Advanced Methods for Radiolabeling Multimodality Nanomedicines for SPECT/MRI and PET/MRI J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Jennifer Lamb; Jason P. Holland
The advent of hybrid cameras that combine MRI with either SPECT or PET has stimulated growing interest in developing multimodality imaging probes. Countless options are available for fusing magnetically active species with positron- or γ-ray–emitting radionuclides. The initial problem is one of choice: which chemical systems are a suitable basis for developing hybrid imaging agents? Any attempt to answer this question must also address how the physical, chemical, and biologic properties of a unified imaging agent can be tailored to ensure that optimum specificity and contrast are achieved simultaneously for both imaging modalities. Nanoparticles have emerged as attractive platforms for building multimodality radiotracers for SPECT/MRI and PET/MRI. A wide variety of nanoparticle constructs have been utilized as radiotracers, but irrespective of the particle class, radiolabeling remains a key step. Classic methods for radiolabeling nanoparticles involve functionalization of the particle surface, core, or coating. These modifications typically rely on using traditional metal ion chelate or prosthetic group chemistries. Though seemingly innocuous, appending nanoparticles with these radiolabeling handles can have dramatic effects on important properties such as particle size, charge, and solubility. In turn, alterations in the chemical and physical properties of the nanoparticle often have a negative impact on their pharmacologic profile. A central challenge in radiolabeling nanoparticles is to identify alternative chemical methods that facilitate the introduction of a radioactive nuclide without detrimental effects on the pharmacokinetic and toxicologic properties of the construct. Efforts to solve this challenge have generated a range of innovative chelate-free radiolabeling methods that exploit intrinsic chemical features of nanoparticles. Here, the chemistry of 9 mechanistically distinct methods for radiolabeling nanoparticles is presented. This discourse illustrates the evolution of nanoparticle radiochemistry from classic approaches to modern chelate-free or intrinsic methods.
Dual-Targeted Molecular Imaging of Cancer J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Emily B. Ehlerding; Lingyi Sun; Xiaoli Lan; Dexing Zeng; Weibo Cai
Molecular imaging is critical to personalized and precision medicine. Although singly targeted imaging probes are making an impact both clinically and preclinically, molecular imaging strategies using bispecific probes have enabled improved visualization of cancer in recent years through synergistic targeting of two ligands. In this Focus on Molecular Imaging review, we outline how peptide-, antibody-, and nanoparticle-based platforms have affected this emerging strategy, providing examples and pointing out areas in which the greatest clinical impact may be realized.
The Future of the Past Is the Present: The Role of the UEMS/EBNM in the Current Challenge of Educating Nuclear Medicine Specialists J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Savvas Frangos; Roland Hustinx; Ariane Boubaker; Teresio Varetto; John O. Prior; Mirzaei Siroos; Lorenzo Maffioli
The European Union of Medical Specialists (Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes), or UEMS, was established in 1958 as the representative organization for medical specialists in the European Union (EU) and in the European Economic Area (1). With a current membership of 37 countries, it is the representative organization of the national associations of medical specialists in the EU and its associated countries. Its structure consists of a council responsible for and working through 43 specialist sections and their European boards, addressing specialty-specific training and incorporating representatives from those responsible for training (medical societies, colleges, and universities). One of the roles of the UEMS is the promotion and harmonization of the highest level of training of medical specialists within and beyond the EU and the European Economic Area. It must meet the standards and criteria laid down by the appropriate national training authority and by the individual training programs and be in accordance with the recommendations of the UEMS charter on training of medical specialists and chapter 6 thereof (https://www.uems.eu/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/1415/906.pdf). Postgraduate curricula should also refer to the World Federation for Medical Education global standards (2) for quality improvement in postgraduate medical education, adopted in 2002.
Long–Half-Life 89Zr-Labeled Radiotracers Can Guide Percutaneous Biopsy Within the PET/CT Suite Without Reinjection of Radiotracer J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Francois H. Cornelis; Jeremy C. Durack; Neeta Pandit-Taskar; Gary A. Ulaner; Jason S. Lewis; Michael J. Morris; Stephen B. Solomon
The rationale for this study was to evaluate the feasibility of within-suite 89Zr-labeled radiotracer PET/CT-guided biopsy performed without reinjection. Methods: From 2013 to 2016, 12 patients (7 men, 5 women; mean age, 61 y; range, 40–75 y) with metastatic prostate or breast carcinoma suspected either on imaging or because of biochemical progression underwent 14 percutaneous biopsies after diagnostic PET/CT using 89Zr-labeled radiotracers (mean dose, 180 MBq; range, 126–189 MBq) targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (n = 7) or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (n = 5). Biopsy was performed within a PET/CT suite without radiotracer reinjection. Results: There were no complications in any biopsies, which were performed a mean of 6.2 d (range, 0–13 d) after injection of the radiotracer. The biopsy sites were bone (n = 7), pleura (n = 3), lymph nodes (n = 2), and liver (n = 2). On pathologic examination of the biopsy samples, all were positive for malignancy. The initial diagnostic imaging findings were concordant with the biopsy results. The additional radiation (mean dose–length product) due to the CT procedures was 1,581 mGy/cm (range, 379–2,686 mGy/cm). Conclusion: PET/CT-guided biopsy using 89Zr-labeled radiotracers is safe and effective without tracer reinjection.
Response Assessment of 68Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 PET/CT in Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients Treated with Nintedanib Plus Docetaxel J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Oscar Arrieta; Francisco O. Garcia-Perez; David Michel-Tello; Laura-Alejandra Ramírez-Tirado; Quetzali Pitalua-Cortes; Graciela Cruz-Rico; Eleazar-Omar Macedo-Pérez; Andrés F. Cardona; Jaime de la Garza-Salazar
Nintedanib is an oral angiokinase inhibitor used as second-line treatment for non–small cell lung cancer. New radiotracers, such as 68Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2, that target αvβ3 integrin might have an impact as a noninvasive method for assessing angiogenesis inhibitors. Methods: From July 2011 through October 2015, 38 patients received second-line nintedanib plus docetaxel. All patients underwent PET/CT with 68Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 radiotracer and blood-sample tests to quantify angiogenesis factors (fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor AB) before and after completing 2 therapy cycles. Results: Of the 38 patients, 31 had available baseline and follow-up PET/CT. Baseline lung tumor volume addressed with 68Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 PET/CT correlated with serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels, whereas baseline lung/liver SUVmax index correlated with platelet-derived growth factor AB. After treatment, the overall response rate and disease control rate were 7.9% and 47.3%, respectively. A greater decrease in lung tumor volume (−37.2% vs. –27.6%) was associated with a better disease control rate in patients (P = 0.005). Median progression-free survival was 3.7 mo. Nonsmokers and patients with a higher baseline lung tumor volume were more likely to have a higher progression-free survival (6.4 vs. 3.74 [P = 0.023] and 6.4 vs. 2.1 [P = 0.003], respectively). Overall survival was not reached. Patients with a greater decrease in lung SUVmax (not reached vs. 7.1 mo; P = 0.016) and a greater decrease in the lung/spleen SUVmax index (not reached vs. 7.1; P = 0.043) were more likely to have a longer overall survival. Conclusion: 68Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 PET/CT is a potentially useful tool for assessing responses to angiogenesis inhibitors. Further analysis and novel studies are warranted to identify patients who might benefit from this therapy.
Immune Modulation Therapy and Imaging: Workshop Report J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Anthony F. Shields; Paula M. Jacobs; Mario Sznol; Michael M. Graham; Ron N. Germain; Lawrence G. Lum; Elizabeth M. Jaffee; Elisabeth G.E. de Vries; Sridhar Nimmagadda; Annick D. Van den Abbeele; David K. Leung; Anna M. Wu; Elad Sharon; Lalitha K. Shankar
A workshop at the National Cancer Institute on May 2, 2016, considered the current state of imaging in assessment of immunotherapy. Immunotherapy has shown some remarkable and prolonged responses in the treatment of tumors. However, responses are variable and frequently delayed, complicating the evaluation of new immunotherapy agents and customizing treatment for individual patients. Early anatomic imaging may show that a tumor has increased in size, but this could represent pseudoprogression. On the basis of imaging, clinicians must decide if they should stop, pause, or continue treatment. Other imaging technologies and approaches are being developed to improve the measurement of response in patients receiving immunotherapy. Imaging methods that are being evaluated include radiomic methods using CT, MRI, and 18F-FDG PET, as well as new radiolabeled small molecules, antibodies, and antibody fragments to image the tumor microenvironment, immune status, and changes over the course of therapy. Current studies of immunotherapy can take advantage of these available imaging options to explore and validate their use. Collection of CT, PET, and MR images along with outcomes from trials is critical to develop improved methods of assessment.
Intended Versus Inferred Treatment After 18F-Fluoride PET Performed for Evaluation of Osseous Metastatic Disease in the National Oncologic PET Registry J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Bruce E. Hillner; Lucy Hanna; Rajesh Makineni; Fenghai Duan; Anthony F. Shields; Rathan M. Subramaniam; Ilana Gareen; Barry A. Siegel
We have previously reported that PET with 18F-fluoride (NaF PET) for assessment of osseous metastatic disease led to changes in intended management in a substantial fraction of patients with prostate or other types of cancer participating in the National Oncologic PET Registry. This study was performed to assess the concordance of intended patient management after NaF PET and inferred management based on analysis of Medicare claims. Methods: We analyzed linked post–NaF PET data of consenting National Oncologic PET Registry participants age 65 y or older from 2011 to 2014 and their corresponding Medicare claims. Post–NaF PET treatment plans, including combinations of 2 modes of therapy, were assessed for their concordance with clinical actions inferred from Medicare claims. NaF PET studies were stratified by indication (initial staging [IS] or suspected first osseous metastasis [FOM]) and cancer type (prostate, lung, or other cancers). Agreement was assessed between post–NaF PET intended management plans for treatment (surgery, radiotherapy, or systemic therapy) within 90 d for lung and 180 d for prostate or other cancers, and for watching (the absence of treatment claims for ≥60 d) as compared with claims-inferred care. Results: Actions after 9,898 scans were assessed. After NaF PET for IS, there was claims agreement for planned surgery in 76.0% (19/25) lung, 75.4% (98/130) other cancers, and 58.9% (298/506) prostate cancer. Claims confirmed chemotherapy plans after NaF PET done for IS or FOM in 81.0% and 73.5% for lung cancer (n = 148 and 136) and 69.4% and 67.5% for other cancers (n = 111 and 228). For radiotherapy plans, agreement ranged from 80.0% to 84.4% after IS and 68.4% to 74.0% for suspected FOM. Concordance was greatest for androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) (86.0%, n = 308) alone or combined with radiotherapy in prostate cancer IS (80.8%, n = 517). In prostate FOM, the concordance across all treatment plans was lower if the patients had ADT claims within 180 d before NaF PET. Agreement with nontreatment plans was high for FOM (87.2% in other cancers and 78.6% if no prior ADT in prostate) and low after IS (40.7%–62.5%). Conclusion: Concordance of post–NaF PET plans and claims was substantial and higher overall for IS than for FOM.
