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  • The role of salinity on the changes of the biomass characteristics and on the performance of an OMBR treating tannery wastewater
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-25
    M.J. Luján-Facundo, J. Fernández-Navarro, J.L. Alonso-Molina, I. Amorós-Muñoz, Y. Moreno, J.A. Mendoza-Roca, L. Pastor-Alcañiz
    更新日期:2018-05-27
  • 更新日期:2018-05-27
  • Non-target screening to trace ozonation transformation products in a wastewater treatment train including different post-treatments
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-25
    Jennifer E. Schollée, Marc Bourgin, Urs von Gunten, Christa S. McArdell, Juliane Hollender
    更新日期:2018-05-25
  • Removal and recovery of uranium(VI) by waste digested activated sludge in fed-batch stirred tank reactor
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-24
    Rohan Jain, Sirpa Peräniemi, Norbert Jordan, Manja Vogel, Stephan Weiss, Harald Foerstendorf, Aino-Maija Lakaniemi
    更新日期:2018-05-25
  • Hybrid algal photosynthesis and ion exchange (HAPIX) process for high ammonium strength wastewater treatment
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-25
    Meng Wang, Karl A. Payne, Shuang Tong, Sarina J. Ergas
    更新日期:2018-05-25
  • 更新日期:2018-05-24
  • Integrated modelling of stormwater treatment systems uptake
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-24
    A.C. Castonguay, M.S. Iftekhar, C. Urich, P.M. Bach, A. Deletic
    更新日期:2018-05-24
  • Ultraviolet absorption redshift induced direct photodegradation of halogenated parabens under simulated sunlight
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-24
    Dong Wan, Yong Chen, Jing Su, Lu Liu, Yuegang Zuo
    更新日期:2018-05-24
  • Photodegradation of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Water Treatment Using Carbonaceous-TiO2 Composites: A Critical Review of Recent Literature
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-23
    Dion Awfa, Mohamed Ateia, Manabu Fujii, Matthew S. Johnson, Chihiro Yoshimura
    更新日期:2018-05-23
  • Predicting long term removal of heavy metals from porous pavements for stormwater treatment
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-22
    Kefeng Zhang, Fern Yong, David McCarthy, Ana Deletic

    Porous pavements are commonly used stormwater management systems. However, the understanding of their long-term capacity to retain heavy metals is limited. This study aims to investigate the long-term removal of heavy metals in three different porous pavements – Porous Asphalt (PA), Hydrapave (HP) and Permapave (PP) over accelerated laboratory experiments representing 26 years with varying hydrological conditions (drying/wetting periods and flow rates). A treatment model that simulates adsorption and desorption processes was developed for the first time to predict the long-term heavy metal removal by porous pavements. Unsurprisingly, all tested porous pavements performed better in removing metals that tend to attach to solid particles (e.g. Pb, Al, Fe) than more soluble ones (e.g. Cu, Zn, and Mn). There was a general increase of heavy metal concentrations at the outlet of the pavements over time as a result of a decrease in adsorption capacity of the systems, especially after the occurrence of clogging; the soluble heavy metals removal decreased with a reduction in flow rates which was speculated to be due to more time being available for desorption of metals and breakdown of accumulated sediments. The proposed model simulated the trend, fluctuations and peaks of heavy metal concentrations reasonably well, achieving the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) values of 0.53–0.68 during model calibration. The model was most promising in predicting Al and Cu release from porous pavements (50%–91% of the observed data within the 90% uncertainty bands, NSE = 0.44–0.74), followed by Fe and Pb (27–77% observations within the bands, NSE = 0.20–0.69). Further improvements of the model are needed for it to be applicable for Zn and Mn.

    更新日期:2018-05-23
  • Microplastics in sewage sludge from the wastewater treatment plants in China
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-21
    Xiaowei Li, Lubei Chen, Qingqing Mei, Bin Dong, Xiaohu Dai, Guoji Ding, Eddy Y. Zeng
    更新日期:2018-05-21
  • Synchronous microbial vanadium (V) reduction and denitrification in groundwater using hydrogen as the sole electron donor
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-21
    Yufeng Jiang, Baogang Zhang, Chao He, Jiaxin Shi, Alistair G.L. Borthwick, Xueyang Huang
    更新日期:2018-05-21
  • Moderate KMnO4-Fe(II) pre-oxidation for alleviating ultrafiltration membrane fouling by algae during drinking water treatment
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-21
    Baiwen Ma, Jing Qi, Xing Wang, Min Ma, Shiyu Miao, Wenjiang Li, Ruiping Liu, Huijuan Liu, Jiuhui Qu
    更新日期:2018-05-21
  • Interaction of calcium, phosphorus and natural organic matter in electrochemical recovery of phosphate
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-21
    Yang Lei, Bingnan Song, Michel Saakes, Renata D. van der Weijden, Cees J.N. Buisman
    更新日期:2018-05-21
  • Why are organic micropollutants not fully biotransformed? A mechanistic modelling approach to anaerobic systems
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-21
    Lorena Gonzalez-Gil, Miguel Mauricio-Iglesias, Marta Carballa, Juan M. Lema
    更新日期:2018-05-21
  • Determining major factors controlling phosphorus removal by promising adsorbents used for lake restoration: A linear mixed model approach
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-17
    A. Funes, F.J. Martínez, I. Álvarez-Manzaneda, J.M. Conde-Porcuna, J. de Vicente, F. Guerrero, I. de Vicente
    更新日期:2018-05-18
  • 更新日期:2018-05-18
  • Impacts of groundwater management on energy resources and greenhouse gas emissions in California
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-16
    Thomas P. Hendrickson, Maya Bruguera
    更新日期:2018-05-17
  • Small-sized microplastics and pigmented particles in bottled mineral water
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-16
    Barbara E. Oßmann, George Sarau, Heinrich Holtmannspötter, Monika Pischetsrieder, Silke H. Christiansen, Wilhelm Dicke
    更新日期:2018-05-17
  • Deterministic mechanisms define the long-term anaerobic digestion microbiome and its functionality regardless of the initial microbial community
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-17
    M. Peces, S. Astals, P.D. Jensen, W.P. Clarke

