Casein Kinase 1α Mediates the Degradation of Receptors for Type I and Type II Interferons Caused by Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Chuan Xia; Jennifer J. Wolf; Madhuvanthi Vijayan; Caleb J. Studstill; Wenjun Ma; Bumsuk Hahm
Although influenza A virus (IAV) evades cellular defense systems to effectively propagate in the host, the viral immune-evasive mechanisms are incompletely understood. Our recent data showed that hemagglutinin (HA) of IAV induces degradation of type I IFN receptor 1 (IFNAR1). Here, we demonstrate that IAV HA induces degradation of type II IFN (IFN-γ) receptor 1 (IFNGR1), as well as IFNAR1, via casein kinase 1α (CK1α), resulting in the impairment of cellular responsiveness to both type I and II IFNs. IAV infection or transient HA expression induced degradation of both IFNGR1 and IFNAR1, whereas HA gene-deficient IAV failed to downregulate the receptors. IAV HA caused the phosphorylation and ubiquitination of IFNGR1, leading to the lysosome-dependent degradation of IFNGR1. Influenza viral HA strongly decreased cellular sensitivity to type II IFNs, as it suppressed the activation of STAT1 and the induction of IFN-γ-stimulated genes in response to exogenously supplied recombinant IFN-γ. Importantly, CK1α, but not p38 MAP kinase or protein kinase D2, was proven to be critical for HA-induced degradation of both IFNGR1 and IFNAR1. Pharmacologic inhibition of CK1α or small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based knockdown of CK1α repressed the degradation processes of both IFNGR1 and IFNAR1 triggered by IAV infection. Further, CK1α was shown to be pivotal for proficient replication of IAV. Collectively, the results suggest that IAV HA induces degradation of IFN receptors via CK1α, creating conditions favorable for viral propagation. Therefore, the study uncovers a new immune-evasive pathway of influenza virus. IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus (IAV) remains a grave threat to humans, causing seasonal and pandemic influenza. Upon infection, innate and adaptive immunity, such as the interferon (IFN) response, is induced to protect hosts against IAV infection. However, IAV seems to be equipped with tactics to evade the IFN-mediated antiviral responses, although the detailed mechanisms need to be elucidated. In the present study, we show that IAV HA induces the degradation of the type II IFN receptor IFNGR1 and thereby substantially attenuates cellular responses to IFN-γ. Of note, a cellular kinase, casein kinase 1α (CK1α), is crucial for IAV HA-induced degradation of both IFNGR1 and IFNAR1. Accordingly, CK1α is proven to positively regulate IAV propagation. Thus, this study unveils a novel strategy employed by IAV to evade IFN-mediated antiviral activities. These findings may provide new insights into the interplay between IAV and host immunity to impact influenza virus pathogenicity.
Interaction of Human Enterochromaffin Cells with Human Enteric Adenovirus 41 Leads to Serotonin Release and Subsequent Activation of Enteric Glia Cells J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Sonja Westerberg; Marie Hagbom; Anandi Rajan; Vesa Loitto; B. David Persson; Annika Allard; Johan Nordgren; Sumit Sharma; Karl-Eric Magnusson; Niklas Arnberg; Lennart Svensson
Human adenovirus 41 (HAdV-41) causes acute gastroenteritis in young children. The main characteristics of HAdV-41 infection are diarrhea and vomiting. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism of HAdV-41-induced diarrhea is unknown, as a suitable small-animal model has not been described. In this study, we used the human midgut carcinoid cell line GOT1 to investigate the effect of HAdV-41 infection and the individual HAdV-41 capsid proteins on serotonin release by enterochromaffin cells and on enteric glia cell (EGC) activation. We first determined that HAdV-41 could infect the enterochromaffin cells. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the cells expressed HAdV-41-specific coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR); flow cytometry analysis supported these findings. HAdV-41 infection of the enterochromaffin cells induced serotonin secretion dose dependently. In contrast, control infection with HAdV-5 did not induce serotonin secretion in the cells. Confocal microscopy studies of enterochromaffin cells infected with HAdV-41 revealed decreased serotonin immunofluorescence compared to that in uninfected cells. Incubation of the enterochromaffin cells with purified HAdV-41 short fiber knob and hexon proteins increased the serotonin levels in the harvested cell supernatant significantly. HAdV-41 infection could also activate EGCs, as shown in the significantly altered expression of glia fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in EGCs incubated with HAdV-41. The EGCs were also activated by serotonin alone, as shown in the significantly increased GFAP staining intensity. Likewise, EGCs were activated by the cell supernatant of HAdV-41-infected enterochromaffin cells. IMPORTANCE The nonenveloped human adenovirus 41 causes diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and low-grade fever mainly in children under 2 years of age. Even though acute gastroenteritis is well described, how human adenovirus 41 causes diarrhea is unknown. In our study, we analyzed the effect of human adenovirus 41 infection on human enterochromaffin cells and found it stimulates serotonin secretion in the cells, which is involved in regulation of intestinal secretion and gut motility and can also activate enteric glia cells, which are found in close proximity to enterochromaffin cells in vivo. This disruption of gut barrier homeostasis as maintained by these cells following human adenovirus 41 infection might be a mechanism in enteric adenovirus pathogenesis in humans and could indicate a possible serotonin-dependent cross talk between human adenovirus 41, enterochromaffin cells, and enteric glia cells.
Advancing Our Understanding of Protective Maternal Immunity as a Guide for Development of Vaccines To Reduce Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infections J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Sallie R. Permar; Mark R. Schleiss; Stanley A. Plotkin
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenitally transmitted pathogen worldwide, impacting an estimated 1 million newborns annually. Congenital HCMV (cCMV) infection is a major global contributor to long-term neurologic deficits, including deafness, microcephaly, and neurodevelopmental delay, as well as to fetal loss and occasional infant mortality. Accordingly, design of a maternal vaccine to prevent cCMV continues to be a top public health priority. Nevertheless, we remain without a licensed vaccine. Maternal immunity provides partial protection, as the risk of vertical HCMV transmission from chronically infected mothers is reduced compared to settings in which the mother is newly infected during pregnancy. Therefore, an understanding of the maternal immune correlates of protection against cCMV is critical to informing design of an efficacious maternal vaccine. Although vaccine development is being assiduously pursued by a large number of pharmaceutical manufacturers, biotechnology organizations, and academic researchers, some pessimism has been expressed regarding the issue of whether a vaccine to protect against cCMV is possible. This pessimism is based on observations that natural immunity is not completely protective against maternal reinfection and congenital transmission. However, we assert that optimism regarding vaccine development is indeed justified, on the basis of accruing evidence of immune correlates of protection—readily achievable by vaccination—that are associated with reduced transmission of HCMV to the fetus in seronegative women. In light of the substantial burden on society conferred by cCMV infection, even a modest reduction in the occurrence of this fetal disease is an important public health goal and justifies aggressive clinical evaluation of vaccines currently in the pipeline.
Cellular and Humoral Immunity Protect against Vaginal Zika Virus Infection in Mice J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Jason M. Scott; Tania J. Lebratti; Justin M. Richner; Xiaoping Jiang; Estefania Fernandez; Haiyan Zhao; Daved H. Fremont; Michael S. Diamond; Haina Shin
Zika virus (ZIKV), which can cause devastating disease in fetuses of infected pregnant women, can be transmitted by mosquito inoculation and sexual routes. Little is known about immune protection against sexually transmitted ZIKV. In this study, we show that previous infection through intravaginal or subcutaneous routes with a contemporary Brazilian strain of ZIKV can protect against subsequent intravaginal challenge with a homologous strain. Both routes of inoculation induced high titers of ZIKV-specific and neutralizing antibody in serum and the vaginal lumen. Virus-specific T cells were recruited to and retained in the female reproductive tract after intravaginal and subcutaneous ZIKV infection. Studies in mice with genetic or acquired deficiencies in B and/or T cells demonstrated that both lymphocyte populations redundantly protect against intravaginal challenge in ZIKV-immune animals. Passive transfer of ZIKV-immune IgG or T cells significantly limited intravaginal infection of naive mice, although antibody more effectively prevented dissemination throughout the reproductive tract. Collectively, our experiments begin to establish the immune correlates of protection against intravaginal ZIKV infection, which should inform vaccination strategies in nonpregnant and pregnant women. IMPORTANCE The recent ZIKV epidemic resulted in devastating outcomes in fetuses and may affect reproductive health. Unlike other flaviviruses, ZIKV can be spread by sexual contact as well as a mosquito vector. While previous studies have identified correlates of protection for mosquito-mediated infection, few have focused on immunity against sexual transmission. As exposure to ZIKV via mosquito bite has likely occurred to many living in areas where ZIKV is endemic, our study addresses whether this route of infection can protect against subsequent sexual exposure. We demonstrate that subcutaneous ZIKV infection can protect against subsequent vaginal infection by generating both local antiviral T cell and antibody responses. Our research begins to define the immune correlates of protection for ZIKV infection in the vagina and provides a foundation for testing ZIKV vaccines against sexual transmission.
Articles of Significant Interest Selected from This Issue by the Editors J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01
Nonstructural protein σ1s is required for reovirus bloodstream dissemination. However, σ1s function in the context of reovirus replication and the mechanisms by which σ1s promotes hematogenous spread are not well understood. Phillips et al. (e02259-17) discovered that σ1s promotes optimal reovirus protein expression, which is required for efficient viral replication. This work indicates a new function for viral protein σ1s during reovirus replication and a mechanism by which σ1s facilitates hematogenous reovirus dissemination. Nonstructural protein σ1s is required for optimal reovirus protein expression.
Human Papillomavirus 16 E7 Stabilizes APOBEC3A Protein by Inhibiting Cullin 2-Dependent Protein Degradation J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Joseph A. Westrich; Cody J. Warren; Michael J. Klausner; Kejun Guo; Chang-Wei Liu; Mario L. Santiago; Dohun Pyeon
APOBEC3 (A3) mutation signatures have been observed in a variety of human cancer genomes, including those of cervical and head and neck cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, the driving forces that promote off-target A3 activity remain mostly unclear. Here, we report a mechanism for the dramatic increase of A3A protein levels in HPV-positive keratinocytes. We show that expression of the viral protein E7 from high-risk HPVs, but not E7 from low-risk HPVs, significantly prolongs the cellular half-life of A3A protein in human keratinocytes and HPV-positive cancer cell lines. We have mapped several residues within the cullin 2 (CUL2) binding motif of HPV16 E7 as being important for mediating A3A protein stabilization. Furthermore, we provide direct evidence that both A3A and HPV16 E7 interact with CUL2, suggesting that the E7-CUL2 complex formed during HPV infection may regulate A3A protein levels in the cell. Using an in vitro cytidine deaminase assay, we show that E7-stabilized A3A remains catalytically active. Taken together, our findings suggest that the HPV oncoprotein E7 dysregulates endogenous A3A protein levels and thus provides novel mechanistic insight into cellular triggers of A3 mutations in HPV-positive cancers. IMPORTANCE Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally associated with over 5% of all human malignancies. Several recent studies have shown that a subset of cancers, including HPV-positive head and neck and cervical cancers, have distinct mutational signatures potentially caused by members of the APOBEC3 cytidine deaminase family. However, the mechanism that induces APOBEC3 activity in cancer cells is poorly understood. Here, we report that the HPV oncoprotein E7 stabilizes the APOBEC3A (A3A) protein in human keratinocytes by inhibiting ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation in a cullin-dependent manner. Interestingly, the HPV E7-stabilized A3A protein maintains its deaminase activity. These findings provide a new insight into cancer mutagenesis enhanced by virus-induced A3A protein stabilization.
Arabidopsis RNA Polymerase V Mediates Enhanced Compaction and Silencing of Geminivirus and Transposon Chromatin during Host Recovery from Infection J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Tami Coursey; Elizabeth Regedanz; David M. Bisaro
Plants employ RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) and dimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) to silence geminiviruses and transposable elements (TEs). We previously showed that canonical RdDM (Pol IV-RdDM) involving RNA polymerases IV and V (Pol IV and Pol V) is required for Arabidopsis thaliana to recover from infection with Beet curly top virus lacking a suppressor protein that inhibits methylation (BCTV L2−). Recovery, which is characterized by reduced viral DNA levels and symptom remission, allows normal floral development. Here, we used formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE) to confirm that >90% of BCTV L2− chromatin is highly compacted during recovery, and a micrococcal nuclease-chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that this is largely due to increased nucleosome occupancy. Physical compaction correlated with augmented cytosine and H3K9 methylation and with reduced viral gene expression. We additionally demonstrated that these phenomena are dependent on Pol V and by extension the Pol IV-RdDM pathway. BCTV L2− was also used to evaluate the impact of viral infection on host loci, including repressed retrotransposons Ta3 and Athila6A. Remarkably, an unexpected Pol V-dependent hypersuppression of these TEs was observed, resulting in transcript levels even lower than those detected in uninfected plants. Hypersuppression is likely to be especially important for natural recovery from wild-type geminiviruses, as viral L2 and AL2 proteins cause ectopic TE expression. Thus, Pol IV-RdDM targets both viral and TE chromatin during recovery, simultaneously silencing the majority of viral genomes and maintaining host genome integrity by enforcing tighter control of TEs in future reproductive tissues. IMPORTANCE In plants, RdDM pathways use small RNAs to target cytosine and H3K9 methylation, thereby silencing DNA virus genomes and transposable elements (TEs). Further, Pol IV-RdDM involving Pol IV and Pol V is a key aspect of host defense that can lead to recovery from geminivirus infection. Recovery is characterized by reduced viral DNA levels and symptom remission and thus allows normal floral development. Studies described here demonstrate that the Pol V-dependent enhanced viral DNA and histone methylation observed during recovery result in increased chromatin compaction and suppressed gene expression. In addition, we show that TE-associated chromatin is also targeted for hypersuppression during recovery, such that TE transcripts are reduced below the already low levels seen in uninfected plants. Thus, Pol IV-RdDM at once silences the majority of viral genomes and enforces a tight control over TEs which might otherwise jeopardize genome integrity in future reproductive tissue.
Hepatitis B Virus Subverts the Autophagy Elongation Complex Atg5-12/16L1 and Does Not Require Atg8/LC3 Lipidation for Viral Maturation J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Tatjana Döring; Lisa Zeyen; Christina Bartusch; Reinhild Prange
Previous studies indicated that hepatitis B virus (HBV) stimulates autophagy to favor its production. To understand how HBV co-opts autophagy as a proviral machinery, we studied the roles of key autophagy proteins in HBV-replicating liver cell cultures. RNA interference-mediated silencing of Atg5, Atg12, and Atg16L1, which promote autophagophore expansion and LC3 membrane conjugation, interfered with viral core/nucleocapsid (NC) formation/stability and strongly diminished virus yields. Concomitantly, the core/NC membrane association and their sorting to envelope-positive compartments were perturbed. A close inspection of the HBV/autophagy cross talk revealed that the virus depended on Atg12 covalently conjugated to Atg5. In support of this finding, HBV required the E2-like enzymes Atg10 and Atg3, which catalyze or facilitate Atg5-12 conjugation, respectively. Atg10 and Atg3 knockdowns decreased HBV production, while Atg3 overexpression increased virus yields. Mapping analyses demonstrated that the HBV core protein encountered the Atg5-12/16L1 complex via interaction with the intrinsically disordered region of the Atg12 moiety that is dispensable for autophagy function. The role of Atg12 in HBV replication was confirmed by its incorporation into virions. Although the Atg5-12/16L1 complex and Atg3 are essential for LC3 lipidation and, thus, for autophagosome maturation and closure, HBV propagation did not require LC3. Silencing of LC3B, the most abundant LC3 isoform, did not inhibit but rather augmented virus production. Similar augmenting effects were obtained upon overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of Atg4B that blocked the lipid conjugation of the LC3 isoforms and their GABARAP paralogues. Together, our data indicate that HBV subverts early, nondegradative autophagy components as assembly scaffolds, thereby concurrently avoiding autophagosomal destruction. IMPORTANCE Infections with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), an enveloped pararetrovirus, cause about 1 million deaths per year, as current therapies rarely achieve a cure. Understanding the HBV life cycle and concomitant host cell interactions is instrumental to develop new antiviral concepts. Here, we proceeded to dissect the roles of the autophagy machinery in virus propagation. By using RNA interference and overexpression studies in HBV-replicating cell lines, we identified the autophagic Atg5-12/16L1 elongation complex along with Atg10 and Atg3 to be an essential scaffold for HBV nucleocapsid assembly/stability. Deficits in Atg5-12/16L1 and Atg10/Atg3, which normally drive autophagophore membrane expansion, strongly impaired progeny virus yields. HBV gained access to Atg5-12/16L1 via interaction of its core protein with the Atg12 moiety of the complex. In contrast, subsequent autophagosome maturation and closure events were unnecessary for HBV replication, as evidenced by inhibition of Atg8/LC3 conjugation. Interfering with the HBV/Atg12 cross talk may be a tool for virus control.
