Proteases and protease inhibitors in infectious diseases Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-11-17 Ayodeji A. Agbowuro, Wilhelmina M. Huston, Allan B. Gamble, Joel D. A. Tyndall
There are numerous proteases of pathogenic organisms that are currently targeted for therapeutic intervention along with many that are seen as potential drug targets. This review discusses the chemical and biological makeup of some key druggable proteases expressed by the five major classes of disease causing agents, namely bacteria, viruses, fungi, eukaryotes, and prions. While a few of these enzymes including HIV protease and HCV NS3-4A protease have been targeted to a clinically useful level, a number are yet to yield any clinical outcomes in terms of antimicrobial therapy. A significant aspect of this review discusses the chemical and pharmacological characteristics of inhibitors of the various proteases discussed. A total of 25 inhibitors have been considered potent and safe enough to be trialed in humans and are at different levels of clinical application. We assess the mechanism of action and clinical performance of the protease inhibitors against infectious agents with their developmental strategies and look to the next frontiers in the use of protease inhibitors as anti-infective agents.
NO and HNO donors, nitrones, and nitroxides: Past, present, and future Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-11-02 Catarina Oliveira, Sofia Benfeito, Carlos Fernandes, Fernando Cagide, Tiago Silva, Fernanda Borges
The biological effects attributed to nitric oxide (•NO) and nitroxyl (HNO) have been extensively studied, propelling their array of putative clinical applications beyond cardiovascular disorders toward other age-related diseases, like cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. In this context, the unique properties and reactivity of the N-O bond enabled the development of several classes of compounds with potential clinical interest, among which •NO and HNO donors, nitrones, and nitroxides are of particular importance. Although primarily studied for their application as cardioprotective agents and/or molecular probes for radical detection, continuous efforts have unveiled a wide range of pharmacological activities and, ultimately, therapeutic applications. These efforts are of particular significance for diseases in which oxidative stress plays a key pathogenic role, as shown by a growing volume of in vitro and in vivo preclinical data. Although in its early stages, these efforts may provide valuable guidelines for the development of new and effective N-O-based drugs for age-related disorders. In this report, we review recent advances in the chemistry of NO and HNO donors, nitrones, and nitroxides and discuss its pharmacological significance and potential therapeutic application.
Strategies to diversify natural products for drug discovery Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-10-24 Gang Li, Hong-Xiang Lou
Natural product libraries contain specialized metabolites derived from plants, animals, and microorganisms that play a pivotal role in drug discovery due to their immense structural diversity and wide variety of biological activities. The strategies to greatly extend natural product scaffolds through available biological and chemical approaches offer unique opportunities to access a new series of natural product analogues, enabling the construction of diverse natural product-like libraries. The affordability of these structurally diverse molecules has been a crucial step in accelerating drug discovery. This review provides an overview of various approaches to exploit the diversity of compounds for natural product-based drug development, drawing upon a series of examples to illustrate each strategy.
The metabolic cross-talk between epithelial cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts in ovarian cancer progression: Autophagy plays a role Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-09-19 Chanitra Thuwajit, Alessandra Ferraresi, Rossella Titone, Peti Thuwajit, Ciro Isidoro
Cancer and stromal cells, which include (cancer-associated) fibroblasts, adipocytes, and immune cells, constitute a mixed cellular ecosystem that dynamically influences the behavior of each component, creating conditions that ultimately favor the emergence of malignant clones. Ovarian cancer cells release cytokines that recruit and activate stromal fibroblasts and immune cells, so perpetuating a state of inflammation in the stroma that hampers the immune response and facilitates cancer survival and propagation. Further, the stroma vasculature impacts the metabolism of the cells by providing or limiting the availability of oxygen and nutrients. Autophagy, a lysosomal catabolic process with homeostatic and prosurvival functions, influences the behavior of cancer cells, affecting a variety of processes such as the survival in metabolic harsh conditions, the invasive growth, the development of immune and chemo resistance, the maintenance of stem-like properties, and dormancy. Further, autophagy is involved in the secretion and the signaling of promigratory cytokines. Cancer-associated fibroblasts can influence the actual level of autophagy in ovarian cancer cells through the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the release of autophagy-derived metabolites and substrates. Interrupting the metabolic cross-talk between cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts could be an effective therapeutic strategy to arrest the progression and prevent the relapse of ovarian cancer.
Biologically active quinoline and quinazoline alkaloids part I Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-09-13 Xiao-Fei Shang, Susan L. Morris-Natschke, Ying-Qian Liu, Xiao Guo, Xiao-Shan Xu, Masuo Goto, Jun-Cai Li, Guan-Zhou Yang, Kuo-Hsiung Lee
Quinoline and quinazoline alkaloids, two important classes of N-based heterocyclic compounds, have attracted tremendous attention from researchers worldwide since the 19th century. Over the past 200 years, many compounds from these two classes were isolated from natural sources, and most of them and their modified analogs possess significant bioactivities. Quinine and camptothecin are two of the most famous and important quinoline alkaloids, and their discoveries opened new areas in antimalarial and anticancer drug development, respectively. In this review, we survey the literature on bioactive alkaloids from these two classes and highlight research achievements prior to the year 2008 (Part I). Over 200 molecules with a broad range of bioactivities, including antitumor, antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal, antiparasitic and insecticidal, antiviral, antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory, herbicidal, antioxidant and other activities, were reviewed. This survey should provide new clues or possibilities for the discovery of new and better drugs from the original naturally occurring quinoline and quinazoline alkaloids.
Breakthroughs in modern cancer therapy and elusive cardiotoxicity: Critical research-practice gaps, challenges, and insights Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-09-01 Ping-Pin Zheng, Jin Li, Johan M Kros
To date, five cancer treatment modalities have been defined. The three traditional modalities of cancer treatment are surgery, radiotherapy, and conventional chemotherapy, and the two modern modalities include molecularly targeted therapy (the fourth modality) and immunotherapy (the fifth modality). The cardiotoxicity associated with conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy is well known. Similar adverse cardiac events are resurging with the fourth modality. Aside from the conventional and newer targeted agents, even the most newly developed, immune-based therapeutic modalities of anticancer treatment (the fifth modality), e.g., immune checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, have unfortunately led to potentially lethal cardiotoxicity in patients. Cardiac complications represent unresolved and potentially life-threatening conditions in cancer survivors, while effective clinical management remains quite challenging. As a consequence, morbidity and mortality related to cardiac complications now threaten to offset some favorable benefits of modern cancer treatments in cancer-related survival, regardless of the oncologic prognosis. This review focuses on identifying critical research-practice gaps, addressing real-world challenges and pinpointing real-time insights in general terms under the context of clinical cardiotoxicity induced by the fourth and fifth modalities of cancer treatment. The information ranges from basic science to clinical management in the field of cardio-oncology and crosses the interface between oncology and onco-pharmacology. The complexity of the ongoing clinical problem is addressed at different levels. A better understanding of these research-practice gaps may advance research initiatives on the development of mechanism-based diagnoses and treatments for the effective clinical management of cardiotoxicity.
Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (7-deazapurine) as a privileged scaffold in design of antitumor and antiviral nucleosides Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-08-23 Pavla Perlíková, Michal Hocek
7-Deazapurine (pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine) nucleosides are important analogues of biogenic purine nucleosides with diverse biological activities. Replacement of the N7 atom with a carbon atom makes the five-membered ring more electron rich and brings a possibility of attaching additional substituents at the C7 position. This often leads to derivatives with increased base-pairing in DNA or RNA or better binding to enzymes. Several types of 7-deazapurine nucleosides with potent cytostatic or cytotoxic effects have been identified. The most promising are 7-hetaryl-7-deazaadenosines, which are activated in cancer cells by phosphorylation and get incorporated both to RNA (causing inhibition of proteosynthesis) and to DNA (causing DNA damage). Mechanism of action of other types of cytostatic nucleosides, 6-hetaryl-7-deazapurine and thieno-fused deazapurine ribonucleosides, is not yet known. Many 7-deazaadenosine derivatives are potent inhibitors of adenosine kinases. Many types of sugar-modified derivatives of 7-deazapurine nucleosides are also strong antivirals. Most important are 2′-C-methylribo- or 2′-C-methyl-2′-fluororibonucleosides with anti-HCV activities (several compounds underwent clinical trials). Some underexplored areas of potential interest are also outlined.