    The impact of the starting inoculum on long-term anaerobic digestion performance, process functionality and microbial community composition remains unclear. To understand the impact of starting inoculum, active microbial communities from four different full-scale anaerobic digesters were each used to inoculate four continuous lab-scale anaerobic digesters, which were operated identically for 295 days. Digesters were operated at 15 days solid retention time, an organic loading rate of 1 g COD Lr−1 d−1 (75:25 - cellulose:casein) and 37 °C. Results showed that long-term process performance, metabolic rates (hydrolytic, acetogenic, and methanogenic) and microbial community are independent of the inoculum source. Digesters process performance converged after 80 days, while metabolic rates and microbial communities converged after 120–145 days. The convergence of the different microbial communities towards a core-community proves that the deterministic factors (process operational conditions) were a stronger driver than the initial microbial community composition. Indeed, the core-community represented 72% of the relative abundance among the four digesters. Moreover, a number of positive correlations were observed between higher metabolic rates and the relative abundance of specific microbial groups. These correlations showed that both substrate consumers and suppliers trigger higher metabolic rates, expanding the knowledge of the nexus between microorganisms and functionality. Overall, these results support that deterministic factors control microbial communities in bioreactors independently of the inoculum source. Hence, it seems plausible that a desired microbial composition and functionality can be achieved by tuning process operational conditions.

    更新日期:2018-05-17
  • Reducing phosphorus (P) losses from drained agricultural fields with iron coated sand (- glauconite) filters
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-16
    Stany Vandermoere, Njaka Andriamanantena Ralaizafisoloarivony, Eric Van Ranst, Stefaan De Neve

    In north-west Europe, agricultural diffuse P losses are a major cause of eutrophication problems in surface waters. Given that the Water Framework Directive (WFD) demands fast water quality improvements and most of the actual P mitigation strategies tend to work on the long run, new short-term mitigation measures are urgently needed. We here report on the entire process of developing small scale field filters to remove P at the end of tile drains, starting from the screening of potential P sorbing materials (PSM): iron coated sand (ICS), acid pre-treated natural minerals (biotite, glauconite and olivine) and bauxite. Initial batch (ad)sorption experiments revealed following order in both, P sorption capacity and speed: ICS > bauxite > glauconite > olivine = biotite. Because of the presence of significant amounts of lead and/or nickel, we excluded bauxite and olivine from further experiments. Subsequent lab scale flow through systems were conducted with P filters containing mixtures of ICS and glauconite (100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30 and 60/40%, respectively, on weight basis). We found a significant relationship between Ksat and the filter mixtures particle size distribution and bulk density, and a significant effect of the filter mixture composition on P removal efficiency and stability of Ksat. During the 10 week field trials, the pure ICS filters were capable of processing all drainage discharge rates (up to 6 m3 day−1) with a P removal efficiency of ≥74%. The 90/10 ICS/glauconite filters could process up to 4 m3 water day−1 with a P removal efficiency of 57%. As saturated ICS filters can easily be replaced and recycled for other applications, this is a promising sustainable technique to drastically cut back diffuse P losses and to tremendously improve surface water quality in the short term.

    更新日期:2018-05-16
  • Potential risks from UV/H2O2 oxidation and UV photocatalysis: A review of toxic, assimilable, and sensory-unpleasant transformation products
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-15
    Wen-Long Wang, Qian-Yuan Wu, Nan Huang, Zi-Bin Xu, Min-Yong Lee, Hong-Ying Hu
    更新日期:2018-05-15
  • Impact of inorganic ions and natural organic matter on arsenates removal by ferrate(VI): Understanding a complex effect of phosphates ions
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-15
    Jan Kolařík, Robert Prucek, Jiří Tuček, Jan Filip, Virender K. Sharma, Radek Zbořil
    更新日期:2018-05-15
  • Physicochemical factors controlling the retention and transport of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in saturated sand and limestone porous media
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-15
    Xueyan Lv, Yuanyuan Sun, Rong Ji, Bin Gao, Jichun Wu, Qiusheng Lu, Hai Jiang
    更新日期:2018-05-15
  • Experimental design for evaluating WWTP data by linear mass balances
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-15
    Quan H. Le, Peter J.T. Verheijen, Mark C.M. van Loosdrecht, Eveline I.P. Volcke
    更新日期:2018-05-15
  • Linking fish tolerance to water quality criteria for the assessment of environmental flows: A practical method for streamflow regulation and pollution control
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-15
    Changsen Zhao, Shengtian Yang, Junguo Liu, Changming Liu, Fanghua Hao, Zhonggen Wang, Huitong Zhang, Jinxi Song, Simon M. Mitrovic, Richard P. Lim
    更新日期:2018-05-15
  • 更新日期:2018-05-15
  • Impact of UVA pre-radiation on UVC disinfection performance: Inactivation, repair and mechanism study
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-15
    Y. Xiao, X.N. Chu, M. He, X.C. Liu, J.Y. Hu
    更新日期:2018-05-15
  • 更新日期:2018-05-14
  • Applying multi-criteria analysis for preliminary assessment of the properties of alginate immobilized Myriophyllum spicatum in lake water samples
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-11
    Jelena V. Milojković, Jelena B. Popović-Đorđević, Lato L. Pezo, Ilija D. Brčeski, Aleksandar Ž. Kostić, Vladan D. Milošević, Mirjana D. Stojanović
    更新日期:2018-05-12
  • Morphospecies-dependent disaggregation of colonies of the cyanobacterium Microcystis under high turbulent mixing
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-11
    Ming Li, Man Xiao, Pei Zhang, David P. Hamilton
    更新日期:2018-05-12
  • Temperature Enhanced Backwash
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-11
    Benedikt M. Aumeier, Süleyman Yüce, Matthias Wessling
    更新日期:2018-05-12
  • Removing Escherichia coli from water using zinc oxide-coated zeolite
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-11
    Lingling Wang, Wenlin Wu, Xiaolan Xie, Hongbin Chen, Jianming Lin, Dionysios D. Dionysiou
    更新日期:2018-05-11
  • Electron bifurcation mechanism and homoacetogenesis explain products yields in mixed culture anaerobic fermentations
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-11
    A. Regueira, R. González-Cabaleiro, I.D. Ofiţeru, J. Rodríguez, J.M. Lema