ERK Is a Critical Regulator of JC Polyomavirus Infection J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Jeanne K. DuShane; Michael P. Wilczek; Colleen L. Mayberry; Melissa S. Maginnis
The human JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infects the majority of the population worldwide and presents as an asymptomatic, persistent infection in the kidneys. In individuals who are immunocompromised, JCPyV can become reactivated and cause a lytic infection in the central nervous system resulting in the fatal, demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Infection is initiated by interactions between the capsid protein viral protein 1 (VP1) and the α2,6-linked sialic acid on lactoseries tetrasaccharide c (LSTc), while JCPyV internalization is facilitated by 5-hydroxytryptamine 2 receptors (5-HT2Rs). The mechanisms by which the serotonin receptors mediate virus entry and the signaling cascades required to drive viral infection remain poorly understood. JCPyV was previously shown to induce phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a downstream target of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, upon virus entry. However, it remained unclear whether ERK activation was required for JCPyV infection. Both ERK-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and ERK inhibitor treatments resulted in significantly diminished JCPyV infection in both kidney and glial cells yet had no effect on the infectivity of the polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40). Experiments characterizing the role of ERK during steps in the viral life cycle indicate that ERK activation is required for viral transcription, as demonstrated by a significant reduction in production of large T antigen (TAg), a key viral protein associated with the initiation of viral transcription and viral replication. These findings delineate the role of the MAPK-ERK signaling pathway in JCPyV infection, elucidating how the virus reprograms the host cell to promote viral pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Viral infection is dependent upon host cell factors, including the activation of cellular signaling pathways. These interactions between viruses and host cells are necessary for infection and play an important role in viral disease outcomes. The focus of this study was to determine how the human JC polyomavirus (JCPyV), a virus that resides in the kidney of the majority of the population and can cause the fatal, demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in the brains of immunosuppressed individuals, usurps a cellular signaling pathway to promote its own infectious life cycle. We demonstrated that the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, promotes JCPyV transcription, which is required for viral infection. Our findings demonstrate that the MAPK-ERK signaling pathway is a key determinant of JCPyV infection, elucidating new information regarding the signal reprogramming of host cells by a pathogenic virus.
HIV-1-Specific IgA Monoclonal Antibodies from an HIV-1 Vaccinee Mediate Galactosylceramide Blocking and Phagocytosis J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Saintedym Wills; Kwan-Ki Hwang; Pinghuang Liu; S. Moses Dennison; Matthew Zirui Tay; Xiaoying Shen; Justin Pollara; Judith T. Lucas; Robert Parks; Supachai Rerks-Ngarm; Punnee Pitisuttithum; Sorachai Nitayapan; Jaranit Kaewkungwal; Rasmi Thomas; Jerome H. Kim; Nelson L. Michael; Merlin L. Robb; Mike McRaven; David C. Montefiori; Thomas J. Hope; Hua-Xin Liao; M. Anthony Moody; Guido Ferrari; Barton F. Haynes; S. Munir Alam; Mattia Bonsignori; Georgia D. Tomaras
Vaccine-elicited humoral immune responses comprise an array of antibody forms and specificities, with only a fraction contributing to protective host immunity. Elucidation of antibody effector functions responsible for protective immunity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition is a major goal for the HIV-1 vaccine field. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an important part of the host defense against pathogens; however, little is known about the role of vaccine-elicited IgA and its capacity to mediate antiviral functions. To identify the antiviral functions of HIV-1-specific IgA elicited by vaccination, we cloned HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by memory B cell cultures from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from an RV144 vaccinee and produced two IgA clonal cell lines (HG129 and HG130) producing native, nonrecombinant IgA MAbs. The HG129 and HG130 MAbs mediated phagocytosis by monocytes, and HG129 blocked HIV-1 Env glycoprotein binding to galactosylceramide, an alternative HIV-1 receptor. These findings elucidate potential antiviral functions of vaccine-elicited HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA that may act to block HIV-1 acquisition at the portal of entry by preventing HIV-1 binding to galactosylceramide and mediating antibody Fc receptor-mediated virion phagocytosis. Furthermore, these findings highlight the complex and diverse interactions of vaccine-elicited IgA with pathogens that depend on IgA fine specificity and form (e.g., multimeric or monomeric) in the systemic circulation and mucosal compartments. IMPORTANCE Host-pathogen interactions in vivo involve numerous immune mechanisms that can lead to pathogen clearance. Understanding the nature of antiviral immune mechanisms can inform the design of efficacious HIV-1 vaccine strategies. Evidence suggests that both neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies can mediate some protection against HIV in animal models. Although numerous studies have characterized the functional properties of HIV-1-specific IgG, more studies are needed on the functional attributes of HIV-1-specific IgA, specifically for vaccine-elicited IgA. Characterization of the functional properties of HIV-1 Env-specific IgA monoclonal antibodies from human vaccine clinical trials are critical toward understanding the capacity of the host immune response to block HIV-1 acquisition.
High-Resolution Sequencing of Viral Populations during Early Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Reveals Evolutionary Strategies for Rapid Escape from Emerging Env-Specific Antibody Responses J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Sergio Ita; Alison K. Hill; Evan C. Lam; Fay J. Dufort; Xiao Yang; Ruchi Newman; Sivan Leviyang; Ismael B. Fofana; Welkin E. Johnson
Primate lentiviruses, including the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV), produce infections marked by persistent, ongoing viral replication. This occurs despite the presence of virus-specific adaptive immune responses, including antibodies targeting the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env), and evolution of antibody-escape variants is a well-documented feature of lentiviral infection. Here, we examined the evolutionary dynamics of the SIV env gene during early infection (≤29 weeks postinfection) in a cohort of four SIVmac251-infected rhesus macaques. We tracked env evolution during acute and early infection using frequent sampling and ultradeep sequencing of viral populations, capturing a transmission bottleneck and the subsequent reestablishment of Env diversity. A majority of changes in the gp120 subunit mapped to two short clusters, one in the first variable region (V1) and one in V4, while most changes in the gp41 subunit appeared in the cytoplasmic domain. Variation in V1 was dominated by short duplications and deletions of repetitive sequence, while variation in V4 was marked by short in-frame deletions and closely overlapping substitutions. The most common substitutions in both patches did not alter viral replicative fitness when tested using a highly sensitive, deep-sequencing-based competition assay. Our results, together with the observation that very similar or identical patterns of sequence evolution also occur in different macaque species infected with related but divergent strains of SIV, suggest that resistance to early, strain-specific anti-Env antibodies is the result of temporally and mutationally predictable pathways of escape that occur during the early stages of infection. IMPORTANCE The envelope glycoprotein (Env) of primate lentiviruses mediates entry by binding to host cell receptors followed by fusion of the viral membrane with the cell membrane. The exposure of Env complexes on the surface of the virion results in targeting by antibodies, leading to selection for virus escape mutations. We used the SIV/rhesus macaque model to track in vivo evolution of variation in Env during acute/early infection in animals with and without antibody responses to Env, uncovering remarkable variation in animals with antibody responses within weeks of infection. Using a deep-sequencing-based fitness assay, we found substitutions associated with antibody escape had little to no effect on inherent replicative capacity. The ability to readily propagate advantageous changes that incur little to no replicative fitness costs may be a mechanism to maintain continuous replication under constant immune selection, allowing the virus to persist for months to years in the infected host.
HLA Class I Downregulation by HIV-1 Variants from Subtype C Transmission Pairs J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Zachary Ende; Martin J. Deymier; Daniel T. Claiborne; Jessica L. Prince; Daniela C. Mónaco; William Kilembe; Susan A. Allen; Eric Hunter
HIV-1 downregulates human leukocyte antigen A (HLA-A) and HLA-B from the surface of infected cells primarily to evade CD8 T cell recognition. HLA-C was thought to remain on the cell surface and bind inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors, preventing natural killer (NK) cell-mediated suppression. However, a recent study found HIV-1 primary viruses have the capacity to downregulate HLA-C. The goal of this study was to assess the heterogeneity of HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C downregulation among full-length primary viruses from six chronically infected and six newly infected individuals from transmission pairs and to determine whether transmitted/founder variants exhibit common HLA class I downregulation characteristics. We measured HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and total HLA class I downregulation by flow cytometry of primary CD4 T cells infected with 40 infectious molecular clones. Primary viruses mediated a range of HLA class I downregulation capacities (1.3- to 6.1-fold) which could differ significantly between transmission pairs. Downregulation of HLA-C surface expression on infected cells correlated with susceptibility to in vitro NK cell suppression of virus release. Despite this, transmitted/founder variants did not share a downregulation signature and instead were more similar to the quasispecies of matched donor partners. These data indicate that a range of viral abilities to downregulate HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C exist within and between individuals that can have functional consequences on immune recognition. IMPORTANCE Subtype C HIV-1 is the predominant subtype involved in heterosexual transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Authentic subtype C viruses that contain natural sequence variations throughout the genome often are not used in experimental systems due to technical constraints and sample availability. In this study, authentic full-length subtype C viruses, including transmitted/founder viruses, were examined for the ability to disrupt surface expression of HLA class I molecules, which are central to both adaptive and innate immune responses to viral infections. We found that the HLA class I downregulation capacity of primary viruses varied, and HLA-C downregulation capacity impacted viral suppression by natural killer cells. Transmitted viruses were not distinct in the capacity for HLA class I downregulation or natural killer cell evasion. These results enrich our understanding of the phenotypic variation existing among natural HIV-1 viruses and how that might impact the ability of the immune system to recognize infected cells in acute and chronic infection.
Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Mutant with Point Mutations in UL39 Is Impaired for Acute Viral Replication in Mice, Establishment of Latency, and Explant-Induced Reactivation J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Heba H. Mostafa; Thornton W. Thompson; Adam J. Konen; Steve D. Haenchen; Joshua G. Hilliard; Stuart J. Macdonald; Lynda A. Morrison; David J. Davido
In the process of generating herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) mutations in the viral regulatory gene encoding infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), we isolated a viral mutant, termed KOS-NA, that was severely impaired for acute replication in the eyes and trigeminal ganglia (TG) of mice, defective in establishing a latent infection, and reactivated poorly from explanted TG. To identify the secondary mutation(s) responsible for the impaired phenotypes of this mutant, we sequenced the KOS-NA genome and noted that it contained two nonsynonymous mutations in UL39, which encodes the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, ICP6. These mutations resulted in lysine-to-proline (residue 393) and arginine-to-histidine (residue 950) substitutions in ICP6. To determine whether alteration of these amino acids was responsible for the KOS-NA phenotypes in vivo, we recombined the wild-type UL39 gene into the KOS-NA genome and rescued its acute replication phenotypes in mice. To further establish the role of UL39 in KOS-NA's decreased pathogenicity, the UL39 mutations were recombined into HSV-1 (generating UL39mut), and this mutant virus showed reduced ocular and TG replication in mice comparable to that of KOS-NA. Interestingly, ICP6 protein levels were reduced in KOS-NA-infected cells relative to the wild-type protein. Moreover, we observed that KOS-NA does not counteract caspase 8-induced apoptosis, unlike wild-type strain KOS. Based on alignment studies with other HSV-1 ICP6 homologs, our data suggest that amino acid 950 of ICP6 likely plays an important role in ICP6 accumulation and inhibition of apoptosis, consequently impairing HSV-1 pathogenesis in a mouse model of HSV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE HSV-1 is a major human pathogen that infects ∼80% of the human population and can be life threatening to infected neonates or immunocompromised individuals. Effective therapies for treatment of recurrent HSV-1 infections are limited, which emphasizes a critical need to understand in greater detail the events that modulate HSV-1 replication and pathogenesis. In the current study, we identified a neuroattenuated HSV-1 mutant (i.e., KOS-NA) that contains novel mutations in the UL39 gene, which codes for the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (also known as ICP6). This mutant form of ICP6 was responsible for the attenuation of KOS-NA in vivo and resulted in diminished ICP6 protein levels and antiapoptotic effect. Thus, we have determined that subtle alteration of the UL39 gene regulates expression and functions of ICP6 and severely impacts HSV-1 pathogenesis, potentially making KOS-NA a promising vaccine candidate against HSV-1.
Dengue Virus Selectively Annexes Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Translation Machinery as a Strategy for Co-opting Host Cell Protein Synthesis J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 David W. Reid; Rafael K. Campos; Jessica R. Child; Tianli Zheng; Kitti Wing Ki Chan; Shelton S. Bradrick; Subhash G. Vasudevan; Mariano A. Garcia-Blanco; Christopher V. Nicchitta
A primary question in dengue virus (DENV) biology is the molecular strategy for recruitment of host cell protein synthesis machinery. Here, we combined cell fractionation, ribosome profiling, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate the subcellular organization of viral genome translation and replication as well as host cell translation and its response to DENV infection. We report that throughout the viral life cycle, DENV plus- and minus-strand RNAs were highly partitioned to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), identifying the ER as the primary site of DENV translation. DENV infection was accompanied by an ER compartment-specific remodeling of translation, where ER translation capacity was subverted from host transcripts to DENV plus-strand RNA, particularly at late stages of infection. Remarkably, translation levels and patterns in the cytosol compartment were only modestly affected throughout the experimental time course of infection. Comparisons of ribosome footprinting densities of the DENV plus-strand RNA and host mRNAs indicated that DENV plus-strand RNA was only sparsely loaded with ribosomes. Combined, these observations suggest a mechanism where ER-localized translation and translational control mechanisms, likely cis encoded, are used to repurpose the ER for DENV virion production. Consistent with this view, we found ER-linked cellular stress response pathways commonly associated with viral infection, namely, the interferon response and unfolded protein response, to be only modestly activated during DENV infection. These data support a model where DENV reprograms the ER protein synthesis and processing environment to promote viral survival and replication while minimizing the activation of antiviral and proteostatic stress response pathways. IMPORTANCE DENV, a prominent human health threat with no broadly effective or specific treatment, depends on host cell translation machinery for viral replication, immune evasion, and virion biogenesis. The molecular mechanism by which DENV commandeers the host cell protein synthesis machinery and the subcellular organization of DENV replication and viral protein synthesis is poorly understood. Here, we report that DENV has an almost exclusively ER-localized life cycle, with viral replication and translation largely restricted to the ER. Surprisingly, DENV infection largely affects only ER-associated translation, with relatively modest effects on host cell translation in the cytosol. DENV RNA translation is very inefficient, likely representing a strategy to minimize disruption of ER proteostasis. Overall these findings demonstrate that DENV has evolved an ER-compartmentalized life cycle; thus, targeting the molecular signatures and regulation of the DENV-ER interaction landscape may reveal strategies for therapeutic intervention.
