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  • Investigation of the Relationship Between Radiation Dose and Gene Mutations and Fusions in Post-Chernobyl Thyroid Cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-11-18
    Alexey A Efanov, Alina V Brenner, Tetiana I Bogdanova, Lindsey M Kelly, Pengyuan Liu, Mark P Little, Abigail I Wald, Maureen Hatch, Liudmyla Y Zurnadzy, Marina N Nikiforova, Vladimir Drozdovitch, Kiyohiko Mabuchi, Mykola D Tronko, Stephen J Chanock, Yuri E Nikiforov

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood is a well-established risk factor for thyroid cancer. However, the genetic mechanisms of radiation-associated carcinogenesis remain not fully understood.

    更新日期:2017-11-19
  • Thyroid Cancer: Is It All in the Genes?
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-11-18
    Electron Kebebew

    Thyroid cancer represents one of the most biologically and clinically diverse solid malignancies. While most thyroid cancers originate from the follicular cells, the genetic alterations that drive these cancers are unique to each histologic subtype (1). Further, the behavior of thyroid cancer has a wide spectrum, from the commonly indolent and widespread papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (present in up to 35.6% of individuals at autopsy) to the uniformly rare and lethal undifferentiated thyroid cancer (2,3). Our understanding of the genetic events involved in thyroid cancer initiation and progression has grown, with some having translational implications for predicting thyroid cancer behavior and as therapeutic targets for advanced thyroid cancer (4).

    更新日期:2017-11-19
  • BRAF V600E Mutation-Assisted Risk Stratification of Solitary Intrathyroidal Papillary Thyroid Cancer for Precision Treatment
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-11-18
    Yueye Huang, Shen Qu, Guangwu Zhu, Fei Wang, Rengyun Liu, Xiaopei Shen, David Viola, Rossella Elisei, Efisio Puxeddu, Laura Fugazzola, Carla Colombo, Barbara Jarzab, Agnieszka Czarniecka, Alfred K Lam, Caterina Mian, Federica Vianello, Linwah Yip, Garcilaso Riesco-Eizaguirre, Pilar Santisteban, Christine J O’Neill, Mingzhao Xing, Mark S Sywak, Roderick Clifton-Bligh, Bela Bendlova, Vlasta Sýkorová

    Precise risk stratification-based treatment of solitary intrathyroidal papillary thyroid cancer (SI-PTC) that is larger than 1.0 cm and 4.0 cm or less is undefined.

    更新日期:2017-11-19
  • Immune Activation and Benefit From Avelumab in EBV-Positive Gastric Cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Anshuman Panda, Janice M Mehnert, Kim M Hirshfield, Greg Riedlinger, Sherri Damare, Tracie Saunders, Michael Kane, Levi Sokol, Mark N Stein, Elizabeth Poplin, Lorna Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Ann W Silk, Joseph Aisner, Nancy Chan, Jyoti Malhotra, Melissa Frankel, Howard L Kaufman, Siraj Ali, Jeffrey S Ross, Eileen P White, Gyan Bhanot, Shridar Ganesan

    Response to immune checkpoint therapy can be associated with a high mutation burden, but other mechanisms are also likely to be important. We identified a patient with metastatic gastric cancer with meaningful clinical benefit from treatment with the anti–programmed death–ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody avelumab. This tumor showed no evidence of high mutation burden or mismatch repair defect but was strongly positive for presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded RNA. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas gastric cancer data (25 EBV+, 80 microsatellite-instable [MSI], 310 microsatellite-stable [MSS]) showed that EBV-positive tumors were MSS. Two-sided Wilcoxon rank-sum tests showed that: 1) EBV-positive tumors had low mutation burden (median = 2.07 vs 3.13 in log10 scale, P < 10-12) but stronger evidence of immune infiltration (median ImmuneScore 2212 vs 1295, P < 10-4; log2 fold-change of CD8A = 1.85, P < 10-6) compared with MSI tumors, and 2) EBV-positive tumors had higher expression of immune checkpoint pathway (PD-1, CTLA-4 pathway) genes in RNA-seq data (log2 fold-changes: PD-1 = 1.85, PD-L1 = 1.93, PD-L2 = 1.50, CTLA-4 = 1.31, CD80 = 0.89, CD86 = 1.31, P < 10-4 each), and higher lymphocytic infiltration by histology (median tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte score = 3 vs 2, P < .001) compared with MSS tumors. These data suggest that EBV-positive low–mutation burden gastric cancers are a subset of MSS gastric cancers that may respond to immune checkpoint therapy.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • PD-L1 Antibodies for EBV-Positive Gastric Cancer, Going Beyond PD-L1 Expression and Microsatellite Instability
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Khaldoun Almhanna, Scott Antonia