Hospice Admission and Survival After 18F-Fluoride PET Performed for Evaluation of Osseous Metastatic Disease in the National Oncologic PET Registry J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Ilana F. Gareen; Bruce E. Hillner; Lucy Hanna; Rajesh Makineni; Fenghai Duan; Anthony F. Shields; Rathan M. Subramaniam; Barry A. Siegel
We have previously reported that PET using 18F-fluoride (NaF PET) for assessment of osseous metastatic disease was associated with substantial changes in intended management in Medicare beneficiaries participating in the National Oncologic PET Registry (NOPR). Here, we use Medicare administrative data to examine the association between NaF PET results and hospice claims within 180 d and 1-y survival. Methods: We classified NOPR NaF PET results linked to Medicare claims by imaging indication (initial staging [IS]; detection of suspected first osseous metastasis [FOM]; suspected progression of osseous metastasis [POM]; or treatment monitoring [TM]) and type of cancer (prostate, lung, breast, or other). Results were classified as definitely positive scan findings versus probably positive scan findings versus negative scan findings for osseous metastasis for IS and FOM; more extensive disease versus no change or less extensive disease for POM; and worse prognosis versus no change or better prognosis for TM, based on the postscan assessment. Our study included 21,167 scans obtained from 2011 to 2014 of consenting NOPR participants aged 65 y or older. Results: The relative risk of hospice claims within 180 d of a NaF PET scan was 2.0–7.5 times higher for patients with evidence of new or progressing osseous metastasis than for those without, depending on indication and cancer type (all P < 0.008). The percentage difference in hospice claims for those with a finding of new or more advanced osseous disease ranged from 3.9% for IS prostate patients to 28% for FOM lung patients. Six-month survival was also associated with evidence of new or increased osseous disease; risk of death was 1.8–5.1 times as likely (all P ≤ 0.0001), with percentage differences of approximately 30% comparing positive and negative scans in patients with lung cancer imaged for IS or FOM. Conclusion: Our analyses demonstrated that NaF PET scan results are highly associated with subsequent hospice claims and, ultimately, with patient survival. NaF PET provides important information on the presence of osseous metastasis and prognosis to assist patients and their physicians when making decisions on whether to select palliative care and transition to hospice or whether to continue treatment.
Impact of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT on the Management of Prostate Cancer Patients with Biochemical Recurrence J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Jeremie Calais; Wolfgang P. Fendler; Matthias Eiber; Jeannine Gartmann; Fang-I Chu; Nicholas G. Nickols; Robert E. Reiter; Matthew B. Rettig; Leonard S. Marks; Thomas E. Ahlering; Linda M. Huynh; Roger Slavik; Pawan Gupta; Andrew Quon; Martin S. Allen-Auerbach; Johannes Czernin; Ken Herrmann
In this prospective survey of referring physicians, we investigated whether and how 68Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen 11 (68Ga-PSMA-11) PET/CT affects the implemented management of prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR). Methods: We conducted a prospective survey of physicians (NCT02940262) who referred 161 patients with prostate cancer BCR (median prostate-specific antigen value, 1.7 ng/mL; range, 0.05–202 ng/mL). Referring physicians completed one questionnaire before the scan to indicate the treatment plan without 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT information (Q1; n = 101), one immediately after the scan to denote intended management changes (Q2; n = 101), and one 3–6 mo later to document the final implemented management (Q3; n = 56). The implemented management was also obtained via electronic chart review or patient contact (n = 45). Results: A complete documented management strategy (Q1 + Q2 + implemented management) was available for 101 of 161 patients (63%). Seventy-six of these (75%) had a positive 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT result. The implemented management differed from the prescan intended management (Q1) in 54 of 101 patients (53%). The postscan intended management (Q2) differed from the prescan intended management (Q1) in 62 of 101 patients (61%); however, these intended changes were not implemented in 29 of 62 patients (47%). Pelvic nodal and extrapelvic metastatic disease on 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT (PSMA T0N1M0 and PSMA T0N1M1 patterns) was significantly associated with implemented management changes (P = 0.001 and 0.05). Conclusion: Information from 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT brings about management changes in more than 50% of prostate cancer patients with BCR (54/101; 53%). However, intended management changes early after 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT frequently differ from implemented management changes.
64CuCl2 PET/CT in Prostate Cancer Relapse J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Arnoldo Piccardo; Francesco Paparo; Matteo Puntoni; Sergio Righi; Gianluca Bottoni; Lorenzo Bacigalupo; Silvia Zanardi; Andrea DeCensi; Giulia Ferrarazzo; Monica Gambaro; Filippo Grillo Ruggieri; Fabio Campodonico; Laura Tomasello; Luca Timossi; Simona Sola; Egesta Lopci; Manlio Cabria
Our objective was to evaluate the biodistribution, kinetics, and radiation dosimetry of 64CuCl2 in humans and to assess the ability of 64CuCl2 PET/CT to detect prostate cancer (PCa) recurrence in patients with biochemical relapse. Methods: We prospectively evaluated 50 PCa patients with biochemical relapse after surgery or external-beam radiation therapy. All patients underwent 64CuCl2 PET/CT, 18F-choline PET/CT, and multiparametric MRI within 15 d of each other. Experienced readers interpreted the images, and the detection rate (DR) of each imaging modality was calculated. Histopathology, when available; clinical or laboratory response; and multidisciplinary follow-up were used to confirm the site of disease. In parallel, biodistribution, kinetics of the lesions, and radiation dosimetry of 64CuCl2 were evaluated. Results: From a dosimetric point of view, an administered dose of 200 MBq for 64CuCl2 translated into a 5.7-mSv effective dose. Unlike 18F-choline, 64CuCl2 was not excreted or accumulated in the urinary tract, thus allowing thorough pelvic exploration. The maximum 64CuCl2 uptake at the sites of PCa relapse was observed 1 h after tracer injection. In our cohort, 64CuCl2 PET/CT proved positive in 41 of 50 patients, with an overall DR of 82%. The DRs of 18F-choline PET/CT and multiparametric MRI were 56% and 74%, respectively. The difference between the DRs of 64CuCl2 PET/CT and 18F-choline PET/CT was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Interestingly, on considering prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value, 64CuCl2 PET/CT had a higher DR than 18F-choline PET/CT in patients with a PSA of less than 1 ng/mL. Conclusion: The biodistribution of 64CuCl2 is more suitable than that of 18F-choline for exploring the pelvis and prostatic bed. The 64CuCl2 effective dose is like those of other established PET tracers. In patients with biochemical relapse and a low PSA level, 64CuCl2 PET/CT shows a significantly higher DR than 18F-choline PET/CT.
Persistent Hematologic Dysfunction after Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy with 177Lu-DOTATATE: Incidence, Course, and Predicting Factors in Patients with Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Hendrik Bergsma; Kirsten van Lom; Marc H.G.P. Raaijmakers; M. Konijnenberg; B.L. Boen L.R. Kam; Jaap J.M. Teunissen; Wouter W. de Herder; Eric P. Krenning; Dik J. Kwekkeboom
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) may induce long-term toxicity to the bone marrow (BM). The aim of this study was to analyze persistent hematologic dysfunction (PHD) after PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE in patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP NETs). Methods: The incidence and course of PHD were analyzed in 274 GEP NET patients from a group of 367 patients with somatostatin receptor–positive tumors. PHD was defined as diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), MDS/MPN, or otherwise unexplained cytopenia (for >6 mo). Using data from The Netherlands Cancer Registry, the expected number of hematopoietic neoplasms (MDS, AML, MPN, and MDS/MPN) was calculated and adjusted for sex, age, and follow-up period. The following risk factors were assessed: sex, age over 70 y, bone metastasis, prior chemotherapy, prior external-beam radiotherapy, uptake on the [111In-DTPA0]octreotide scan, tumor load, grade 3–4 hematologic toxicity during treatment, estimated absorbed BM dose, elevated plasma chromogranin A level, baseline blood counts, and renal function. Results: Eleven (4%) of the 274 patients had PHD after treatment with 177Lu-DOTATATE: 8 patients (2.9%) developed a hematopoietic neoplasm (4 MDS, 1 AML, 1 MPN, and 2 MDS/MPN) and 3 patients (1.1%) developed BM failure characterized by cytopenia and BM aplasia. The median latency period at diagnosis (or first suspicion of a PHD) was 41 mo (range, 15–84 mo). The expected number of hematopoietic neoplasms based on The Netherlands Cancer Registry data was 3.0, resulting in a relative risk of 2.7 (95% confidence interval, 0.7–10.0). No risk factors for PHD could be identified for the GEP NET patients, not even bone metastasis or estimated BM dose. Seven patients with PHD developed anemia in combination with a rise in mean corpuscular volume. Conclusion: The prevalence of PHD after PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE was 4% in our patient population. The median time at which PHD developed was 41 mo after the first PRRT cycle. The relative risk for developing a hematopoietic neoplasm was 2.7. No risk factors were found for the development of PHD in GEP NET patients.
Repeated 177Lu-Labeled PSMA-617 Radioligand Therapy Using Treatment Activities of Up to 9.3 GBq J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Hendrik Rathke; Frederik L. Giesel; Paul Flechsig; Klaus Kopka; Walter Mier; Markus Hohenfellner; Uwe Haberkorn; Clemens Kratochwil
Current treatment protocols for 177Lu-labeled PSMA-617 therapies were cautiously derived from dosimetry data, but their practical appropriateness has not yet been proven clinically. We retrospectively report our clinical observations using 4 different treatment activities. Methods: Forty patients with advanced prostate cancer and positive uptake in prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) imaging were treated with 4 GBq of 177Lu activity/80 nmol of precursor, 6 GBq of 177Lu activity/120 nmol of precursor, 7.4 GBq of 177Lu activity/150 nmol of precursor, or 9.3 GBq of 177Lu activity/150 nmol of precursor (10 patients per group) every 2 mo. Safety was checked every 2 wk by laboratory tests, the prostate-specific antigen response was checked every 4 wk, and other effects were assessed by anamnesis. Results: The initial prostate-specific antigen response showed no correlation with treatment activity. However, 2 of 10, 4 of 10, 4 of 10, and 7 of 10 patients receiving doses of 4, 6, 7.4, and 9.3 GBq, respectively, were in partial remission 8 wk after completing all 3 cycles. This finding would be in line with but—because of low patient numbers—would not prove a positive dose–response relationship. Acute hematologic toxicity was also not correlated with treatment activity, and no more than 1 patient per group had grade 3/4 toxicity. Nevertheless, in contrast to the findings for the other groups, the mean platelet count in the 9.3-GBq group decreased chronically over time. Conclusion: If patients with diffuse red marrow infiltration and extensive chemotherapeutic pretreatments are excluded, then treatment activities of up to 3 injections of 9.3 GBq of 177Lu-PSMA-617 every 2 mo are tolerated well. Further dose escalation should be conducted with care, as the highest dose seems to be close to the maximum tolerable dose.
Prostate Cancer Molecular Imaging Standardized Evaluation (PROMISE): Proposed miTNM Classification for the Interpretation of PSMA-Ligand PET/CT J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Matthias Eiber; Ken Herrmann; Jeremie Calais; Boris Hadaschik; Frederik L. Giesel; Markus Hartenbach; Thomas Hope; Robert Reiter; Tobias Maurer; Wolfgang A. Weber; Wolfgang P. Fendler
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)–ligand PET imaging provides unprecedented accuracy for whole-body staging of prostate cancer. As PSMA-ligand PET/CT is increasingly adopted in clinical trials and routine practice worldwide, a unified language for image reporting is urgently needed. We propose a molecular imaging TNM system (miTNM, version 1.0) as a standardized reporting framework for PSMA-ligand PET/CT or PET/MRI. miTNM is designed to organize findings in comprehensible categories to promote the exchange of information among physicians and institutions. Additionally, flowcharts integrating findings of PSMA-ligand PET and morphologic imaging have been designed to guide image interpretation. Specific applications, such as assessment of prognosis or impact on management, should be evaluated in future trials. miTNM is a living framework that evolves with clinical experience and scientific data.