Structural Study of the C-Terminal Domain of Nonstructural Protein 1 from Japanese Encephalitis Virus J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Thanalai Poonsiri; Gareth S. A. Wright; Michael S. Diamond; Lance Turtle; Tom Solomon; Svetlana V. Antonyuk
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that is closely related to other emerging viral pathogens, including dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). JEV infection can result in meningitis and encephalitis, which in severe cases cause permanent brain damage and death. JEV occurs predominantly in rural areas throughout Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Far East, causing around 68,000 cases of infection worldwide each year. In this report, we present a 2.1-Å-resolution crystal structure of the C-terminal β-ladder domain of JEV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1-C). The surface charge distribution of JEV NS1-C is similar to those of WNV and ZIKV but differs from that of DENV. Analysis of the JEV NS1-C structure, with in silico molecular dynamics simulation and experimental solution small-angle X-ray scattering, indicates extensive loop flexibility on the exterior of the protein. This, together with the surface charge distribution, indicates that flexibility influences the protein-protein interactions that govern pathogenicity. These factors also affect the interaction of NS1 with the 22NS1 monoclonal antibody, which is protective against West Nile virus infection. Liposome and heparin binding assays indicate that only the N-terminal region of NS1 mediates interaction with membranes and that sulfate binding sites common to NS1 structures are not glycosaminoglycan binding interfaces. This report highlights several differences between flavivirus NS1 proteins and contributes to our understanding of their structure-pathogenic function relationships. IMPORTANCE JEV is a major cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Despite extensive vaccination, epidemics still occur. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) plays a role in viral replication, and, because it is secreted, it can exhibit a wide range of interactions with host proteins. NS1 sequence and protein folds are conserved within the Flavivirus genus, but variations in NS1 protein-protein interactions among viruses likely contribute to differences in pathogenesis. Here, we compared characteristics of the C-terminal β-ladder domain of NS1 between flaviviruses, including surface charge, loop flexibility, epitope cross-reactivity, membrane adherence, and glycosaminoglycan binding. These structural features are central to NS1 functionality and may provide insight into the development of diagnostic tests and therapeutics.
Increased Epitope Complexity Correlated with Antibody Affinity Maturation and a Novel Binding Mode Revealed by Structures of Rabbit Antibodies against the Third Variable Loop (V3) of HIV-1 gp120 J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Ruimin Pan; Yali Qin; Marisa Banasik; William Lees; Adrian J. Shepherd; Michael W. Cho; Xiang-Peng Kong
The third variable (V3) loop of HIV-1 gp120 is an immunodominant region targeted by neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). Despite limited breadth, better characterization of the structural details of the interactions between these nAbs and their target epitopes would enhance our understanding of the mechanism of neutralization and facilitate designing better immunogens to induce nAbs with greater breadth. Recently, we isolated two anti-V3 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), 10A3 and 10A37, from a rabbit immunized with gp120 of the M group consensus sequence. In this study, crystal structures of these MAbs bound to target epitopes were determined. 10A3 binds to the V3 crown (303TRKSIHIGPGRAF317) using the cradle binding mode, similar to human V3 MAbs encoded by IGHV5-51 germ line genes, and its epitope structure resembles that bound to the human antibodies. In contrast, 10A37, which exhibits greater breadth and potency than 10A3, binds the V3 crown and the succeeding stem region (308HIGPGRAFYTTGEI323). Unexpectedly, the 315RAFYTT320 portion of the epitope existed as helical turns, a V3 structure that has not been observed previously. Its main chain-dominated antigen-antibody interactions not only explain the broad neutralization of 10A37 but also show that its epitope is a potential vaccine target to be further evaluated. In conclusion, our study provides novel insights about neutralization-susceptible epitope structures of the V3 loop of HIV-1 gp120 and demonstrates that, despite low amino acid sequence similarity to human antibody germ line genes, rabbits can serve as a useful animal model to evaluate human vaccine candidates. IMPORTANCE The apex crown of V3 of HIV-1 gp120 is the most immunogenic region of the surface glycoprotein, and many MAbs targeting this region have been developed. Structural understanding of V3 crown MAbs not only can help understand how antibody responses target this unique region but also contribute to immunogen design for vaccine development. We present here crystal structures of two neutralizing V3 MAbs, 10A3 and 10A37, developed from a rabbit immunized with gp120. Our analysis of 10A3 in complex with V3 provided a detailed example of how epitope complexity can evolve with affinity maturation, while that of 10A37 revealed a novel V3 binding mode targeting the C-terminal side of the V3 crown and showed that this region can form a helical structure. Our study provides novel insights about neutralization-susceptible V3 epitope structures and demonstrates that rabbits can serve as a useful animal model to evaluate human vaccine candidates.
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Latent Protein EBNA3A Directly Targets and Silences the STK39 Gene in B Cells Infected by EBV J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Quentin Bazot; Kostas Paschos; Martin J. Allday
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes latent infection in human B cells and is associated with a wide range of cancers. The EBV nuclear antigen 3 (EBNA3) family proteins are critical for B cell transformation and function as transcriptional regulators. It is well established that EBNA3A and EBNA3C cooperate in the regulation of cellular genes. Here, we demonstrate that the gene STK39 is repressed only by EBNA3A. This is the first example of a gene regulated only by EBNA3A in EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) without the help of EBNA3C. This was demonstrated using a variety of LCLs carrying either knockout, revertant, or conditional EBNA3 recombinants. Investigating the kinetics of EBNA3A-mediated changes in STK39 expression showed that STK39 becomes derepressed quickly after EBNA3A inactivation. This derepression is reversible as EBNA3A reactivation represses STK39 in the same cells expressing a conditional EBNA3A. STK39 is silenced shortly after primary B cell infection by EBV, and no STK39-encoded protein (SPAK) is detected 3 weeks postinfection. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis indicates that EBNA3A directly binds to a regulatory region downstream of the STK39 transcription start site. For the first time, we demonstrated that the polycomb repressive complex 2 with the deposition of the repressive mark H3K27me3 is not only important for the maintenance of an EBNA3A target gene (STK39) but is also essential for the initial establishment of its silencing. Finally, we showed that DNA methyltransferases are involved in the EBNA3A-mediated repression of STK39. IMPORTANCE EBV is well known for its ability to transform B lymphocytes to continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cell lines. This is achieved in part by the reprogramming of cellular gene transcription by EBV transcription factors, including the EBNA3 proteins that play a crucial role in this process. In the present study, we found that EBNA3A epigenetically silences STK39. This is the first gene where EBNA3A has been found to exert its repressive role by itself, without needing its coregulators EBNA3B and EBNA3C. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the polycomb repressor complex is essential for EBNA3A-mediated repression of STK39. Findings in this study provide new insights into the regulation of cellular genes by the transcription factor EBNA3A.
Therapeutic Efficacy of Vectored PGT121 Gene Delivery in HIV-1-Infected Humanized Mice J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Alexander Badamchi-Zadeh; Lawrence J. Tartaglia; Peter Abbink; Christine A. Bricault; Po-Ting Liu; Michael Boyd; Marinela Kirilova; Noe B. Mercado; Ovini S. Nanayakkara; Vladimir D. Vrbanac; Andrew M. Tager; Rafael A. Larocca; Michael S. Seaman; Dan H. Barouch
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are being explored for HIV-1 prevention and cure strategies. However, administration of purified bNAbs poses challenges in resource-poor settings, where the HIV-1 disease burden is greatest. In vivo vector-based production of bNAbs represents an alternative strategy. We investigated adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) and adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) vectors to deliver the HIV-1-specific bNAb PGT121 in wild-type and immunocompromised C57BL/6 mice as well as in HIV-1-infected bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) humanized mice. Ad5.PGT121 and AAV1.PGT121 produced functional antibody in vivo. Ad5.PGT121 produced PGT121 rapidly within 6 h, whereas AAV1.PGT121 produced detectable PGT121 in serum by 72 h. Serum PGT121 levels were rapidly reduced by the generation of anti-PGT121 antibodies in immunocompetent mice but were durably maintained in immunocompromised mice. In HIV-1-infected BLT humanized mice, Ad5.PGT121 resulted in a greater reduction of viral loads than did AAV1.PGT121. Ad5.PGT121 also led to more-sustained virologic control than purified PGT121 IgG. Ad5.PGT121 afforded more rapid, robust, and durable antiviral efficacy than AAV1.PGT121 and purified PGT121 IgG in HIV-1-infected humanized mice. Further evaluation of vector delivery of HIV-1 bNAbs is warranted, although approaches to prevent the generation of antiantibody responses may also be required. IMPORTANCE Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are being explored for HIV-1 prevention and cure strategies, but delivery of purified antibodies may prove challenging. We investigated adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) and adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) vectors to deliver the HIV-1-specific bNAb PGT121. Ad5.PGT121 afforded more rapid, robust, and durable antiviral efficacy than AAV1.PGT121 and purified PGT121 IgG in HIV-1-infected humanized mice.
The Wnt Signaling Pathway Is Differentially Expressed during the Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency-Reactivation Cycle: Evidence That Two Protein Kinases Associated with Neuronal Survival, Akt3 and BMPR2, Are Expressed at Higher Levels during Latency J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Aspen Workman; Liqian Zhu; Brittney N. Keel; Timothy P. L. Smith; Clinton Jones
Sensory neurons in trigeminal ganglia (TG) of calves latently infected with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) abundantly express latency-related (LR) gene products, including a protein (ORF2) and two micro-RNAs. Recent studies in mouse neuroblastoma cells (Neuro-2A) demonstrated ORF2 interacts with β-catenin and a β-catenin coactivator, high-mobility group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) protein, which correlates with increased β-catenin-dependent transcription and cell survival. β-Catenin and HMGA1 are readily detected in a subset of latently infected TG neurons but not TG neurons from uninfected calves or reactivation from latency. Consequently, we hypothesized that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is differentially expressed during the latency and reactivation cycle and an active Wnt pathway promotes latency. RNA-sequencing studies revealed that 102 genes associated with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were differentially expressed in TG during the latency-reactivation cycle in calves. Wnt agonists were generally expressed at higher levels during latency, but these levels decreased during dexamethasone-induced reactivation. The Wnt agonist bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) was intriguing because it encodes a serine/threonine receptor kinase that promotes neuronal differentiation and inhibits cell death. Another differentially expressed gene encodes a protein kinase (Akt3), which is significant because Akt activity enhances cell survival and is linked to herpes simplex virus 1 latency and neuronal survival. Additional studies demonstrated ORF2 increased Akt3 steady-state protein levels and interacted with Akt3 in transfected Neuro-2A cells, which correlated with Akt3 activation. Conversely, expression of Wnt antagonists increased during reactivation from latency. Collectively, these studies suggest Wnt signaling cooperates with LR gene products, in particular ORF2, to promote latency. IMPORTANCE Lifelong BoHV-1 latency primarily occurs in sensory neurons. The synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone consistently induces reactivation from latency in calves. RNA sequencing studies revealed 102 genes associated with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway are differentially regulated during the latency-reactivation cycle. Two protein kinases associated with the Wnt pathway, Akt3 and BMPR2, were expressed at higher levels during latency but were repressed during reactivation. Furthermore, five genes encoding soluble Wnt antagonists and β-catenin-dependent transcription inhibitors were induced during reactivation from latency. These findings are important because Wnt, BMPR2, and Akt3 promote neurogenesis and cell survival, processes crucial for lifelong viral latency. In transfected neuroblastoma cells, a viral protein expressed during latency (ORF2) interacts with and enhances Akt3 protein kinase activity. These findings provide insight into how cellular factors associated with the Wnt signaling pathway cooperate with LR gene products to regulate the BoHV-1 latency-reactivation cycle.
Parainfluenza Virus Infection Sensitizes Cancer Cells to DNA-Damaging Agents: Implications for Oncolytic Virus Therapy J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Candace R. Fox; Griffith D. Parks
A parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) with mutations in the P/V gene (P/V-CPI−) is restricted for spread in normal cells but not in cancer cells in vitro and is effective at reducing tumor burdens in mouse model systems. Here we show that P/V-CPI− infection of HEp-2 human laryngeal cancer cells results in the majority of the cells dying, but unexpectedly, over time, there is an emergence of a population of cells that survive as P/V-CPI− persistently infected (PI) cells. P/V-CPI− PI cells had elevated levels of basal caspase activation, and viability was highly dependent on the activity of cellular inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins (IAPs) such as Survivin and XIAP. In challenge experiments with external inducers of apoptosis, PI cells were more sensitive to cisplatin-induced DNA damage and cell death. This increased cisplatin sensitivity correlated with defects in DNA damage signaling pathways such as phosphorylation of Chk1 and translocation of damage-specific DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1) to the nucleus. Cisplatin-induced killing of PI cells was sensitive to the inhibition of wild-type (WT) p53-inducible protein 1 (WIP1), a phosphatase which acts to terminate DNA damage signaling pathways. A similar sensitivity to cisplatin was seen with cells during acute infection with P/V-CPI− as well as during acute infections with WT PIV5 and the related virus human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2). Our results have general implications for the design of safer paramyxovirus-based vectors that cannot establish PI as well as the potential for combining chemotherapy with oncolytic RNA virus vectors. IMPORTANCE There is intense interest in developing oncolytic viral vectors with increased potency against cancer cells, particularly those cancer cells that have gained resistance to chemotherapies. We have found that infection with cytoplasmically replicating parainfluenza virus can result in increases in the killing of cancer cells by agents that induce DNA damage, and this is linked to alterations to DNA damage signaling pathways that balance cell survival versus death. Our results have general implications for the design of safer paramyxovirus-based vectors that cannot establish persistent infection, the repurposing of drugs that target cellular IAPs as antivirals, and the combined use of DNA-damaging chemotherapy agents in conjunction with oncolytic RNA virus vectors.
Erratum for Martínez-Alvarez et al., “Formation of a Viral Replication Focus in Sulfolobus Cells Infected by the Rudivirus Sulfolobus islandicus Rod-Shaped Virus 2” J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Laura Martínez-Alvarez; Ling Deng; Xu Peng
Volume 91, no. 13, e00486-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00486-17. Page 10, Table 2, line 1: The sequence for oligonucleotide “Spacer dpo1 F” should read “AAAGTTGGGTACTTTACCTACTTTATCTGGTTCAAGATCTACTA.”