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, following lung cancer. The five-year survival rate of advanced metastatic disease is low. Combination chemotherapy results in improvement in overall survival in comparison with single-agent treatment or supportive care (1,2). Limited progress has been made by adding targeted therapy to the treatment of gastric cancer. The only two targeted agents approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are ramucirumab (3,4), a VEGF antibody, and trastuzumab (5), which is indicated only in tumors with amplified human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2). Both drugs have a modest impact on overall survival.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • MAX Mutations in Endometrial Cancer: Clinicopathologic Associations and Recurrent MAX p.His28Arg Functional Characterization
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Christopher J Walker, Craig M Rush, Paola Dama, Matthew J O’Hern, Casey M Cosgrove, Jessica L Gillespie, Roman A Zingarelli, Blair Smith, Maggie E Stein, David G Mutch, Reena Shakya, Chia-Wen Chang, Karuppaiyah Selvendiran, Jonathan W Song, David E Cohn, Paul J Goodfellow

    Genomic studies have revealed that multiple genes are mutated at varying frequency in endometrial cancer (EC); however, the relevance of many of these mutations is poorly understood. An EC-specific recurrent mutation in the MAX transcription factor p.His28Arg was recently discovered. We sought to assess the functional consequences of this hotspot mutation and determine its association with cancer-relevant phenotypes.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Glyphosate Use and Cancer Incidence in the Agricultural Health Study: An Epidemiologic Perspective
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Elizabeth M Ward

    In this issue of the Journal, Gabriela Adreiotti and colleagues report the results of an updated analysis of glyphosate exposure and cancer risk in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) (1). The AHS, a prospective cohort study of 57 310 licensed pesticide applicators and 32 347 spouses in Iowa and North Carolina, was initiated in the early 1990s, in large part to address possible causes for the higher incidence of lymphohematopoietic and certain other cancers in farmers compared with the general population (2). From an epidemiologic perspective, designing a study to investigate cancer risk factors associated with farming is challenging because of the difficulty in establishing and recruiting a well-defined population, the large number of farming-related exposures that may be associated with cancer, and the need to create and validate...

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Screening Guideline for Cervical Cancer Recommends Against Human Papillomavirus–Pap Cotesting
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Anna Azvolinsky

    The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force’s new draft guideline now recommends that women aged 30–65 years get tested for high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus (hrHPV) every 5 years or get a Pap screening every 3 years. That is a major change from the task force’s 2012 recommendation of cotesting: screening with the hrHPV test plus Pap screening every 5 years for women in that age group (Ann. Intern. Med. 2012;156:880–91; doi:10.7326/0003-4819-156-12-201206190-00424). A final guideline will be published after a period of public comment.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Relative Performance of HPV and Cytology Components of Cotesting in Cervical Screening
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-11-14
    Mark Schiffman, Walter K Kinney, Li C Cheung, Julia C Gage, Barbara Fetterman, Nancy E Poitras, Thomas S Lorey, Nicolas Wentzensen, Brian Befano, John Schussler, Hormuzd A Katki, Philip E Castle

    The main goal of cervical screening programs is to detect and treat precancer before cancer develops. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology for detecting precancer. However, reports of rare HPV-negative, cytology-positive cancers are motivating continued use of both tests (cotesting) despite increased testing costs.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Glyphosate Use and Cancer Incidence in the Agricultural Health Study
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-11-09
    Gabriella Andreotti, Stella Koutros, Jonathan N Hofmann, Dale P Sandler, Jay H Lubin, Charles F Lynch, Catherine C Lerro, Anneclaire J De Roos, Christine G Parks, Michael C Alavanja, Debra T Silverman, Laura E Beane Freeman

    Glyphosate is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide, with both residential and agricultural uses. In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified glyphosate as “probably carcinogenic to humans,” noting strong mechanistic evidence and positive associations for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in some epidemiologic studies. A previous evaluation in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) with follow-up through 2001 found no statistically significant associations with glyphosate use and cancer at any site.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • RE: Hypofractionated Radiotherapy for Patients with Early-Stage Glottic Cancer: Patterns of Care and Survival
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Jens Overgaard