Low-Level Endogenous PSMA Expression in Nonprostatic Tumor Xenografts Is Sufficient for In Vivo Tumor Targeting and Imaging J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Sridhar Nimmagadda; Mrudula Pullambhatla; Ying Chen; Princy Parsana; Ala Lisok; Samit Chatterjee; Ronnie Mease; Steven P. Rowe; Shawn Lupold; Kenneth J. Pienta; Martin G. Pomper
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly expressed in prostate cancer and within the neovasculature of other solid tumors. The nonprostatic expression of PSMA has been reported exclusively within the neovasculature endothelial cells of nonprostatic cancers; however, there are few reports on PSMA expression in epithelial cells. Herein, we describe PSMA expression in nonprostatic epithelial cells and characterize the potential of PSMA-binding agents to noninvasively detect that expression. Methods: PSMA expression data were extracted from publicly available genomic databases. Genomic data were experimentally validated for PSMA expression—by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and Western blotting—in several nonprostatic cell lines and xenografts of melanoma and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) origin. The feasibility of PSMA detection in those tumor models was further established using PSMA-based nuclear and optical imaging agents and by biodistribution, blocking, and ex vivo molecular characterization studies. Results: We discovered that a small percentage of nonprostatic cancer cell lines and tumors express PSMA. Importantly, PSMA expression was sufficiently high to image established melanoma and SCLC xenografts using PSMA-based nuclear and optical imaging agents. Conclusion: These results indicate that PSMA expression in nonprostatic tumors may not be limited to the endothelium but may also include solid tumor tissue of nonprostatic cancers including melanoma and SCLC. Our observations indicate broader applicability of PSMA-targeted imaging and therapeutics.
Characterization of Site-Specifically Conjugated Monomethyl Auristatin E– and Duocarmycin-Based Anti-PSMA Antibody–Drug Conjugates for Treatment of PSMA-Expressing Tumors J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Susanne Lütje; Danny Gerrits; Janneke D. Molkenboer-Kuenen; Ken Herrmann; Giulio Fracasso; Marco Colombatti; Otto C. Boerman; Sandra Heskamp
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer in men worldwide. In general, PCa responds poorly to chemotherapy. Therefore, antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) have been developed to specifically deliver highly cytotoxic drugs to the tumor. Because the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in PCa, it represents a promising target for ADC-based therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of site-specifically conjugated duocarmycin- and monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE)–based anti-PSMA ADCs with drug-to-antibody ratios (DARs) of 2 and 4. Methods: The glycan group of the anti-PSMA antibody D2B was chemoenzymatically conjugated with duocarmycin or MMAE. Preservation of the immunoreactivity of the antibody on site-specific conjugation was investigated in vitro. Biodistribution and small-animal SPECT/CT imaging (18.5 ± 2.6 MBq) with 25 μg of 111In-labeled ADCs were performed on BALB/c nude mice with subcutaneous PSMA-positive LS174T-PSMA xenografts. Finally, the therapeutic efficacy of the 4 different ADCs was assessed in mice with LS174T-PSMA tumors. Results: The immunoreactivity of the anti-PSMA antibody was preserved on site-specific conjugation. Biodistribution revealed high tumor uptake of all agents. The highest tumor uptake was observed in mice administered with 111In-D2B-DAR2-MMAE, reaching 119.7 ± 37.4 percentage injected dose per gram at 3 d after injection. Tumors of mice injected with 111In-D2B, 111In-D2B-DAR2-duocarmycin, 111In-D2B-DAR4-duocarmycin, 111In-D2B-DAR2-MMAE, and 111In-D2B-DAR4-MMAE could clearly be visualized with small-animal SPECT/CT. In contrast to unconjugated D2B or vehicle, treatment with either of the MMAE-based ADCs, but not with a duocarmycin-based ADC, significantly impaired tumor growth and prolonged median survival from 13 d (phosphate-buffered saline) to 20 and 29 d for DAR2 and DAR4 ADC, respectively. Tumor-doubling time increased from 3.5 ± 0.5 d to 5.2 ± 1.8 and 9.2 ± 2.1 d after treatment with D2B-DAR2-MMAE and D2B-DAR4-MMAE, respectively. Conclusion: The site-specifically conjugated anti-PSMA ADCs D2B-DAR2-MMAE and D2B-DAR4-MMAE efficiently targeted PSMA-expressing xenografts, effectively inhibited tumor growth of PSMA-expressing tumors, and significantly prolonged survival of mice.
Validation of Postinduction Curie Scores in High-Risk Neuroblastoma: A Children’s Oncology Group and SIOPEN Group Report on SIOPEN/HR-NBL1 J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Gregory A. Yanik; Marguerite T. Parisi; Arlene Naranjo; Helen Nadel; Michael J. Gelfand; Julie R. Park; Ruth L. Ladenstein; Ulrike Poetschger; Ariane Boubaker; Dominique Valteau-Couanet; Bieke Lambert; Maria-Rita Castellani; Zvi Bar-Sever; Aurore Oudoux; Anna Kaminska; Susan G. Kreissman; Barry L. Shulkin; Katherine K. Matthay
A semiquantitative 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scoring method (the Curie score, or CS) was previously examined in the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) high-risk neuroblastoma trial, COG A3973, with a postinduction CS of more than 2 being associated with poor event-free survival (EFS). The validation of the CS in an independent dataset, International Society of Paediatric Oncology European Neuroblastoma/High-Risk Neuroblastoma 1 (SIOPEN/HR-NBL1), is now reported. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 123I-MIBG scans obtained from patients who had been prospectively enrolled in SIOPEN/HR-NBL1 was performed. All patients exhibited 123I-MIBG–avid, International Neuroblastoma Staging System stage 4 neuroblastoma. 123I-MIBG scans were evaluated at 2 time points, diagnosis (n = 345) and postinduction (n = 330), before consolidation myeloablative therapy. Scans of 10 anatomic regions were evaluated, with each region being scored 0–3 on the basis of disease extent and a cumulative CS generated. Cut points for outcome analysis were identified by Youden methodology. CSs from patients enrolled in COG A3973 were used for comparison. Results: The optimal cut point for CS at diagnosis was 12 in SIOPEN/HR-NBL1, with a significant outcome difference by CS noted (5-y EFS, 43.0% ± 5.7% [CS ≤ 12] vs. 21.4% ± 3.6% [CS > 12], P < 0.0001). The optimal CS cut point after induction was 2 in SIOPEN/HR-NBL1, with a postinduction CS of more than 2 being associated with an inferior outcome (5-y EFS, 39.2% ± 4.7% [CS ≤ 2] vs. 16.4% ± 4.2% [CS > 2], P < 0.0001). The postinduction CS maintained independent statistical significance in Cox models when adjusted for the covariates of age and MYCN gene copy number. Conclusion: The prognostic significance of postinduction CSs has now been validated in an independent cohort of patients (SIOPEN/HR-NBL1), with a postinduction CS of more than 2 being associated with an inferior outcome in 2 independent large, cooperative group trials.
Neuroinflammation Appears Early on PET Imaging and Then Plateaus in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer Disease J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Francisco R. López-Picón; Anniina Snellman; Olli Eskola; Semi Helin; Olof Solin; Merja Haaparanta-Solin; Juha O. Rinne
Neuroinflammation has been associated with various neurologic diseases, including Alzheimer disease (AD). In AD, the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is overexpressed in the activated microglia that surround the β-amyloid plaques. In the current longitudinal study using a mouse model of AD, we evaluated the association between β-amyloid deposition and neuroinflammation in AD. Methods: To monitor the longitudinal changes in β-amyloid deposition and neuroinflammation, we used in vivo PET imaging and ex vivo autoradiography with Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PIB) and a TSPO tracer, flutriciclamide (18F-GE-180), in the APP23 mouse model of AD. We also applied immunohistochemistry to study β-amyloid and activated microglia in the mouse brain tissue. Results: From 17 to 26 mo of age, the mice showed robust increased binding of 11C-PIB with aging in the frontal cortex, parietotemporal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus whereas the increase in 18F-GE-180 binding with aging was minimal in areas of early amyloidosis such as the frontal cortex and hippocampus. A clear positive correlation between β-amyloid deposition and neuroinflammation was detected with 11C-PIB and 18F-GE-180 only in the parietotemporal cortex and thalamus. Conclusion: The neuroinflammation increase detected with 18F-GE-180 is less than the increase in amyloidosis detected with 11C-PIB. Furthermore, binding of 18F-GE-180 plateaus at an earlier stage of pathogenesis whereas amyloidosis continues to increase. We suggest that TSPO can be a good marker for early pathogenesis detection but not for tracking long-term disease progression.
Thermal Imaging Is a Noninvasive Alternative to PET/CT for Measurement of Brown Adipose Tissue Activity in Humans J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 James Law; David E. Morris; Chioma Izzi-Engbeaya; Victoria Salem; Christopher Coello; Lindsay Robinson; Maduka Jayasinghe; Rebecca Scott; Roger Gunn; Eugenii Rabiner; Tricia Tan; Waljit S. Dhillo; Stephen Bloom; Helen Budge; Michael E. Symonds
Obesity and its metabolic consequences are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) utilizes glucose and free fatty acids to produce heat, thereby increasing energy expenditure. Effective evaluation of human BAT stimulators is constrained by the current standard method of assessing BAT—PET/CT—as it requires exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a potential noninvasive, safe alternative, although direct corroboration with PET/CT has not been established. Methods: IRT and 18F-FDG PET/CT data from 8 healthy men subjected to water-jacket cooling were directly compared. Thermal images were geometrically transformed to overlay PET/CT-derived maximum intensity projection (MIP) images from each subject, and the areas with the most intense temperature and glucose uptake within the supraclavicular regions were compared. Relationships between supraclavicular temperatures (TSCR) from IRT and the metabolic rate of glucose uptake (MR(gluc)) from PET/CT were determined. Results: Glucose uptake on MR(gluc)MIP was found to correlate positively with a change in TSCR relative to a reference region (r2 = 0.721; P = 0.008). Spatial overlap between areas of maximal MR(gluc)MIP and maximal TSCR was 29.5% ± 5.1%. Prolonged cooling, for 60 min, was associated with a further TSCR rise, compared with cooling for 10 min. Conclusion: The supraclavicular hotspot identified on IRT closely corresponded to the area of maximal uptake on PET/CT-derived MR(gluc)MIP images. Greater increases in relative TSCR were associated with raised glucose uptake. IRT should now be considered a suitable method for measuring BAT activation, especially in populations for whom PET/CT is not feasible, practical, or repeatable.
PET/MRI in the Diagnosis of Hormone-Producing Pituitary Microadenoma: A Prospective Pilot Study J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Hao Wang; Bo Hou; Lin Lu; Ming Feng; Jie Zang; Shaobo Yao; Feng Feng; Renzhi Wang; Fang Li; Zhaohui Zhu
This study was designed to evaluate the ability of PET/MRI, using 18F-FDG and 68Ga-DOTATATE as tracers, to detect hormone-producing pituitary microadenoma when diagnosis is difficult using MRI alone. Methods: We recruited 37 patients with elevated hormone levels, including 19 with undiagnosable primary pituitary adenoma and 18 with suspected recurrent pituitary adenoma. 18F-FDG PET/MRI and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/MRI were performed within 1 wk of each other in all patients. Within 2 wk afterward, 27 of the 37 patients underwent transsphenoidal adenomectomy, 3 underwent sella region radiotherapy, 1 underwent somatostatin therapy, and 6 had only clinical follow-up. The image characteristics and uptake levels were correlated with the surgical findings and pathologic results. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were analyzed to determine the optimal cutoff to differentiate adenoma from normal pituitary tissue. The area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve was calculated to compare diagnostic performance. Results: The PET/MR images were of diagnostic quality and without obvious image artifacts. The high contrast of the PET images provided complementary information to the fine anatomic display of the MR images. Increased 18F-FDG uptake was clearly observed in all patients. MRI enhanced using a 0.05 mmol/kg dose of gadopentetate dimeglumine showed suggestive findings in only 47% of the patients with primary adenoma and 39% of those with recurrent adenoma; when a 0.1 mmol/kg dose was used, the respective percentages were 37% and 50%. The 18F-FDG SUVmax of the 16 primary adenomas that underwent transsphenoidal adenomectomy (6.8 ± 3.7) was significantly higher than that of normal pituitary tissue (3.2 ± 1.1, P < 0.01). The adenomas showed moderate 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake (SUVmax, 3.8 ± 2.6), but the 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake was generally lower than that of normal pituitary tissue (SUVmax, 6.2 ± 3.2, P < 0.05). In the 11 suspected recurrent pituitary adenomas that underwent transsphenoidal adenomectomy, the 18F-FDG SUVmax was 6.1 ± 3.5, significantly higher than that of normal pituitary tissue (2.5 ± 1.1, P < 0.01), and the 68Ga-DOTATATE SUVmax was 3.0 ± 1.1, significantly lower than that of normal pituitary tissue (5.5 ± 1.7, P < 0.01). The 18F-FDG/68Ga-DOTATATE SUVmax ratio of the adenomas (2.3 ± 1.5) was significantly higher than that of normal pituitary tissue (0.6 ± 0.3, P < 0.05). When the 18F-FDG SUVmax alone and the 18F-FDG/68Ga-DOTATATE SUVmax ratio were used as criteria to discriminate between adenoma and pituitary tissue, the best analysis came from the ratio, and that from 18F-FDG SUVmax alone was slightly less, with optimal diagnostic cutoffs of 1.04 and 3.88, respectively. Conclusion: PET/MRI provides an ideal tool for the detection of hormone-producing pituitary microadenoma. Dual-tracer 18F-FDG and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/MRI was useful for distinguishing pituitary microadenoma from normal pituitary tissue.