Sustained Specific and Cross-Reactive T Cell Responses to Zika and Dengue Virus NS3 in West Africa J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Bobby Brooke Herrera; Wen-Yang Tsai; Charlotte A. Chang; Donald J. Hamel; Wei-Kung Wang; Yichen Lu; Souleymane Mboup; Phyllis J. Kanki
Recent studies on the role of T cells in Zika virus (ZIKV) infection have shown that T cell responses to Asian ZIKV infection are important for protection, and that previous dengue virus (DENV) exposure amplifies the protective T cell response to Asian ZIKV. Human T cell responses to African ZIKV infection, however, remain unexplored. Here, we utilized the modified anthrax toxin delivery system to develop a flavivirus enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay. Using human ZIKV and DENV samples from Senegal, West Africa, our results demonstrate specific and cross-reactive T cell responses to nonstructural protein 3 (NS3). Specifically, we found that T cell responses to NS3 protease are ZIKV and DENV specific, but responses to NS3 helicase are cross-reactive. Sequential sample analyses revealed immune responses sustained many years after infection. These results have important implications for African ZIKV/DENV vaccine development, as well as for potential flavivirus diagnostics based on T cell responses. IMPORTANCE The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in Latin America and the associated congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome have raised questions as to why we have not recognized these distinct clinical diseases in Africa. The human immunologic response to ZIKV and related flaviviruses in Africa represents a research gap that may shed light on the mechanisms contributing to protection. The goal of our study was to develop an inexpensive assay to detect and characterize the T cell response to African ZIKV and DENV. Our data show long-term specific and cross-reactive human immune responses against African ZIKV and DENV, suggesting the usefulness of a diagnostic based on the T cell response. Additionally, we show that prior flavivirus exposure influences the magnitude of the T cell response. The identification of immune responses to African ZIKV and DENV is of relevance to vaccine development.
Roles of the 5′ Untranslated Region of Nonprimate Hepacivirus in Translation Initiation and Viral Replication J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Tomohisa Tanaka; Teruhime Otoguro; Atsuya Yamashita; Hirotake Kasai; Takasuke Fukuhara; Yoshiharu Matsuura; Kohji Moriishi
The 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is composed of four domains (I, II, III, and IV) and a pseudoknot, is essential for translation and viral replication. Equine nonprimate hepacivirus (EHcV) harbors a 5′ UTR consisting of a large 5′-terminal domain (I); three additional domains (I′, II, and III), which are homologous to domains I, II, and III, respectively, of HCV; and a pseudoknot, in the order listed. In this study, we investigated the roles of the EHcV 5′ UTR in translation and viral replication. The internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity of the EHcV 5′ UTR was lower than that of the HCV 5′ UTR in several cell lines due to structural differences in domain III. Domains I and III of EHcV were functional in the HCV 5′ UTR in terms of IRES activity and the replication of the subgenomic replicon (SGR), although domain II was not exchangeable between EHcV and HCV for SGR replication. Furthermore, the region spanning domains I and I′ of EHcV (the 5′-proximal EHcV-specific region) improved RNA stability and provided the HCV SGR with microRNA 122 (miR-122)-independent replication capability, while EHcV domain I alone improved SGR replication and RNA stability irrespective of miR-122. These data suggest that the region spanning EHcV domains I and I′ improves RNA stability and viral replication regardless of miR-122 expression. The 5′-proximal EHcV-specific region may represent an inherent mechanism to facilitate viral replication in nonhepatic tissues. IMPORTANCE EHcV is the closest viral homolog to HCV among other hepaciviruses. HCV exhibits a narrow host range and liver-specific tropism, while epidemiological reports suggest that EHcV infects the liver and respiratory organs in horses, donkeys, and dogs. However, the mechanism explaining the differences in host or organ tropism between HCV and EHcV is unknown. In this study, our data suggest that the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of EHcV is composed of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element that is functionally exchangeable with HCV IRES elements. Furthermore, the 5′-proximal EHcV-specific region enhances viral replication and RNA stability in a miR-122-independent manner. Our data suggest that the region upstream of domain II in the EHcV 5′ UTR contributes to the differences in tissue tropism observed between these hepaciviruses.
Human Herpesvirus 8 Interferon Regulatory Factors 1 and 3 Mediate Replication and Latency Activities via Interactions with USP7 Deubiquitinase J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Qiwang Xiang; Hyunwoo Ju; Qian Li; Szu-Chieh Mei; Daming Chen; Young Bong Choi; John Nicholas
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) encodes four viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRF-1 to -4) that likely function to suppress innate immune and cellular stress responses through inhibitory interactions with various cellular proteins involved in these activities. It is notable that vIRF-1 and -4 have been reported to interact with the deubiquitinase ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7), substrates of which include p53 and the p53-targeting and -destabilizing ubiquitin E3 ligase MDM2. Structural studies of vIRF-1 and vIRF-4 USP7 binding sequences in association with USP7 have been reported; both involve interactions with N-terminal-domain residues of USP7 via EGPS and ASTS motifs in vIRF-1 and vIRF-4, respectively, but vIRF-4 residues also contact the catalytic site. However, the biological activities of vIRF-1 and vIRF-4 via USP7 interactions are unknown. Here, we report that vIRF-3, which is latently, as well as lytically, expressed in HHV-8-infected primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells, also interacts with USP7—via duplicated EGPS motifs—and that this interaction is important for PEL cell growth and viability. The interaction also contributes to suppression of productive virus replication by vIRF-3, which we identify here. We further show that vIRF-1, which is expressed at low levels in PEL latency, promotes latent PEL cell viability and that this activity and vIRF-1-promoted productive replication (reported previously) involve EGPS motif-mediated USP7 targeting by vIRF-1. This study is the first to identify latent and lytic functions of vIRF-1 and vIRF-3, respectively, and to address the biological activities of these vIRFs through their interactions with USP7. IMPORTANCE HHV-8 is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease; both latent and lytic viral functions are believed to contribute. Viral interferon regulatory factors specified by HHV-8 are thought to be critically important for successful productive replication through suppression of innate immune and stress responses triggered by the lytic cycle. Latently expressed vIRF-3 contributes significantly to PEL cell survival. Here, we identify ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) deubiquitinase targeting by vIRF-3 (in addition to previously reported USP7 binding by vIRF-1 and vIRF-4); the importance of vIRF-1 and vIRF-3 interactions with USP7 for latent PEL cell growth and viability; and the positive and negative contributions, respectively, of USP7 targeting by vIRF-1 and vIRF-3 to HHV-8 productive replication. This is the first report of the biological importance of vIRF-1 in PEL cell latency, the modulation of productive replication by vIRF-3, and the contributions of vIRF-USP7 interactions to HHV-8 biology.
MicroRNA 130a Regulates both Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatitis B Virus Replication through a Central Metabolic Pathway J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Xiaoqiong Duan; Shilin Li; Jacinta A. Holmes; Zeng Tu; Yujia Li; Dachuan Cai; Xiao Liu; Wenting Li; Chunhui Yang; Baihai Jiao; Esperance A. Schaefer; Dahlene N. Fusco; Shadi Salloum; Limin Chen; Wenyu Lin; Raymond T. Chung
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been shown to regulate microRNA 130a (miR-130a) in patient biopsy specimens and in cultured cells. We sought to identify miR-130a target genes and to explore the mechanisms by which miR-130a regulates HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication. We used bioinformatics software, including miRanda, TargetScan, PITA, and RNAhybrid, to predict potential miR-130a target genes. miR-130a and its target genes were overexpressed or were knocked down by use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) or clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 guide RNA (gRNA). Selected gene mRNAs and their proteins, together with HCV replication in OR6 cells, HCV JFH1-infected Huh7.5.1 cells, and HCV JFH1-infected primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) and HBV replication in HepAD38 cells, HBV-infected NTCP-Huh7.5.1 cells, and HBV-infected PHHs, were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. We selected 116 predicted target genes whose expression was related to viral pathogenesis or immunity for qPCR validation. Of these, the gene encoding pyruvate kinase in liver and red blood cell (PKLR) was confirmed to be regulated by miR-130a overexpression. miR-130a overexpression (via a mimic) knocked down PKLR mRNA and protein levels. A miR-130a inhibitor and gRNA increased PKLR expression, HCV replication, and HBV replication, while miR-130a gRNA and PKLR overexpression increased HCV and HBV replication. Supplemental pyruvate increased HCV and HBV replication and rescued the inhibition of HCV and HBV replication by the miR-130a mimic and PKLR knockdown. We concluded that miR-130a regulates HCV and HBV replication through its targeting of PKLR and subsequent pyruvate production. Our data provide novel insights into key metabolic enzymatic pathway steps regulated by miR-130a, including the steps involving PKLR and pyruvate, which are subverted by HCV and HBV replication. IMPORTANCE We identified that miR-130a regulates the target gene PKLR and its subsequent effect on pyruvate production. Pyruvate is a key intermediate in several metabolic pathways, and we identified that pyruvate plays a key role in regulation of HCV and HBV replication. This previously unrecognized, miRNA-regulated antiviral mechanism has implications for the development of host-directed strategies to interrupt the viral life cycle and prevent establishment of persistent infection for HCV, HBV, and potentially other viral infections.
Specific Mutations in the PB2 Protein of Influenza A Virus Compensate for the Lack of Efficient Interferon Antagonism of the NS1 Protein of Bat Influenza A-Like Viruses J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Teresa Aydillo; Juan Ayllon; Amzie Pavlisin; Carles Martinez-Romero; Shashank Tripathi; Ignacio Mena; Andrés Moreira-Soto; Amanda Vicente-Santos; Eugenia Corrales-Aguilar; Martin Schwemmle; Adolfo García-Sastre
Recently, two new influenza A-like viruses have been discovered in bats, A/little yellow-shouldered bat/Guatemala/060/2010 (HL17NL10) and A/flat-faced bat/Peru/033/2010 (HL18NL11). The hemagglutinin (HA)-like (HL) and neuraminidase (NA)-like (NL) proteins of these viruses lack hemagglutination and neuraminidase activities, despite their sequence and structural homologies with the HA and NA proteins of conventional influenza A viruses. We have now investigated whether the NS1 proteins of the HL17NL10 and HL18NL11 viruses can functionally replace the NS1 protein of a conventional influenza A virus. For this purpose, we generated recombinant influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) H1N1 viruses containing the NS1 protein of the PR8 wild-type, HL17NL10, and HL18NL11 viruses. These viruses (r/NS1PR8, r/NS1HL17, and r/NS1HL18, respectively) were tested for replication in bat and nonbat mammalian cells and in mice. Our results demonstrate that the r/NS1HL17 and r/NS1HL18 viruses are attenuated in vitro and in vivo. However, the bat NS1 recombinant viruses showed a phenotype similar to that of the r/NS1PR8 virus in STAT1−/− human A549 cells and mice, both in vitro and in vivo systems being unable to respond to interferon (IFN). Interestingly, multiple mouse passages of the r/NS1HL17 and r/NS1HL18 viruses resulted in selection of mutant viruses containing single amino acid mutations in the viral PB2 protein. In contrast to the parental viruses, virulence and IFN antagonism were restored in the selected PB2 mutants. Our results indicate that the NS1 protein of bat influenza A-like viruses is less efficient than the NS1 protein of its conventional influenza A virus NS1 counterpart in antagonizing the IFN response and that this deficiency can be overcome by the influenza virus PB2 protein. IMPORTANCE Significant gaps in our understanding of the basic features of the recently discovered bat influenza A-like viruses HL17NL10 and HL18NL11 remain. The basic biology of these unique viruses displays both similarities to and differences from the basic biology of conventional influenza A viruses. Here, we show that recombinant influenza A viruses containing the NS1 protein from HL17NL10 and HL18NL11 are attenuated. This attenuation was mediated by their inability to antagonize the type I IFN response. However, this deficiency could be compensated for by single amino acid replacements in the PB2 gene. Our results unravel a functional divergence between the NS1 proteins of bat influenza A-like and conventional influenza A viruses and demonstrate an interplay between the viral PB2 and NS1 proteins to antagonize IFN.
Mechanism of HIV-1 Resistance to an Electronically Constrained α-Helical Peptide Membrane Fusion Inhibitor J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Xiyuan Wu; Zixuan Liu; Xiaohui Ding; Danwei Yu; Huamian Wei; Bo Qin; Yuanmei Zhu; Huihui Chong; Sheng Cui; Yuxian He
SC29EK is an electronically constrained α-helical peptide HIV-1 fusion inhibitor that is highly effective against both wild-type and enfuvirtide (T20)-resistant viruses. In this study, we focused on investigating the mechanism of HIV-1 resistance to SC29EK by two approaches. First, SC29EK-escaping HIV-1 variants were selected and characterized. Three mutant viruses, which possessed two (N43K/E49A) or three (Q39R/N43K/N126K and N43K/E49A/N126K) amino acid substitutions in the N- and C-terminal repeat regions of gp41 were identified as conferring high resistance to SC29EK and cross-resistance to the first-generation (T20 and C34) and newly designed (sifuvirtide, MT-SC29EK, and 2P23) fusion inhibitors. The resistance mutations could reduce the binding stability of SC29EK, impair viral Env-mediated cell fusion and entry, and change the conformation of the gp41 core structure. Further, we determined the crystal structure of SC29EK in complex with a target mimic peptide, which revealed the critical intra- and interhelical interactions underlying the mode of action of SC29EK and the genetic pathway to HIV-1 resistance. Taken together, the present data provide new insights into the structure and function of gp41 and the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of viral fusion inhibitors. IMPORTANCE T20 is the only membrane fusion inhibitor available for treatment of viral infection, but it has relatively low anti-HIV activity and genetic barriers for resistance, thus calling for new drugs blocking the viral fusion process. As an electronically constrained α-helical peptide, SC29EK is highly potent against both wild-type and T20-resistant HIV-1 strains. Here, we report the characterization of HIV-1 variants resistant to SC29EK and the crystal structure of SC29EK. The key mutations mediating high resistance to SC29EK and cross-resistance to the first and new generations of fusion inhibitors as well as the underlying mechanisms were identified. The crystal structure of SC29EK bound to a target mimic peptide further revealed its action mode and genetic pathway to inducing resistance. Hence, our data have shed new lights on the mechanisms of HIV-1 fusion and its inhibition.
Viperin Restricts Zika Virus and Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Replication by Targeting NS3 for Proteasomal Degradation J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Christakis Panayiotou; Richard Lindqvist; Chaitanya Kurhade; Kirstin Vonderstein; Jenny Pasto; Karin Edlund; Arunkumar S. Upadhyay; Anna K. Överby
Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses that constitute a major global health problem, with millions of human infections annually. Their pathogenesis ranges from mild illness to severe manifestations such as hemorrhagic fever and fatal encephalitis. Type I interferons (IFNs) are induced in response to viral infection and stimulate the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including that encoding viperin (virus-inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum associated, IFN inducible), which shows antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of viruses, including several flaviviruses. Here we describe a novel antiviral mechanism employed by viperin against two prominent flaviviruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Viperin was found to interact and colocalize with the structural proteins premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) of TBEV, as well as with nonstructural (NS) proteins NS2A, NS2B, and NS3. Interestingly, viperin expression reduced the NS3 protein level, and the stability of the other interacting viral proteins, but only in the presence of NS3. We also found that although viperin interacted with NS3 of mosquito-borne flaviviruses (ZIKV, Japanese encephalitis virus, and yellow fever virus), only ZIKV was sensitive to the antiviral effect of viperin. This sensitivity correlated with viperin's ability to induce proteasome-dependent degradation of NS3. ZIKV and TBEV replication was rescued completely when NS3 was overexpressed, suggesting that the viral NS3 is the specific target of viperin. In summary, we present here a novel antiviral mechanism of viperin that is selective for specific viruses in the genus Flavivirus, affording the possible availability of new drug targets that can be used for therapeutic intervention. IMPORTANCE Flaviviruses are a group of enveloped RNA viruses that cause severe diseases in humans and animals worldwide, but no antiviral treatment is yet available. Viperin, a host protein produced in response to infection, effectively restricts the replication of several flaviviruses, but the exact molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here we have identified a novel mechanism employed by viperin to inhibit the replication of two flaviviruses: tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Viperin induced selective degradation via the proteasome of TBEV and ZIKV nonstructural 3 (NS3) protein, which is involved in several steps of the viral life cycle. Furthermore, viperin also reduced the stability of several other viral proteins in a NS3-dependent manner, suggesting a central role of NS3 in viperin's antiflavivirus activity. Taking the results together, our work shows important similarities and differences among the members of the genus Flavivirus and could lead to the possibility of therapeutic intervention.