Antibacterial and β-Lactamase Inhibitory Activity of Monocyclic β-Lactams Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-08-16 Lena Decuyper, Marko Jukič, Izidor Sosič, Aleš Žula, Matthias D'hooghe, Stanislav Gobec
Due to the widespread emergence of resistant bacterial strains, an urgent need for the development of new antibacterial agents with novel modes of action has emerged. The discovery of naturally occurring monocyclic β-lactams in the late 1970s, mainly active against aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, has introduced a new approach in the design and development of novel antibacterial β-lactam agents. The main goal was the derivatization of the azetidin-2-one core in order to improve their antibacterial potency, broaden their spectrum of activity, and enhance their β-lactamase stability. In that respect, our review covers the updates in the field of monocyclic β-lactam antibiotics during the last three decades, taking into account an extensive collection of references. An overview of the relationships between the structural features of these monocyclic β-lactams, classified according to their N-substituent, and the associated antibacterial or β-lactamase inhibitory activities is provided. The different paragraphs disclose a number of well-established classes of compounds, such as monobactams, monosulfactams, monocarbams, monophosphams, nocardicins, as well as other known representative classes. Moreover, this review draws attention to some less common but, nevertheless, possibly important types of monocyclic β-lactams and concludes by highlighting the recent developments on siderophore-conjugated classes of monocyclic β-lactams.
Harnessing CXCR4 antagonists in stem cell mobilization, HIV infection, ischemic diseases, and oncology Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-08-02 Lun Kelvin Tsou, Ying-Huey Huang, Jen-Shin Song, Yi-Yu Ke, Jing-Kai Huang, Kak-Shan Shia
CXCR4 antagonists (e.g., PlerixaforTM) have been successfully validated as stem cell mobilizers for peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Applications of the CXCR4 antagonists have heralded the era of cell-based therapy and opened a potential therapeutic horizon for many unmet medical needs such as kidney injury, ischemic stroke, cancer, and myocardial infarction. In this review, we first introduce the central role of CXCR4 in diverse cellular signaling pathways and discuss its involvement in several disease progressions. We then highlight the molecular design and optimization strategies for targeting CXCR4 from a large number of case studies, concluding that polyamines are the preferred CXCR4-binding ligands compared to other structural options, presumably by mimicking the highly positively charged natural ligand CXCL12. These results could be further justified with computer-aided docking into the CXCR4 crystal structure wherein both major and minor subpockets of the binding cavity are considered functionally important. Finally, from the clinical point of view, CXCR4 antagonists could mobilize hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells with long-term repopulating capacity to the peripheral blood, promising to replace surgically obtained bone marrow cells as a preferred source for stem cell transplantation.
Anti-MUC1 aptamer: A potential opportunity for cancer treatment Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-07-31 Maryam Sadat Nabavinia, Aida Gholoobi, Fahimeh Charbgoo, Mahboobeh Nabavinia, Mohammad Ramezani, Khalil Abnous
Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a protein usually found on the apical surface of most normal secretory epithelial cells. However, in most adenocarcinomas, MUC1 is overexpressed, so that it not only appears over the entire cell surface, but is also shed as MUC1 fragments into the blood stream. These phenomena pinpoint MUC1 as a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer; consequently, interest has increased in MUC1 as a molecular target for overcoming cancer therapy challenges. MUC1 currently ranks second among 75 antigen candidates for cancer vaccines, and different antibodies or aptamers against MUC1 protein are proving useful for tracing cancer cells in the emerging field of targeted delivery. The unique properties of MUC1 aptamers as novel targeting agents, and the revolutionary role that MUC1 now plays in cancer therapy, are the focus of this review. Recent advancements in MUC1-targeted cancer therapy are also assessed.
Recent advances in uveal melanoma treatment Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-07-31 Beatriz Álvarez-Rodríguez, Alfonso Latorre, Christian Posch, Álvaro Somoza
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Recent advances in the understanding of molecular characteristics helped to determine which tumors are most likely to progress. About 50% of patients carrying genetic alterations such as chromosomal aberrations and mutations are at significant risk for metastatic disease of which the majority will succumb to UM within few months. Currently, there is no effective treatment for metastatic uveal melanoma, and we hope this review will encourage researchers and clinicians to work to find a better standard of care. In this article we provide a comprehensive overview of the molecular framework of UM, highlighting the most common mutations involved in this kind of cancer. It also covers the most recent treatments from basic research to clinical trials, including small molecules, nucleic acids or immunotherapy, among others. It is intended to serve as a key reference for clinicians and researchers working in this field.
Exploring the potential of natural and synthetic neuroprotective steroids against neurodegenerative disorders: A literature review Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-07-11 Ranju Bansal, Ranjit Singh
Neurodegeneration is a complex process, which leads to progressive brain damage due to loss of neurons. Despite exhaustive research, the cause of neuronal loss in various degenerative disorders is not entirely understood. Neuroprotective steroids constitute an important line of attack, which could play a major role against the common mechanisms associated with various neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Natural endogenous steroids induce the neuroprotection by protecting the nerve cells from neuronal injury through multiple mechanisms, therefore the structural modifications of the endogenous steroids could be helpful in the generation of new therapeutically useful neuroprotective agents. The review article will keep the readers apprised of the detailed description of natural as well as synthetic neuroprotective steroids from the medicinal chemistry point of view, which would be helpful in drug discovery efforts aimed toward neurodegenerative diseases.
A3 Adenosine Receptors as Modulators of Inflammation: From Medicinal Chemistry to Therapy Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-07-06 Kenneth A. Jacobson, Stefania Merighi, Katia Varani, Pier Andrea Borea, Stefania Baraldi, Mojgan Aghazadeh Tabrizi, Romeo Romagnoli, Pier Giovanni Baraldi, Antonella Ciancetta, Dilip K. Tosh, Zhan-Guo Gao, Stefania Gessi
The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) subtype is a novel, promising therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriasis, as well as liver cancer. A3AR is coupled to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, leading to modulation of transcription. Furthermore, A3AR affects functions of almost all immune cells and the proliferation of cancer cells. Numerous A3AR agonists, partial agonists, antagonists, and allosteric modulators have been reported, and their structure–activity relationships (SARs) have been studied culminating in the development of potent and selective molecules with drug-like characteristics. The efficacy of nucleoside agonists may be suppressed to produce antagonists, by structural modification of the ribose moiety. Diverse classes of heterocycles have been discovered as selective A3AR blockers, although with large species differences. Thus, as a result of intense basic research efforts, the outlook for development of A3AR modulators for human therapeutics is encouraging. Two prototypical selective agonists, N6-(3-Iodobenzyl)adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA; CF101) and 2-chloro-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide (Cl-IB-MECA; CF102), have progressed to advanced clinical trials. They were found safe and well tolerated in all preclinical and human clinical studies and showed promising results, particularly in psoriasis and RA, where the A3AR is both a promising therapeutic target and a biologically predictive marker, suggesting a personalized medicine approach. Targeting the A3AR may pave the way for safe and efficacious treatments for patient populations affected by inflammatory diseases, cancer, and other conditions.
Mitochondrial dysfunction and potential anticancer therapy Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-07-06 Matilde E. Lleonart, Robert Grodzicki, Dmitri M. Graifer, Alex Lyakhovich
Mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) has been identified as an important factor in various diseases ranging from neurological disorders, to diseases of the cardiovascular system and metabolic syndromes. MDF was also found in cancer as well as in cancer predisposition syndromes with defective DNA damage response (DDR) machinery. Moreover, a recent highlight arises from the detection of MDF in eukaryotic cells upon treatment with antibiotics. In this review, we focus on recent studies of MDF in pathological conditions with a particular emphasis on the effects of various classes of antibiotics on mitochondria. Special attention is given to the role of autophagy/mitophagy in MDF and repurposing antibiotics as anticancer drugs.
Toward an Understanding of Structural Insights of Xanthine and Aldehyde Oxidases: An Overview of their Inhibitors and Role in Various Diseases Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-07-03 Raj Kumar, Gaurav Joshi, Harveen Kler, Sourav Kalra, Manpreet Kaur, Ramandeep Arya
Almost all drug molecules become the substrates for oxidoreductase enzymes, get metabolized into more hydrophilic products and eliminated from the body. These metabolites sometime may be more potent, active, inactive, or toxic in nature compared to parent molecule. Xanthine oxidoreductase and aldehyde oxidase belong to molybdenum containing family and are well characterized for their structures and functions, in particular to their ability to oxidize/hydroxylate the xenobiotics. Their upregulated clinical levels causing oxidative stress are associated with pathways either directly involved in the progression of diseases, gout, or indirectly with the succession of other diseases such as diabetes, cancer, etc. Herein, we have put forth a comprehensive review on the xanthine and aldehyde oxidases pertaining to their structures, functions, pathophysiological role, and a comparative analysis of structural insights of xanthine and aldehyde oxidases’ binding domains with endogenous ligands or inhibitors. Though both the enzymes are molybdenum containing and are likely to share some common pathways and interact with inhibitors in a similar manner but we have focused on structural prerequisites for inhibitor specificity to both the enzymes keeping in view of the existing X-ray structures. This review also provides futuristic implications in the design of inhibitors derived from inorganic complexes or small organic molecules considering the spatial features and structural insights of both the enzymes.