    Anaerobic fermentation of organic wastes using microbial mixed cultures is a promising avenue to treat residues and obtain added-value products. However, the process has some important limitations that prevented so far any industrial application. One of the main issues is that we are not able to predict reliably the product spectrum (i.e. the stoichiometry of the process) because the complex microbial community behaviour is not completely understood. To address this issue, in this work we propose a new metabolic network of glucose fermentation by microbial mixed cultures that incorporates electron bifurcation and homoacetogenesis. Our methodology uses NADH balances to analyse published experimental data and evaluate the new stoichiometry proposed. Our results prove for the first time the inclusion of electron bifurcation in the metabolic network as a better description of the experimental results. Homoacetogenesis has been used to explain the discrepancies between observed and theoretically predicted yields of gaseous H2 and CO2 and it appears as the best solution among other options studied. Overall, this work supports the consideration of electron bifurcation as an important biochemical mechanism in microbial mixed cultures fermentations and underlines the importance of considering homoacetogenesis when analysing anaerobic fermentations.

    更新日期:2018-05-11
  • New insights into the formation of silver-based nanoparticles under natural and semi-natural conditions
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
    Andreas Wimmer, Anna Kalinnik, Michael Schuster
    更新日期:2018-05-11
  • A systematic methodology for the robust quantification of energy efficiency at wastewater treatment plants featuring Data Envelopment Analysis
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
    S. Longo, J.M. Lema, A. Hospido, M. Mauricio-Iglesias

    This article examines the potential benefits of using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for conducting energy-efficiency assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). WWTPs are characteristically heterogeneous (in size, technology, climate, function …) which limits the correct application of DEA. This paper proposes and describes the Robust Energy Efficiency DEA (REED) in its various stages, a systematic state-of-the-art methodology aimed at including exogenous variables in nonparametric frontier models and especially designed for WWTP operation. In particular, the methodology systematizes the modelling process by presenting an integrated framework for selecting the correct variables and appropriate models, possibly tackling the effect of exogenous factors. As a result, the application of REED improves the quality of the efficiency estimates and hence the significance of benchmarking. For the reader's convenience, this article is presented as a step-by-step guideline to guide the user in the determination of WWTPs energy efficiency from beginning to end. The application and benefits of the developed methodology are demonstrated by a case study related to the comparison of the energy efficiency of a set of 399 WWTPs operating in different countries and under heterogeneous environmental conditions.

    更新日期:2018-05-11
  • Occurrence, genotyping, and health risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recreational lakes in Tianjin, China
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
    Shumin Xiao, Pengna Yin, Yan Zhang, Xiaoyun Zhao, Liping Sun, Hongying Yuan, Jingfang Lu, Sike Hu
    更新日期:2018-05-11
  • Petroleomic analysis of the treatment of naphthenic organics in oil sands process-affected water with buoyant photocatalysts
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
    Tim Leshuk, Kerry M. Peru, Diogo de Oliveira Livera, Austin Tripp, Patrick Bardo, John V. Headley, Frank Gu
    更新日期:2018-05-10
  • Transformation of microcystin-LR and olefinic compounds by ferrate(VI): Oxidative cleavage of olefinic double bonds as the primary reaction pathway
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-09
    Ananna Islam, Dahee Jeon, Jiwoon Ra, Jaedon Shin, Tae-Young Kim, Yunho Lee

    The presence of toxic microcystins in algal-impacted surface waters is a concern for drinking water quality management. In this study, the potential of ferrate(VI) to eliminate microcystins during drinking water treatment was assessed by investigating reaction kinetics, reaction sites, transformation products, and toxicity changes for the oxidation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) as a representative microsystin. The investigations also included several substructural model compounds of MC-LR, such as cinnamic acid and sorbic acid, to elucidate the major transformation products and pathways of MC-LR and olefinic compounds. Second-order rate constants were determined in the pH range 6–10.4 for the reaction of ferrate(VI) with MC-LR and the model compounds. The kinetic data revealed that the olefinic double bonds in the Adda and Mdha residues of MC-LR were the primary ferrate(VI) reaction sites, while the phenyl or guanidine moiety was not the reaction site. This finding was supported by detection and identification of the MC-LR transformation products of double bond cleavage, with high peak abundance in the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the reaction of ferrate(VI) with cinnamic and sorbic acids formed the corresponding aldehydes and organic acids with near complete carbon mass balance, indicating the oxidative cleavage of the double bonds as the primary reaction pathway. A quantitative protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) binding assay for ferrate(VI)-treated MC-LR solutions showed that the MC-LR transformation products exhibited negligible PP2A binding activity compared to that of the parent MC-LR. Oxidation experiments in a filtered river water matrix spiked with MC-LR demonstrated the efficient elimination of MC-LR during water treatment with ferrate(VI).