Glycosyl-Phosphatidylinositol-Anchored Anti-HIV Env Single-Chain Variable Fragments Interfere with HIV-1 Env Processing and Viral Infectivity J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Anisha Misra; Emile Gleeson; Weiming Wang; Chaobaihui Ye; Paul Zhou; Jason T. Kimata
In previous studies, we demonstrated that single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) from anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Env monoclonal antibodies act as entry inhibitors when tethered to the surface of target cells by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Interestingly, even if a virus escapes inhibition at entry, its replication is ultimately controlled. We hypothesized that in addition to functioning as entry inhibitors, anti-HIV GPI-scFvs may also interact with Env in an infected cell, thereby interfering with the infectivity of newly produced virions. Here, we show that expression of the anti-HIV Env GPI-scFvs in virus-producing cells reduced the release of HIV from cells 5- to 22-fold, and infectivity of the virions that were released was inhibited by 74% to 99%. Additionally, anti-HIV Env GPI-scFv X5 inhibited virion production and infectivity after latency reactivation and blocked transmitter/founder virus production and infectivity in primary CD4+ T cells. In contrast, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) production and infectivity were not affected by the anti-HIV Env GPI-scFvs. Loss of infectivity of HIV was associated with a reduction in the amount of virion-associated Env gp120. Interestingly, an analysis of Env expression in cell lysates demonstrated that the anti-Env GPI-scFvs interfered with processing of Env gp160 precursors in cells. These data indicate that GPI-scFvs can inhibit Env processing and function, thereby restricting production and infectivity of newly synthesized HIV. Anti-Env GPI-scFvs therefore appear to be unique anti-HIV molecules as they derive their potent inhibitory activity by interfering with both early (receptor binding/entry) and late (Env processing and incorporation into virions) stages of the HIV life cycle. IMPORTANCE The restoration of immune function and persistence of CD4+ T cells in HIV-1-infected individuals without antiretroviral therapy requires a way to increase resistance of CD4+ T cells to infection by both R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1. Previously, we reported that anchoring anti-HIV-1 single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) via glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) to the surface of permissive cells conferred a high level of resistance to HIV-1 variants at the level of entry. Here, we report that anti-HIV GPI-scFvs also derive their potent antiviral activity in part by blocking HIV production and Env processing, which consequently inhibits viral infectivity even in primary infection models. Thus, we conclude that GPI-anchored anti-HIV scFvs derive their potent blocking activity of HIV replication by interfering with successive stages of the viral life cycle. They may be effectively used in genetic intervention of HIV-1 infection.
Germ Line IgM Is Sufficient, but Not Required, for Antibody-Mediated Alphavirus Clearance from the Central Nervous System J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Voraphoj Nilaratanakul; Jie Chen; Oanh Tran; Victoria K. Baxter; Elizabeth M. Troisi; Jane X. Yeh; Diane E. Griffin
Sindbis virus (SINV) infection of neurons in the brain and spinal cord in mice provides a model system for investigating recovery from encephalomyelitis and antibody-mediated clearance of virus from the central nervous system (CNS). To determine the roles of IgM and IgG in recovery, we compared the responses of immunoglobulin-deficient activation-induced adenosine deaminase-deficient (AID−/−), secretory IgM-deficient (sIgM−/−), and AID−/− sIgM−/− double-knockout (DKO) mice with those of wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice for disease, clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from brain and spinal cord, antibody responses, and B cell infiltration into the CNS. Because AID is essential for immunoglobulin class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation, AID−/− mice produce only germ line IgM, while sIgM−/− mice secrete IgG but no IgM and DKO mice produce no secreted immunoglobulin. After intracerebral infection with the TE strain of SINV, most mice recovered. Development of neurologic disease occurred slightly later in sIgM−/− mice, but disease severity, weight loss, and survival were similar between the groups. AID−/− mice produced high levels of SINV-specific IgM, while sIgM−/− mice produced no IgM and high levels of IgG2a compared to WT mice. All mice cleared infectious virus from the spinal cord, but DKO mice failed to clear infectious virus from brain and had higher levels of viral RNA in the CNS late after infection. The numbers of infected cells and the amount of cell death in brain were comparable. We conclude that antibody is required and that either germ line IgM or IgG is sufficient for clearance of virus from the CNS. IMPORTANCE Mosquito-borne alphaviruses that infect neurons can cause fatal encephalomyelitis. Recovery requires a mechanism for the immune system to clear virus from infected neurons without harming the infected cells. Antiviral antibody has previously been shown to be a noncytolytic means for alphavirus clearance. Antibody-secreting cells enter the nervous system after infection and produce antiviral IgM before IgG. Clinical studies of human viral encephalomyelitis suggest that prompt production of IgM is associated with recovery, but it was not known whether IgM is effective for clearance. Our studies used mice deficient in production of IgM, IgG, or both to characterize the antibody necessary for alphavirus clearance. All mice developed similar signs of neurologic disease and recovered from infection. Antibody was necessary for virus clearance from the brain, and either early germ line IgM or IgG was sufficient. These studies support the clinical observation that prompt production of antiviral antibody is a determinant of outcome.
Correction for Cong et al., “Enterovirus 71 2B Induces Cell Apoptosis by Directly Inducing the Conformational Activation of the Proapoptotic Protein Bax” J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Haolong Cong; Ning Du; Yang Yang; Lei Song; Wenliang Zhang; Po Tien
Volume 90, no. 21, p. 9862–9877, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01499-16. Page 9867, Fig. 3A: Due to errors in assembling the figure, the Bcl-2 blot in column 2 is a duplicate of the Bak blot in column 2. The Bak and Bcl-2 blots in Fig. 3A, column 2, should appear as shown below. Page 9873, Fig. 9D: Due to errors in assembling the figure, the Cytosolic blot is a duplicate of Fig. 9B, blot 2B. Figure 9D should appear as shown below. We regret these errors.
Functional Analysis of the Dengue Virus Genome Using an Insertional Mutagenesis Screen J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Jeffrey W. Perry; Yanhua Chen; Elizabeth Speliotes; Andrew W. Tai
In the last few decades, dengue virus, an arbovirus, has spread to over 120 countries. Although a vaccine has been approved in some countries, limitations on its effectiveness and a lack of effective antiviral treatments reinforce the need for additional research. The functions of several viral nonstructural proteins are essentially unknown. To better understand the functions of these proteins and thus dengue virus pathogenesis, we embarked on a genomewide transposon mutagenesis screen with next-generation sequencing to determine sites in the viral genome that tolerate 15-nucleotide insertions. Using this approach, we generated support for several published predicted transmembrane and enzymatic domains. Next, we created 7 mutants containing the 15-nucleotide insertion from the original selection and found 6 of them were capable of replication in both mammalian and mosquito tissue culture cells. Interestingly, one mutation had a significant impairment of viral assembly, and this mutation may lead to a better understanding of viral assembly and release. In addition, we created a fully infectious virus expressing a functionally tagged NS4B protein, which will provide a much-needed tool to elucidate the role of NS4B in viral pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Dengue virus is a mosquito-borne virus distributed in tropical and subtropical regions globally that can result in hospitalization and even death in some cases. Although a vaccine exists, its limitations and a lack of approved antiviral treatments highlight our limited understanding of dengue virus pathogenesis and host immunity. The functions of many viral proteins are poorly understood. We used a previously published approach using transposon mutagenesis to develop tools to study these proteins' functions by adding insertions randomly throughout the viral genomes. These genomes were transferred into cells, and infectious progeny were recovered to determine sites that tolerated insertions, as only the genomes that tolerated insertions would be able to propagate. Using these results, we created viruses with epitope tags, one in the viral structural protein Capsid and one in the viral nonstructural protein NS4B. Further investigation of these mutants may elucidate the roles of Capsid and NS4B during dengue virus infections.
HIV-1 Vif's Capacity To Manipulate the Cell Cycle Is Species Specific J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Edward L. Evans III; Jordan T. Becker; Stephanie L. Fricke; Kishan Patel; Nathan M. Sherer
Cells derived from mice and other rodents exhibit profound blocks to HIV-1 virion production, reflecting species-specific incompatibilities between viral Tat and Rev proteins and essential host factors cyclin T1 (CCNT1) and exportin-1 (XPO1, also known as CRM1), respectively. To determine if mouse cell blocks other than CCNT1 and XPO1 affect HIV's postintegration stages, we studied HIV-1NL4-3 gene expression in mouse NIH 3T3 cells modified to constitutively express HIV-1-compatible versions of CCNT1 and XPO1 (3T3.CX cells). 3T3.CX cells supported both Rev-independent and Rev-dependent viral gene expression and produced relatively robust levels of virus particles, confirming that CCNT1 and XPO1 represent the predominant blocks to these stages. Unexpectedly, however, 3T3.CX cells were remarkably resistant to virus-induced cytopathic effects observed in human cell lines, which we mapped to the viral protein Vif and its apparent species-specific capacity to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest. Vif was able to mediate rapid degradation of human APOBEC3G and the PPP2R5D regulatory B56 subunit of the PP2A phosphatase holoenzyme in mouse cells, thus demonstrating that VifNL4-3's modulation of the cell cycle can be functionally uncoupled from some of its other defined roles in CUL5-dependent protein degradation. Vif was also unable to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest in other nonhuman cell types, including cells derived from nonhuman primates, leading us to propose that one or more human-specific cofactors underpin Vif's ability to modulate the cell cycle. IMPORTANCE Cells derived from mice and other rodents exhibit profound blocks to HIV-1 replication, thus hindering the development of a low-cost small-animal model for studying HIV/AIDS. Here, we engineered otherwise-nonpermissive mouse cells to express HIV-1-compatible versions of two species-specific host dependency factors, cyclin T1 (CCNT1) and exportin-1 (XPO1) (3T3.CX cells). We show that 3T3.CX cells rescue HIV-1 particle production but, unexpectedly, are completely resistant to virus-induced cytopathic effects. We mapped these effects to the viral accessory protein Vif, which induces a prolonged G2/M cell cycle arrest followed by apoptosis in human cells. Combined, our results indicate that one or more additional human-specific cofactors govern HIV-1's capacity to modulate the cell cycle, with potential relevance to viral pathogenesis in people and existing animal models.
HIV Replication and Latency in a Humanized NSG Mouse Model during Suppressive Oral Combinational Antiretroviral Therapy J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Sangeetha Satheesan; Haitang Li; John C. Burnett; Mayumi Takahashi; Shasha Li; Shiny Xiaqin Wu; Timothy W. Synold; John J. Rossi; Jiehua Zhou
Although current combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART) is therapeutically effective in the majority of HIV patients, interruption of therapy can cause a rapid rebound in viremia, demonstrating the existence of a stable reservoir of latently infected cells. HIV latency is therefore considered a primary barrier to HIV eradication. Identifying, quantifying, and purging the HIV reservoir is crucial to effectively curing patients and relieving them from the lifelong requirement for therapy. Latently infected transformed cell models have been used to investigate HIV latency; however, these models cannot accurately represent the quiescent cellular environment of primary latently infected cells in vivo. For this reason, in vivo humanized murine models have been developed for screening antiviral agents, identifying latently infected T cells, and establishing treatment approaches for HIV research. Such models include humanized bone marrow/liver/thymus mice and SCID-hu-thy/liv mice, which are repopulated with human immune cells and implanted human tissues through laborious surgical manipulation. However, no one has utilized the human hematopoietic stem cell-engrafted NOD/SCID/IL2rγnull (NSG) model (hu-NSG) for this purpose. Therefore, in the present study, we used the HIV-infected hu-NSG mouse to recapitulate the key aspects of HIV infection and pathogenesis in vivo. Moreover, we evaluated the ability of HIV-infected human cells isolated from HIV-infected hu-NSG mice on suppressive cART to act as a latent HIV reservoir. Our results demonstrate that the hu-NSG model is an effective surgery-free in vivo system in which to efficiently evaluate HIV replication, antiretroviral therapy, latency and persistence, and eradication interventions. IMPORTANCE HIV can establish a stably integrated, nonproductive state of infection at the level of individual cells, known as HIV latency, which is considered a primary barrier to curing HIV. A complete understanding of the establishment and role of HIV latency in vivo would greatly enhance attempts to develop novel HIV purging strategies. An ideal animal model for this purpose should be easy to work with, should have a shortened disease course so that efficacy testing can be completed in a reasonable time, and should have immune correlates that are easily translatable to humans. We therefore describe a novel application of the hematopoietic stem cell-transplanted humanized NSG model for dynamically testing antiretroviral treatment, supporting HIV infection, establishing HIV latency in vivo. The hu-NSG model could be a facile alternative to humanized bone marrow/liver/thymus or SCID-hu-thy/liv mice in which laborious surgical manipulation and time-consuming human cell reconstitution is required.
Defining the Barriers to Women Publishing in High-Impact Journals J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Julie Overbaugh
Publications are an important measure of success in science, and publications in top-tier journals are often highly prized for that reason. This commentary describes gender differences in publication of HIV-related papers that raise questions about best practices in this important aspect of science. Data are needed in cases where there are differences in the publication rates of manuscripts with female versus male senior authors so that approaches that best support diversity in science can be defined.
The 5′ Untranslated Region of the Major Immediate Early mRNA Is Necessary for Efficient Human Cytomegalovirus Replication J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Kyle C. Arend; Erik M. Lenarcic; Nathaniel J. Moorman
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate early 1 (IE1) and IE2 proteins are critical regulators of virus replication. Both proteins are needed to efficiently establish lytic infection, and nascent expression of IE1 and IE2 is critical for reactivation from latency. The regulation of IE1 and IE2 protein expression is thus a central event in the outcome of HCMV infection. Transcription of the primary transcript encoding both IE1 and IE2 is well studied, but relatively little is known about the posttranscriptional mechanisms that control IE1 and IE2 protein synthesis. The mRNA 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) plays an important role in regulating mRNA translation. Therefore, to better understand the control of IE1 and IE2 mRNA translation, we examined the role of the shared 5′ UTR of the IE1 and IE2 mRNAs (MIE 5′ UTR) in regulating translation. In a cell-free system, the MIE 5′ UTR repressed translation, as predicted based on its length and sequence composition. However, in transfected cells we found that the MIE 5′ UTR increased the expression of a reporter gene and enhanced its association with polysomes, demonstrating that the MIE 5′ UTR has a positive role in translation control. We also found that the MIE 5′ UTR was necessary for efficient IE1 and IE2 translation during infection. Replacing the MIE 5′ UTR with an unstructured sequence of the same length decreased IE1 and IE2 protein expression despite similar levels of IE1 and IE2 mRNA and reduced the association of the IE1 and IE2 mRNAs with polysomes. The wild-type MIE 5′-UTR sequence was also necessary for efficient HCMV replication. Together these data identify the shared 5′ UTR of the IE1 and IE2 mRNAs as an important regulator of HCMV lytic replication. IMPORTANCE The HCMV IE1 and IE2 proteins are critical regulators of HCMV replication, both during primary infection and during reactivation from viral latency. Thus, defining factors that regulate IE1 and IE2 expression is important for understanding the molecular events controlling the HCMV replicative cycle. Here we identify a positive role for the MIE 5′ UTR in mediating the efficient translation of the IE1 and IE2 mRNAs. This result is an important advance for several reasons. To date, most studies of IE1 and IE2 regulation have focused on defining events that regulate IE1 and IE2 transcription. Our work reveals that in addition to the regulation of transcription, IE1 and IE2 are also regulated at the level of translation. Therefore, this study is important in that it identifies an additional layer of regulation controlling IE1 and IE2 expression and thus HCMV pathogenesis. These translational regulatory events could potentially be targeted by novel antiviral therapeutics that limit IE1 and IE2 mRNA translation and thus inhibit lytic replication or prevent HCMV reactivation.