    An article in the Journal by Bledsoe et al. recently reported on patterns of care and survival in patients treated with radiotherapy for early-stage glottic carcinoma (1). A similar study by Stokes et al. was also published in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics (2). Both evaluated the role of hypofractionated radiotherapy using the National Cancer Database and identified almost the same patients. The results and conclusions, not surprisingly, were the same: that hypofractionated radiotherapy yielded a small overall survival benefit.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Response
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Trevor J Bledsoe, Henry S Park, John M Stahl, Wendell G Yarbrough, Barbara A Burtness, Roy H Decker, Zain A Husain

    Because of its increased convenience and decreased cost, once-daily hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFX; 2.25 Gy/fraction) has been adopted over other altered-fractionation schedules in the United States for the management of early-stage glottic cancer. In our patterns-of-care analysis, we found that over 80% of patients were treated with either hypofractionation (2.25 Gy/fraction) or conventional fractionation (CFX; 2.0 Gy/fraction); utilization rates of other altered-fractionation regimens were 2.6% or less. Given the low utilization rates of fractionation schedules not recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, we did not compare other altered-fractionation schedules to CFX. Therefore, we were not able to make conclusions regarding the optimal radiotherapy treatment schedule; we could only conclude that our findings suggest that HFX is superior to CFX.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Nivolumab for Treatment of Platinum-Resistant Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Kathryn R Tringale, Kate T Carroll, Kaveh Zakeri, Assuntina G Sacco, Linda Barnachea, James D Murphy

    The CheckMate 141 trial found that nivolumab improved survival for patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer (HNC). Despite the improved survival, nivolumab is much more expensive than standard therapies. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of nivolumab for the treatment of HNC.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • The Future of Radiobiology
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    David G Kirsch, Max Diehn, Aparna H Kesarwala, Amit Maity, Meredith A Morgan, Julie K Schwarz, Robert Bristow, Sandra Demaria, Iris Eke, Robert J Griffin, Daphne Haas-Kogan, Geoff S Higgins, Alec C Kimmelman, Randall J Kimple, Isabelle M Lombaert, Li Ma, Brian Marples, Frank Pajonk, Catherine C Park, Dörthe Schaue, Eric J Bernhard

    Innovation and progress in radiation oncology depend on discovery and insights realized through research in radiation biology. Radiobiology research has led to fundamental scientific insights, from the discovery of stem/progenitor cells to the definition of signal transduction pathways activated by ionizing radiation that are now recognized as integral to the DNA damage response (DDR). Radiobiological discoveries are guiding clinical trials that test radiation therapy combined with inhibitors of the DDR kinases DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia telangiectasia related (ATR), and immune or cell cycle checkpoint inhibitors. To maintain scientific and clinical relevance, the field of radiation biology must overcome challenges in research workforce, training, and funding. The National Cancer Institute convened a workshop to discuss the role of radiobiology research and radiation biologists in the future scientific enterprise. Here, we review the discussions of current radiation oncology research approaches and areas of scientific focus considered important for rapid progress in radiation sciences and the continued contribution of radiobiology to radiation oncology and the broader biomedical research community.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Retuning the Radio in Radiobiology
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Steven J Chmura, Philip P Connell, Ralph R Weichselbaum

    The radiobiology research community has contributed immensely to cancer research, with far-reaching and consequential scientific insights, including demonstration that the chromosome is the target of radiation-induced mutations (Muller, Nobel prize, 1946), advances in DNA repair (Lindahl/Modrich/Sancar, Nobel prize, 2015), descriptions of hypoxia in cancer biology (first noted by Thomlinson/Gray in 1955 [1] with eventual Lasker Prize to Ratcliffe/Semenza/Kaelin, 2016), identification of stem cells (Till/McCulloch, Lasker prize in 2005), and the work of Tolmach that presaged a fuller description of cell cycles (Hartwell/Hunt/Nurse, Nobel prize, 2001). Radiobiologic discoveries have transformed scientific disciplines well beyond the field of radiobiology. Furthermore, many radiobiology principles have slowly become embedded into larger scientific pursuits and clinical practice, such as multimodality chemoradiotherapy (2–4) and cancer immunotherapy (5–7).