    更新日期:2018-05-09
  • In−situ sludge reduction and carbon reuse in an anoxic/oxic process coupled with hydrocyclone breakage
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-09
    Yinxiang Xu, Yuanyuan Fang, Zhenhua Wang, Dan Guo, Yi Liu, Yuan Huang, Pengbo Fu, Juehui Jin, Chenwen Wei, Hualin Wang, Tao Zen
    更新日期:2018-05-09
  • Effects of partially saturated conditions on the metabolically active microbiome and on nitrogen removal in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-08
    Catiane Pelissari, Miriam Guivernau, Marc Viñas, Joan García, María Velasco, Samara Silva Souza, Pablo Heleno Sezerino, Cristina Ávila
    更新日期:2018-05-09
  • Impact of long-term salinity exposure in anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating phenolic wastewater: Performance robustness and endured microbial community
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-07
    Julian D. Muñoz Sierra, Margreet J. Oosterkamp, Wei Wang, Henri Spanjers, Jules B. van Lier
    更新日期:2018-05-07
  • Preferential feeding in Naegleria fowleri; intracellular bacteria isolated from amoebae in operational drinking water distribution systems
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-06
    Haylea C. Miller, Matthew J. Morgan, Tom Walsh, Jason T. Wylie, Anna H. Kaksonen, Geoffrey J. Puzon
    更新日期:2018-05-06
  • Transport of trace organic compounds through novel forward osmosis membranes: Role of membrane properties and the draw solution
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-05
    Marc Sauchelli, Giuseppe Pellegrino, Arnout D'Haese, Ignasi Rodríguez-Roda, Wolfgang Gernjak

    Forward osmosis (FO) offers to be a very promising technology for the removal of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) from contaminated wastewater, and with the recent developments in FO membranes, the effect of both a higher water flux and reverse salt flux on the rejection of TrOCs needs to be explored. In this study two novel thin-film composite (TFC) membranes with greater water permeability and selectivity than the benchmark cellulose tri-acetate (CTA) membrane were compared at bench-scale in terms of TrOCs permeability. By probing the solute-membrane interactions that dictate the transport of TrOCs through the two membranes in the absence and presence of a draw solution, several conclusions were drawn. Firstly, steric hindrance is the main TrOCs transport -limiting mechanism through TFC membranes unless the negative membrane surface charge is significant, in which case, electrostatic interactions can dominate over steric hindrance. Secondly, the increase in ionic strength induced by the draw solution in the vicinity of and perhaps inside the membrane seems to favour the rejection of TrOCs by “shrinking” the membrane pores or by “shielding” the negative surface charge. Lastly, during FO operation, solute concentration polarisation becomes detrimental when working at high water fluxes, whereas the reverse solute flux has no direct impact on the transport of TrOCs through the membrane.

    更新日期:2018-05-05
  • Rheological characterisation of concentrated domestic slurry
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-03
    A.K. Thota Radhakrishnan, J.B. van Lier, F.H.L.R. Clemens

    The much over-looked element in new sanitation, the transport systems which bridge the source and treatment facilities, is the focus of this study. The knowledge of rheological properties of concentrated domestic slurry is essential for the design of the waste collection and transport systems. To investigate these properties, samples were collected from a pilot sanitation system in the Netherlands. Two types of slurries were examined: black water (consisting of human faecal waste, urine, and flushed water from vacuum toilets) and black water with ground kitchen waste. Rheograms of these slurries were obtained using a narrow gap rotating rheometer and modelled using a Herschel-Bulkley model. The effect of concentration on the slurry are described through the changes in the parameters of the Herschel-Bulkley model. A detailed method is proposed on estimating the parameters for the rheological models. For the black water, yield stress and consistency index follow an increasing power law with the concentration and the behaviour index follows a decreasing power law. The influence of temperature on the viscosity of the slurry is described using an Arrhenius type relation. The viscosity of black water decreases with temperature. As for the black water mixed with ground kitchen waste, it is found that the viscosity increases with concentration and decreases with temperature. The viscosity of black-water with ground kitchen waste is found to be higher than that of black water, which can be attributed to the presence of larger particles in the slurry.

    更新日期:2018-05-04
  • Inactivation of marine heterotrophic bacteria in ballast water by an Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Process
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-03
    Javier Moreno-Andrés, Noemi Ambauen, Olav Vadstein, Cynthia Hallé, Asunción Acevedo-Merino, Enrique Nebot, Thomas Meyn

    Seawater treatment is increasingly required due to industrial activities that use substantial volumes of seawater in their processes. The shipping industry and the associated management of a ship's ballast water are currently considered a global challenge for the seas. Related to that, the suitability of an Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Process (EAOP) with Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) electrodes has been assessed on a laboratory scale for the disinfection of seawater. This technology can produce both reactive oxygen species and chlorine species (especially in seawater) that are responsible for inactivation. The EAOP was applied in a continuous-flow regime with real seawater. Natural marine heterotrophic bacteria (MHB) were used as an indicator of disinfection efficiency. A biphasic inactivation kinetic model was fitted on experimental points, achieving 4-Log reductions at 0.019 Ah L−1. By assessing regrowth after treatment, results suggest that higher bacterial damages result from the EAOP when it is compared to chlorination. Furthermore, several issues lacking fundamental understanding were investigated such as recolonization capacity or bacterial community dynamics. It was concluded that, despite disinfection processes being effective, there is not only a possibility for regrowth after treatment but also a change on bacterial population diversity produced by the treatment. Finally, energy consumption was estimated and indicated that 0.264 kWh·m−3 are needed for 4.8-Log reductions of MHB; otherwise, with 0.035 kWh·m−3, less disinfection efficiency can be obtained (2.2-Log red). However, with a residual oxidant in the solution, total inactivation can be achieved in three days.