Artemisinin as an anticancer drug: Recent advances in target profiling and mechanisms of action Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-06-23 Yin Kwan Wong, Chengchao Xu, Karunakaran A. Kalesh, Yingke He, Qingsong Lin, W. S. Fred Wong, Han-Ming Shen, Jigang Wang
Artemisinin and its derivatives (collectively termed as artemisinins) are among the most important and effective antimalarial drugs, with proven safety and efficacy in clinical use. Beyond their antimalarial effects, artemisinins have also been shown to possess selective anticancer properties, demonstrating cytotoxic effects against a wide range of cancer types both in vitro and in vivo. These effects appear to be mediated by artemisinin-induced changes in multiple signaling pathways, interfering simultaneously with multiple hallmarks of cancer. Great strides have been taken to characterize these pathways and to reveal their anticancer mechanisms of action of artemisinin. Moreover, encouraging data have also been obtained from a limited number of clinical trials to support their anticancer property. However, there are several key gaps in knowledge that continue to serve as significant barriers to the repurposing of artemisinins as effective anticancer agents. This review focuses on important and emerging aspects of this field, highlighting breakthroughs in unresolved questions as well as novel techniques and approaches that have been taken in recent studies. We discuss the mechanism of artemisinin activation in cancer, novel and significant findings with regards to artemisinin target proteins and pathways, new understandings in artemisinin-induced cell death mechanisms, as well as the practical issues of repurposing artemisinin. We believe these will be important topics in realizing the potential of artemisinin and its derivatives as safe and potent anticancer agents.
Tumor angiogenesis revisited: Regulators and clinical implications Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-06-23 Roberto Ronca, Mohammed Benkheil, Stefania Mitola, Sofie Struyf, Sandra Liekens
Since Judah Folkman hypothesized in 1971 that angiogenesis is required for solid tumor growth, numerous studies have been conducted to unravel the angiogenesis process, analyze its role in primary tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenic diseases, and to develop inhibitors of proangiogenic factors. These studies have led in 2004 to the approval of the first antiangiogenic agent (bevacizumab, a humanized antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor) for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. This approval launched great expectations for the use of antiangiogenic therapy for malignant diseases. However, these expectations have not been met and, as knowledge of blood vessel formation accumulates, many of the original paradigms no longer hold. Therefore, the regulators and clinical implications of angiogenesis need to be revisited. In this review, we discuss recently identified angiogenesis mediators and pathways, new concepts that have emerged over the past 10 years, tumor resistance and toxicity associated with the use of currently available antiangiogenic treatment and potentially new targets and/or approaches for malignant and nonmalignant neovascular diseases.
Glypican-3: A promising biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis and treatment Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-06-16 Fubo Zhou, Wenting Shang, Xiaoling Yu, Jie Tian
Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type. Therefore, molecular targets are urgently required for the early detection of HCC and the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Glypican-3 (GPC3), an oncofetal proteoglycan anchored to the cell membrane, is normally detected in the fetal liver but not in the healthy adult liver. However, in HCC patients, GPC3 is overexpressed at both the gene and protein levels, and its expression predicts a poor prognosis. Mechanistic studies have revealed that GPC3 functions in HCC progression by binding to molecules such as Wnt signaling proteins and growth factors. Moreover, GPC3 has been used as a target for molecular imaging and therapeutic intervention in HCC. To date, GPC3-targeted magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and near-infrared imaging have been investigated for early HCC detection, and various immunotherapeutic protocols targeting GPC3 have been developed, including the use of humanized anti-GPC3 cytotoxic antibodies, treatment with peptide/DNA vaccines, immunotoxin therapies, and genetic therapies. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the structure, function, and biology of GPC3 with a focus on its clinical potential as a diagnostic molecule and a therapeutic target in HCC immunotherapy.
Progress in the synthesis and biological evaluation of lipid A and its derivatives Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-06-16 Jian Gao, Zhongwu Guo
Lipid A is one of the core structures of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), and it is mainly responsible for the strong immunostimulatory activities of LPS through interactions with the Toll-like receptors and other molecules in the human immune system. To obtain structurally homogeneous and well-defined lipid As and its derivatives in quantities meaningful for various biological studies and applications, their chemical synthesis has become a focal point. This review has provided a survey of significant progresses made in the synthesis of lipid A, and its derivatives that carry diverse saturated and unsaturated lipids, have the phosphate group at its reducing end replaced with a more stable phosphate or carboxyl group, or lack the reducing end phosphate or both phosphate groups, as well as progresses in the synthesis of LPS analogs and other lipid A conjugates. These synthetic molecules have facilitated the elucidation of the structure–activity relationships of lipid A useful for the design and development of lipid A based therapeutics, such as those utilized to treat sepsis, and other medical applications, for example the use of monophosphoryl lipid A as a carrier molecule for the study of fully synthetic self-adjuvanting conjugate vaccines. These topics are also briefly covered in the current review.
Small-molecule AT2 receptor agonists Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-06-13 Mathias Hallberg, Colin Sumners, U. Muscha Steckelings, Anders Hallberg
The discovery of the first selective, small-molecule ATR receptor (AT2R) agonist compound 21 (C21) (8) that is now extensively studied in a large variety of in vitro and in vivo models is described. The sulfonylcarbamate derivative 8, encompassing a phenylthiofen scaffold is the drug-like agonist with the highest affinity for the AT2R reported to date (Ki = 0.4 nM). Structure-activity relationships (SAR), regarding different biaryl scaffolds and functional groups attached to these scaffolds and with a particular focus on the impact of various para substituents displacing the methylene imidazole group of 8, are discussed. Furthermore, the consequences of migration of the methylene imidazole group and presumed structural requirements for ligands that are aimed as AT2R agonists (e.g. 8) or AT2R antagonists (e.g. 9), respectively, are briefly addressed. A summary of the pharmacological actions of C21 (8) is also presented.
Inhibitors of kallikrein-related peptidases: An overview Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-06-13 Nicolas Masurier, Dominique P. Arama, Chahrazade El Amri, Vincent Lisowski
Kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) are a family of 15 secreted serine proteases that are involved in various physiological processes. Their activities are subtly regulated by various endogenous inhibitors, ranging from metallic ions to macromolecular entities such as proteins. Furthermore, dysregulation of KLK activity has been linked to several pathologies, including cancer and skin and inflammatory diseases, explaining the numerous efforts to develop KLK-specific pharmacological inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents. In this review, we focus on the huge repertoire of KLKs inhibitors reported to date with a special emphasis on the diversity of their molecular mechanisms of inhibition.
New structural classes of antituberculosis agents Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-06-09 Vajinder Kumar, Sanjay Patel, Rahul Jain
Tuberculosis (TB), one of the deadliest diseases is shattering the health and socioeconomic status of the society. The emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extremely drug resistant (XDR) strains has provided unprecedented lethal character to TB. The development of MDR and XDR strains of TB results in more deaths, longer duration of therapy, and appearance of the disease in the immunocompromised patients. Because of the development of rapid resistance by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, researchers are confronted with serious challenges in combating TB. For instance, the need for potency and specificity in therapeutic agents approaching clinics, and the increasing demand of low toxicity due to long duration of treatment. Recently, it is proposed that such challenges could be addressed by a shift from contemporary or known classes of drugs to new scaffold-containing or entirely new structural classes of drugs that possibly act on the previously unknown targets, resulting in possibly less instances of resistance development. The exploitation of advances made in the biology of TB in the last and present decades have created opportunities to discover a large number of new structural classes that specifically targets TB by molecular mechanism of action(s) unknown earlier. We have earlier reviewed new structural classes of anti-TB agents up to year 2005. This review covers literature reports of the subsequent 10 years on the discovery of new structural classes of synthetic anti-TB agents. Due to the availability of large number of research reports, we have divided new compounds in 38 structural classes, 368 structures, and 307 references.