Porcine Mx1 Protein Inhibits Classical Swine Fever Virus Replication by Targeting Nonstructural Protein NS5B J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Jing Zhou; Jing Chen; Xiao-Min Zhang; Zhi-Can Gao; Chun-Chun Liu; Yun-Na Zhang; Jin-Xiu Hou; Zhao-Yao Li; Lin Kan; Wen-Liang Li; Bin Zhou
Mx proteins are interferon (IFN)-induced GTPases that have broad antiviral activity against a wide range of RNA and DNA viruses; they belong to the dynamin superfamily of large GTPases. In this study, we confirmed the anti-classical swine fever virus (CSFV) activity of porcine Mx1 in vitro and showed that porcine Mx2 (poMx2), human MxA (huMxA), and mouse Mx1 (mmMx1) also have anti-CSFV activity in vitro. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) experiments revealed that depletion of endogenous poMx1 or poMx2 enhanced CSFV replication, suggesting that porcine Mx proteins are responsible for the antiviral activity of interferon alpha (IFN-α) against CSFV infection. Confocal microscopy, immunoprecipitation, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) demonstrated that poMx1 associated with NS5B, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of CSFV. We used mutations in the poMx1 protein to elucidate the mechanism of their anti-CSFV activity and found that mutants that disrupted the association with NS5B lost all anti-CSV activity. Moreover, an RdRp activity assay further revealed that poMx1 undermined the RdRp activities of NS5B. Together, these results indicate that porcine Mx proteins exert their antiviral activity against CSFV by interacting with NS5B. IMPORTANCE Our previous studies have shown that porcine Mx1 (poMx1) inhibits classical swine fever virus (CSFV) replication in vitro and in vivo, but the molecular mechanism of action remains largely unknown. In this study, we dissect the molecular mechanism of porcine Mx1 and Mx2 against CSFV in vitro. Our results show that poMx1 associates with NS5B, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of CSFV, resulting in the reduction of CSFV replication. Moreover, the mutants of poMx1 further elucidate the mechanism of their anti-CSFV activities.
Identification of Poxvirus Genome Uncoating and DNA Replication Factors with Mutually Redundant Roles J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Baoming Liu; Debasis Panda; Jorge D. Mendez-Rios; Sundar Ganesan; Linda S. Wyatt; Bernard Moss
Genome uncoating is essential for replication of most viruses. For poxviruses, the process is divided into two stages: removal of the envelope, allowing early gene expression, and breaching of the core wall, allowing DNA release, replication, and late gene expression. Subsequent studies showed that the host proteasome and the viral D5 protein, which has an essential role in DNA replication, are required for vaccinia virus (VACV) genome uncoating. In a search for additional VACV uncoating proteins, we noted a report that described a defect in DNA replication and late expression when the gene encoding a 68-kDa ankyrin repeat/F-box protein (68k-ank), associated with the cellular SCF (Skp1, cullin1, F-box-containing complex) ubiquitin ligase complex, was deleted from the attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). Here we showed that the 68k-ank deletion mutant exhibited diminished genome uncoating, formation of DNA prereplication sites, and degradation of viral cores as well as an additional, independent defect in DNA synthesis. Deletion of the 68k-ank homolog of VACV strain WR, however, was without effect, suggesting the existence of compensating genes. By inserting VACV genes into an MVA 68k-ank deletion mutant, we discovered that M2, a member of the poxvirus immune evasion (PIE) domain superfamily and a regulator of NF-κB, and C5, a member of the BTB/Kelch superfamily associated with cullin-3-based ligase complexes, independently rescued the 68k-ank deletion phenotype. Thus, poxvirus uncoating and DNA replication are intertwined processes involving at least three viral proteins with mutually redundant functions in addition to D5. IMPORTANCE Poxviruses comprise a family of large DNA viruses that infect vertebrates and invertebrates and cause diseases of medical and zoological importance. Poxviruses, unlike most other DNA viruses, replicate in the cytoplasm, and their large genomes usually encode 200 or more proteins with diverse functions. About 90 genes may be essential for chordopoxvirus replication based either on their conservation or individual gene deletion studies. However, this number may underestimate the true number of essential functions because of redundancy. Here we show that any one of three seemingly unrelated and individually nonessential proteins is required for the incompletely understood processes of genome uncoating and DNA replication, an example of synthetic lethality. Thus, poxviruses appear to have a complex genetic interaction network that has not been fully appreciated and which will require multifactor deletion screens to assess.
Identification and Characterization of Sindbis Virus RNA-Host Protein Interactions J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Autumn T. LaPointe; Natasha N. Gebhart; Megan E. Meller; Richard W. Hardy; Kevin J. Sokoloski
Arthropod-borne viruses, such as the members of the genus Alphavirus, are a significant concern to global public health. As obligate intracellular pathogens, RNA viruses must interact with the host cell machinery to establish and complete their life cycles. Despite considerable efforts to define the host-pathogen interactions essential for alphaviral replication, an unbiased and inclusive assessment of alphaviral RNA-protein interactions has not been undertaken. Moreover, the biological and molecular importance of these interactions, in the full context of their molecular function as RNA-binding proteins, has not been fully realized. The data presented here introduce a robust viral RNA-protein discovery method to elucidate the Sindbis virus (SINV) RNA-protein host interface. Cross-link-assisted mRNP purification (CLAMP) assessment revealed an extensive array of host-pathogen interactions centered on the viral RNAs (vRNAs). After prioritization of the host proteins associated with the vRNAs, we identified the site of protein-vRNA interaction by a UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq) approach and assessed the consequences of the RNA-protein binding event of hnRNP K, hnRNP I, and hnRNP M in regard to viral infection. Here, we demonstrate that mutation of the prioritized hnRNP-vRNA interaction sites effectively disrupts hnRNP-vRNA interaction. Correlating with disrupted hnRNP-vRNA binding, SINV growth kinetics were reduced relative to wild-type parental viral infections in vertebrate and invertebrate tissue culture models of infection. The molecular mechanism leading to reduced viral growth kinetics was found to be dysregulated structural-gene expression. Collectively, this study further defines the scope and importance of the alphavirus host-pathogen vRNA-protein interactions. IMPORTANCE Members of the genus Alphavirus are widely recognized for their potential to cause severe disease. Despite this recognition, there are no antiviral therapeutics, or safe and effective vaccines, currently available to treat alphaviral infection. Alphaviruses utilize the host cell machinery to efficiently establish and complete their life cycle. However, the extent and importance of host-pathogen RNA-protein interactions are woefully undercharacterized. The efforts detailed in this study fill this critical gap, and the significance of this research is 3-fold. First, the data presented here fundamentally expand the scope and understanding of alphavirus host-pathogen interactions. Second, this study identifies the sites of interaction for several prioritized interactions and defines the contribution of the RNA-protein interaction at the molecular level. Finally, these studies build a strategy by which the importance of the given host-pathogen interactions may be assessed in the future, using a mouse model of infection.
Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus K8 Is an RNA Binding Protein That Regulates Viral DNA Replication in Coordination with a Noncoding RNA J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Dongcheng Liu; Yan Wang; Yan Yuan
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic replication and constant primary infection of fresh cells are crucial for viral tumorigenicity. The virus-encoded bZIP family protein K8 plays an important role in viral DNA replication in both viral reactivation and de novo infection. The mechanism underlying the functional role of K8 in the viral life cycle is elusive. Here, we report that K8 is an RNA binding protein that also associates with many other proteins, including other RNA binding proteins. Many protein-protein interactions involving K8 are mediated by RNA. Using a UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) procedure combined with high-throughput sequencing, RNAs that are associated with K8 in BCBL-1 cells were identified, including both viral (PAN, T1.4, T0.7, etc.) and cellular (MALAT-1, MRP, 7SK, etc.) RNAs. An RNA binding motif in K8 was defined, and mutation of the motif abolished the ability of K8 to bind to many noncoding RNAs, as well as viral DNA replication during de novo infection, suggesting that the K8 functions in viral replication are carried out through RNA association. The functions of K8 and associated T1.4 RNA were investigated in detail, and the results showed that T1.4 mediates the binding of K8 to ori-Lyt DNA. The T1.4-K8 complex physically bound to KSHV ori-Lyt DNA and recruited other proteins and cofactors to assemble a replication complex. Depletion of T1.4 abolished DNA replication in primary infection. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the role of K8 in coordination with T1.4 RNA in regulating KSHV DNA replication during de novo infection. IMPORTANCE Genomewide analyses of the mammalian transcriptome revealed that a large proportion of sequence previously annotated as noncoding regions is actually transcribed and gives rise to stable RNAs. The emergence of a large number of noncoding RNAs suggests that functional RNA-protein complexes, e.g., ribosomes or spliceosomes, are not ancient relics of the last ribo-organism but would be well adapted to a regulatory role in biology. K8 has been puzzling because of its unique characteristics, such as multiple regulatory roles in gene expression and DNA replication without DNA binding capability. This study reveals the mechanism underlying its regulatory role by demonstrating that K8 is an RNA binding protein that binds to DNA and initiates DNA replication in coordination with a noncoding RNA. It is suggested that many K8 functions, if not all, are carried out through its associated RNAs.
Genetic Analysis of Serum-Derived Defective Hepatitis C Virus Genomes Revealed Novel Viral cis Elements for Virus Replication and Assembly J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Qingchao Li; Yimin Tong; Yongfen Xu; Junqi Niu; Jin Zhong
Defective viral genomes (DVGs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) exist, but their biological significances have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we analyzed HCV DVGs circulating in patient sera that possess deletions in the structural protein-encoding region. About 30% of 41 HCV clinical isolates possess DVGs that originated from the full-length genome in the same patients. No correlation between DVGs, viremia, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels was found. Sequencing analysis of DVGs revealed the existence of deletion hot spots, with upstream sites in E1 and downstream sites in E2 and NS2. Interestingly, the coding sequences for the core protein and the C-terminal protease domain of NS2 were always intact in DVGs despite the fact that both proteins are dispensable for HCV genome replication. Mechanistic studies showed that transmembrane segment 3 (TMS3) of NS2, located immediately upstream of its protease domain, was required for the cleavage of NS2-NS3 and the replication of DVGs. Moreover, we identified a highly conserved secondary structure (SL750) within the core domain 2-coding region that is critical for HCV genome packaging. In summary, our analysis of serum-derived HCV DVGs revealed novel viral cis elements that play important roles in virus replication and assembly. IMPORTANCE HCV DVGs have been identified in vivo and in vitro, but their biogenesis and physiological significances remain elusive. In addition, a conventional packaging signal has not yet been identified on the HCV RNA genome, and mechanisms underlying the specificity in the encapsidation of the HCV genome into infectious particles remain to be uncovered. Here, we identified new viral cis elements critical for the HCV life cycle by determining genetic constraints that define the boundary of serum-derived HCV DVGs. We found that transmembrane segment 3 of NS2, located immediately upstream of its protease domain, was required for the cleavage of NS2-NS3 and the replication of DVGs. We identified a highly conserved secondary structure (SL750) within the core-coding region that is critical for HCV genome packaging. In summary, our analysis of serum-derived HCV DVGs revealed previously unexpected novel cis elements critical for HCV replication and morphogenesis.
Myxoma Virus M083 Is a Virulence Factor Which Mediates Systemic Dissemination J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 A. M. Wolfe; K. M. Dunlap; A. C. Smith; M. Y. Bartee; E. Bartee
Poxviruses are large, DNA viruses whose protein capsid is surrounded by one or more lipid envelopes. Embedded into these lipid envelopes are three conserved viral proteins which are thought to mediate binding of virions to target cells. While the function of these proteins has been studied in vitro, their specific roles during the pathogenesis of poxviral disease remain largely unclear. Here we present data demonstrating that the putative chondroitin binding protein M083 from the leporipoxvirus myxoma virus is a significant virulence factor during infection of susceptible Oryctolagus rabbits. Removal of M083 results in a reduced capacity of virus to spread beyond the regional lymph nodes and completely eliminates infection-mediated mortality. In vitro, removal of M083 results in only minor intracellular replication defects but causes a significant reduction in the ability of myxoma virus to spread from infected epithelial cells onto primary lymphocytes. We hypothesize that the physiological role of M083 is therefore to mediate the spread of myxoma virus onto rabbit lymphocytes, allowing these cells to disseminate virus throughout infected rabbits. IMPORTANCE Poxviruses represent both a class of human pathogens and potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of human malignancy. Understanding the basic biology of these agents is therefore significant to human health in a variety of ways. While the mechanisms mediating poxviral binding have been well studied in vitro, how these mechanisms impact poxviral pathogenesis in vivo remains unclear. The current study advances our understanding of how poxviral binding impacts viral pathogenesis by demonstrating that the putative chondroitin binding protein M083 plays a critical role during the pathogenesis of myxoma virus in susceptible Oryctolagus rabbits by impacting viral dissemination through changes in the transfer of virions onto primary splenocytes.
Infection and Replication of Influenza Virus at the Ocular Surface J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Hannah M. Creager; Amrita Kumar; Hui Zeng; Taronna R. Maines; Terrence M. Tumpey; Jessica A. Belser
Although influenza viruses typically cause respiratory tract disease, some viruses, particularly those with an H7 hemagglutinin, have been isolated from the eyes of conjunctivitis cases. Previous work has shown that isolates of multiple subtypes from both ocular and respiratory infections are capable of replication in human ex vivo ocular tissues and corneal or conjunctival cell monolayers, leaving the determinants of ocular tropism unclear. Here, we evaluated the effect of several variables on tropism for ocular cells cultured in vitro and examined the potential effect of the tear film on viral infectivity. All viruses tested were able to replicate in primary human corneal epithelial cell monolayers subjected to aerosol inoculation. The temperature at which cells were cultured postinoculation minimally affected infectivity. Replication efficiency, in contrast, was reduced at 33°C relative to that at 37°C, and this effect was slightly greater for the conjunctivitis isolates than for the respiratory ones. With the exception of a seasonal H3N2 virus, the subset of viruses studied in multilayer corneal tissue constructs also replicated productively after either aerosol or liquid inoculation. Human tears significantly inhibited the hemagglutination of both ocular and nonocular isolates, but the effect on viral infectivity was more variable, with tears reducing the infectivity of nonocular isolates more than ocular isolates. These data suggest that most influenza viruses may be capable of establishing infection if they reach the surface of ocular cells but that this is more likely for ocular-tropic viruses, as they are better able to maintain their infectivity during passage through the tear film. IMPORTANCE The potential spread of zoonotic influenza viruses to humans represents an important threat to public health. Unfortunately, despite the importance of cellular and tissue tropism to pathogenesis, determinants of influenza virus tropism have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we sought to identify factors that limit the ability of most influenza viruses to cause ocular infection. Although ocular symptoms in humans caused by avian influenza viruses tend to be relatively mild, these infections are concerning due to the potential of the ocular surface to serve as a portal of entry for viruses that go on to establish respiratory infections. Furthermore, a better understanding of the factors that influence infection and replication in this noncanonical site may point toward novel determinants of tropism in the respiratory tract.