    更新日期:2018-05-03
  • One-year operation of 1000-L modularized microbial fuel cell for municipal wastewater treatment
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-02
    Peng Liang, Rui Duan, Yong Jiang, Xiaoyuan Zhang, Yong Qiu, Xia Huang

    This study constructed a 1000 L modularized MFC system, the largest volume so far, to treat practical municipal wastewater. This MFC system was operated under two different water flow connections in two municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTP) for more than one year to test their treating abilities for wastewater with both low (average 80 mg L−1) and high initial COD concentration (average 250 mg L−1). The COD concentration in the effluent from the MFC system remained below 50 mg L−1 with a removal rate of 70–90%, which stably met the level A of the first class in discharge standard of pollutants for MWTP of China. A maximum power density of 125 W m−3 (7.58 W m−2) was generated when the MFC system was fed with artificial wastewater, while it lay in a range of 7–60 W m−3 (0.42–3.64 W m−2) when treating municipal wastewater. The energy recovery of 0.033 ± 0.005 kWh per m3 of municipal wastewater was achieved, with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 h.

    更新日期:2018-05-03
  • Succession of bacterial and fungal communities within biofilms of a chlorinated drinking water distribution system
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-03
    I. Douterelo, K.E. Fish, J.B. Boxall

    Understanding the temporal dynamics of multi-species biofilms in Drinking Water Distribution Systems (DWDS) is essential to ensure safe, high quality water reaches consumers after it passes through these high surface area reactors. This research studied the succession characteristics of fungal and bacterial communities under controlled environmental conditions fully representative of operational DWDS. Microbial communities were observed to increase in complexity after one month of biofilm development but they did not reach stability after three months. Changes in cell numbers were faster at the start of biofilm formation and tended to decrease over time, despite the continuing changes in bacterial community composition. Fungal diversity was markedly less than bacterial diversity and had a lag in responding to temporal dynamics. A core-mixed community of bacteria including Pseudomonas, Massillia and Sphingomonas and the fungi Acremonium and Neocosmopora were present constantly and consistently in the biofilms over time and conditions studied. Monitoring and managing biofilms and such ubiquitous core microbial communities are key control strategies to ensuring the delivery of safe drinking water via the current ageing DWDS infrastructure.

    更新日期:2018-05-03
  • Characterizing the capacity of hyporheic sediments to attenuate groundwater nitrate loads by adsorption
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-02
    Aminreza Meghdadi

    Nitrate has been recognized as a global threat to environmental health. In this regard, the hyporheic zone (saturated media beneath and adjacent to the stream bed) plays a crucial role in attenuating groundwater nitrate, prior to discharge into surface water. While different nitrate removal pathways have been investigated over recent decades, the adsorption capacity of hyporheic sediments under natural conditions has not yet been identified. In this study, the natural attenuation capacity of the hyporheic-sediments of the Ghezel-Ozan River, located in the north-west of Iran, was determined. The sampled sediments (from 1 m below the stream bed) were characterized via XRD, FT-IR, BET, SEM, BJH, and Zeta potential. Nitrate adsorption was evaluated using a batch experiment with hyporheic pore-water from each study site. The study was performed in the hyporheic sediments of two morphologically different zones, including Z1 located in the parafluvial zone having the clay sediment texture (57.8% clay) with smectite/Illite mixed layer clay type and Z2 located in the river confluence area containing silty clay sediment texture (47.6% clay) with smectite/kaolinite mixed layer clay type. Data obtained from the batch experiment were subjected to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intra-particle diffusion, and Elovich mass transfer kinetic models to characterize the nitrate adsorption mechanism. Furthermore, to replicate nitrate removal efficiencies of the hyporheic sediments under natural conditions, the sampled hyporheic pore-waters were applied as initial solutions to run the batch experiment. The results of the artificial nitrate solution correlated well with pseudo-second order (R2>95%; in both Z1 and Z2) and maximum removal efficiencies of 85.3% and 71.2% (adsorbent dosage 90 g/L, pH=5.5, initial adsorbate concentration of 90mg/L) were achieved in Z1 and Z2, respectively. The results of the nitrate adsorption analysis revealed that the nitrate removal efficiencies varied from 17.24±1.86% in Z1 during the wet season to 28.13±0.89% in Z2 during the dry season. The results obtained by this study yielded strong evidence of the potential of hyporheic sediments to remove nitrate from an aqueous environment with great efficiency.

    更新日期:2018-05-02
  • Quantitative structure–activity relationship for the oxidation of aromatic organic contaminants in water by TAML/H2O2
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-05-02
    Hanrui Su, Chunyang Yu, Yongfeng Zhou, Lidong Gong, Qilin Li, Pedro J.J. Alvarez, Mingce Long

    Tetra-amido macrocyclic ligand (TAML) activator is a functional analog of peroxidase enzymes, which activates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to form high valence iron-oxo complexes that selectively degrade persistent aromatic organic contaminants (ACs) in water. Here, we develop quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models based on measured pseudo first-order kinetic rate coefficients (kobs k obs ) of 29 ACs (e.g., phenols and pharmaceuticals) oxidized by TAML/H2O2 at neutral and basic pH values to gain mechanistic insight on the selectivity and pH dependence of TAML/H2O2 systems. These QSAR models infer that electron donating ability (EHOMO E HOMO ) is the most important AC characteristic for TAML/H2O2 oxidation, pointing to a rate-limiting single-electron transfer (SET) mechanism. Oxidation rates at pH 7 also depend on AC reactive indices such as View the MathML source f m i n − and qH+, which respectively represent propensity for electrophilic attack and the most positive net atomic charge on hydrogen atoms. At pH 10, TAML/H2O2 is more reactive towards ACs with a lower hydrogen to carbon atoms ratio (#H:C), suggesting the significance of hydrogen atom abstraction. In addition, View the MathML source ln k obs of 14 monosubstituted phenols is negatively correlated with Hammett constants (σ) and exhibits similar sensitivity to substituent effects as horseradish peroxidase. Although accurately predicting degradation rates of specific ACs in complex wastewater matrices could be difficult, these QSAR models are statistically robust and help predict both relative degradability and reaction mechanism for TAML/H2O2-based treatment processes.