Novel therapeutic clues in thyroid carcinomas: The role of targeting cancer stem cells Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-06-06 Alessandro Antonelli, Concettina Motta
Thyroid carcinomas (TCs), the most common endocrine tumors, represent the eighth most common cancer diagnosed worldwide in both women and men. To treat these malignancies, several drugs are now available and a number of novel ones have been enrolling in clinical trials, addressing both oncogenic pathways in cancer cells and angiogenic pathways in tumor endothelial cells. However, their use is not devoid of serious toxicities and their efficacy is limited, being dependent on carcinoma typology and the occurrence of acquired resistance. Accordingly, it is time to recast therapeutic strategies against these types of tumors to get to newer and fully effective drugs. In this perspective, latest findings demonstrate that cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a challenging target to strike. They possess core traits of self-renewal and differentiation, being resistant to the effects of chemotherapy and radiation and playing a key role in mediating metastasis. Therefore, basic molecular elements sustaining both development of thyroid cancer stem cells and their residence in the stemness condition represent a set of innovative and still unexplored targets to address. In this review, a thorough literature survey has been accomplished, to take stock of mechanisms governing thyroid carcinomas and to point out both their currently available treatments and the novel forthcoming ones. Pubmed, Scifinder and ClinicalTrials.gov were exploited as research applications and registry database, respectively. Original articles, reviews, and editorials published within the last ten years, as well as open clinical investigations in the field, were analyzed to suggest new exciting therapeutic opportunities for people affected by TCs.
Extracellular vesicles in the tumor microenvironment: Therapeutic resistance, clinical biomarkers, and targeting strategies Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-06-06 L. Han, J. Xu, Q. Xu, B. Zhang, E. W.-F. Lam, Y. Sun
Numerous studies have proved that cell-nonautonomous regulation of neoplastic cells is a distinctive and essential characteristic of tumorigenesis. Two way communications between the tumor and the stroma, or within the tumor significantly influence disease progression and modify treatment responses. In the tumor microenvironment (TME), malignant cells utilize paracrine signaling initiated by adjacent stromal cells to acquire resistance against multiple types of anticancer therapies, wherein extracellular vesicles (EVs) substantially promote such events. EVs are nanoscaled particles enclosed by phospholipid bilayers, and can mediate intercellular communications between cancerous cells and the adjacent microenvironment to accelerate pathological proceeding. Here we review the most recent studies of EV biology and focus on key cell lineages of the TME and their EV cargoes that are biologically active and responsible for cancer resistance, including proteins, RNAs, and other potentially essential components. Since EVs are emerging as novel but critical elements in establishing and maintaining hallmarks of human cancer, timely and insightful understanding of their molecular properties and functional mechanisms would pave the road for clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and effective targeting in the global landscape of precision medicine. Further, we address the potential of EVs as promising biomarkers in cancer clinics and summarize the technical improvements in EV preparation, analysis, and imaging. We highlight the practical issues that should be exercised with caution to guide the development of targeting agents and therapeutic methodologies to minimize cancer resistance driven by EVs, thereby allowing to effectively control the early steps of disease exacerbation.
Cellular stress response mechanisms as therapeutic targets of ginsenosides Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-06-06 Hong-yi Qi, Li Li, Hui Ma
Ginseng, one of the most widely used traditional herbal medicines and dietary supplements, has historically been recognized as a tonic herb and adaptogen that can enhance the body's tolerance to various adversities. Ginsenosides are a diverse group of steroidal saponins that comprise the major secondary metabolites of ginseng and are responsible for its multiple pharmacological effects. Emerging evidence suggests that hormetic phytochemicals produced by environmentally stressed plants can activate the moderate cellular stress response mechanisms at a subtoxic level in humans, which may enhance tolerance against severe dysfunction or disease. In this review, we initially describe the role of ginsenosides in the chemical defense of plants from the genus Panax suffering from biotic and abiotic stress. Next, we summarize the diverse evolutionarily conserved cellular stress response pathways regulated by ginsenosides and the subsequent stress tolerance against various dysfunctions or diseases. Finally, the structure–activity relationship involved in the effect of ginsenosides is also analyzed. The evidence presented in this review implicates that ginseng as “the King of all herbs” could be regarded as a well-characterized example of the critical role of cellular stress response mechanisms in understanding the health benefits provided by herbal medicines from an evolutionary and ecological perspective.
Therapeutic Targeting of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 in Cancer: Current Developments, Therapeutic Strategies, and Future Opportunities Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-05-16 Jyotika Rajawat, Nidhi Shukla, Durga Prasad Mishra
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) is key protein involved in numerous cellular processes including DNA repair, replication, and transcription. PARP interacts directly, indirectly, or via PARylation with various oncogenic proteins and regulates several transcription factors, thereby modulating carcinogenesis. Therapeutic inhibition of PARP is therefore perceived as a promising anticancer strategy, and a number of PARP inhibitors (PARPi) are in different stages of clinical evaluation. PARPi inhibit the DNA repair pathway and thus form the concept of synthetic lethality in cancer therapeutics. The potential of PARPi as chemopotentiator, radiosensitizer, or adjuvant therapeutic agents has been established in several clinical studies. Recent studies have shown that PARP1 could be either tumor suppressive or oncogeneic in different cancers. PARPi resistance is also a growing concern in the clinical setting. Recently, changes in the levels of PARP1 activity or expression in cancer patients has provided a basis for consideration of PARP1 regulatory proteins as potential biomarkers. This review focuses on the current developments related to the role of PARP in cancer progression, therapeutic strategies targeting PARP-associated oncogenic signaling, and future opportunities in the use of PARPi in anticancer therapeutics.
Application of Combination High-Throughput Phenotypic Screening and Target Identification Methods for the Discovery of Natural Product-Based Combination Drugs Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-05-16 Monica Isgut, Mukkavilli Rao, Chunhua Yang, Vangala Subrahmanyam, Padmashree C. G. Rida, Ritu Aneja
Modern drug discovery efforts have had mediocre success rates with increasing developmental costs, and this has encouraged pharmaceutical scientists to seek innovative approaches. Recently with the rise of the fields of systems biology and metabolomics, network pharmacology (NP) has begun to emerge as a new paradigm in drug discovery, with a focus on multiple targets and drug combinations for treating disease. Studies on the benefits of drug combinations lay the groundwork for a renewed focus on natural products in drug discovery. Natural products consist of a multitude of constituents that can act on a variety of targets in the body to induce pharmacodynamic responses that may together culminate in an additive or synergistic therapeutic effect. Although natural products cannot be patented, they can be used as starting points in the discovery of potent combination therapeutics. The optimal mix of bioactive ingredients in natural products can be determined via phenotypic screening. The targets and molecular mechanisms of action of these active ingredients can then be determined using chemical proteomics, and by implementing a reverse pharmacokinetics approach. This review article provides evidence supporting the potential benefits of natural product-based combination drugs, and summarizes drug discovery methods that can be applied to this class of drugs.
Development of Safe Drugs: The hERG Challenge Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-05-03 Subha Kalyaanamoorthy, Khaled H. Barakat
Drug-induced blockade of human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) remains a major impediment in delivering safe drugs to the market. Several drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to their severe cardiotoxic side effects triggered by their off-target interactions with hERG. Thus, identifying the potential hERG blockers at early stages of lead discovery is fast evolving as a standard in drug design and development. A number of in silico structure-based models of hERG have been developed as a low-cost solution to evaluate drugs for hERG liability, and it is now agreed that the hERG blockers bind at the large central cavity of the channel. Nevertheless, there is no clear convergence on the appropriate drug binding modes against the channel. The proposed binding modes differ in their orientations and interpretations on the role of key residues in the channel. Such ambiguities in the modes of binding remain to be a significant challenge in achieving efficient computational predictive models and in saving many important already Food and Drug Administration approved drugs. In this review, we discuss the spectrum of reported binding modes for hERG blockers, the various in silico models developed for predicting a drug's affinity to hERG, and the known successful optimization strategies to avoid off-target interactions with hERG.
Bridging Type 2 Diabetes and Alzheimer's Disease: Assembling the Puzzle Pieces in the Quest for the Molecules With Therapeutic and Preventive Potential Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-04-19 Ana Marta de Matos, Maria Paula de Macedo, Amélia Pilar Rauter
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two age-related amyloid diseases that affect millions of people worldwide. Broadly supported by epidemiological data, the higher incidence of AD among type 2 diabetic patients led to the recognition of T2D as a tangible risk factor for the development of AD. Indeed, there is now growing evidence on brain structural and functional abnormalities arising from brain insulin resistance and deficiency, ultimately highlighting the need for new approaches capable of preventing the development of AD in type 2 diabetic patients. This review provides an update on overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms and pathways in T2D and AD, such as amyloidogenic events, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, aberrant enzymatic activity, and even shared genetic background. These events will be presented as puzzle pieces put together, thus establishing potential therapeutic targets for drug discovery and development against T2D and diabetes-induced cognitive decline—a heavyweight contributor to the increasing incidence of dementia in developed countries. Hoping to pave the way in this direction, we will present some of the most promising and well-studied drug leads with potential against both pathologies, including their respective bioactivity reports, mechanisms of action, and structure–activity relationships.
Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1 (FFAR1) as an Emerging Therapeutic Target for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Recent Progress and Prevailing Challenges Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-03-22 Zheng Li, Xue Xu, Wenlong Huang, Hai Qian
The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) amplifies glucose-dependent insulin secretion; therefore, it has attracted widespread attention as a promising antidiabetic target. Current clinical proof of concept also indicates that FFAR1 agonists achieve the initially therapeutic endpoint for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) without the hypoglycemic risk. Thus, many pharmaceutical companies and academic institutes are competing to develop FFAR1 agonists. However, several candidates have been discontinued in clinical trials, often without reporting the underlying reasons. Herein, we review the challenges and corresponding strategies chosen by different medicinal chemistry teams to improve the physicochemical properties, potency, pharmacokinetics, and safety profiles of FFAR1 agonists, with a brief introduction to the biology and pharmacology of related targets.
Toward Hydrogen Sulfide Based Therapeutics: Critical Drug Delivery and Developability Issues Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-02-27 Yueqin Zheng, Bingchen Yu, Ladie Kimberly La Cruz, Manjusha Roy Choudhury, Abiodun Anifowose, Binghe Wang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), together with nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), belongs to the gasotransmitter family and plays important roles in mammals as a signaling molecule. Many studies have also shown the various therapeutic effects of H2S, which include protection against myocardial ischemia injury, cytoprotection against oxidative stress, mediation of neurotransmission, inhibition of insulin signaling, regulation of inflammation, inhibition of the hypoxia-inducible pathway, and dilation of blood vessels. One major challenge in the development of H2S-based therapeutics is its delivery. In this manuscript, we assess the various drug delivery strategies in the context of being used research tools and eventual developability as therapeutic agents.
Genome Engineering and Modification Toward Synthetic Biology for the Production of Antibiotics Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-03-15 Xuan Zou, Lianrong Wang, Zhiqiang Li, Jie Luo, Yunfu Wang, Zixin Deng, Shiming Du, Shi Chen
Antibiotic production is often governed by large gene clusters composed of genes related to antibiotic scaffold synthesis, tailoring, regulation, and resistance. With the expansion of genome sequencing, a considerable number of antibiotic gene clusters has been isolated and characterized. The emerging genome engineering techniques make it possible towards more efficient engineering of antibiotics. In addition to genomic editing, multiple synthetic biology approaches have been developed for the exploration and improvement of antibiotic natural products. Here, we review the progress in the development of these genome editing techniques used to engineer new antibiotics, focusing on three aspects of genome engineering: direct cloning of large genomic fragments, genome engineering of gene clusters, and regulation of gene cluster expression. This review will not only summarize the current uses of genomic engineering techniques for cloning and assembly of antibiotic gene clusters or for altering antibiotic synthetic pathways but will also provide perspectives on the future directions of rebuilding biological systems for the design of novel antibiotics.
The Search for Potent, Small-Molecule HDACIs in Cancer Treatment: A Decade After Vorinostat Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-02-09 Chiara Zagni, Giuseppe Floresta, Giulia Monciino, Antonio Rescifina
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a crucial role in the remodeling of chromatin, and are involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. In the last decade, inhibition of HDACs came out as a target for specific epigenetic changes associated with cancer and other diseases. Until now, more than 20 HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) have entered clinical studies, and some of them (e.g., vorinostat, romidepsin) have been approved for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. This review provides an overview of current knowledge, progress, and molecular mechanisms of HDACIs, covering a period from 2011 until 2015.
Atheroprotective Effects and Molecular Targets of Tanshinones Derived From Herbal Medicine Danshen Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-02-16 Jian Fang, Peter J. Little, Suowen Xu
Medicinal plant-derived bioactive compounds modulate multiple therapeutic targets in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), rendering herb-derived phytochemicals effective against one of the major CVDs-atherosclerosis. Danshen (Salvia milthiorriza Bunge) is a Chinese medicine that has been used in cardio- and cerebro-vascular therapeutic remedies in Asian countries for many years. Emerging evidence from cellular, animal, and clinical studies suggests that major lipophilic tanshinones from Danshen can treat atherosclerotic CVDs. In this review, we highlight recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of tanshinones in treating atherosclerosis, ranging from endothelial dysfunction to chronic inflammation. We also overview new molecular targets of tanshinones, including endothelial nitric oxide synthase, AMP-activated protein kinase, ABC transporter A1, heme oxygenase 1, soluble epoxide hydrolase, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, estrogen receptor, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. Thus, this review provides a new perspective for advancing our understanding of the “ancient” herb Danshen from “modern” biomedical perspectives, supporting the possibility of exploiting tanshinones and derivatives as effective therapeutics against atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.
Potential Therapeutic Applications of Adenosine A2A Receptor Ligands and Opportunities for A2A Receptor Imaging Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-01-27 Aren Waarde, Rudi A. J. O. Dierckx, Xiaoyun Zhou, Shivashankar Khanapur, Hideo Tsukada, Kiichi Ishiwata, Gert Luurtsema, Erik F. J. Vries, Philip H. Elsinga
Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are highly expressed in the human striatum, and at lower densities in the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and cells of the immune system. Antagonists of these receptors are potentially useful for the treatment of motor fluctuations, epilepsy, postischemic brain damage, or cognitive impairment, and for the control of an immune checkpoint during immunotherapy of cancer. A2AR agonists may suppress transplant rejection and graft-versus-host disease; be used to treat inflammatory disorders such as asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis; be locally applied to promote wound healing and be employed in a strategy for transient opening of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) so that therapeutic drugs and monoclonal antibodies can enter the brain. Increasing A2AR signaling in adipose tissue is also a potential strategy to combat obesity. Several radioligands for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of A2ARs have been developed in recent years. This review article presents a critical overview of the potential therapeutic applications of A2AR ligands, the use of A2AR imaging in drug development, and opportunities and limitations of PET imaging in future research.
The Current State of NAD+-Dependent Histone Deacetylases (Sirtuins) as Novel Therapeutic Targets Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-01-17 Matthias Schiedel, Dina Robaa, Tobias Rumpf, Wolfgang Sippl, Manfred Jung
Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent protein deacylases that cleave off acetyl, as well as other acyl groups, from the ε-amino group of lysines in histones and other substrate proteins. Seven sirtuin isotypes (Sirt1–7) have been identified in mammalian cells. As sirtuins are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes such as cell survival, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, DNA repair, cell metabolism, and caloric restriction, a dysregulation of their enzymatic activity has been associated with the pathogenesis of neoplastic, metabolic, infectious, and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, sirtuins are promising targets for pharmaceutical intervention. Growing interest in a modulation of sirtuin activity has prompted the discovery of several small molecules, able to inhibit or activate certain sirtuin isotypes. Herein, we give an update to our previous review on the topic in this journal (Schemies, 2010), focusing on recent developments in sirtuin biology, sirtuin modulators, and their potential as novel therapeutic agents.
Human Antimicrobial Peptides in Bodily Fluids: Current Knowledge and Therapeutic Perspectives in the Postantibiotic Era Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-01-17 Paulo Bastos, Fábio Trindade, João da Costa, Rita Ferreira, Rui Vitorino
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an integral part of the innate immune defense mechanism of many organisms. Due to the alarming increase of resistance to antimicrobial therapeutics, a growing interest in alternative antimicrobial agents has led to the exploitation of AMPs, both synthetic and isolated from natural sources. Thus, many peptide-based drugs have been the focus of increasing attention by many researchers not only in identifying novel AMPs, but in defining mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide activity as well. Herein, we review the available strategies for the identification of AMPs in human body fluids and their mechanism(s) of action. In addition, an overview of the distribution of AMPs across different human body fluids is provided, as well as its relation with microorganisms and infectious conditions.