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Comprehensive Characterization of Alternative Polyadenylation in Human Cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Yu Xiang, Youqiong Ye, Yanyan Lou, Yang Yang, Chunyan Cai, Zhao Zhang, Tingting Mills, Ning-Yuan Chen, Yoonjin Kim, Fatma Muge Ozguc, Lixia Diao, Harry Karmouty-Quintana, Yang Xia, Rodney E Kellems, Zheng Chen, Michael R Blackburn, Seung-Hee Yoo, Ann-Bin Shyu, Gordon B Mills, Leng Han

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is emerging as a major post-transcriptional mechanism for gene regulation, and dysregulation of APA contributes to several human diseases. However, the functional consequences of APA in human cancer are not fully understood. Particularly, there is no large-scale analysis in cancer cell lines.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Chronic Health Conditions and Neurocognitive Function in Aging Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-10-26
    Yin Ting Cheung, Tara M. Brinkman, Chenghong Li, Yasmin Mzayek, Deokumar Srivastava, Kirsten K. Ness, Sunita K. Patel, Rebecca M. Howell, Kevin C. Oeffinger, Leslie L. Robison, Gregory T. Armstrong, Kevin R. Krull

    Neurocognitive impairment in survivors of childhood cancer may be associated with direct neurotoxicity, as well as indirect effects of systemic health complications. We evaluated associations among treatment exposures, chronic health conditions, and neurocognitive outcomes in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Long-term Safety of Pregnancy Following Breast Cancer According to Estrogen Receptor Status
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-10-26
    Matteo Lambertini, Niels Kroman, Lieveke Ameye, Octavi Cordoba, Alvaro Pinto, Giovanni Benedetti, Maj-Britt Jensen, Shari Gelber, Maria Del Grande, Michail Ignatiadis, Evandro de Azambuja, Marianne Paesmans, Fedro A. Peccatori, Hatem A. Azim

    Safety of pregnancy in women with history of estrogen receptor (ER)–positive breast cancer remains controversial. In this multicenter case–control study, 333 patients with pregnancy after breast cancer were matched (1:3) to 874 nonpregnant patients of similar characteristics, adjusting for guaranteed time bias. Survival estimates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier analysis; groups were compared with the log-rank test. All reported P values were two-sided. At a median follow-up of 7.2 years after pregnancy, no difference in disease-free survival was observed between pregnant and nonpregnant patients with ER-positive (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70 to 1.26, P = .68) or ER-negative (HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.53 to 1.06, P = .10) disease. No overall survival (OS) difference was observed in ER-positive patients (HR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.60 to 1.18, P = .32); ER-negative patients in the pregnant cohort had better OS (HR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.90, P = .01). Abortion, time to pregnancy, breastfeeding, and type of adjuvant therapy had no impact on patients’ outcomes. This study provides reassuring evidence on the long-term safety of pregnancy in breast cancer survivors, including those with ER-positive disease.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Lung, Bladder, and Kidney Cancer Mortality 40 Years After Arsenic Exposure Reduction
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-10-24
    Allan H. Smith, Guillermo Marshall, Taehyun Roh, Catterina Ferreccio, Jane Liaw, Craig Steinmaus

    Region II in northern Chile (population 442 570) experienced a sudden major increase in arsenic water concentrations in 1958 in the main city of Antofagasta, followed by a major reduction in exposure when an arsenic removal plant was installed in 1970. It provides a unique opportunity to study latency effects of exposure to arsenic, and this is the first study with mortality data up to 40 years after exposure reduction.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • RE: Proportion of Never-Smoker Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients at Three Diverse Institutions
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Barbara J. Page, Rayleen V. Bowman, Ian A. Yang, Kwun M. Fong

    We read with interest the report from Pelosof et al. (1) of an increasing proportion of never-smoker non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in a population of more than 10 000 cases from three registries between 1990 and 2013, and note the conclusion that the incidence of lung cancer in never-smokers is increasing. These data, however, may be explained by alternative factors such as referral, misclassification, and other biases. Nonetheless, this is a major issue for public health because residential and occupational radon exposure, ambient air quality, and exposure to asbestos, pesticides, diesel, beryllium, and other heavy metals also contribute to lung cancer risk (2).

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Response
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Lorraine Pelosof, Chul Ahn, Joan Schiller

    We appreciate the authors’ interest in our study “Proportion of Never-Smoker Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients at Three Diverse Institutions.” It is important to note, however, that in our study, we examined the proportion of never-smokers in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, not the incidence of lung cancer cases in never-smokers, as was described in the correspondence. Based on our data, our conclusion is that the proportion of never-smokers is increasing among the NSCLC patient population at our three institutions. In other words, we did not conclude that the incidence of lung cancer in never-smokers is increasing, but rather that the proportion of never-smokers is increasing among the NSCLC patient population at our institutions and that this increase does not seem to be explained by differences in stage at diagnosis or by...