    更新日期:2018-05-02
  • Occurrence, characterisation and fate of (nano)particulate Ti and Ag in two Norwegian wastewater treatment plants
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-04-30
    Fabio Polesel, Julia Farkas, Marianne Kjos, Patricia Almeida Carvalho, Xavier Flores-Alsina, Krist V. Gernaey, Steffen Foss Hansen, Benedek Gy Plósz, Andy M. Booth

    Due to their widespread application in consumer products, elemental titanium (e.g., titanium dioxide, TiO2) and silver (Ag), also in nanoparticulate form, are increasingly released from households and industrial facilities to urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A seven-day sampling campaign was conducted in two full-scale WWTPs in Trondheim (Norway) employing only primary treatment. We assessed the occurrence and elimination of Ti and Ag, and conducted size-based fractionation using sequential filtration of influent samples to separate particulate, colloidal and dissolved fractions. Eight-hour composite influent samples were collected to assess diurnal variations in total Ti and Ag influx. Measured influent Ti concentrations (up to 290 μg L−1) were significantly higher than Ag (<0.15–2.1 μg L−1), being mostly associated with suspended solids (>0.7 μm). Removal efficiencies ≥70% were observed for both elements, requiring for one WWTP to account for the high Ti content (∼2 g L−1) in the flocculant. Nano- and micron-sized Ti particles were observed with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in influent, effluent and biosolids, while Ag nanoparticles were detected in biosolids only. Diurnal profiles of influent Ti were correlated to flow and pollutant concentration patterns (especially total suspended solids), with peaks during the morning and/or evening and minima at night, indicating household discharges as predominant source. Irregular profiles were exhibited by influent Ag, with periodic concentration spikes suggesting short-term discharges from one or few point sources (e.g., industry). Influent Ti and Ag dynamics were reproduced using a disturbance scenario generator model, and we estimated per capita loads of Ti (42–45 mg cap−1 d−1) and Ag (0.11 mg cap−1 d−1) from households as well as additional Ag load (14–22 g d−1) from point discharge. This is the first study to experimentally and mathematically describe short-term release dynamics and dry-weather sources of emissions of Ti and Ag in municipal WWTPs and receiving environments.

    更新日期:2018-05-01
  • Stable isotope insights into the weathering processes of a phosphogypsum disposal area
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-04-28
    Evgenia-Maria Papaslioti, Rafael Pérez-López, Annika Parviainen, Francisco Macías, Antonio Delgado-Huertas, Carlos J. Garrido, Claudio Marchesi, José M. Nieto

    Highly acidic phosphogypsum wastes with elevated potential for contaminant leaching are stack-piled near coastal areas worldwide, threatening the adjacent environment. Huge phosphogypsum stacks were disposed directly on the marshes of the Estuary of Huelva (SW Spain) without any impermeable barrier to prevent leaching and thus, contributing to the total contamination of the estuarine environment. According to the previous weathering model, the process water ponded on the surface of the stack, initially used to carry the waste, was thought to be the main washing agent through its infiltration and subsequently the main component of the leachates emerging as the edge outflows. Preliminary restorations have been applied to the site and similar ones are planned for the future considering process water as the only pollution agent. Further investigation to validate the pollution pathway was necessary, thus an evaluation of the relationship between leachates and weathering agents of the stack was carried out using stable isotopes (δ18O, δ2H, and δ34S) as geochemical tracers. Quantification of the contribution of all possible end-members to the phosphogypsum leachates was also conducted using ternary mixing via the stable isotopic tracers. The results ruled out ponded process water as main vector of edge outflow pollution and unveiled a continuous infiltration of estuarine waters to the stack implying that is subjected to an open weathering system. The isotopic tracers revealed a progressive contribution downstream from fluvial to marine signatures in the composition of the edge outflows, depending on the location of each disposal zone within the different estuarine morphodynamic domains. Thus, the current study suggests that the access of intertidal water inside the phosphogypsum stack, for instance through secondary tidal channels, is the main responsible for the weathering of the waste in depth, underlying the necessity for new, more effective restorations plans.

    更新日期:2018-04-28
  • The dependence of chlorine decay and DBP formation kinetics on pipe flow properties in drinking water distribution
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-04-27
    Yingying Zhao, Y. Jeffrey Yang, Yu Shao, Jill Neal, Tuqiao Zhang

    Simultaneous chlorine decay and disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation have been discussed extensively because of their regulatory and operational significance. This study further examines chemical reaction variability in the water quality changes under various hydrodynamic conditions in drinking water distribution. The variations of kinetic constant for overall chlorine decay (kE k E ) and trihalomethane (THM) formation were determined under stagnant to turbulent flows using three devices of different wall demand and two types of natural organic matters (NOM) in water. The results from the comparative experiments and modeling analyses show the relative importance of wall demand (kw k w ), DBP-forming chlorine decay (kD k D ), and other bulk demand ( View the MathML source k b ' ) for pipe flows of Re = 0–52500. It is found that chlorine reactivity of virgin NOM is the overriding factor. Secondly, for tap water NOM of lower reactivity, pipe flow properties (Re or u ) can significantly affect kE k E , the THM yield (T), formation potential (Y ), and the time to reach the maximum THM concentration (tmax t max ) through their influence on kinetic ratio View the MathML source k D ( k b ' + k w ) . These observations, corroborating with turbidity variations during experiments, cannot be explained alone by chlorine dispersion to and from the pipe wall. Mass exchanges through deposition and scale detachment, most likely being flow-dependent, may have contributed to the overall chlorine decay and DBP formation rates. Thus for the simultaneous occurrence of chlorine decay and DBP formation, model considerations of NOM reactivity, pipe types (wall demand), flow hydraulics, and their interactions are essential.