Synthesis and Biologic Evaluation of a Novel 18F-Labeled Adnectin as a PET Radioligand for Imaging PD-L1 Expression J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 David J. Donnelly; R. Adam Smith; Paul Morin; Daša Lipovšek; Jochem Gokemeijer; Daniel Cohen; Virginie Lafont; Tritin Tran; Erin L. Cole; Martin Wright; Joonyoung Kim; Adrienne Pena; Daniel Kukral; Douglas D. Dischino; Patrick Chow; Jinping Gan; Olufemi Adelakun; Xi-Tao Wang; Kai Cao; David Leung; Samuel J. Bonacorsi, Jr.; Wendy Hayes
The programmed death protein (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) play critical roles in a checkpoint pathway cancer cells exploit to evade the immune system. A same-day PET imaging agent for measuring PD-L1 status in primary and metastatic lesions could be important for optimizing drug therapy. Herein, we have evaluated the tumor targeting of an anti–PD-L1 adnectin after 18F-fluorine labeling. Methods: An anti–PD-L1 adnectin was labeled with 18F in 2 steps. This synthesis featured fluorination of a novel prosthetic group, followed by a copper-free click conjugation to a modified adnectin to generate 18F-BMS-986192. 18F-BMS-986192 was evaluated in tumors using in vitro autoradiography and PET with mice bearing bilateral PD-L1–negative (PD-L1(–)) and PD-L1–positive (PD-L1(+)) subcutaneous tumors. 18F-BMS-986192 was evaluated for distribution, binding, and radiation dosimetry in a healthy cynomolgus monkey. Results: 18F-BMS-986192 bound to human and cynomolgus PD-L1 with a dissociation constant of less than 35 pM, as measured by surface plasmon resonance. This adnectin was labeled with 18F to yield a PET radioligand for assessing PD-L1 expression in vivo. 18F-BMS-986192 bound to tumor tissues as a function of PD-L1 expression determined by immunohistochemistry. Radioligand binding was blocked in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo PET imaging clearly visualized PD-L1 expression in mice implanted with PD-L1(+), L2987 xenograft tumors. Two hours after dosing, a 3.5-fold-higher uptake (2.41 ± 0.29 vs. 0.82 ± 0.11 percentage injected dose per gram, P < 0.0001) was observed in L2987 than in control HT-29 (PD-L1(–)) tumors. Coadministration of 3 mg/kg ADX_5322_A02 anti–PD-L1 adnectin reduced tumor uptake at 2 h after injection by approximately 70%, whereas HT-29 uptake remained unchanged, demonstrating PD-L1–specific binding. Biodistribution in a nonhuman primate showed binding in the PD-L1–rich spleen, with rapid blood clearance through the kidneys and bladder. Binding in the PD-L1(+) spleen was reduced by coadministration of BMS-986192. Dosimetry estimates indicate that the kidney is the dose-limiting organ, with an estimated human absorbed dose of 2.20E–01 mSv/MBq. Conclusion: 18F-BMS-986192 demonstrated the feasibility of noninvasively imaging the PD-L1 status of tumors by small-animal PET studies. Clinical studies with 18F-BMS-986192 are under way to measure PD-L1 expression in human tumors.
Performance of a PET Insert for High-Resolution Small-Animal PET/MRI at 7 Tesla J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Greg Stortz; Jonathan D. Thiessen; Daryl Bishop; Muhammad Salman Khan; Piotr Kozlowski; Fabrice Retière; Graham Schellenberg; Ehsan Shams; Xuezhu Zhang; Christopher J. Thompson; Andrew L. Goertzen; Vesna Sossi
We characterize a compact MR-compatible PET insert for simultaneous preclinical PET/MRI. Although specifically designed with the strict size constraint to fit inside the 114-mm inner diameter of the BGA-12S gradient coil used in the BioSpec 70/20 and 94/20 series of small-animal MRI systems, the insert can easily be installed in any appropriate MRI scanner or used as a stand-alone PET system. Methods: The insert consists of a ring of 16 detector-blocks each made from depth-of-interaction–capable dual-layer-offset arrays of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate crystals read out by silicon photomultiplier arrays. Scintillator crystal arrays are made from 22 × 10 and 21 × 9 crystals in the bottom and top layers, respectively, with respective layer thicknesses of 6 and 4 mm, arranged with a 1.27-mm pitch, resulting in a useable field of view 28 mm long and about 55 mm wide. Results: Spatial resolution ranged from 1.17 to 1.86 mm full width at half maximum in the radial direction from a radial offset of 0–15 mm. With a 300- to 800-keV energy window, peak sensitivity was 2.2% and noise-equivalent count rate from a mouse-sized phantom at 3.7 MBq was 11.1 kcps and peaked at 20.8 kcps at 14.5 MBq. Phantom imaging showed that features as small as 0.7 mm could be resolved. 18F-FDG PET/MR images of mouse and rat brains showed no signs of intermodality interference and could excellently resolve substructures within the brain. Conclusion: Because of excellent spatial resolvability and lack of intermodality interference, this PET insert will serve as a useful tool for preclinical PET/MR.
Why Targeting PSMA Is a Game Changer in the Management of Prostate Cancer J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Nicholas M. Donin; Robert E. Reiter
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly expressed on prostate adenocarcinomas, exhibits only limited expression in benign and extraprostatic tissues, and thus represents an ideal target for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Since its discovery over 30 y ago, significant effort has been made to develop clinical technology targeting PSMA. The last 5 y have seen an explosion of development of new agents targeting PSMA for diagnostic and therapeutic use. Imaging agents targeting PSMA have been developed for SPECT and PET platforms. PSMA PET imaging appears to outperform traditional imaging in the high-risk localized-disease state, in patients with biochemical recurrence after treatment, and in advanced disease. To date, most of the reported clinical studies of therapeutic agents have used PSMA-targeted radiometals to deliver β-radiation to metastatic disease sites, with 177Lu being the most widely investigated therapeutic radioisotope. Studies of both antibodies and small-molecule agents have been published and have demonstrated encouraging results. Safety appears generally limited to mild transient bone marrow toxicity and xerostomia because of uptake of the small-molecule agents in the salivary glands. Radiologic responses can be dramatic, and decreases in pain have been observed. The effect on overall survival, however, has yet to be demonstrated.
In Vivo Imaging of Pro- and Antitumoral Cellular Components of the Tumor Microenvironment J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Anne Helfen; Johannes Roth; Tony Ng; Michel Eisenblaetter
Tumor development and growth, as well as metastatic spread, are strongly influenced by various, mostly innate, immune cells, which are recruited to the tumor site and driven to establish a specific tumor-supportive microenvironment. The contents of this microenvironment, such as myeloid cells, are a major factor in the overall prognosis of malignant disease, addressed by a constantly growing armament of therapeutic interventions targeting tumor-supportive immune cells. Current clinical imaging has long ignored the growing need for diagnostic approaches addressing these microenvironmental contents—approaches enabling a sensitive and specific classification of tumor immune crosstalk and the resulting tumor-associated immune cell activity. In this focus article we review the present status of, and promising developments in, the in vivo molecular imaging of tumor immune components designed to allow for inferences to be made on the cross-talk between tumor cells and the immune system. Current imaging modalities based on the infiltrating cell types are briefly discussed.
Responsible Radiomics Research for Faster Clinical Translation J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Martin Vallières; Alex Zwanenburg; Bodgan Badic; Catherine Cheze Le Rest; Dimitris Visvikis; Mathieu Hatt
It is now recognized that intratumoral heterogeneity is associated with more aggressive tumor phenotypes leading to poor patient outcomes (1). Medical imaging plays a central role in related investigations, because radiologic images are routinely acquired during cancer management. Imaging modalities such as 18F-FDG PET, CT, and MRI are minimally invasive and would constitute an immense source of potential data for decoding tumor phenotypes (2). Computer-aided diagnosis methods and systems exploiting medical images have been developed for decades, but their wide clinical implementation has been hampered by false-positive rates (3). As a consequence, routine clinical exploitation of images still consists mostly of visual or manual assessments. Today, the development of machine-learning techniques and the rise of computational power allow for the exploitation of a large number of quantitative features (4). This ability has led to a new incarnation of computer-aided diagnosis, “radiomics,” which refers to the characterization of tumor phenotypes via the extraction of high-dimensional mineable data—for example, morphologic, intensity-based, fractal-based, and textural features—from medical images and whose subsequent analysis aims at supporting clinical decision making.
Early Evaluation of Response Using 18F-FDG PET Influences Management in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Imatinib J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Sheima Farag; Lioe-Fee de Geus-Oei; Winette T. van der Graaf; Frits van Coevorden; Dirk Grunhagen; Anna K.L. Reyners; Pieter A. Boonstra; Ingrid Desar; Hans Gelderblom; Neeltje Steeghs
18F-FDG PET has previously been proven effective as an early way to evaluate the response of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) to imatinib treatment. However, it is unclear whether early evaluation of response affects treatment decisions in GIST patients treated with neoadjuvant intent. Methods: We retrospectively scored changes in management based on early evaluation of response by 18F-FDG PET in patients in the Dutch GIST registry treated with neoadjuvant imatinib. Results: Seventy 18F-FDG PET scans were obtained for 63 GIST patients to evaluate for an early response to neoadjuvant imatinib. The scans led to a change in management in 27.1% of the patients. Change in management correlated strongly with lack of metabolic response (P < 0.001) and non–KIT exon 11–mutated GISTs (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Performing 18F-FDG PET for early evaluation of response often results in a change of management in GIST patients harboring the non–KIT exon 11 mutation and should be considered the standard of care in GIST patients treated with neoadjuvant intent.
Improved Estrogen Receptor Assessment by PET Using the Novel Radiotracer 18F-4FMFES in Estrogen Receptor–Positive Breast Cancer Patients: An Ongoing Phase II Clinical Trial J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Michel Paquette; Éric Lavallée; Serge Phoenix; René Ouellet; Helena Senta; Johan E. van Lier; Brigitte Guérin; Roger Lecomte; Éric E. Turcotte
After encouraging preclinical and human dosimetry results for the novel estrogen receptor (ER) PET radiotracer 4-fluoro-11β-methoxy-16α-18F-fluoroestradiol (18F-4FMFES), a phase II clinical trial was initiated to compare the PET imaging diagnostic potential of 18F-4FMFES with that of 16α-18F-fluoroestradiol (18F-FES) in ER-positive (ER+) breast cancer patients. Methods: Patients diagnosed with ER+ breast cancer (n = 31) were recruited for this study, including 6 who underwent mastectomy or axillary node dissection. For each patient, 18F-FES and 18F-4FMFES PET/CT scans were done sequentially (within a week) and in random order. One hour after injection of either radiotracer, a head-to-thigh static scan with a 2-min acquisition per bed position was obtained. Blood samples were taken at different times after injection to assess each tracer metabolism by reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography. The SUVmean of nonspecific tissues and the SUVmax of the tumor were evaluated for each detected lesion, and tumor-to-nonspecific organ ratios were calculated. Results: Blood metabolite analysis 60 min after injection of the tracer showed a 2.5-fold increase in metabolic stability of 18F-4FMFES over 18F-FES. Although for most foci 18F-4FMFES PET had an SUVmax similar to that of 18F-FES PET, tumor contrast improved substantially in all cases. Lower uptake was consistently observed in nonspecific tissues for 18F-4FMFES, notably a 4-fold decrease in blood-pool activity as compared with 18F-FES. Consequently, image quality was considerably improved using 18F-4FMFES, with lower overall background activity. As a result, 18F-4FMFES successfully identified 9 more lesions than 18F-FES. Conclusion: This phase II study with ER+ breast cancer patients showed that 18F-4FMFES PET achieves a lower nonspecific signal and better tumor contrast than 18F-FES PET, resulting in improved diagnostic confidence and lower false-negative diagnoses.
