing biological cycles as key to survival under a scenario of global change: The Common quail (Coturnix coturnix) strategy” by Nadal, J., Ponz, C., Margalida, A.
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-04-03
    José Domingo Rodríguez-Teijeiro, Eduardo García-Galea, Francesc Sardà-Palomera, Irene Jiménez-Blasco, Manel Puigcerver

    Nadal et al. (2018) recently reported on changes in the phenology of the Common quail (Coturnix coturnix) in seven cloudy regions of Spain in relation to climate change. The authors used a long-term ringing database (1961–2014) and calculated the mean date for three biological stages: arrival at the breeding areas, stay and autumn departure. They observed that some of these phenological variables were associated with the climate variables of temperature and rainfall (Figs. 4 and 6 of their article). They also analysed the yearly variation in temperature and rainfall over the last 86 years, reporting an increase in temperature and a decrease in rainfall (Figs. 3 and 5 of their article). Based on these results, the authors suggested that the Common quail phenology has varied as a response to climate change in Spain, thus concluding that “quail movements and breeding attempts are eco-synchronized sequentially in cloudy regions. Our results suggest that quails attempt to overcome the negative impacts of climate change and agricultural intensification by searching for alternative high-quality habitats”. We disagree with two methodological aspects of the article by Nadal et al. (2018): (1) the estimation of the mean date of arrival, stay and departure in the different regions studied; and (2) the analyses carried out to correlate the phenology of the species with the changes in climate variables.

    更新日期:2018-04-03
  • Mobile dynamic passive sampling of trace organic compounds: Evaluation of sampler performance in the Danube River
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-03-30
    Branislav Vrana, Foppe Smedes, Ian Allan, Tatsiana Rusina, Krzysztof Okonski, Klára Hilscherová, Jiří Novák, Peter Tarábek, Jaroslav Slobodník
    更新日期:2018-03-30
  • Application of a short term air quality action plan in Madrid (Spain) under a high-pollution episode - Part I: Diagnostic and analysis from observations
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-03-29
    Rafael Borge, Begoña Artíñano, Carlos Yagüe, Francisco Javier Gomez-Moreno, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Mariano Sastre, Adolfo Narros, David García-Nieto, Nuria Benavent, Gregorio Maqueda, Marcos Barreiro, Juan Manuel de Andrés, Ángeles Cristóbal
    更新日期:2018-03-30
  • Nitrite ion mitigates the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during chloramination of ranitidine
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-03-28
    Mingizem Gashaw Seid, Kangwoo Cho, Changha Lee, Hyun-Mee Park, Seok Won Hong
    更新日期:2018-03-29
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  • Nitrogen balances of innovative cropping systems for feedstock production to future biorefineries ☆
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-03-28
    Kiril Manevski, Poul E. Lærke, Jørgen E. Olesen, Uffe Jørgensen
    更新日期:2018-03-29
  • Refractory organic matter in coastal salt marshes-effect on C sequestration calculations
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-03-28
    Eduardo Leorri, Andrew R. Zimmerman, Siddhartha Mitra, Robert R. Christian, Francisco Fatela, David J. Mallinson
    更新日期:2018-03-29
  • Determination of tylosin excretion from sheep to assess tylosin spread to agricultural fields by manure application
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-03-28
    Nao K. Ishikawa, Eiko Touno, Yumi Higashiyama, Makoto Sasamoto, Misaki Soma, Naoto Yoshida, Ayumi Ito, Teruyuki Umita
    更新日期:2018-03-29
  • Analytical approaches for the determination of personal care products and evaluation of their occurrence in marine organisms
    Sci. Total Environ. (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-03-28
    Sarah Montesdeoca-Esponda, Leonardo Checchini, Massimo Del Bubba, Zoraida Sosa-Ferrera, José Juan Santana-Rodriguez
    更新日期:2018-03-29
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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