    更新日期:2018-04-28
  • Relating N2O emissions during biological nitrogen removal with operating conditions using multivariate statistical techniques
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-04-26
    V. Vasilaki, E.I.P. Volcke, A.K. Nandi, M.C.M. van Loosdrecht, E. Katsou

    Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to investigate the dependencies and underlying patterns between N2O emissions and online operational variables (dissolved oxygen and nitrogen component concentrations, temperature and influent flow-rate) during biological nitrogen removal from wastewater. The system under study was a full-scale reactor, for which hourly sensor data were available. The 15-month long monitoring campaign was divided into 10 sub-periods based on the profile of N2O emissions, using Binary Segmentation. The dependencies between operating variables and N2O emissions fluctuated according to Spearman's rank correlation. The correlation between N2O emissions and nitrite concentrations ranged between 0.51 and 0.78. Correlation >0.7 between N2O emissions and nitrate concentrations was observed at sub-periods with average temperature lower than 12 °C. Hierarchical k-means clustering and principal component analysis linked N2O emission peaks with precipitation events and ammonium concentrations higher than 2 mg/L, especially in sub-periods characterized by low N2O fluxes. Additionally, the highest ranges of measured N2O fluxes belonged to clusters corresponding with NO3-N concentration less than 1 mg/L in the upstream plug-flow reactor (middle of oxic zone), indicating slow nitrification rates. The results showed that the range of N2O emissions partially depend on the prior behavior of the system. The principal component analysis validated the findings from the clustering analysis and showed that ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and temperature explained a considerable percentage of the variance in the system for the majority of the sub-periods. The applied statistical methods, linked the different ranges of emissions with the system variables, provided insights on the effect of operating conditions on N2O emissions in each sub-period and can be integrated into N2O emissions data processing at wastewater treatment plants.

    更新日期:2018-04-26
  • Characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii from water and sludge line of secondary wastewater treatment plant
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-04-26
    Paul G. Higgins, Jasna Hrenovic, Harald Seifert, Svjetlana Dekic

    The elimination of potentially pathogenic bacteria in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) attracts much attention in public health. Reports on the occurrence of the emerging hospital pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii in wastewaters do not include a continuous monitoring at all WWTP stages. The objective of this study was to characterize A. baumannii recovered from the water and sludge line of the secondary WWTP in Zagreb, Croatia over the period of one year. Recovery of A. baumannii was performed using CHROMagar Acinetobacter plates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with broth microdilution and results interpreted using EUCAST breakpoints for clinical isolates of A. baumannii. Molecular characterization was performed by WGS and cgMLST. The secondary WWTP treating the urban wastewater is constantly receiving viable A. baumannii along with genes encoding carbapenem resistance, and emitting them via effluent into the environment. Furthermore, A. baumannii from influent are incorporated into activated sludge flocs in aeration basin. A. baumannii can survive the technological process of anaerobic mesophilic sludge digestion, and is finally destroyed in alkaline lime-treated stabilised sludge. The majority (102/119) of A. baumannii isolates were carbapenem-resistant, while antibiotic-susceptible isolates (17/119) were rarely recovered from all WWTP stages. Carbapenem-resistant isolates belonged to international clonal lineage IC2 carrying OXA-23 and IC1 carrying OXA-72, while the susceptible isolates belonged to IC5 or were unclustered. Increased resistance to antibiotics, together with the appearance of carbapenem- and even pandrug-resistant isolates in effluent as compared to influent wastewater, suggests the need of additional disinfection of effluent prior to its discharge into the natural recipient.

    更新日期:2018-04-26
  • Stormwater disinfection using electrochemical oxidation: A feasibility investigation
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-04-26
    Wenjun Feng, David T. McCarthy, Zhouyou Wang, Xiwang Zhang, Ana Deletic

    Electrochemical oxidation (ECO) has shown good potential for disinfection of wastewater discharges but has not been tested for stormwater. Due to far lower salinity and chloride levels present in stormwater than in wastewaters, the knowledge so far on the ECO disinfection performance cannot simply be used for stormwater applications. This paper presents the first study on the feasibility of ECO technology for disinfection of pre-treated stormwater. Disinfection performance of E. coli was tested using a dimensional stable anode (DSA) in a series of batch experiments with synthetic stormwater of ‘typical’ chemical and microbial composition. The results showed that effective disinfection could be achieved with very low energy consumption; e.g. the current density of 1.74 mA/cm2 achieved total disinfection in 1.3 min, using only 0.018 kWh per ton of stormwater treatment. Chlorination was found to be the key disinfection mechanism, despite the synthetic stormwater containing only 9 mg/L of chloride. Real stormwater collected from three stormwater treatment systems in Melbourne was then used to validate the findings for indigenous microbe species. Disinfection below the detection limit was achieved for stormwater from the two sites where chloride levels were 9 and 200 mg/l, respectively, but not for the third site where stormwater contained only 2 mg/L chloride. Unfortunately, deterioration of the DSA anode was observed after only 8–10 h of its cumulative operation time, very likely due to high voltage that had to be applied to low saline stormwater to achieve the required current density. In conclusion, ECO was found to be a very promising low energy disinfection technology for stormwater, but far more work is needed to optimise the technology for unique stormwater conditions.