The Impact of Adding Sentinel Node Biopsy to Extended Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection on Biochemical Recurrence in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Nikolaos Grivas; Esther M.K. Wit; Teele Kuusk; Gijs H. KleinJan; Maarten L. Donswijk; Fijs W.B. van Leeuwen; Henk G. van der Poel
The benefit of adding sentinel node biopsy (SNB) to extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) remains controversial. The aim of our study was to evaluate biochemical recurrence (BCR) after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and ePLND in prostate cancer patients, stratified by the application of SNB. The results were compared with the predictions of the updated Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center nomogram. Methods: Between January 2006 and November 2016, 920 patients underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and ePLND with or without SNB (184 and 736 patients, respectively). BCR was defined as 2 consecutive prostate-specific antigen rises of at least 0.2 ng/mL. The Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to identify predictors of BCR. Results: Median follow-up was 28 mo (interquartile range, 13–56.7 mo). The 5-y BCR-free survival rate was 80.5% and 69.9% in the ePLND+SNB and ePLND groups, respectively. At multivariate analysis, prostate-specific antigen level, primary Gleason grade greater than 3, seminal vesicle invasion, and higher number of removed and positive nodes were independent predictors of BCR in the ePLND group. In the ePLND+SNB group, only the number of positive nodes was an independent predictor of BCR. The overall accuracy of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center nomogram was higher in the ePLND+SNB than in the ePLND group. However, the nomogram was underestimating the probability of BCR-free status in the ePLND+SNB group, whereas the ePLND group was performing as predicted. Conclusion: Adding SNB to ePLND improves BCR-free survival, although the precise explanation of this observation remains speculative. Our results should be interpreted cautiously, given the nonrandomized nature and the selection bias of the study.
Dynamic 18F-FDG PET Lymphography for In Vivo Identification of Lymph Node Metastases in Murine Melanoma J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Hannah Lockau; Volker Neuschmelting; Anuja Ogirala; Antoni Vilaseca; Jan Grimm
Positron lymphography using 18F-FDG followed by Cerenkov-guided resection of lymph nodes in healthy mice has previously been introduced by our group. Our aim in this study was to further assess the technique’s potential beyond merely localizing sentinel lymph nodes. We now aimed to evaluate the potential of positron lymphography to characterize the nodes with respect to their tumor status in order to identify metastatic lymph nodes. We explored whether metastatic nodes could be distinguished from normal nodes via dynamic 18F-FDG lymphography, to then be resected under Cerenkov imaging guidance. Methods: A murine melanoma cell line highly metastatic to lymph nodes (B16F10) was implanted subcutaneously on the dorsal hind paw of C57 mice while the tumor-free contralateral leg served as an intraindividual control. A model of reactive lymph nodes after concanavalin A challenge served as an additional control to provide nonmalignant inflammatory lymphadenopathy. Dynamic PET/CT imaging was performed immediately after injection of 18F-FDG around the tumor or intracutaneously in the contralateral footpad. Furthermore, PET/CT and Cerenkov studies were performed repeatedly over time to follow the course of metastatic spread. In selected mice, popliteal lymph nodes underwent Cerenkov luminescence imaging. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was done to verify the presence of lymphatic melanoma infiltration. Results: Positron lymphography using 18F-FDG was successfully performed on tumor-bearing and non–tumor-bearing mice, as well as on controls bearing sites of inflammation; the results clearly identified the sentinel lymph node basin and delineated the lymphatic drainage. Significantly prolonged retention of activity was evident in metastatic nodes as compared with controls without tumor. On the basis of these results, the contrast in detection and identification of metastatic lymph nodes was distinct and could be used for guided lymph node resection, such as by using Cerenkov luminescence imaging. However, retention after 18F-FDG lymphography was also seen in acute inflammatory lymphadenopathy. Conclusion: In a tumor model, significantly longer retention of the radiotracer during 18F-FDG lymphography was seen in metastatic than nonmetastatic lymph nodes, allowing for differentiation between the two and for selective resection of tumor-bearing nodes using Cerenkov imaging. Inflammation can be better differentiated in a subacute state.
Preclinical Development of CD38-Targeted [89Zr]Zr-DFO-Daratumumab for Imaging Multiple Myeloma J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Anchal Ghai; Dolonchampa Maji; Nicholas Cho; Chantiya Chanswangphuwana; Michael Rettig; Duanwen Shen; John DiPersio; Walter Akers; Farrokh Dehdashti; Samuel Achilefu; Ravi Vij; Monica Shokeen
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma B-cell hematologic cancer that causes significant skeletal morbidity. Despite improvements in survival, heterogeneity in response remains a major challenge in MM. Cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed in myeloma cells and is implicated in MM cell signaling. Daratumumab is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved high-affinity monoclonal antibody targeting CD38 that is clinically benefiting refractory MM patients. Here, we evaluated [89Zr]Zr-desferrioxamine (DFO)-daratumumab PET/CT imaging in MM tumor models. Methods: Daratumumab was conjugated to DFO-p-benzyl-isothiocyanate (DFO-Bz-NCS) for radiolabeling with 89Zr. Chelator conjugation was confirmed by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and radiolabeling was monitored by instant thin-layer chromatography. Daratumumab was conjugated to Cyanine5 (Cy5) dye for cell microscopy. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of [89Zr]Zr-DFO-daratumumab was performed using CD38+ human myeloma MM1.S-luciferase (MM1.S) cells. Cellular studies determined the affinity, immunoreactivity, and specificity of [89Zr]Zr-DFO-daratumumab. A 5TGM1-luciferase (5TGM1)/KaLwRij MM mouse model served as control for imaging background noise. [89Zr]Zr-DFO-daratumumab PET/CT small-animal imaging was performed in severe combined immunodeficient mice bearing solid and disseminated MM tumors. Tissue biodistribution (7 d after tracer administration, 1.11 MBq/animal, n = 4–6/group) was performed in wild-type and MM1.S tumor–bearing mice. Results: A specific activity of 55.5 MBq/nmol (0.37 MBq/μg) was reproducibly obtained with [89Zr]Zr-daratumumab-DFO. Flow cytometry confirmed CD38 expression (>99%) on the surface of MM1.S cells. Confocal microscopy with daratumumab-Cy5 demonstrated specific cell binding. Dissociation constant, 3.3 nM (±0.58), and receptor density, 10.1 fmol/mg (±0.64), was obtained with a saturation binding assay. [89Zr]Zr-DFO-daratumumab/PET demonstrated specificity and sensitivity for detecting CD38+ myeloma tumors of variable sizes (8.5–128 mm3) with standardized uptake values ranging from 2.1 to 9.3. Discrete medullar lesions, confirmed by bioluminescence images, were efficiently imaged with [89Zr]Zr-DFO-daratumumab/PET. Biodistribution at 7 d after administration of [89Zr]Zr-DFO-daratumumab showed prominent tumor uptake (27.7 ± 7.6 percentage injected dose per gram). In vivo blocking was achieved with a 200-fold excess of unlabeled daratumumab. Conclusion: [89Zr]Zr-DFO- and Cy5-daratumumab demonstrated superb binding to CD38+ human MM cells and significantly low binding to CD38low cells. Daratumumab bioconjugates are being evaluated for image-guided delivery of therapeutic radionuclides.
Long-Acting Somatostatin Analog Therapy Differentially Alters 68Ga-DOTATATE Uptake in Normal Tissues Compared with Primary Tumors and Metastatic Lesions J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Narjess Ayati; Sze Ting Lee; Rasoul Zakavi; Kunthi Pathmaraj; Louai Al-Qatawna; Aurora Poon; Andrew M. Scott
Synthetic somatostatin analogs have been posed as a potential source of error in somatostatin receptor imaging through interference with tumor detection; however, experimental models and clinical studies have shown a complex mechanism of the effect of octreotide on tumors. The aim of this study was to assess whether 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake before treatment with long-acting somatostatin analogs differs from that after treatment. Methods: Thirty patients (15 men; age [mean ± SD], 64.6 ± 13.4 y) who had intermediately differentiated to well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors and who underwent 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT scanning before and after receiving long-acting repeatable octreotide (Sandostatin LAR) were included in the study. The SUVmax and SUVmean of healthy target organs, residual primary tumor, and up to 5 lesions with the highest SUVmax in each organ were compared before and after octreotide treatment. Results: The mean time interval between the 2 68Ga-DOTATATE studies was 9.6 ± 7.2 mo, and the mean time gap between the last Sandostatin LAR injection and the second 68Ga-DOTATATE study was 25.1 ± 14.8 d. The pretreatment mean SUVmax and SUVmean were both significantly higher in the thyroid, liver, and spleen (P < 0.05) than the values measured after the administration of Sandostatin LAR. No significant differences were found among the uptake indices for residual primary tumor or any metastatic lesions in the liver, bone, lung, or lymph nodes before and after Sandostatin LAR administration (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Long-acting octreotide treatment diminished 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake in the liver, spleen, and thyroid but did not compromise tracer uptake in residual primary tumor and metastatic lesions. These findings have a direct impact on the interpretation of 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT scans.
68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT Mapping of Prostate Cancer Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy in 270 Patients with a PSA Level of Less Than 1.0 ng/mL: Impact on Salvage Radiotherapy Planning J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Jeremie Calais; Johannes Czernin; Minsong Cao; Amar U. Kishan; John V. Hegde; Narek Shaverdian; Kiri Sandler; Fang-I Chu; Chris R. King; Michael L. Steinberg; Isabel Rauscher; Nina-Sophie Schmidt-Hegemann; Thorsten Poeppel; Philipp Hetkamp; Francesco Ceci; Ken Herrmann; Wolfgang P. Fendler; Matthias Eiber; Nicholas G. Nickols
Target volume delineations for prostate cancer (PCa) salvage radiotherapy (SRT) after radical prostatectomy are usually drawn in the absence of visibly recurrent disease. 68Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA-11) PET/CT detects recurrent PCa with sensitivity superior to standard-of-care imaging at serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values low enough to affect target volume delineations for routine SRT. Our objective was to map the recurrence pattern of PCa early biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy with 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in patients with serum PSA levels of less than 1 ng/mL, determine how often consensus clinical target volumes (CTVs) based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) guidelines cover 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT-defined disease, and assess the potential impact of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT on SRT. Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of an intention-to-treat population of 270 patients who underwent 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT at 4 institutions for BCR after prostatectomy without prior radiotherapy at a PSA level of less than 1 ng/mL. RTOG consensus CTVs that included both the prostate bed and the pelvic lymph nodes were contoured on the CT dataset of the PET/CT image by a radiation oncologist masked to the PET component. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT images were analyzed by a nuclear medicine physician. 68Ga-PSMA-11–positive lesions not covered by planning volumes based on the consensus CTVs were considered to have a potential major impact on treatment planning. Results: The median PSA level at the time of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT was 0.48 ng/mL (range, 0.03–1 ng/mL). One hundred thirty-two of 270 patients (49%) had a positive 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT result. Fifty-two of 270 (19%) had at least one PSMA-11–positive lesion not covered by the consensus CTVs. Thirty-three of 270 (12%) had extrapelvic PSMA-11–positive lesions, and 19 of 270 (7%) had PSMA-11–positive lesions within the pelvis but not covered by the consensus CTVs. The 2 most common 68Ga-PSMA-11–positive lesion locations outside the consensus CTVs were bone (23/52, 44%) and perirectal lymph nodes (16/52, 31%). Conclusion: Post hoc analysis of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT implied a major impact on SRT planning in 52 of 270 patients (19%) with PCa early BCR (PSA < 1.0 ng/mL). This finding justifies a randomized imaging trial of SRT with or without 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT investigating its potential benefit on clinical outcome.