Drugs in Clinical Trials for Alzheimer's Disease: The Major Trends Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-01-13 Sergey O. Bachurin, Elena V. Bovina, Aleksey A. Ustyugov
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative process resulting from the intracellular and extracellular accumulation of fibrillary proteins: beta-amyloid and hyperphosphorylated Tau. Overaccumulation of these aggregates leads to synaptic dysfunction and subsequent neuronal loss. The precise molecular mechanisms of AD are still not fully understood but it is clear that AD is a multifactorial disorder and that advanced age is the main risk factor. Over the last decade, more than 50 drug candidates have successfully passed phase II clinical trials, but none has passed phase III. Here, we summarize data on current “anti-Alzheimer's” agents currently in clinical trials based on findings available in the Thomson Reuters «Integrity» database, on the public website www.clinicaltrials.gov, and on database of the website Alzforum.org. As a result, it was possible to outline some major trends in AD drug discovery: (i) the development of compounds acting on the main stages of the pathogenesis of the disease (the so-called “disease-modifying agents”) — these drugs could potentially slow the development of structural and functional abnormalities in the central nervous system providing sustainable improvements of cognitive functions, which persist even after drug withdrawal; (ii) focused design of multitargeted drugs acting on multiple molecular targets involved in the pathogenesis of the disease; (3) finally, the repositioning of old drugs for new (anti-Alzheimer's) application offers a very attractive approach to facilitate the completion of clinical trials.
Understanding the Molecular Mechanisms of the Interplay Between Herbal Medicines and Gut Microbiota Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2017-01-04 Jun Xu, Hu-Biao Chen, Song-Lin Li
Herbal medicines (HMs) are much appreciated for their significant contribution to human survival and reproduction by remedial and prophylactic management of diseases. Defining the scientific basis of HMs will substantiate their value and promote their modernization. Ever-increasing evidence suggests that gut microbiota plays a crucial role in HM therapy by complicated interplay with HM components. This interplay includes such activities as: gut microbiota biotransforming HM chemicals into metabolites that harbor different bioavailability and bioactivity/toxicity from their precursors; HM chemicals improving the composition of gut microbiota, consequently ameliorating its dysfunction as well as associated pathological conditions; and gut microbiota mediating the interactions (synergistic and antagonistic) between the multiple chemicals in HMs. More advanced experimental designs are recommended for future study, such as overall chemical characterization of gut microbiota-metabolized HMs, direct microbial analysis of HM-targeted gut microbiota, and precise gut microbiota research model development. The outcomes of such research can further elucidate the interactions between HMs and gut microbiota, thereby opening a new window for defining the scientific basis of HMs and for guiding HM-based drug discovery.
Trends in Regenerative Medicine: Repigmentation in Vitiligo Through Melanocyte Stem Cell Mobilization Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-12-28 Stanca A. Birlea, Gertrude-E. Costin, Dennis R. Roop, David A. Norris
Vitiligo is the most frequent human pigmentary disorder, characterized by progressive autoimmune destruction of mature epidermal melanocytes. Of the current treatments offering partial and temporary relief, ultraviolet (UV) light is the most effective, coordinating an intricate network of keratinocyte and melanocyte factors that control numerous cellular and molecular signaling pathways. This UV-activated process is a classic example of regenerative medicine, inducing functional melanocyte stem cell populations in the hair follicle to divide, migrate, and differentiate into mature melanocytes that regenerate the epidermis through a complex process involving melanocytes and other cell lineages in the skin. Using an in-depth correlative analysis of multiple experimental and clinical data sets, we generated a modern molecular research platform that can be used as a working model for further research of vitiligo repigmentation. Our analysis emphasizes the active participation of defined molecular pathways that regulate the balance between stemness and differentiation states of melanocytes and keratinocytes: p53 and its downstream effectors controlling melanogenesis; Wnt/β-catenin with proliferative, migratory, and differentiation roles in different pigmentation systems; integrins, cadherins, tetraspanins, and metalloproteinases, with promigratory effects on melanocytes; TGF-β and its effector PAX3, which control differentiation. Our long-term goal is to design pharmacological compounds that can specifically activate melanocyte precursors in the hair follicle in order to obtain faster, better, and durable repigmentation.
Drug-Mediated Regulation of Glycosaminoglycan Biosynthesis Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-12-28 Giancarlo Ghiselli
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a heterogeneous family of unbranched polysaccharides that exist in either a free state or attached to proteins and are found on the cell surface as well as in the extracellular matrix. GAGs play essential roles in cellular and tissue homeostasis, and their metabolism is altered in response to several pathological conditions. Despite strong experimental evidence supporting the function of GAGs in various diseases, little is known about the regulation of GAG biosynthesis via pharmacological intervention. In recent studies, the effects of several experimental drugs on GAG biosynthesis in animal models of disease were examined and key enzymes involved in GAG biosynthesis were found to be druggable. In addition to experimental small-molecule drugs that alter GAG biosynthesis, a number of clinically approved drugs modulate GAG metabolism, contributing to the therapeutic benefits associated with the use of these drugs. In this review article, we propose a classification scheme for drugs affecting GAG biosynthesis. Our goal is to present a rational approach to investigate the pharmacological regulation of these important biological molecules.
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Therapy: A Journey Toward Safety Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-12-22 Catarina Pereira-Leite, Cláudia Nunes, Sarah K. Jamal, Iolanda M. Cuccovia, Salette Reis
The efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) against inflammation, pain, and fever has been supporting their worldwide use in the treatment of painful conditions and chronic inflammatory diseases until today. However, the long-term therapy with NSAIDs was soon associated with high incidences of adverse events in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, the search for novel drugs with improved safety has begun with COX-2 selective inhibitors (coxibs) being straightaway developed and commercialized. Nevertheless, the excitement has fast turned to disappointment when diverse coxibs were withdrawn from the market due to cardiovascular toxicity. Such events have once again triggered the emergence of different strategies to overcome NSAIDs toxicity. Here, an integrative review is provided to address the breakthroughs of two main approaches: (i) the association of NSAIDs with protective mediators and (ii) the design of novel compounds to target downstream and/or multiple enzymes of the arachidonic acid cascade. To date, just one phosphatidylcholine-associated NSAID has already been approved for commercialization. Nevertheless, the preclinical and clinical data obtained so far indicate that both strategies may improve the safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy.
ABCG2/BCRP: Specific and Nonspecific Modulators Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-12-22 Diana Peña-Solórzano, Simone Alexandra Stark, Burkhard König, Cesar Augusto Sierra, Cristian Ochoa-Puentes
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells is the development of resistance to a variety of structurally and functionally nonrelated anticancer drugs. This phenomenon has become a major obstacle to cancer chemotherapy seriously affecting the clinical outcome. MDR is associated with increased drug efflux from cells mediated by an energy-dependent mechanism involving the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, mainly P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), the MDR-associated protein-1 (ABCC1), and the breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2). The first two transporters have been widely studied already and reviews summarized the results. The ABCG2 protein has been a subject of intense study since its discovery as its overexpression has been detected in resistant cell lines in numerous types of human cancers. To date, a long list of modulators of ABCG2 exists and continues to increase. However, little is known about the clinical consequences of ABCG2 modulation. This makes the design of novel, potent, and nontoxic inhibitors of this efflux protein a major challenge to reverse MDR and thereby increase the success of chemotherapy. The aim of the present review is to describe and highlight specific and nonspecific modulators of ABCG2 reported to date based on the selectivity of the compounds, as many of them are effective against one or more ABC transport proteins.
Recent Advances in Anticancer Activities and Drug Delivery Systems of Tannins Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-12-22 Yuee Cai, Jinming Zhang, Nelson G. Chen, Zhi Shi, Jiange Qiu, Chengwei He, Meiwan Chen
Tannins, polyphenols in medicinal plants, have been divided into two groups of hydrolysable and condensed tannins, including gallotannins, ellagitannins, and (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Potent anticancer activities have been observed in tannins (especially EGCG) with multiple mechanisms, such as apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and inhibition of invasion and metastases. Furthermore, the combinational effects of tannins and anticancer drugs have been demonstrated in this review, including chemoprotective, chemosensitive, and antagonizing effects accompanying with anticancer effect. However, the applications of tannins have been hindered due to their poor liposolubility, low bioavailability, off-taste, and shorter half-life time in human body, such as EGCG, gallic acid, and ellagic acid. To tackle these obstacles, novel drug delivery systems have been employed to deliver tannins with the aim of improving their applications, such as gelatin nanoparticles, micelles, nanogold, liposomes, and so on. In this review, the chemical characteristics, anticancer properties, and drug delivery systems of tannins were discussed with an attempt to provide a systemic reference to promote the development of tannins as anticancer agents.
Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Clinical Implications of TRPV1 Receptor Antagonists Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-12-15 Mojgan Aghazadeh Tabrizi, Pier Giovanni Baraldi, Stefania Baraldi, Stefania Gessi, Stefania Merighi, Pier Andrea Borea
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is an ion channel expressed on sensory neurons triggering an influx of cations. TRPV1 receptors function as homotetramers responsive to heat, proinflammatory substances, lipoxygenase products, resiniferatoxin, endocannabinoids, protons, and peptide toxins. Its phosphorylation increases sensitivity to both chemical and thermal stimuli, while desensitization involves a calcium-dependent mechanism resulting in receptor dephosphorylation. TRPV1 functions as a sensor of noxious stimuli and may represent a target to avoid pain and injury. TRPV1 activation has been associated to chronic inflammatory pain and peripheral neuropathy. Its expression is also detected in nonneuronal areas such as bladder, lungs, and cochlea where TRPV1 activation is responsible for pathology development of cystitis, asthma, and hearing loss. This review offers a comprehensive overview about TRPV1 receptor in the pathophysiology of chronic pain, epilepsy, cough, bladder disorders, diabetes, obesity, and hearing loss, highlighting how drug development targeting this channel could have a clinical therapeutic potential. Furthermore, it summarizes the advances of medicinal chemistry research leading to the identification of highly selective TRPV1 antagonists and their analysis of structure–activity relationships (SARs) focusing on new strategies to target this channel.
Enzyme Tunnels and Gates As Relevant Targets in Drug Design Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-12-13 Sergio M. Marques, Lukas Daniel, Tomas Buryska, Zbynek Prokop, Jan Brezovsky, Jiri Damborsky
Many enzymes contain tunnels and gates that are essential to their function. Gates reversibly switch between open and closed conformations and thereby control the traffic of small molecules—substrates, products, ions, and solvent molecules—into and out of the enzyme's structure via molecular tunnels. Many transient tunnels and gates undoubtedly remain to be identified, and their functional roles and utility as potential drug targets have received comparatively little attention. Here, we describe a set of general concepts relating to the structural properties, function, and classification of these interesting structural features. In addition, we highlight the potential of enzyme tunnels and gates as targets for the binding of small molecules. The different types of binding that are possible and the potential pharmacological benefits of such targeting are discussed. Twelve examples of ligands bound to the tunnels and/or gates of clinically relevant enzymes are used to illustrate the different binding modes and to explain some new strategies for drug design. Such strategies could potentially help to overcome some of the problems facing medicinal chemists and lead to the discovery of more effective drugs.
Marine Mollusk-Derived Agents with Antiproliferative Activity as Promising Anticancer Agents to Overcome Chemotherapy Resistance Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-12-07 Maria Letizia Ciavatta, Florence Lefranc, Marianna Carbone, Ernesto Mollo, Margherita Gavagnin, Tania Betancourt, Ramesh Dasari, Alexander Kornienko, Robert Kiss
The chemical investigation of marine mollusks has led to the isolation of a wide variety of bioactive metabolites, which evolved in marine organisms as favorable adaptations to survive in different environments. Most of them are derived from food sources, but they can be also biosynthesized de novo by the mollusks themselves, or produced by symbionts. Consequently, the isolated compounds cannot be strictly considered as “chemotaxonomic markers” for the different molluscan species. However, the chemical investigation of this phylum has provided many compounds of interest as potential anticancer drugs that assume particular importance in the light of the growing literature on cancer biology and chemotherapy. The current review highlights the diversity of chemical structures, mechanisms of action, and, most importantly, the potential of mollusk-derived metabolites as anticancer agents, including those biosynthesized by mollusks and those of dietary origin. After the discussion of dolastatins and kahalalides, compounds previously studied in clinical trials, the review covers potentially promising anticancer agents, which are grouped based on their structural type and include terpenes, steroids, peptides, polyketides and nitrogen-containing compounds. The “promise” of a mollusk-derived natural product as an anticancer agent is evaluated on the basis of its ability to target biological characteristics of cancer cells responsible for poor treatment outcomes. These characteristics include high antiproliferative potency against cancer cells in vitro, preferential inhibition of the proliferation of cancer cells over normal ones, mechanism of action via nonapoptotic signaling pathways, circumvention of multidrug resistance phenotype, and high activity in vivo, among others. The review also includes sections on the targeted delivery of mollusk-derived anticancer agents and solutions to their procurement in quantity.
Allosteric Modulation: An Alternate Approach Targeting the Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-11-23 Thuy Nguyen, Jun-Xu Li, Brian F. Thomas, Jenny L. Wiley, Terry P. Kenakin, Yanan Zhang
The cannabinoid CB1 receptor is a G protein coupled receptor and plays an important role in many biological processes and physiological functions. A variety of CB1 receptor agonists and antagonists, including endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids, have been discovered or developed over the past 20 years. In 2005, it was discovered that the CB1 receptor contains allosteric site(s) that can be recognized by small molecules or allosteric modulators. A number of CB1 receptor allosteric modulators, both positive and negative, have since been reported and importantly, they display pharmacological characteristics that are distinct from those of orthosteric agonists and antagonists. Given the psychoactive effects commonly associated with CB1 receptor agonists and antagonists/inverse agonists, allosteric modulation may offer an alternate approach to attain potential therapeutic benefits while avoiding inherent side effects of orthosteric ligands. This review details the complex pharmacological profiles of these allosteric modulators, their structure–activity relationships, and efforts in elucidating binding modes and mechanisms of actions of reported CB1 allosteric modulators. The ultimate development of CB1 receptor allosteric ligands could potentially lead to improved therapies for CB1-mediated neurological disorders.
Discovery of Therapeutic Approaches for Polyglutamine Diseases: A Summary of Recent Efforts Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-11-21 Sofia Esteves, Sara Duarte-Silva, Patrícia Maciel
Polyglutamine (PolyQ) diseases are a group of neurodegenerative disorders caused by the expansion of cytosine–adenine–guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeats in the coding region of specific genes. This leads to the production of pathogenic proteins containing critically expanded tracts of glutamines. Although polyQ diseases are individually rare, the fact that these nine diseases are irreversibly progressive over 10 to 30 years, severely impairing and ultimately fatal, usually implicating the full-time patient support by a caregiver for long time periods, makes their economic and social impact quite significant. This has led several researchers worldwide to investigate the pathogenic mechanism(s) and therapeutic strategies for polyQ diseases. Although research in the field has grown notably in the last decades, we are still far from having an effective treatment to offer patients, and the decision of which compounds should be translated to the clinics may be very challenging. In this review, we provide a comprehensive and critical overview of the most recent drug discovery efforts in the field of polyQ diseases, including the most relevant findings emerging from two different types of approaches—hypothesis-based candidate molecule testing and hypothesis-free unbiased drug screenings. We hereby summarize and reflect on the preclinical studies as well as all the clinical trials performed to date, aiming to provide a useful framework for increasingly successful future drug discovery and development efforts.
Nanotechnology in Glycomics: Applications in Diagnostics, Therapy, Imaging, and Separation Processes Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-11-15 Erika Dosekova, Jaroslav Filip, Tomas Bertok, Peter Both, Peter Kasak, Jan Tkac
This review comprehensively covers the most recent achievements (from 2013) in the successful integration of nanomaterials in the field of glycomics. The first part of the paper addresses the beneficial properties of nanomaterials for the construction of biosensors, bioanalytical devices, and protocols for the detection of various analytes, including viruses and whole cells, together with their key characteristics. The second part of the review focuses on the application of nanomaterials integrated with glycans for various biomedical applications, that is, vaccines against viral and bacterial infections and cancer cells, as therapeutic agents, for in vivo imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, and for selective drug delivery. The final part of the review describes various ways in which glycan enrichment can be effectively done using nanomaterials, molecularly imprinted polymers with polymer thickness controlled at the nanoscale, with a subsequent analysis of glycans by mass spectrometry. A short section describing an active glycoprofiling by microengines (microrockets) is covered as well.
Arginase Inhibitors: A Rational Approach Over One Century Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-11-15 Marc Pudlo, Céline Demougeot, Corine Girard-Thernier
Arginase (EC 220.127.116.11) is the bimanganese enzyme that converts L-arginine into ornithine and urea. This enzyme was discovered more than a century ago and early α-amino acids were identified as weak inhibitors. It was only during the 90s, after nitric oxide (NO) was reported as one of the most important biological mediators and when tight interrelation of arginase and NO synthase was found, that the development of arginase inhibitors was accelerated. The regulation of arginase activity by the N-hydroxy-L-arginine (3, NOHA) intermediate of the NO synthesis was the starting point of the N-hydroxy-nor-arginine (21, nor-NOHA) that proved to be the first micromolar inhibitor. The previously known manganese and arginase binding by borate inspired the 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (39, ABH) and S-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine (40, BEC) now both considered as reference compounds in arginase inhibition. The high-resolution crystal structure of arginase and molecular modeling has rendered possible the recent design of (53) the strongest α,α-disubstituted derivatives of ABH. Simultaneously, traditional medicinal plants have contributed as a source of molecular diversity to the discovery of arginase inhibitors. This rational, step-by-step approach serves as guide in the present review where emphasis is placed on structure activity relationships.