    更新日期:2018-04-26
  • Typical pharmaceuticals in major WWTPs in Beijing, China: Occurrence, load pattern and calculation reliability
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-04-26
    Yizhe Zhang, Bin Wang, Giovanni Cagnetta, Lei Duan, Jian Yang, Shubo Deng, Jun Huang, Yujue Wang, Gang Yu

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are recognized as one of the most serious emerging micropollutants. Wastewater treatment plants are the major way through which such contaminants enter the environment. Therefore, an appropriate management of PhACs in these facilities can reduce their release into the environment. In particular, a proper sampling methodology is necessary to identify and quantify micropollutants in wastewater. In this study, 37 pharmaceuticals (including 23 antibiotics) are investigated in eight major wastewater treatment plants in Beijing. An optimized sampling methodology is successfully implemented to monitor bihourly variation of the contaminants, thus averting uncertainties derived from conventional sampling methods. In this way, more accurate pharmaceutical load patterns are determined and discussed. Thanks to the synchronous data on pharmaceutical concentration and wastewater flow, we also compare performances of various treatment processes and optimize different calculation methods for removal efficiency.

    更新日期:2018-04-26
  • Effect of μM Fe addition, mild heat and solar UV on sulfate radical-mediated inactivation of bacteria, viruses, and micropollutant degradation in water
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-04-26
    Miloch Marjanovic, Stefanos Giannakis, Dominique Grandjean, Luiz Felippe de Alencastro, Cesar Pulgarin

    In this work, solar disinfection (SODIS) was enhanced by moderate addition of Fe and sodium peroxydisulfate (PDS), under solar light. A systematic assessment of the activating factors was performed, firstly isolated, then in pairs and concluded in the combined Fe/heat/solar UV-PDS activation process. Solar light was the most effective (single) activator, and its combination with Fe and heat (double activation) yielded high level of synergies (up to S = 2.13). The triple activation was able to reduce the bacterial load up to 6-log in less than 1 h, similarly to the photo-Fenton process done in comparison (SODIS alone: >5 h). Fe-oxides were suitable activators of PDS under the same conditions while the presence of organic matter enhanced bacterial inactivation by the triple activated PDS process. The degradation of a (selected) mixture of micropollutants (i.e. drugs, pesticides) was also achieved in similar order of magnitude, and faster than the photo-Fenton process. Finally, the removal of a viral pathogen indicator (MS2 bacteriophage) was attained at minute-range residence times. The aforementioned facts indicate the suitability of the mild, combined process, as a potential SODIS enhancement, producing safe drinking water for sunny and especially for developing countries.

    更新日期:2018-04-26
  • Incidence of somatic and F+ coliphage in Great Lake Basin recreational waters
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-04-25
    Pauline Wanjugi, Mano Sivaganesan, Asja Korajkic, Brian McMinn, Catherine A. Kelty, Eric Rhodes, Mike Cyterski, Richard Zepp, Kevin Oshima, Elyse Stachler, Julie Kinzelman, Stephan R. Kurdas, Mark Citriglia, Fu-Chih Hsu, Orin C. Shanks

    There is a growing interest for the use of coliphage as an alternative indicator to assess fecal pollution in recreational waters. Coliphage are a group of viruses that infect Escherichia coli and are considered as potential surrogates to infer the likely presence of enteric viral pathogens. We report the use of a dead-end hollow fiber ultrafiltration single agar layer method to enumerate F+ and somatic coliphage from surface waters collected from three Great Lake areas. At each location, three sites (two beaches; one river) were sampled five days a week over the 2015 beach season (n = 609 total samples). In addition, culturable E. coli and enterococci concentrations, as well as 16 water quality and recreational area parameters were assessed such as rainfall, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and ultra violet absorbance. Overall, somatic coliphage levels ranged from non-detectable to 4.39 log10 plaque forming units per liter and were consistently higher compared to F+ (non-detectable to 3.15 log10 PFU/L), regardless of sampling site. Coliphage concentrations weakly correlated with cultivated fecal indicator bacteria levels (E. coli and enterococci) at 75% of beach sites tested in study (r = 0.28 to 0.40). In addition, ultraviolet light absorption and water temperature were closely associated with coliphage concentrations, but not fecal indicator bacteria levels suggesting different persistence trends in Great Lake waters between indicator types (bacteria versus virus). Finally, implications for coliphage water quality management and future research directions are discussed.

    更新日期:2018-04-25
  • Chemical cleaning-associated generation of dissolved organic matter and halogenated byproducts in ceramic MBR: Ozone versus hypochlorite
    Water Res. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    Huifang Sun, Hang Liu, Jiarui Han, Xiangru Zhang, Fangqin Cheng, Yu Liu

    This study characterized the dissolved organic matter (DOM) and byproducts generated after the exposure of activated sludge to ozone and NaClO in ceramic MBR. It was found that NaClO triggered more significant release of DOM than ozone. Proteins with the molecular weight greater than 20 kDa and humic acid like-substances (HAL) were the principle components of DOM generated by NaClO, while ozone was found to effectively degrade larger biopolymers to low molecular weight substances. The results showed that more than 80% of DOM generated by NaClO and ozone could pass through the 0.2-μm ceramic membrane. Furthermore, total organic chlorine (TOCl) was determined to be the principal compound of halogenated byproducts in both cases, while the generation of TOCl by NaClO was much more significant than that by ozone. Only a small fraction of TOCl was removed by the 0.2-μm ceramic membrane. More importantly, the toxic bioassays further revealed that the supernatant of sludge suspension and permeate in the MBR with NaClO cleaning exhibited higher developmental toxicity to the polychaete embryos than those by ozone. The Results clearly showed that on-line chemical cleaning with ozone should be a more eco-friendly and safer approach for sustaining long-term membrane permeability in ceramic MBR.

    更新日期:2018-04-25
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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