Immunohistochemical Validation of PSMA Expression Measured by 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in Primary Prostate Cancer J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Nadine Woythal; Ruza Arsenic; Carsten Kempkensteffen; Kurt Miller; Jan-Carlo Janssen; Kai Huang; Marcus R. Makowski; Winfried Brenner; Vikas Prasad
68Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (68Ga-PSMA) PET/CT has a proven role in staging and restaging of prostate cancer (PCA). The aims of this study were to evaluate the association of intraprostatic 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT findings and PSMA expression in immunohistochemical staining and generate a cutoff value for differentiation between normal prostate (PN) and PCA. Methods: The data of 31 patients (mean age, 67.2 y) who underwent prostatectomy and preoperative PET were retrospectively analyzed. On PET, focally increased uptake in the prostate was suggestive of tumor. A region of interest was placed on the suggestive area to generate an SUVmax; a similar region of interest was placed on adjacent visually PN. Both PCA and PN were stained with monoclonal anti-PSMA antibody (clone 3E6, 1:100, M3620). Results: All intraprostatic PCA lesions on PET could be confirmed histopathologically. In PN sections (n = 31), median staining intensity was mild, median percentage of stained cells was 20% ± 14.24%, and median immunoreactive score (IRS) was 1. In PCA sections (n = 31), median IRS was 3, median staining intensity was strong, and median percentage of stained cells was 80% ± 16.46%. The mean SUVmax (±SD) of PCA (14.06 ± 15.56) was significantly higher than that of PN (2.43 ± 0.63; P < 0.001). Receiver-operating-characteristic curve analyses of the SUVmax of PCA, validated by immunohistochemical staining in 62 tissue samples, showed the best cutoff to be 3.15 (sensitivity, 97%; specificity, 90%; area under curve, 0.987). Applied to multifocal PCA, it resulted in sensitivity and specificity of 87% and 97% respectively. The mean SUVmax of PCA and PN for an IRS of less than 2 (n = 26; 2.52 ± 0.64) was significantly lower than the mean SUVmax for an IRS of 2 or more (n = 36; 12.38 ± 15.02; P < 0.001). The mean SUVmax was significantly lower in PCA samples with fewer than 50% stained cells (n = 30; 2.81 ± 2.35) than in samples with 50% or more (n = 32; 13.34 ± 15.55; P < 0.001). There was no correlation between the SUVmax of PCA and Gleason score (P = 0.54). Conclusion: This study showed that SUVmax on 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT correlates significantly with PSMA expression in primary PCA, enabling the detection of PCA with a high sensitivity and specificity.
Targeted Molecular Radiotherapy of Pediatric Solid Tumors Using a Radioiodinated Alkyl-Phospholipid Ether Analog J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Dana C. Baiu; Ian R. Marsh; Alexander E. Boruch; Ankita Shahi; Saswati Bhattacharya; Justin J. Jeffery; Qianqian Zhao; Lance T. Hall; Jamey P. Weichert; Bryan P. Bednarz; Mario Otto
External-beam radiotherapy plays a critical role in the treatment of most pediatric solid tumors. Particularly in children, achieving an optimal therapeutic index to avoid damage to normal tissue is extremely important. Consequently, in metastatic disease, the utility of external-beam radiotherapy is limited. Molecular radiotherapy with tumor-targeted radionuclides may overcome some of these challenges, but to date there exists no single cancer-selective agent capable of treating various pediatric malignancies independently of their histopathologic origin. We tested the therapeutic potential of the clinical-grade alkyl-phospholipid ether analog CLR1404, 18-(p-iodophenyl)octadecyl phosphocholine, as a scaffold for tumor-targeted radiotherapy of pediatric malignancies. Methods: Uptake of CLR1404 by pediatric solid tumor cells was tested in vitro by flow cytometry and in vivo by PET/CT imaging and dosimetry. The therapeutic potential of 131I-CLR1404 was evaluated in xenograft models. Results: In vitro, fluorescent CLR1404-BODIPY showed significant selective uptake in a variety of pediatric cancer lines compared with normal controls. In vivo tumor-targeted uptake in mouse xenograft models using 124I-CLR1404 was confirmed by imaging. Single-dose intravenous injection of 131I-CLR1404 significantly delayed tumor growth in all rodent pediatric xenograft models and extended animal survival while demonstrating a favorable side effect profile. Conclusion: 131I-CLR1404 has the potential to become a tumor-targeted radiotherapeutic drug with broad applicability in pediatric oncology. Because 131I-CLR1404 has entered clinical trials in adults, our data warrant the development of pediatric clinical trials for this particularly vulnerable patient population.
Determination of the Heart-to-Mediastinum Ratio of 123I-MIBG Uptake Using Dual-Isotope (123I-MIBG/99mTc-Tetrofosmin) Multipinhole Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride SPECT in Patients with Heart Failure J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Tanguy Blaire; Alban Bailliez; Fayçal Ben Bouallegue; Dimitri Bellevre; Denis Agostini; Alain Manrique
The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the heart-to-mediastinum ratio (HMR) of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) uptake obtained using a multipinhole cadmium–zinc–telluride (CZT) camera with that obtained using conventional planar imaging. Methods: Forty consecutive heart failure patients underwent planar acquisition 4 h after 123I-MIBG injection (191 ± 41 [mean ± SD] MBq). To localize the heart using the CZT camera, 99mTc-tetrofosmin (358 ± 177 MBq) was administered and dual-isotope acquisition was performed. The HMRs were calculated with conventional planar imaging (HMRplanar), with anterior reprojection images using the CZT camera (HMRreproj), and with transaxial reconstructed images using the CZT camera (HMRtransaxial). In a phantom study, we estimated a linear model fitting the CZT camera data to the planar data, and we applied it to provide corrected CZT camera–determined HMRs in patients (cHMRreproj and cHMRtransaxial). Results: Thirty-four men and 6 women (71 ± 9 y old) with ischemic (22 patients) and nonischemic (18 patients) heart failure completed the study. For 22 of the 40 patients (55%), the New York Heart Association classification was class II and the ejection fraction was 35% ± 9%. HMRreproj (1.12 ± 0.19) and HMRtransaxial (1.35 ± 0.34) were lower than HMRplanar (1.44 ± 0.14) (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.01, respectively). cHMRreproj (1.54 ± 0.09) and cHMRtransaxial (1.45 ± 0.14) were significantly different (P < 0.0001). Lin concordance correlation and Bland–Altman analysis demonstrated an almost perfect concordance and a high agreement between HMRplanar and cHMRtransaxial (P was not significant) but not between HMRplanar and cHMRreproj (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that determination of the late HMR of cardiac 123I-MIBG uptake using dual-isotope (123I and 99mTc) acquisition on a multipinhole CZT camera was feasible in patients with heart failure. However, this determination should be performed using transaxial reconstructed images and linear correction based on phantom data acquisitions.
Prognostic Value of 123I-BMIPP SPECT in Patients with Nonischemic Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Hidenobu Hashimoto; Rine Nakanishi; Sunao Mizumura; Yukiko Hashimoto; Yuriko Okamura; Shunsuke Kiuchi; Junichi Yamazaki; Takanori Ikeda
Imaging of myocardial fatty acid metabolism using 123I-betamethyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) SPECT is useful for identifying high-risk patients with known ischemic heart disease. However, its utility for patients who have nonischemic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is not well known. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of the 123I-BMIPP defect score in such patients. Methods: Of 804 consecutive patients who were admitted to the hospital because of acute heart failure and underwent 123I-BMIPP SPECT, we identified 133 (mean age ± SD, 73 ± 13 y) who had normal coronary arteries by invasive coronary angiography and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (≥50%) by echocardiography. 123I-BMIPP defects were quantitatively scored to obtain summed defect scores in 17 segments of 123I-BMIPP SPECT images. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on their score. The multivariate Cox model was used to assess a possible correlation between a higher score (≥4, n = 46) and major adverse cardiac events, including cardiac death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization for heart failure, compared with a lower score (<4, n = 87). Results: During a mean follow-up of 2.5 y, 35 major adverse cardiac events occurred. The median scores in the high-score and low-score groups were 7.13 ± 4.21 and 1.29 ± 0.80, respectively. By multivariate Cox analysis, a higher score was associated with increased major adverse cardiac events, compared with a lower score (hazard ratio, 11.04; 95% confidence interval, 4.93–24.74; P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the defect score by 123I-BMIPP SPECT may have potential prognostic value in patients who have nonischemic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.
Clinical Molecular Imaging of Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 Expression in Atherosclerotic Plaque Using 68Ga-Pentixafor PET: Correlation with Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Calcified Plaque Burden J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Desiree Weiberg; James T. Thackeray; Guenter Daum; Jan M. Sohns; Saskia Kropf; Hans-Juergen Wester; Tobias L. Ross; Frank M. Bengel; Thorsten Derlin
The CXC-motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) represents a promising target for molecular imaging of different CXCR4-positive cell types in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and arterial wall injury. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, pattern, and clinical correlates of arterial wall accumulation of 68Ga-pentixafor, a specific CXCR4 ligand for PET. Methods: The data for 51 patients who underwent 68Ga-pentixafor PET/CT for noncardiovascular indications were retrospectively analyzed. Tracer accumulation in the vessel wall of major arteries was analyzed qualitatively and semiquantitatively by blood-pool–corrected target-to-background ratios. Tracer uptake was compared with calcified plaque burden and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Focal arterial uptake of 68Ga-pentixafor was seen at 1,411 sites in 51 (100%) of patients. 68Ga-pentixafor uptake was significantly associated with calcified plaque burden (P < 0.0001) and cardiovascular risk factors including age (P < 0.0001), arterial hypertension (P < 0.0001), hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.0005), history of smoking (P = 0.01), and prior cardiovascular events (P = 0.0004). Both the prevalence (P < 0.0001) and the signal intensity (P = 0.009) of 68Ga-pentixafor uptake increased as the number of risk factors increased. Conclusion: 68Ga-pentixafor PET/CT is suitable for noninvasive, highly specific PET imaging of CXCR4 expression in the atherosclerotic arterial wall. Arterial wall 68Ga-pentixafor uptake is significantly associated with surrogate markers of atherosclerosis and is linked to the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. 68Ga-pentixafor signal is higher in patients with a high-risk profile and may hold promise for identification of vulnerable plaque.
Brain Perfusion Imaging Under Acetazolamide Challenge for Detection of Impaired Cerebrovascular Reserve Capacity: Positive Findings with 15O-Water PET in Patients with Negative 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT Findings J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Güliz Acker; Catharina Lange; Imke Schatka; Andreas Pfeifer; Marcus A. Czabanka; Peter Vajkoczy; Ralph Buchert
Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) is an important parameter for treatment decisions in chronic cerebrovascular diseases. It can be assessed by measuring the acetazolamide-induced change in regional cerebral blood flow using SPECT with 99mTc-labeled hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) or PET with 15O-water. Methods: Our database was searched for patients with moyamoya vasculopathy or atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease who had undergone 15O-water PET after normal 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT results with respect to CVRC. 15O-water PET was analyzed visually and quantitatively. Quantitative analysis was based on parametric CVRC maps generated by voxelwise image subtraction. Results: The search identified 18 patients (43 ± 15 y, 12 moyamoya vasculopathy). PET revealed impaired CVRC in 8 patients (44%). Quantitative analysis confirmed the positive visual findings in 15O-water PET and the negative findings in 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT. Conclusion: 15O-water PET enables detection of impaired CVRC in a considerable fraction of symptomatic patients with stenoocclusion and negative 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT.