Gammaherpesvirus Colonization of the Spleen Requires Lytic Replication in B Cells J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Clara Lawler; Marta Pires de Miranda; Janet May; Orry Wyer; J. Pedro Simas; Philip G. Stevenson
Gammaherpesviruses infect lymphocytes and cause lymphocytic cancers. Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), Epstein-Barr virus, and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus all infect B cells. Latent infection can spread by B cell recirculation and proliferation, but whether this alone achieves systemic infection is unclear. To test the need of MuHV-4 for lytic infection in B cells, we flanked its essential ORF50 lytic transactivator with loxP sites and then infected mice expressing B cell-specific Cre (CD19-Cre). The floxed virus replicated normally in Cre− mice. In CD19-Cre mice, nasal and lymph node infections were maintained; but there was little splenomegaly, and splenic virus loads remained low. Cre-mediated removal of other essential lytic genes gave a similar phenotype. CD19-Cre spleen infection by intraperitoneal virus was also impaired. Therefore, MuHV-4 had to emerge lytically from B cells to colonize the spleen. An important role for B cell lytic infection in host colonization is consistent with the large CD8+ T cell responses made to gammaherpesvirus lytic antigens during infectious mononucleosis and suggests that vaccine-induced immunity capable of suppressing B cell lytic infection might reduce long-term virus loads. IMPORTANCE Gammaherpesviruses cause B cell cancers. Most models of host colonization derive from cell cultures with continuous, virus-driven B cell proliferation. However, vaccines based on these models have worked poorly. To test whether proliferating B cells suffice for host colonization, we inactivated the capacity of MuHV-4, a gammaherpesvirus of mice, to reemerge from B cells. The modified virus was able to colonize a first wave of B cells in lymph nodes but spread poorly to B cells in secondary sites such as the spleen. Consequently, viral loads remained low. These results were consistent with virus-driven B cell proliferation exploiting normal host pathways and thus having to transfer lytically to new B cells for new proliferation. We conclude that viral lytic infection is a potential target to reduce B cell proliferation.
Two Residues in NSP9 Contribute to the Enhanced Replication and Pathogenicity of Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Kuan Zhao; Jia-Cong Gao; Jun-Yao Xiong; Jin-Chao Guo; Yong-Bo Yang; Cheng-Gang Jiang; Yan-Dong Tang; Zhi-Jun Tian; Xue-Hui Cai; Guang-Zhi Tong; Tong-Qing An
Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) possesses greater replicative capacity and pathogenicity than classical PRRSV. However, the factors that lead to enhanced replication and pathogenicity remain unclear. In our study, an alignment of all available full-length sequences of North American-type PRRSVs (n = 204) revealed two consistent amino acid mutations that differed between HP-PRRSV and classical PRRSV and were located at positions 519 and 544 in nonstructural protein 9. Next, a series of mutant viruses with either single or double amino acid replacements were generated from HP-PRRSV HuN4 and classical PRRSV CH-1a infectious cDNA clones. Deletion of either of the amino acids led to a complete loss of virus viability. In both Marc-145 and porcine alveolar macrophages, the replicative efficiencies of mutant viruses based on HuN4 were reduced compared to the parent, whereas the replication level of CH-1a-derived mutant viruses was increased. Plaque growth assays showed clear differences between mutant and parental viruses. In infected piglets, the pathogenicity of HuN4-derived mutant viruses, assessed through clinical symptoms, viral load in sera, histopathology examination, and thymus atrophy, was reduced. Our results indicate that the amino acids at positions 519 and 544 in NSP9 are involved in the replication efficiency of HP-PRRSV and contribute to enhanced pathogenicity. This study is the first to identify specific amino acids involved in PRRSV replication or pathogenicity. These findings will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms of PRRSV replication and pathogenicity, leading to better therapeutic and prognostic options to combat the virus. IMPORTANCE Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), is a significant threat to the global pig industry. Highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) first emerged in China in 2006 and has subsequently spread across Asia, causing considerable damage to local economies. HP-PRRSV strains possess a greater replication capacity and higher pathogenicity than classical PRRSV strains, although the mechanisms that underlie these characteristics are unclear. In the present study, we identified two mutations in HP-PRRSV strains that distinguish them from classical PRRSV strains. Further experiments that swapped the two mutations in an HP-PRRSV strain and a classical PRRSV strain demonstrated that they are involved in the replication efficiency of the virus and its virulence. Our findings have important implications for understanding the molecular mechanisms of PRRSV replication and pathogenicity and also provide new avenues of research for the study of other viruses.
An Alternate Route for Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) Entry Independent of AAV Receptor J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Amanda M. Dudek; Sirika Pillay; Andreas S. Puschnik; Claude M. Nagamine; Fang Cheng; Jianming Qiu; Jan E. Carette; Luk H. Vandenberghe
Determinants and mechanisms of cell attachment and entry steer adeno-associated virus (AAV) in its utility as a gene therapy vector. Thus far, a systematic assessment of how diverse AAV serotypes engage their proteinaceous receptor AAVR (KIAA0319L) to establish transduction has been lacking, despite potential implications for cell and tissue tropism. Here, a large set of human and simian AAVs as well as in silico-reconstructed ancestral AAV capsids were interrogated for AAVR usage. We identified a distinct AAV capsid lineage comprised of AAV4 and AAVrh32.33 that can bind and transduce cells in the absence of AAVR, independent of the multiplicity of infection. Virus overlay assays and rescue experiments in nonpermissive cells demonstrate that these AAVs are unable to bind to or use the AAVR protein for entry. Further evidence for a distinct entry pathway was observed in vivo, as AAVR knockout mice were equally as permissive to transduction by AAVrh32.33 as wild-type mice upon systemic injection. We interestingly observe that some AAV capsids undergo a low level of transduction in the absence of AAVR, both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that some capsids may have a multimodal entry pathway. In aggregate, our results demonstrate that AAVR usage is conserved among all primate AAVs except for those of the AAV4 lineage, and a non-AAVR pathway may be available to other serotypes. This work furthers our understanding of the entry of AAV, a vector system of broad utility in gene therapy. IMPORTANCE Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a nonpathogenic virus that is used as a vehicle for gene delivery. Here, we have identified several situations in which transduction is retained in both cell lines and a mouse model in the absence of a previously defined entry receptor, AAVR. Defining the molecular determinants of the infectious pathway of this highly relevant viral vector system can help refine future applications and therapies with this vector.
Novel Human Polyomavirus Noncoding Control Regions Differ in Bidirectional Gene Expression according to Host Cell, Large T-Antigen Expression, and Clinically Occurring Rearrangements J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Elvis T. Ajuh; Zongsong Wu; Emma Kraus; Fabian H. Weissbach; Tobias Bethge; Rainer Gosert; Nicole Fischer; Hans H. Hirsch
Human polyomavirus (HPyV) DNA genomes contain three regions denoted the early viral gene region (EVGR), encoding the regulatory T-antigens and one microRNA, the late viral gene region (LVGR), encoding the structural Vp capsid proteins, and the noncoding control region (NCCR). The NCCR harbors the origin of viral genome replication and bidirectional promoter/enhancer functions governing EVGR and LVGR expression on opposite DNA strands. Despite principal similarities, HPyV NCCRs differ in length, sequence, and architecture. To functionally compare HPyV NCCRs, sequences from human isolates were inserted into a bidirectional reporter vector using dsRed2 for EVGR expression and green fluorescent protein (GFP) for LVGR expression. Transfecting HPyV NCCR reporter vectors into human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells and flow cytometry normalized to archetype BKPyV NCCR revealed a hierarchy of EVGR expression levels with MCPyV, HPyV12, and STLPyV NCCRs conferring stronger levels and HPyV6, HPyV9, and HPyV10 NCCRs weaker levels, while LVGR expression was less variable and showed comparable activity levels. Transfection of HEK293T cells expressing simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LTag) increased EVGR expression for most HPyV NCCRs, which correlated with the number of LTag-binding sites (Spearman's r, 0.625; P < 0.05) and decreased following SV40 LTag small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown. LTag-dependent activation was specifically confirmed for two different MCPyV NCCRs in 293MCT cells expressing the cognate MCPyV LTag. HPyV NCCR expression in different cell lines derived from skin (A375), cervix (HeLaNT), lung (A549), brain (Hs683), and colon (SW480) demonstrated that host cell properties significantly modulate the baseline HPyV NCCR activity, which partly synergized with SV40 LTag expression. Clinically occurring NCCR sequence rearrangements of HPyV7 PITT-1 and -2 and HPyV9 UF1 were found to increase EVGR expression compared to the respective HPyV archetype, but this was partly host cell type specific. IMPORTANCE HPyV NCCRs integrate essential viral functions with respect to host cell specificity, persistence, viral replication, and disease. Here, we show that HPyV NCCRs not only differ in sequence length, number, and position of LTag- and common transcription factor-binding sites but also confer differences in bidirectional viral gene expression. Importantly, EVGR reporter expression was significantly modulated by LTag expression and by host cell properties. Clinical sequence variants of HPyV7 and HPyV9 NCCRs containing deletions and insertions were associated with increased EVGR expression, similar to BKPyV and JCPyV rearrangements, emphasizing that HPyV NCCR sequences are major determinants not only of host cell tropism but also of pathogenicity. These results will help to define secondary HPyV cell tropism beyond HPyV surface receptors, to identify key viral and host factors shaping the viral life cycle, and to develop preclinical models of HPyV persistence and replication and suitable antiviral targets.
Attenuation of Simian Varicella Virus Infection by Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein in Rhesus Macaques J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Ravi Mahalingam; Benedikt B. Kaufer; Werner J. D. Ouwendijk; Georges M. G. M. Verjans; Colin Coleman; Meredith Hunter; Arpita Das; Brent E. Palmer; Eric Clambey; Maria A. Nagel; Vicki Traina-Dorge
Simian varicella virus (SVV), the primate counterpart of varicella-zoster virus, causes varicella (chickenpox), establishes latency in ganglia, and reactivates to produce zoster. We previously demonstrated that a recombinant SVV expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (rSVV.eGFP) is slightly attenuated both in culture and in infected monkeys. Here, we generated two additional recombinant SVVs to visualize infected cells in vitro and in vivo. One harbors eGFP fused to the N terminus of open reading frame 9 (ORF9) (rSVV.eGFP-2a-ORF9), and another harbors eGFP fused to the C terminus of ORF66 (rSVV.eGFP-ORF66). Both recombinant viruses efficiently expressed eGFP in cultured cells. Both recombinant SVV infections in culture were comparable to that of wild-type SVV (SVV.wt). Unlike SVV.wt, eGFP-tagged SVV did not replicate in rhesus cells in culture. Intratracheal (i.t.) or i.t. plus intravenous (i.v.) inoculation of rhesus macaques with these new eGFP-tagged viruses resulted in low viremia without varicella rash, although SVV DNA was abundant in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid at 10 days postinoculation (dpi). SVV DNA was also found in trigeminal ganglia of one monkey inoculated with rSVV.eGFP-ORF66. Intriguingly, a humoral response to both SVV and eGFP was observed. In addition, monkeys inoculated with the eGFP-expressing viruses were protected from superinfection with SVV.wt, suggesting that the monkeys had mounted an efficient immune response. Together, our results show that eGFP expression could be responsible for their reduced pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE SVV infection in nonhuman primates has served as an extremely useful animal model to study varicella-zoster virus (VZV) pathogenesis. eGFP-tagged viruses are a great tool to investigate their pathogenesis. We constructed and tested two new recombinant SVVs with eGFP inserted into two different locations in the SVV genome. Both recombinant SVVs showed robust replication in culture but reduced viremia compared to that with SVV.wt during primary infection in rhesus macaques. Our results indicate that conclusions on eGFP-tagged viruses based on in vitro results should be handled with care, since eGFP expression could result in attenuation of the virus.
Nonstructural Protein σ1s Is Required for Optimal Reovirus Protein Expression J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-04-01 Matthew B. Phillips; Johnasha D. Stuart; Emily J. Simon; Karl W. Boehme
Reovirus nonstructural protein σ1s is required for the establishment of viremia and hematogenous viral dissemination. However, the function of σ1s during the reovirus replication cycle is not known. In this study, we found that σ1s was required for efficient reovirus replication in simian virus 40 (SV40)-immortalized endothelial cells (SVECs), mouse embryonic fibroblasts, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and T84 human colonic epithelial cells. In each of these cell lines, wild-type reovirus produced substantially higher viral titers than a σ1s-deficient mutant. The σ1s protein was not required for early events in reovirus infection, as evidenced by the fact that no difference in infectivity between the wild-type and σ1s-null viruses was observed. However, the wild-type virus produced markedly higher viral protein levels than the σ1s-deficient strain. The disparity in viral replication did not result from differences in viral transcription or protein stability. We further found that the σ1s protein was dispensable for cell killing and the induction of type I interferon responses. In the absence of σ1s, viral factory (VF) maturation was impaired but sufficient to support low levels of reovirus replication. Together, our results indicate that σ1s is not absolutely essential for viral protein production but rather potentiates reovirus protein expression to facilitate reovirus replication. Our findings suggest that σ1s enables hematogenous reovirus dissemination by promoting efficient viral protein synthesis, and thereby reovirus replication, in cells that are required for reovirus spread to the blood. IMPORTANCE Hematogenous dissemination is a critical step in the pathogenesis of many viruses. For reovirus, nonstructural protein σ1s is required for viral spread via the blood. However, the mechanism by which σ1s promotes reovirus dissemination is unknown. In this study, we identified σ1s as a viral mediator of reovirus protein expression. We found several cultured cell lines in which σ1s is required for efficient reovirus replication. In these cells, wild-type virus produced substantially higher levels of viral protein than a σ1s-deficient mutant. The σ1s protein was not required for viral mRNA transcription or viral protein stability. Since reduced levels of viral protein were synthesized in the absence of σ1s, the maturation of viral factories was impaired, and significantly fewer viral progeny were produced. Taken together, our findings indicate that σ1s is required for optimal reovirus protein production, and thereby viral replication, in cells required for hematogenous reovirus dissemination.
Articles of Significant Interest Selected from This Issue by the Editors J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-03-15
Naturally occurring procapsids of Seneca Valley virus, an emerging livestock pathogen with oncolytic properties, have an external structure that is nearly identical to that of full virion capsids, but they lack a genome. Strauss et al. (e01927-17) found that the procapsids are more sensitive to pH variation than the full virion and retain the capacity to bind receptors. This study elucidates these naturally occurring empty capsids for use as virus-like particles in vaccine development. The empty procapsid (left) and the full virion (right) display the same outer surface.
Evasion of Cytosolic DNA-Stimulated Innate Immune Responses by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Chunfu Zheng
Recognition of virus-derived nucleic acids by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is crucial for early defense against viral infections. Recent studies revealed that PRRs also include several newly identified DNA sensors, most of which could activate the downstream adaptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and lead to the production of host antiviral factors. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is extremely successful in establishing effective infections, due to its capacity to counteract host innate antiviral responses. In this Gem, I summarize the most recent findings on the molecular mechanisms utilized by HSV-1 to target different steps of the cellular DNA-sensor-mediated antiviral signal pathway.