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Prostate Cancer Patient Characteristics Associated With a Strong Preference to Preserve Sexual Function and Receipt of Active Surveillance
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    James R. Broughman, Ramsankar Basak, Matthew E. Nielsen, Bryce B. Reeve, Deborah S. Usinger, Kiayni C. Spearman, Paul A. Godley, Ronald C. Chen

    Men with early-stage prostate cancer have multiple options that have similar oncologic efficacy but vary in terms of their impact on quality of life. In low-risk cancer, active surveillance is the option that best preserves patients’ sexual function, but it is unknown if patient preference affects treatment selection. Our objectives were to identify patient characteristics associated with a strong preference to preserve sexual function and to determine whether patient preference and baseline sexual function level are associated with receipt of active surveillance in low-risk cancer.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • International Patterns and Trends in Endometrial Cancer Incidence, 1978–2013
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Joannie Lortet-Tieulent, Jacques Ferlay, Freddie Bray, Ahmedin Jemal

    Cancers of the corpus uteri—primarily of the endometrium—rank as the sixth most common neoplasm in women worldwide. Analyses of the global patterns and trends of uterine cancer rates are needed in view of the ongoing obesity epidemic, a major risk factor for the disease.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Somatic Mutations and Splicing Variants of Focal Adhesion Kinase in Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    Bo Zhou, Gui-Zhen Wang, Zhe-Sheng Wen, Yong-Chun Zhou, Yun-Chao Huang, Ying Chen, Guang-Biao Zhou

    Overexpression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been reported in lung cancer, but the somatic mutations and alternative splicing variants of this nonreceptor tyrosine kinase remain to be investigated.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Tumor cells in the blood may indicate poor prognosis in early breast cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2014-05-13

    Tumor cells in bone marrow of early breast cancer patients predict a higher risk of relapse as well as poorer survival, but bone marrow biopsy is an invasive and painful procedure. Now, it may be possible to identify tumor cells in a routine blood sample and use them as prognostic markers, according to a study published May 15 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Association between hormone replacement therapy use and breast cancer risk varies by race/ethnicity, body mass index, and breast density
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2013-08-29

    Breast cancer risk associated with use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) among postmenopausal women was variable when analyzed by race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and breast density, according to a new study published September 3 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Consuming a high quality diet is associated with lower risk of pancreatic cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2013-08-13

    People who reported dietary intake that was most consistent with the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans had lower risk of pancreatic cancer, according to a new study published August 15 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Estrogen Plus Progestin Use Linked With Increased Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2013-03-28

    Estrogen plus progestin use is linked with increased breast cancer incidence. In addition, prognosis is similar for both users and nonusers of combined hormone therapy, suggesting that mortality from breast cancer may be higher for hormone therapy users as well, according to a study published March 29 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Fruit and Vegetable Intake is Associated With Lower Risk of ER- Breast Cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2013-01-23

    There is no association between total fruit and vegetable intake and risk of overall breast cancer, but vegetable consumption is associated with a lower risk of estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer, according to a study published January 24 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Erratum
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2013-01-10

    Erratum:“A population-based study of hepatitis D virus as potential risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma.” Ji J, Sundquist K, Sundquist J. [J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 104 (10): 790-792] In the second paragraph, lines 12–18, the codes for acute HDV infection in HBV carriers were incorrect. This sentence should read: “Patients were identified according to the Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases using the following codes: B181 (chronic HBV infection without HDV), B180 (chronic HBV infection with HDV), and B170, B160, and B161 (acute HDV infection in HBV carriers).” The authors regret this error.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • HPV Associated Cancer Incidence Rates Point to Needed Efforts to Increase HPV Vaccination Coverage
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2013-01-07

    Despite the decline in cancer death rates in the U.S., there is an increase in incidence rates for cancers associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and more efforts are needed to increase HPV vaccination coverage levels to prevent the occurrence of these cancers in the future according to a study published January 7 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Women With Higher Carotenoid Levels Have Reduced Risk of Breast Cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2012-12-06

    Women with higher circulating carotenoid levels are at a reduced risk of breast cancer according to a study published December 6 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Higher Dietary Glycemic Load Linked to Worse Colon Cancer Survival
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2012-11-06

    Researchers have identified a link between higher dietary glycemic load and total carbohydrate intake and increased risk of cancer recurrences or death among stage 3 colon cancer patients, a finding that suggests that diet and lifestyle modification can have a role in improving patient survival, according to a study published November 7 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • 更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Study Showed Oxaliplatin Improved Colon Cancer Patient Survival
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2012-01-01