18F-Flortaucipir PET/MRI Correlations in Nonamnestic and Amnestic Variants of Alzheimer Disease J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Ilya M. Nasrallah; Yin Jie Chen; Meng-Kang Hsieh; Jeffrey S. Phillips; Kylie Ternes; Grace E. Stockbower; Yvette Sheline; Corey T. McMillan; Murray Grossman; David A. Wolk
Nonamnestic Alzheimer disease (AD) variants, including posterior cortical atrophy and the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia, differ from amnestic AD in distributions of tau aggregates and neurodegeneration. We evaluated whether 18F-flortaucipir (also called 18F-AV-1451) PET, targeting tau aggregates, detects these differences, and we compared the results with MRI measures of gray matter (GM) atrophy. Methods: Five subjects with posterior cortical atrophy, 4 subjects with the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia, 6 age-matched patients with AD, and 6 control subjects underwent 18F-flortaucipir PET and MRI. SUV ratios and GM volumes were compared using regional and voxel-based methods. Results: The subgroups showed the expected 18F-flortaucipir–binding patterns. Group effect sizes were generally stronger with 18F-flortaucipir PET than with MRI volumes. There were moderate-to-high correlations between regional GM atrophy and 18F-flortaucipir uptake. 18F-flortaucipir binding and GM atrophy correlated similarly to cognitive test performance. Conclusion: 18F-flortaucipir binding corresponds to the expected neurodegeneration patterns in nonamnestic AD, with potential for earlier detection of pathology than is possible with MRI atrophy measures.
Impact of Endothelial 18-kDa Translocator Protein on the Quantification of 18F-DPA-714 J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Catriona Wimberley; Sonia Lavisse; Vincent Brulon; Marie-Anne Peyronneau; Claire Leroy; Benedetta Bodini; Philippe Remy; Bruno Stankoff; Irène Buvat; Michel Bottlaender
18F-DPA-714 is a second-generation tracer for PET imaging of the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of neuroinflammation. Analysis and interpretation of TSPO PET are challenging, especially because of the basal expression of TSPO. The aim of this study was to evaluate a compartmental model that accounts for the effect of endothelial TSPO binding on the quantification of 18F-DPA-714 PET scans from a cohort of healthy subjects. Methods: Fifteen healthy subjects (9 high-affinity binders and 6 mixed-affinity binders) underwent 18F-DPA-714 PET scans with arterial blood sampling and metabolite analysis. The kinetic parameters were quantified using a 2-tissue compartmental model (2TC) as well as a 2TC with an extra, irreversible, compartment for endothelial binding (2TC-1K). These regional parameters and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression specific to endothelial cells were correlated with regional TSPO mRNA expression. Results: The 2TC-1K model was more appropriate than the 2TC for 81% of fits. The total volume of distribution was significantly reduced by 21% ± 12% across all regions with the 2TC-1K, compared with the 2TC. The endothelial binding parameter Kb varied highly across brain regions. Kb strongly and significantly correlated with all 3 probes extracted for TSPO mRNA expression (r = 0.80, r = 0.79, and r = 0.90), but no correlation was seen with the other binding parameters from the 2TC-1K. For the 2TC, there was a lower but significant correlation between the volume of distribution and one of the TSPO mRNA probes (r = 0.65). A strong, significant correlation was seen between mRNA for TSPO and genes specific to endothelial cells. Conclusion: Accounting for endothelial TSPO in the kinetic model improved the fit of PET data. The high correlation between Kb and TSPO mRNA suggests that the 2TC-1K model reveals more biologic information about the regional density of TSPO than the 2TC. The correlation between TSPO and endothelial cell mRNA supports the relationship between the regional variation of Kb and endothelial TSPO. These results can improve the estimation of binding parameter estimates from 18F-DPA-714 PET, especially in diseases that induce vascular change.
Test–Retest Reliability of the SERT Imaging Agent 11C-HOMADAM in Healthy Humans J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Vikram Adhikarla; Boadie W. Dunlop; Nashwa Jarkas; Mark M. Goodman; Helen Mayberg; Michael J. Owens; Jonathon A. Nye
The aim of this study was to measure the test–retest reliability of 11C-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2′-amino-4′-hydroxymethylphenylthio)benzylamine (11C-HOMADAM) imaging of serotonin transporter (SERT) density in healthy control subjects. Methods: Two female and 2 male volunteers participated in the study, with each undergoing three 90-min 11C-HOMADAM PET scans. Time–activity curves were derived from SERT-rich structures and fit to 2 models: a simplified reference tissue model and a multilinear graphical model. Binding potential, the ratio of specifically bound uptake to nondisplaceable uptake at equilibrium, was calculated from the model parameter estimates. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated and adjusted for repeated measures. Results: The ICC values ranged from −0.13 in the dorsal raphe to 0.88 in the caudate nucleus. The highest average ICC values were in the striatum, but other regions were sensitive to measurement outliers. Conclusion: Good-to-excellent test–retest reliability was observed for SERT binding in the striatum. The dorsal raphe ICC value was sensitive to a measurement outlier. 11C-HOMADAM binding potential calculated from the simplified reference tissue model and the multilinear graphical model were robust and in good agreement.
68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT Imaging of Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 in Chronic Infection of the Bone: First Insights J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Caroline Bouter; Birgit Meller; Carsten O. Sahlmann; Wieland Staab; Hans J. Wester; Saskia Kropf; Johannes Meller
Because of its role in infection and inflammatory processes, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 might be a potent target in imaging of infectious and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether the CXCR4 ligand 68Ga-pentixafor is suitable for imaging chronic infection of the bone. Methods: The study comprised 14 patients with suspected infection of the skeleton who underwent 68Ga-pentixafor PET/CT between April 2015 and February 2017 in our facility. 68Ga-pentixafor PET/CT results were retrospectively evaluated against a histologic, bacteriologic, and clinical standard. The results were also compared with available bone scintigraphy, white blood cell scintigraphy, and 18F-FDG PET/CT results. Results: 68Ga-pentixafor PET/CT was positive in 9 of 14 patients. Diagnoses included osteitis or osteomyelitis of peripheral bone, osteomyelitis of the maxilla, and infected endoprostheses. Target-to-background ratios were 5.1–15 (mean, 8.7). Eight of 9 cases were true-positive as confirmed by pathology, bacteriology, or clinical observation. All negative cases were confirmed as true-negative by other imaging modalities and follow-up. Conclusion: Imaging of CXCR4 expression with 68Ga-pentixafor PET/CT appears suitable for diagnosing chronic infection of the skeleton. The findings of this study reveal a possible diagnostic gain in suspected chronic infections that are difficult to diagnose by other imaging modalities.
Evaluation of the Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor Type 1 Radioligand 11C-BMT-136088 for Lung Imaging in Rhesus Monkeys J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Jean-Dominique Gallezot; Nabeel B. Nabulsi; Daniel Holden; Shu-Fei Lin; David Labaree; Jim Ropchan; Soheila Najafzadeh; David J. Donnelly; Kai Cao; Samuel Bonacorsi; Jon Seiders; Jeffrey Roppe; Wendy Hayes; Yiyun Huang; Shuyan Du; Richard E. Carson
The lysophosphatidic acid receptor type 1 (LPA1) is 1 of 6 known receptors of the extracellular signaling molecule lysophosphatidic acid. It mediates effects such as cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. In the lung, LPA1 is involved in pathways leading, after lung tissue injury, to pulmonary fibrosis instead of normal healing, by mediating fibroblast recruitment and vascular leakage. Thus, a LPA1 PET radiotracer may be useful for studying lung fibrosis or for developing LPA1-targeting drugs. We developed and evaluated the radiotracer 11C-BMT-136088 (1-(4′-(3-methyl-4-(((1(R)-(3-11C-methylphenyl)ethoxy)carbonyl)amino)isoxazol-5-yl)-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) in rhesus monkeys to image LPA1 in the lung in vivo with PET. Methods: The study consisted of 3 parts: test–retest scans; self-saturation to estimate the tracer’s in vivo dissociation constant, nondisplaceable volume of distribution (VND), and nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND); and dosimetry. In the first 2 parts, the radiotracer was administered using a bolus-plus-infusion protocol, the arterial input function was measured, and the animals underwent 2 scans per day separated by about 4 h. Lung regions of interest were segmented, and the tissue density estimated, from CT images. A fixed blood volume correction was applied. The tracer volume of distribution (VT) was estimated using multilinear analysis 1 (MA1) or equilibrium analysis (EA). Results: 11C-BMT-136088 baseline VT was 1.83 ± 0.16 (MA1, n = 5) or 2.1 ± 0.55 (EA, n = 7) mL of plasma per gram of tissue in the left and right lung regions of interest, with a test–retest variability of −6% (MA1, n = 1) or −1% ± 14% (EA, n = 2). For the self-saturation study, 11C-BMT-136088 VND and BPND were estimated to be 0.9 ± 0.08 mL of plasma per gram of tissue and 1.1 ± 0.14, respectively. The unlabeled drug dose and plasma concentration leading to a 50% reduction of 11C-BMT-136088 specific binding were 73 ± 30 nmol/kg and 28 ± 12 nM, respectively. The average plasma free fraction was 0.2%; thus, the tracer’s in vivo dissociation constant was estimated to be 55 pM. For the dosimetry study, the highest organ dose was in the liver (43.1 ± 4.9 and 68.9 ± 9.4 μSv/MBq in reference human male and female phantoms, respectively), and the effective dose equivalent was 6.9 ± 0.6 and 8.7 ± 0.6 μSv/MBq, respectively. Conclusion: Specific binding of 11C-BMT-136088 can be reliably measured to quantify LPA1 in the lungs of rhesus monkeys in vivo.
68Ga-NOTA-Functionalized Ubiquicidin: Cytotoxicity, Biodistribution, Radiation Dosimetry, and First-in-Human PET/CT Imaging of Infections J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Thomas Ebenhan; Mike M. Sathekge; Thabo Lengana; Michel Koole; Olivier Gheysens; Thavendran Govender; Jan R. Zeevaart
Ubiquicidin is an antimicrobial peptide with great potential for nuclear imaging of infectious diseases, as its cationic-rich fragment TGRAKRRMQYNRR (UBI) has been functionalized with NOTA to allow complexation to 68Ga (68Ga-NOTA-UBI). We herein assess the cytotoxicity and radiation dosimetry for 68Ga-NOTA-UBI and a first-in-human evaluation to diagnose infectious processes. Methods: Cytotoxicity was evaluated in green monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells and MT-4 leukocytes. Tracer susceptibility was studied in vitro using different bacterial and fungal strains. PET/CT-based biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and radiation dosimetry were performed on nonhuman primates. Two healthy volunteers and 3 patients with suspected infection underwent 68Ga-NOTA-UBI PET/CT imaging. Results: Negligible cytotoxicity was determined for NOTA-UBI. 68Ga-NOTA-UBI showed moderate blood clearance (29-min half-life) and predominant renal clearance in nonhuman primates. Human radiation dose estimates indicated the bladder wall as the dose-critical tissue (185 μSv/MBq), followed by the kidneys (23 μSv/MBq). The total absorbed body dose was low (<7 μSv/MBq); the effective dose was estimated at 17 μSv/MBq. 68Ga-NOTA-UBI could diagnose bone- and soft-tissue infection in 3 of 3 patients. Conclusion: 68Ga-NOTA-UBI is considered a nontoxic, safe-to-administer radiopharmaceutical unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans. The favorable tracer biodistribution and the first-in-human results will make 68Ga-NOTA-UBI PET/CT an encouraging future diagnostic technique with auxiliary clinical relevance.