Targeting Deubiquitinating Enzymes in Glioblastoma Multiforme: Expectations and Challenges Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-10-24 Wei-Lin Jin, Xiao-Yuan Mao, Guan-Zhong Qiu
Glioblastoma (GBM) is regarded as the most common primary intracranial neoplasm. Despite standard treatment with tumor resection and radiochemotherapy, the outcome remains gloomy. It is evident that a combination of oncogenic gain of function and tumor-suppressive loss of function has been attributed to glioma initiation and progression. The ubiquitin–proteasome system is a well-orchestrated system that controls the fate of most proteins by striking a dynamic balance between ubiquitination and deubiquitination of substrates, having a profound influence on the modulation of oncoproteins, tumor suppressors, and cellular signaling pathways. In recent years, deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) have emerged as potential anti-cancer targets due to their targeting several key proteins involved in the regulation of tumorigenesis, apoptosis, senescence, and autophagy. This review attempts to summarize recent studies of GBM-associated DUBs, their roles in various cellular processes, and discuss the relation between DUBs deregulation and gliomagenesis, especially how DUBs regulate glioma stem cells pluripotency, microenvironment, and resistance of radiation and chemotherapy through core stem-cell transcriptional factors. We also review recent achievements and progress in the development of potent and selective reversible inhibitors of DUBs, and attempted to find a potential GBM treatment by DUBs intervention.
Approved and Experimental Small-Molecule Oncology Kinase Inhibitor Drugs: A Mid-2016 Overview Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-10-24 Peter M. Fischer
Kinase inhibitor research is a comparatively recent branch of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology and the first small-molecule kinase inhibitor, imatinib, was approved for clinical use only 15 years ago. Since then, 33 more kinase inhibitor drugs have received regulatory approval for the treatment of a variety of cancers and the volume of reports on the discovery and development of kinase inhibitors has increased to an extent where it is now difficult—even for those working in the field—easily to keep an overview of the compounds that are being developed, as currently there are 231 such compounds, targeting 38 different protein and lipid kinases (not counting isoforms), in clinical use or under clinical investigation. The purpose of this review is thus to provide an overview of the biomedical rationales for the kinases being targeted on the one hand, and the design principles, as well as chemical, pharmacological, pharmaceutical, and toxicological kinase inhibitor properties, on the other hand. Two issues that are especially important in kinase inhibitor research, target selectivity and drug resistance, as well as the underlying structural concepts, are discussed in general terms and in the context of relevant kinases and their inhibitors.
Topoisomerases: Resistance versus Sensitivity, How Far We Can Go? Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-09-30 Sandhya Bansal, Priyanka Bajaj, Stuti Pandey, Vibha Tandon
DNA topoisomerases are ubiquitously present remarkable molecular machines that help in altering topology of DNA in living cells. The crucial role played by these nucleases during DNA replication, transcription, and recombination vis-à-vis less sequence similarity among different species makes topoisomerases unique and attractive targets for different anticancer and antibacterial drugs. However, druggability of topoisomerases by the existing class of molecules is increasingly becoming questationable due to resistance development predominated by mutations in the corresponding genes. The current scenario facing a decline in the development of new molecules further comprises an important factor that may challenge topoisomerase-targeting therapy. Thus, it is imperative to wisely use the existing inhibitors lest with this rapid rate of losing grip over the target we may not go too far. Furthermore, it is important not only to design new molecules but also to develop new approaches that may avoid obstacles in therapies due to multiple resistance mechanisms. This review provides a succinct account of different classes of topoisomerase inhibitors, focuses on resistance acquired by mutations in topoisomerases, and discusses the various approaches to increase the efficacy of topoisomerase inhibitors. In a later section, we also suggest the possibility of using bisbenzimidazoles along with efflux pump inhibitors for synergistic bactericidal effects.
Advancement of Sialyltransferase Inhibitors: Therapeutic Challenges and Opportunities Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-09-28 Rémi Szabo, Danielle Skropeta
Hypersialylation of tumor cell surface proteins along with a marked upregulation of sialyltransferase (ST) activity is a well-established hallmark of cancer. Due to the critical role of STs in tumor growth and progression, ST inhibition has emerged as a potential new antimetastatic strategy for a range of cancers including pancreatic and ovarian. Human STs are divided into subtypes based on their linkage and acceptor molecule, with each subtype controlling the synthesis of specific sialylated structures with unique biological roles. This has important implications for inhibitor development, as STs also play significant roles in immune responses, inflammation, viral infection, and neurological disorders. Thus, the current goal in order to advance to the clinic is the development of subtype selective, cell-permeable and synthetically accessible, small-molecule ST inhibitors. Herein is a comprehensive review of the latest developments in ST inhibitors from design, Nature, and high-throughput screening, addressing both the challenges and opportunities in targeting cell surface sialylation. The review features an overview of the biological evaluation methods, computational and imaging tools, inhibitor molecular diversity, and selectivity toward ST subtypes, along with the emerging role of ST inhibitors as diagnostic tools for disease imaging.
The Influenza Virus Polymerase Complex: An Update on Its Structure, Functions, and Significance for Antiviral Drug Design Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-08-29 Annelies Stevaert, Lieve Naesens
Influenza viruses cause seasonal epidemics and pandemic outbreaks associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and a huge cost. Since resistance to the existing anti-influenza drugs is rising, innovative inhibitors with a different mode of action are urgently needed. The influenza polymerase complex is widely recognized as a key drug target, given its critical role in virus replication and high degree of conservation among influenza A (of human or zoonotic origin) and B viruses. We here review the major progress that has been made in recent years in unravelling the structure and functions of this protein complex, enabling structure-aided drug design toward the core regions of the PA endonuclease, PB1 polymerase, or cap-binding PB2 subunit. Alternatively, inhibitors may target a protein–protein interaction site, a cellular factor involved in viral RNA synthesis, the viral RNA itself, or the nucleoprotein component of the viral ribonucleoprotein. The latest advances made for these diverse pharmacological targets have yielded agents in advanced (i.e., favipiravir and VX-787) or early clinical testing, besides several experimental inhibitors in various stages of development, which are all covered here.
Metastatic Melanoma: Insights Into the Evolution of the Treatments and Future Challenges Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-08-29 Antoine Millet, Anthony R. Martin, Cyril Ronco, Stéphane Rocchi, Rachid Benhida
Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. While associated survival prognosis is good when diagnosed early, it dramatically drops when melanoma progresses into its metastatic form. Prior to 2011, the favored therapies include interleukin-2 and chemotherapies, regardless of their low efficiency and their toxicity. Following key biological findings, two new types of therapy have been approved. First, there are the targeted therapies, which rely on small molecule B-Raf and MEK inhibitors and allow the treatment of patients with B-Raf mutated melanoma. Second, there are the immunotherapies, with anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies that are used for patients harboring a B-Raf wild-type status. Both approaches have significantly improved patient survival, compared with alkylating agents, in the treatment of unresectable melanoma. Herein, we review the evolution of the treatment of melanoma starting from early discoveries to current therapies. A focus will be provided on drug discovery, synthesis, and mode of action of relevant drugs and the future directions of the domain to overcome the emergence of the resistance events.
The Role of Interleukin-1 in Inflammatory and Malignant Human Skin Diseases and the Rationale for Targeting Interleukin-1 Alpha Med. Res. Rev. (IF 8.763) Pub Date : 2016-09-08 Mayassa J. Bou-Dargham, Zahraa I. Khamis, Armand B. Cognetta, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang
Inflammation plays a major role in the induction and progression of several skin diseases. Overexpression of the major epidermal proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL) 1 alpha (IL-1α) and 1 beta (IL-1β) is positively correlated with symptom exacerbation and disease progression in psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, neutrophilic dermatoses, skin phototoxicity, and skin cancer. IL-1β and the interleukin-1 receptor I (IL-1RI) have been used as a therapeutic target for some autoinflammatory skin diseases; yet, their system-wide effects limit their clinical usage. Based on the local effects of extracellular IL-1α and its precursor, pro-IL-1α, we hypothesize that this isoform is a promising drug target for the treatment and prevention of many skin diseases. This review provides an overview on IL-1α and IL-β functions, and their contribution to inflammatory and malignant skin diseases. We also discuss the current treatment regimens, and ongoing clinical trials, demonstrating the potential of targeting IL-1α, and not IL-1β, as a more effective strategy to prevent or treat the onset and progression of various skin diseases.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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