    Stage III colon cancer patients in the general population who receive adjuvant treatment for the disease have an improved rate of survival when oxaliplatin is added to 5-fluorouracil (5FU), according to a study published Jan. 20 in The Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • The Challenges of Cancer Vaccines
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2012-01-01

    The first therapeutic cancer vaccine has now been approved by the FDA, and a diverse range of therapeutic cancer vaccines directed against a spectrum of tumor-associated antigens are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, according to a review published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Adjuvant Therapy May Not Be Necessary for Older Breast Cancer Patients
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2011-01-01

    Breast cancer patients over the age of 60 with early-stage, hormone-responsive small tumors who forego adjuvant endocrine, also called hormonal therapy, are not at an increased risk of mortality compared to women of the same age without breast cancer, according to a study published TK in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Toxicity of Aromatase Inhibitors May Explain Lack of Overall Survival Improvement
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2011-01-01

    The toxicities associated with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) may explain the lack of overall survival improvement compared with tamoxifen, according to a study published August 22 in the Journal of The National Cancer Institute.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • The Cancer Biomarker Conundrum: Too Many False Discoveries
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2010-01-01

    The boom in cancer biomarker investments over the past 25 years has not translated into major clinical success. The reasons for biomarker failures include problems with study design and interpretation, as well as statistical deficiencies, according to an article published online August 12 in The Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Estrogen Not Associated With Lung Cancer Incidence and Mortality Among Postmenopausal Women
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2010-01-01

    Use of estrogen alone did not increase lung cancer mortality in postmenopausal women, according to a study published online August 13 in The Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Colorectal Cancer Survival Advantage in MUTYH-Associated Polyposis
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2010-01-01

    Survival for colorectal cancer patients with MUTYH -associated polyposis was statistically significantly better than for patients with colorectal cancer from the general population, according to a recent study published online November 2 in The Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Body Fat Distribution Associated With a Higher Risk of ER-negative Breast Cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2010-01-01

    Body fat distribution does not play an important role in the incidence of every subtype of premenopausal breast cancer, but is associated with an increased risk for estrogen receptor (ER)–negative breast cancer, according to a study published December 15 in The Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Role of RBP2-Induced ER and IGF1R-ErbB Signaling in Tamoxifen Resistance in Breast Cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-10-11
    Hee-Joo Choi, Hyeong-Seok Joo, Hee-Young Won, Kyueng-Whan Min, Hyung-Yong Kim, Taekwon Son, Young-Ha Oh, Jeong-Yeon Lee, Gu Kong

    Despite the benefit of endocrine therapy, acquired resistance during or after treatment still remains a major challenge in estrogen receptor (ER)–positive breast cancer. We investigated the potential role of histone demethylase retinoblastoma-binding protein 2 (RBP2) in endocrine therapy resistance of breast cancer.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Quality of Life and Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Proton Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-10-09
    Vivek Verma, Charles B. Simone, Mark V. Mishra

    As costs of cancer care rise, the importance of documenting value in oncology increases. Proton beam radiotherapy (PBT) has the potential to reduce toxicities in cancer patients, but is relatively expensive and unproven. Evaluating quality of life (QOL) and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is essential to establishing PBT’s “value” in oncologic therapy. The goal of this systematic review was to assess QOL and PROs in patients treated with PBT.

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • First Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy Approved
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Vicki Brower

    On August 30, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved tisagenlecleucel for pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). That approval came after positive clinical trial results with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies last spring and summer increased dramatically.

    更新日期:2017-11-05
  • Updates to the National Cancer Institute’s PDQ Information from Recently Published Oncology Research
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-11-02

    PDQ (Physician Data Query) is the National Cancer Institute’s source of comprehensive cancer information. It contains peer-reviewed, evidence-based cancer information summaries on treatment, supportive care, screening, prevention, genetics, and complementary and alternative medicine. The summaries are regularly updated by six editorial boards. The following PDQ summaries were recently updated:

    更新日期:2017-11-05
  • Personalized Cancer Vaccines Advance in the Clinic
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Charlie Schmidt

    More than a century ago, New York surgeon William Coley, M.D., proposed treating cancer with vaccines that turn the immune system against malignant cells (Am. J. Med. Sci. 1893;105:487–510). That was a new concept because clinicians usually give vaccines to prevent diseases, not treat the ones patients already have. Scientists have been trying to generate cancer vaccines ever since, but with limited success. Tumors throw up defenses to evade the immune system, and T cells—the vaccine-triggered immune cells that kill invaders in the body—often can’t distinguish cancerous cells from normal ones.