Genomic and Biochemical Characterization of Acinetobacter Podophage Petty Reveals a Novel Lysis Mechanism and Tail-Associated Depolymerase Activity J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 A. C. Hernandez-Morales; L. L. Lessor; T. L. Wood; D. Migl; E. M. Mijalis; J. Cahill; W. K. Russell; R. F. Young; J. J. Gill
The increased prevalence of drug-resistant, nosocomial Acinetobacter infections, particularly from pathogenic members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex, necessitates the exploration of novel treatments such as phage therapy. In the present study, we characterized phage Petty, a novel podophage that infects multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter nosocomialis and Acinetobacter baumannii. Genome analysis reveals that phage Petty is a 40,431-bp ϕKMV-like phage, with a coding density of 92.2% and a G+C content of 42.3%. Interestingly, the lysis cassette encodes a class I holin and a single-subunit endolysin, but it lacks canonical spanins to disrupt the outer membrane. Analysis of other ϕKMV-like genomes revealed that spaninless lysis cassettes are a feature of phages infecting Acinetobacter within this subfamily of bacteriophages. The observed halo surrounding Petty's large clear plaques indicated the presence of a phage-encoded depolymerase capable of degrading capsular exopolysaccharides (EPS). The product of gene 39, a putative tail fiber, was hypothesized to possess depolymerase activity based on weak homology to previously reported phage tail fibers. The 101.4-kDa protein gene product 39 (gp39) was cloned and expressed, and its activity against Acinetobacter EPS in solution was determined. The enzyme degraded purified EPS from its host strain A. nosocomialis AU0783, reducing its viscosity, and generated reducing ends in solution, indicative of hydrolase activity. Given that the accessibility to cells within a biofilm is enhanced by degradation of EPS, phages with depolymerases may have enhanced diagnostic and therapeutic potential against drug-resistant Acinetobacter strains. IMPORTANCE Bacteriophage therapy is being revisited as a treatment for difficult-to-treat infections. This is especially true for Acinetobacter infections, which are notorious for being resistant to antimicrobials. Thus, sufficient data need to be generated with regard to phages with therapeutic potential, if they are to be successfully employed clinically. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of phage Petty, a novel lytic podophage, and its depolymerase. To our knowledge, it is the first phage reported to be able to infect both A. baumannii and A. nosocomialis. The lytic phage has potential as an alternative therapeutic agent, and the depolymerase could be used for modulating EPS both during infections and in biofilms on medical equipment, as well as for capsular typing. We also highlight the lack of predicted canonical spanins in the phage genome and confirm that, unlike the rounding of lambda lysogens lacking functional spanin genes, A. nosocomialis cells infected with phage Petty lyse by bursting. This suggests that phages like Petty employ a different mechanism to disrupt the outer membrane of Acinetobacter hosts during lysis.
Deficiency of the IRE1α-Autophagy Axis Enhances the Antitumor Effects of the Oncolytic Virus M1 J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Kai Li; Cheng Hu; Fan Xing; Mingshi Gao; Jiankai Liang; Xiao Xiao; Jing Cai; Yaqian Tan; Jun Hu; Wenbo Zhu; Wei Yin; Yuan Li; Wenli Chen; Bingzheng Lu; Jialuo Mai; Pengxin Qiu; Xingwen Su; Guangmei Yan; Haipeng Zhang; Yuan Lin
Oncolytic virotherapy is an emerging treatment modality that uses replication-competent viruses to destroy cancer cells. M1 is a naturally occurring alphavirus (Togaviridae) which shows potent oncolytic activities against many cancers. Accumulation of unfolded proteins during virus replication leads to a transcriptional/translational response known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), which might counteract the antitumor effect of the oncolytic virus. In this report, we show that either pharmacological or biological inhibition of IRE1α or PERK, but not ATF6, substantially increases the oncolytic effects of the M1 virus. Moreover, inhibition of IRE1α blocks M1 virus-induced autophagy, which restricts the antitumor effects of the M1 virus through degradation of viral protein, in glioma cells. In addition, IRE1α suppression significantly increases the oncolytic effect of M1 virus in an orthotopic glioma model. From a molecular pathology study, we found that IRE1α is expressed at lower levels in higher-grade gliomas, suggesting greater antitumor efficacy of the oncolytic virus M1. Taken together, these findings illustrate a defensive mechanism of glioma cells against the oncolytic virus M1 and identify possible approaches to enhance the oncolytic viral protein accumulation and the subsequent lysis of tumor cells. IMPORTANCE Although oncolytic virotherapy is showing great promise in clinical applications, not all patients are benefiting. Identifying inhibitory signals in refractory cancer cells for each oncolytic virus would provide a good chance to increase the therapeutic effect. Here we describe that infection with the oncolytic virus M1 triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) and subsequent autophagy, while blocking the UPR-autophagy axis significantly potentiates the antitumor efficacy of M1 in vitro and in vivo. A survey of cancer tissue banks revealed that IRE1α, a key element in the UPR pathway, is commonly downregulated in higher-grade human gliomas, suggesting favorable prospects for the application of M1. Our work provides a potential predictor and target for enhancement of the therapeutic effectiveness of the M1 virus. We predict that the mechanism-based combination therapy will promote cancer virotherapy in the future.
Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection Induces VAP-Dependent Endosomal Tubulation J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Abida Siddiqa; Paola Massimi; David Pim; Justyna Broniarczyk; Lawrence Banks
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection involves complex interactions with the endocytic transport machinery, which ultimately facilitates the entry of the incoming viral genomes into the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent nuclear entry during mitosis. The endosomal pathway is a highly dynamic intracellular transport system, which consists of vesicular compartments and tubular extensions, although it is currently unclear whether incoming viruses specifically alter the endocytic machinery. In this study, using MICAL-L1 as a marker for tubulating endosomes, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a profound alteration in global levels of endocytic tubulation. In addition, we also show a critical requirement for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored protein VAP in this process. VAP plays an essential role in actin nucleation and endosome-to-Golgi transport. Indeed, the loss of VAP results in a dramatic decrease in the level of endosomal tubulation induced by incoming HPV-16 virions. This is also accompanied by a marked reduction in virus infectivity. In VAP knockdown cells, we see that the defect in virus trafficking occurs after capsid disassembly but prior to localization at the trans-Golgi network, with the incoming virion-transduced DNA accumulating in Vps29/TGN46-positive hybrid vesicles. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that infection with HPV-16 virions induces marked alterations of endocytic transport pathways, some of which are VAP dependent and required for the endosome-to-Golgi transport of the incoming viral L2/DNA complex. IMPORTANCE Human papillomavirus infectious entry involves multiple interactions with the endocytic transport machinery. In this study, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a dramatic increase in endocytic tubulation. This tubulation requires ER-associated VAP, which plays a critical role in ensuring the delivery of cargoes from the endocytic compartments to the trans-Golgi network. Indeed, the loss of VAP blocks HPV infectious entry at a step after capsid uncoating but prior to localization at the trans-Golgi network. These results define a critical role for ER-associated VAP in endocytic tubulation and in HPV-16 infectious entry.
Interleukin-10 Modulation of Virus Clearance and Disease in Mice with Alphaviral Encephalomyelitis J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Nina M. Martin; Diane E. Griffin
Alphaviruses are an important cause of mosquito-borne outbreaks of arthritis, rash, and encephalomyelitis. Previous studies in mice with a virulent strain (neuroadapted SINV [NSV]) of the alphavirus Sindbis virus (SINV) identified a role for Th17 cells and regulation by interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the pathogenesis of fatal encephalomyelitis (K. A. Kulcsar, V. K. Baxter, I. P. Greene, and D. E. Griffin, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:16053–16058, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1418966111). To determine the role of virus virulence in generation of immune responses, we analyzed the modulatory effects of IL-10 on disease severity, virus clearance, and the CD4+ T cell response to infection with a recombinant strain of SINV of intermediate virulence (TE12). The absence of IL-10 during TE12 infection led to longer morbidity, more weight loss, higher mortality, and slower viral clearance than in wild-type mice. More severe disease and impaired virus clearance in IL-10−/− mice were associated with more Th1 cells, fewer Th2 cells, innate lymphoid type 2 cells, regulatory cells, and B cells, and delayed production of antiviral antibody in the central nervous system (CNS) without an effect on Th17 cells. Therefore, IL-10 deficiency led to more severe disease in TE12-infected mice by increasing Th1 cells and by hampering development of the local B cell responses necessary for rapid production of antiviral antibody and virus clearance from the CNS. In addition, the shift from Th17 to Th1 responses with decreased virus virulence indicates that the effects of IL-10 deficiency on immunopathologic responses in the CNS during alphavirus infection are influenced by virus strain. IMPORTANCE Alphaviruses cause mosquito-borne outbreaks of encephalomyelitis, but determinants of outcome are incompletely understood. We analyzed the effects of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 on disease severity and virus clearance after infection with an alphavirus strain of intermediate virulence. The absence of IL-10 led to longer illness, more weight loss, more death, and slower viral clearance than in mice that produced IL-10. IL-10 influenced development of disease-causing T cells and entry into the brain of B cells producing antiviral antibody. The Th1 pathogenic cell subtype that developed in IL-10-deficient mice infected with a less virulent virus was distinct from the Th17 subtype that developed in response to a more virulent virus, indicating a role for virus strain in determining the immune response. Slow production of antibody in the nervous system led to delayed virus clearance. Therefore, both the virus strain and the host response to infection are important determinants of outcome.
Full-Length Glycosylated Gag of Murine Leukemia Virus Can Associate with the Viral Envelope as a Type I Integral Membrane Protein J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Tyler Milston Renner; Kasandra Bélanger; Cindy Lam; María Carla Rosales Gerpe; Joanne Eileen McBane; Marc-André Langlois
The glycosylated Gag protein (gPr80) of murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) has been shown to exhibit multiple roles in facilitating retrovirus release, infection, and resistance to host-encoded retroviral restriction factors, such as APOBEC3, SERINC3, and SERINC5. One way in which gPr80 helps MLVs to escape host innate immune restriction is by increasing capsid stability, a feature that protects viral replication intermediates from being detected by cytosolic DNA sensors. gPr80 also increases the resistance of MLVs to deamination and restriction by mouse APOBEC3 (mA3). How the gPr80 accessory protein, with its three N-linked glycosylation sites, contributes to these resistance mechanisms is still not fully understood. Here we further characterized the function of gPr80 and, more specifically, revealed that the asparagines targeted for glycosylation in gPr80 also contribute to capsid stability through their parallel involvement in the Pr65 Gag structural polyprotein. In fact, we demonstrate that sensitivity to deamination by the mA3 and human A3 proteins is directly linked to capsid stability. We also show that full-length gPr80 is detected in purified viruses. However, our results suggest that gPr80 is inserted in the NexoCcyto orientation of a type I integral membrane protein. Additionally, our experiments have revealed the existence of a large population of Env-deficient virus-like particles (VLPs) harboring gPr80 inserted in the opposite (NcytoCexo) polarity, which is typical of type II integral membrane proteins. Overall this study provides new insight into the complex nature of the MLV gPr80 accessory protein. IMPORTANCE Viruses have evolved numerous strategies to infect, spread in, and persist in their hosts. Here we analyze the details of how the MLV-encoded glycosylated Gag (gPr80) protein protects the virus from being restricted by host innate immune defenses. gPr80 is a variant of the structural Pr65 Gag protein with an 88-amino-acid extended leader sequence that directs the protein for translation and glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum. This study dissects the specific contributions of gPr80 glycans and capsid stability in helping the virus to infect cells, spread, and counteract the effects of the host intrinsic restriction factor APOBEC3. Overall this study provides further insight into the elusive role of the gPr80 protein.
Identification of Residues Controlling Restriction versus Enhancing Activities of IFITM Proteins on Entry of Human Coronaviruses J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Xuesen Zhao; Mohit Sehgal; Zhifei Hou; Junjun Cheng; Sainan Shu; Shuo Wu; Fang Guo; Sylvain J. Le Marchand; Hanxin Lin; Jinhong Chang; Ju-Tao Guo
Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are restriction factors that inhibit the infectious entry of many enveloped RNA viruses. However, we demonstrated previously that human IFITM2 and IFITM3 are essential host factors facilitating the entry of human coronavirus (HCoV) OC43. In a continuing effort to decipher the molecular mechanism underlying IFITM differential modulation of HCoV entry, we investigated the roles of structural motifs important for IFITM protein posttranslational modifications, intracellular trafficking, and oligomerization in modulating the entry of five HCoVs. We found that three distinct mutations in IFITM1 or IFITM3 converted the host restriction factors to enhance entry driven by the spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and/or Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). First, replacement of IFITM3 tyrosine 20 with either alanine or aspartic acid to mimic unphosphorylated or phosphorylated IFITM3 reduced its activity to inhibit the entry of HCoV-NL63 and -229E but enhanced the entry of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Second, replacement of IFITM3 tyrosine 99 with either alanine or aspartic acid reduced its activity to inhibit the entry of HCoV-NL63 and SARS-CoV but promoted the entry of MERS-CoV. Third, deletion of the carboxyl-terminal 12 amino acid residues from IFITM1 enhanced the entry of MERS-CoV and HCoV-OC43. These findings suggest that these residues and structural motifs of IFITM proteins are key determinants for modulating the entry of HCoVs, most likely through interaction with viral and/or host cellular components at the site of viral entry to modulate the fusion of viral envelope and cellular membranes. IMPORTANCE The differential effects of IFITM proteins on the entry of HCoVs that utilize divergent entry pathways and membrane fusion mechanisms even when using the same receptor make the HCoVs a valuable system for comparative investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying IFITM restriction or promotion of virus entry into host cells. Identification of three distinct mutations that converted IFITM1 or IFITM3 from inhibitors to enhancers of MERS-CoV or SARS-CoV spike protein-mediated entry revealed key structural motifs or residues determining the biological activities of IFITM proteins. These findings have thus paved the way for further identification of viral and host factors that interact with those structural motifs of IFITM proteins to differentially modulate the infectious entry of HCoVs.
Enhancing the Thermostability and Immunogenicity of a Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Live-Attenuated Vaccine by Incorporating Unique RSV Line19F Protein Residues J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Christina A. Rostad; Christopher C. Stobart; Sean O. Todd; Samuel A. Molina; Sujin Lee; Jorge C. G. Blanco; Martin L. Moore
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants, and an effective vaccine is not yet available. We previously generated an RSV live-attenuated vaccine (LAV) candidate, DB1, which was attenuated by a low-fusion subgroup B F protein (BAF) and codon-deoptimized nonstructural protein genes. DB1 was immunogenic and protective in cotton rats but lacked thermostability and stability of the prefusion conformation of F compared to strains with the line19F gene. We hypothesized that substitution of unique residues from the thermostable A2-line19F strain could thermostabilize DB1 and boost its immunogenicity. We therefore substituted 4 unique line19F residues into the BAF protein of DB1 by site-directed mutagenesis and rescued the recombinant virus, DB1-QUAD. Compared to DB1, DB1-QUAD had improved thermostability at 4°C and higher levels of prefusion F as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). DB1-QUAD was attenuated in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, in BALB/c mice, and in cotton rats but grew to wild-type titers in Vero cells. In mice, DB1-QUAD was highly immunogenic and generated significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers to a panel of RSV A and B strains than did DB1. DB1-QUAD was also efficacious against wild-type RSV challenge in mice and cotton rats. Thus, substitution of unique line19F residues into RSV LAV DB1 enhanced vaccine thermostability, incorporation of prefusion F, and immunogenicity and generated a promising vaccine candidate that merits further investigation. IMPORTANCE We boosted the thermostability and immunogenicity of an RSV live-attenuated vaccine candidate by substituting 4 unique residues from the RSV line19F protein into the F protein of the heterologous vaccine strain DB1. The resultant vaccine candidate, DB1-QUAD, was thermostable, attenuated in vivo, highly immunogenic, and protective against RSV challenge in mice and cotton rats.
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