    更新日期:2017-10-31
  • Corrigendum
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-10-16

    Corrigendum: “Augmentation of response to chemotherapy by microRNA-506 through regulation of RAD51 in serous ovarian cancers” by G Liu etal. J Natl Cancer Inst 2015; 107(7): doi:10.1093/jnci/djv108. Upon reviewing the manuscript, the authors found that one of the images in Figure 2C (HeyA8 cell line) was inadvertently duplicated. The image appears to be symmetrically the same as the one presented in Figure 3B. The mistake occurred while the authors were using one image as a template for adjusting picture size. The image in Figure 2C has been corrected. This change does not impact the conclusions of the study. The authors apologize for this mistake.

    更新日期:2017-10-27
  • Cancer Groups Outline Research Needs To Address Health Care Disparities
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-09-26
    Kurt Ullman

    The first research into racial disparities in cancer care arose from the early civil rights movement. In 1972, JNCI published the first reports showing that more black people than white people died from certain cancers in the U.S.

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • New Gene-Editing Tool Slowly Advances Into the Clinic
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-09-29
    Susan Jenks

    A bacterial defense system against invading viruses underlies a new gene-editing tool that can cut DNA with remarkable precision—far better than in the past, scientists say.

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Updates to the National Cancer Institute’s PDQ Information from Recently Published Oncology Research
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-09-29

    PDQ (Physician Data Query) is the National Cancer Institute’s source of comprehensive cancer information. It contains peer-reviewed, evidence-based cancer information summaries on treatment, supportive care, screening, prevention, genetics, and complementary and alternative medicine. The summaries are regularly updated by six editorial boards. The following PDQ summaries were recently updated:

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Current Gaps in Ovarian Cancer Epidemiology: The Need for New Population-Based Research
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-08-29
    Jennifer A. Doherty, Allan Jensen, Linda E. Kelemen, Celeste L. Pearce, Elizabeth Poole, Joellen M. Schildkraut, Kathryn L. Terry, Shelley S. Tworoger, Penelope M. Webb, Nicolas Wentzensen

    With recent ovarian cancer screening studies showing no clinically significant mortality benefit, preventing this disease, identifying high-risk populations, and extending survival remain priorities. However, several challenges are impeding progress in ovarian cancer research. With most studies capturing exposure information from 10 or more years ago, evaluation of how changing patterns of exposures, such as new oral contraceptive formulations and increased intrauterine device use, might influence ovarian cancer risk and survival is difficult. Risk factors for ovarian cancer should be evaluated in the context of tumor histotypes, which have unique molecular features and cells of origin; this is a task that requires large collaborative studies to achieve meaningful sample sizes. Importantly, identification of novel modifiable risk factors, in addition to those currently known to reduce risk (eg, childbearing, tubal ligation, oral contraceptive use), is needed; this is not feasibly implemented at a population level. In this Commentary, we describe important gaps in knowledge and propose new approaches to advance epidemiologic research to improve ovarian cancer prevention and survival, including updated classification of tumors, collection of data on changing and novel exposures, longer follow-up on existing studies, evaluation of diverse populations, development of better risk prediction models, and collaborating prospectively with consortia to develop protocols for new studies that will allow seamless integration for future pooled analyses.

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Quantifying Overdiagnosis in Cancer Screening: A Systematic Review to Evaluate the Methodology
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-05-22
    Theodora M. Ripping, Kevin ten Haaf, André L. M. Verbeek, Nicolien T. van Ravesteyn, Mireille J. M. Broeders

    Overdiagnosis is the main harm of cancer screening programs but is difficult to quantify. This review aims to evaluate existing approaches to estimate the magnitude of overdiagnosis in cancer screening in order to gain insight into the strengths and limitations of these approaches and to provide researchers with guidance to obtain reliable estimates of overdiagnosis in cancer screening.

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Editorial: Challenges in Quantifying Overdiagnosis
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-05-22
    Stuart G. Baker, Philip C. Prorok, Barnett S. Kramer

    An important concern in cancer screening is overdiagnosis, the detection of cancer that would not have become clinically evident over the patient’s lifespan in the absence of screening. Ripping etal. (1) provide a useful overview of strengths and many key limitations of various approaches to quantifying overdiagnosis. We complement their disquisition with additional considerations.

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Breast Cancer Risk and Progressive Histology in Serial Benign Biopsies
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-03-17
    Daniel W. Visscher, Ryan D. Frank, Jodi M. Carter, Robert A. Vierkant, Stacey J. Winham, Ethan P. Heinzen, Brendan T. Broderick, Lori A. Denison, Teresa M. Allers, Joanne L. Johnson, Marlene H. Frost, Lynn C. Hartmann, Amy C. Degnim, Derek C. Radisky

    More than 1 million women per year in the United States with benign breast biopsies are known to be at elevated risk for breast cancer (BC), with risk stratified on histologic categories of epithelial proliferation. Here we assessed women who had serial benign biopsies over time and how changes in the histologic classification affected BC risk.

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Editorial: Refining Risk Assessment in Women With Benign Breast Disease: An Ongoing Dilemma
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-03-17
    Stuart J. Schnitt, Monica Morrow, Nadine M. Tung

    More than three decades ago, Dupont and Page published their seminal study relating breast cancer risk to the histologic findings in benign breast biopsies (1). The key observations of that study were that women whose biopsy showed proliferative lesions without atypia had about a twofold increase in the risk of subsequent breast cancer and those with atypical hyperplasia had about a fivefold increase in breast cancer risk when compared with women with nonproliferative lesions. As summarized in Table 1, subsequent studies from other groups have yielded strikingly similar findings, despite differences in the study design, patient populations, and pathologists involved in the histologic classification of the benign breast biopsies (1–5). As a result of these studies, which in aggregate have included more than 17 000 women, atypical hyperplasia...

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Chemotherapy and Post-traumatic Stress in the Causation of Cognitive Dysfunction in Breast Cancer Patients
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-05-03
    Kerstin Hermelink, Markus Bühner, Philipp Sckopke, Franziska Neufeld, Judith Kaste, Varinka Voigt, Karin Münzel, Rachel Wuerstlein, Nina Ditsch, Karin Hellerhoff, Dorothea Rjosk-Dendorfer, Michael Braun, Franz Edler von Koch, Kristin Härtl, Stephan Hasmüller, Ingo Bauerfeind, Gerlinde Debus, Peter Herschbach, Sven Mahner, Nadia Harbeck

    Cancer-related cognitive dysfunction has mostly been attributed to chemotherapy; this explanation, however, fails to account for cognitive dysfunction observed in chemotherapy-naïve patients. In a controlled, longitudinal, multisite study, we tested the hypothesis that cognitive function in breast cancer patients is affected by cancer-related post-traumatic stress.

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Editorial: Post-traumatic Stress as the Primary Cause for Cognitive Decline—Not the Whole Story, and Perhaps No Story at All
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-05-17
    Sanne B. Schagen, Jeffrey S. Wefel

    The last decade has seen a surge in research demonstrating that non–central nervous system cancer and its treatment is associated with cognitive decline in some patients. The decline is typically mild in nature, emerges early or later in the disease and treatment course, and involves primarily memory, executive functioning, and processing speed. Cognitive impairment and brain changes have been observed in cancer patients prior to treatment compared with noncancer control subjects, differentially explained by cancer pathogenesis (1), inflammatory cytokines (2), and fatigue (3). Systemic therapy (mostly chemotherapy [CT] and to a lesser extent endocrine therapy [ET]) has in a dose- (4) and regimen-specific (5–10) manner been associated with cognitive decline, relative to pretreatment cognitive status and in comparison with noncancer control subjects and...

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Spatio-Temporal Genomic Heterogeneity, Phylogeny, and Metastatic Evolution in Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-05-26
    Bin Liu, Yoshitsugu Mitani, Xiayu Rao, Mark Zafereo, Jianjun Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, P. Andrew Futreal, Guillermina Lozano, Adel K. El-Naggar

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), an uncommon and indolent salivary gland malignancy, is characterized by varied morphologic and clinical manifestations. Molecular genetic studies of ACC identified certain structural and mutational alterations that may play a driver role in tumor development. The evolution and regional consistency of these events in ACC development progression are uncertain.

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Association of Common Genetic Variants With Contralateral Breast Cancer Risk in the WECARE Study
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-04-13
    Mark E. Robson, Anne S. Reiner, Jennifer D. Brooks, Patrick J. Concannon, Esther M. John, Lene Mellemkjaer, Leslie Bernstein, Kathleen E. Malone, Julia A. Knight, Charles F. Lynch, Meghan Woods, Xiaolin Liang, Robert W. Haile, David J. Duggan, Roy E. Shore, Susan A. Smith, Duncan C. Thomas, Daniel O. Stram, Jonine L. Bernstein

    Women with unilateral breast cancer (UBC) are at risk of developing a subsequent contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Common variants are associated with breast cancer risk. Whether these influence CBC risk is unknown.

    更新日期:2017-10-17
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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