64Cu-Labeled Repebody Molecules for Imaging of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor–Expressing Tumors J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Ayoung Pyo; Misun Yun; Hyeon Sik Kim; Tae-Yoon Kim; Joong-jae Lee; Jung Young Kim; Sunwoo Lee; Seong Young Kwon; Hee-Seung Bom; Hak-Sung Kim; Dong-Yeon Kim; Jung-Joon Min
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the erbB family of receptors and is overexpressed in many tumor types. A repebody is a newly designed nonantibody protein scaffold for tumor targeting that contains leucine-rich repeat modules. In this study, 3 64Cu-labeled anti-EGFR repebodies with different chelators were synthesized, and their biologic characteristics were assessed in cultured cells and tumor-bearing mice. Methods: Repebodies were synthesized with the chelators 2-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N′,N,″-triacetic acid trihydrochloride ([p-SCN-Bn]-NOTA), 2,2′,2″-(10-(2-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yloxy)-2-oxoethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triyl) triacetic acid (DOTA-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester), or 1-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid trihydrochloride ([p-SCN-Bn]-DTPA) in 1.0 M NaHCO3 buffer (pH 9.2) for 24 h. Purified NOTA-, DOTA-, and DTPA-conjugated repebody were radiolabeled with 64Cu in 0.1 M NH4OAc buffer (pH 5.5). To compare the EGFR-binding affinities of the repebodies, cellular uptake studies were performed with the human non–small cell lung cancer cell line H1650 (high expression of EGFR) and the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line SW620 (low expression of EGFR). Biodistribution and small-animal PET imaging studies were performed using H1650 tumor–bearing mice. Results: Radiochemical yields of the 64Cu-labeled repebodies were approximately 70%–80%. Cellular uptake of the NOTA-, DOTA-, and DTPA-repebodies was over 4-fold higher in H1650 cells than in SW620 cells at 1 h. The 3 repebodies had accumulated specifically in H1650 tumor–bearing nude mice by 1 h after intravenous injection and were retained for over 24 h, as measured by the percentage injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g). Tumor uptake of all repebodies increased from 1 to 6 h (at 1 h, 6.28, 8.46, and 6.91 %ID/g for NOTA-, DOTA-, and DTPA-repebody, respectively; at 6 h, 9.4, 8.28, and 10.1 %ID/g, respectively). H1650 tumors were clearly visible after injection of each repebody, with high tumor-to-background ratios (at 1 h, 3.43, 4.89, and 2.38 for NOTA-, DOTA-, and DTPA-repebody, respectively; at 6 h, 3.05, 4.36, and 2.08; at 24 h, 3.81, 4.58, and 2.86). Conclusion: The 3 64Cu-repebody complexes demonstrated specific and rapid uptake in EGFR-expressing tumors within 1 h and may have potential as novel EGFR imaging agents for PET.
Total-Body PET: Maximizing Sensitivity to Create New Opportunities for Clinical Research and Patient Care J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-01-01 Simon R. Cherry; Terry Jones; Joel S. Karp; Jinyi Qi; William W. Moses; Ramsey D. Badawi
PET is widely considered the most sensitive technique available for noninvasively studying physiology, metabolism, and molecular pathways in the living human being. However, the utility of PET, being a photon-deficient modality, remains constrained by factors including low signal-to-noise ratio, long imaging times, and concerns about radiation dose. Two developments offer the potential to dramatically increase the effective sensitivity of PET. First by increasing the geometric coverage to encompass the entire body, sensitivity can be increased by a factor of about 40 for total-body imaging or a factor of about 4–5 for imaging a single organ such as the brain or heart. The world’s first total-body PET/CT scanner is currently under construction to demonstrate how this step change in sensitivity affects the way PET is used both in clinical research and in patient care. Second, there is the future prospect of significant improvements in timing resolution that could lead to further effective sensitivity gains. When combined with total-body PET, this could produce overall sensitivity gains of more than 2 orders of magnitude compared with existing state-of-the-art systems. In this article, we discuss the benefits of increasing body coverage, describe our efforts to develop a first-generation total-body PET/CT scanner, discuss selected application areas for total-body PET, and project the impact of further improvements in time-of-flight PET.
Challenging Nuclear Cardiology Research: Stimulating Discovery, Validation, and Clinical Relevance J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-01-01 Vasken Dilsizian
Most of what we know of nuclear cardiology has been discovered in the last nearly 50 y. In tracing the history of nuclear cardiology research, we find that, early on, it attracted the attention of some of the best minds in nuclear medicine and cardiology, who were working closely with highly talented, skilled, and academically engaged radiochemists, physicists, and technologists. This successful blueprint of an integrated approach to scientific discovery that addresses clinically relevant issues remains true today and should remain true in the future.
18F-FDG PET and CT Scans Detect New Imaging Patterns of Response and Progression in Patients with Hodgkin Lymphoma Treated by Anti–Programmed Death 1 Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-01-01 Laurent Dercle; Romain-David Seban; Julien Lazarovici; Lawrence H. Schwartz; Roch Houot; Samy Ammari; Alina Danu; Véronique Edeline; Aurélien Marabelle; Vincent Ribrag; Jean-Marie Michot
The response evaluation criteria in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) were designed for the assessment of chemotherapy and targeted molecular agents. We investigated the accuracy of 3-mo 18F-FDG PET/CT for the identification of HL patients responding to immune-checkpoint blockade by anti–programmed death 1 antibodies (anti-PD1). We also reported the frequency of new immune patterns of response and progression. Methods: Retrospectively, we recruited consecutive HL patients treated by anti-PD1 (pembrolizumab or nivolumab) at Gustave Roussy from 2013 to 2015. 18F-FDG PET/CT and contrast-enhanced CT scans were acquired every 3 mo. We recorded the best overall response according to the International Harmonization Project Cheson 2014 criteria and LYmphoma Response to Immunomodulatory therapy Criteria (LYRIC) (2016 revised criteria). Patients achieving an objective response at any time during the anti-PD1 treatment were classified as responders. Results: Sixteen relapsed or refractory classic HL patients were included. The median age was 39 y (age range, 19–69 y). The median previous lines of therapy was 6 (range, 3–13). The mean follow-up was 22.6 mo. Nine of 16 patients (56%) achieved an objective response. Two deaths occurred due to progressive disease at 7 mo. 18F-FDG PET/CT detected all responders at 3 mo and reclassified best overall response in 5 patients compared with CT alone. A decrease in tumor metabolism and volume (SUVmean, metabolic tumor volume) and increase in healthy splenic metabolism at 3 mo were observed in responders (area under the curve > 0.85, P < 0.04). Five of 16 patients (31%) displayed new imaging patterns related to anti-PD1; we observed 2 transient progressions consistent with indeterminate response according to the LYRIC (2016) (IR2b at 14 mo and IR3 at 18 mo) and 3 patients with new lesions associated with immune-related adverse events. Conclusion: Three-month 18F-FDG PET/CT scans detected HL patients responding to anti-PD1. New patterns were encountered in 31% of patients, emphasizing the need for further evaluation in larger series and close collaboration between imaging and oncology specialists on a per-patient basis.
18F-FDG Uptake During Early Adjuvant Chemotherapy Predicts Histologic Response in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients with Osteosarcoma J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-01-01 James C. Davis; Najat C. Daw; Fariba Navid; Catherine A. Billups; Jianrong Wu; Armita Bahrami; Jesse J. Jenkins; Scott E. Snyder; Wilburn E. Reddick; Victor M. Santana; M. Beth McCarville; Junyu Guo; Barry L. Shulkin
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of 18F-FDG uptake in the primary tumor at diagnosis, during therapy, and after therapy with a histologic response and event-free survival in pediatric and young adult patients with osteosarcoma (OS). Methods: Serial (baseline and 5 and 10 wk after start of therapy) 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging was performed in patients with newly diagnosed OS treated uniformly in a therapeutic trial at a single institution. Whole-body images were obtained approximately 1 h after injection of 18F-FDG. Logistic regression was used to study the association of tumor uptake and changes in SUVmax between 0, 5, and 10 wk for both clinical endpoints. Results: Thirty-four patients (17 males; median age, 12.2 y; age range, 6.8–19.1 y) underwent PET imaging; 25 (74%) had localized disease. Primary tumor locations included the femur (n = 17; 50%), tibia (n = 9; 26%), and humerus (n = 5; 15%). Logistic regression showed that SUVmax at 5 wk (P = 0.034) and 10 wk (P = 0.022) and percentage change from baseline at 10 wk (P = 0.021) were highly predictive of a histologic response. Using SUVmax of 4.04 at week 5, SUVmax of 3.15 at week 10, and 60% decrease from baseline at week 10 as cutoff values, we determined that the respective sensitivities were 0.93, 0.93, and 0.79 and that the respective specificities were 0.53, 0.71, and 0.76. Conclusion: SUVmax on routine images at 5 or 10 wk and percentage change in SUVmax from baseline to week 10 were metabolic predictors of a histologic response in OS. These findings may be useful in the early identification of patients who are responding poorly to therapy and may benefit from a change in treatment.
Tumor Metabolic Features Identified by 18F-FDG PET Correlate with Gene Networks of Immune Cell Microenvironment in Head and Neck Cancer J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-01-01 Kwon Joong Na; Hongyoon Choi
The importance of 18F-FDG PET in imaging head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has grown in recent decades. Because PET has prognostic values, and provides functional and molecular information in HNSCC, the genetic and biologic backgrounds associated with PET parameters are of great interest. Here, as a systems biology approach, we aimed to investigate gene networks associated with tumor metabolism and their biologic function using RNA sequence and 18F-FDG PET data. Methods: Using RNA sequence data of HNSCC downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas data portal, we constructed a gene coexpression network. PET parameters including lesion–to–blood-pool ratio, metabolic tumor volume, and tumor lesion glycolysis were calculated. The Pearson correlation test was performed between module eigengene—the first principal component of modules’ expression profile—and the PET parameters. The significantly correlated module was functionally annotated with gene ontology terms, and its hub genes were identified. Survival analysis of the significantly correlated module was performed. Results: We identified 9 coexpression network modules from the preprocessed RNA sequence data. A network module was significantly correlated with total lesion glycolysis as well as maximum and mean 18F-FDG uptake. The expression profiles of hub genes of the network were inversely correlated with 18F-FDG uptake. The significantly annotated gene ontology terms of the module were associated with immune cell activation and aggregation. The module demonstrated significant association with overall survival, and the group with higher module eigengene showed better survival than the other groups with statistical significance (P = 0.022). Conclusion: We showed that a gene network that accounts for immune cell microenvironment was associated with 18F-FDG uptake as well as prognosis in HNSCC. Our result supports the idea that competition for glucose between cancer cell and immune cell plays an important role in cancer progression associated with hypermetabolic features. In the future, PET parameters could be used as a surrogate marker of HNSCC for estimating molecular status of immune cell microenvironment.
Tumor Uptake of 64Cu-DOTA-Trastuzumab in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-01-01 Joanne E. Mortimer; James R. Bading; Jinha M. Park; Paul H. Frankel; Mary I. Carroll; Tri T. Tran; Erasmus K. Poku; Russell C. Rockne; Andrew A. Raubitschek; John E. Shively; David M. Colcher
The goal of this study was to characterize the relationship between tumor uptake of 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab as measured by PET/CT and standard, immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based, histopathologic classification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status in women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Methods: Women with biopsy-confirmed MBC and not given trastuzumab for 2 mo or more underwent complete staging, including 18F-FDG PET/CT. Patients were classified as HER2-positive (HER2+) or -negative (HER2−) based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)–supplemented immunohistochemistry of biopsied tumor tissue. Eighteen patients underwent 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab injection, preceded in 16 cases by trastuzumab infusion (45 mg). PET/CT was performed 21–25 (day 1) and 47–49 (day 2) h after 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab injection. Radiolabel uptake in prominent lesions was measured as SUVmax. Average intrapatient SUVmax (
pt) was compared between HER2+ and HER2− patients. Results: Eleven women were HER2+ (8 immunohistochemistry 3+; 3 immunohistochemistry 2+/FISH amplified), whereas 7 were HER2− (3 immunohistochemistry 2+/FISH nonamplified; 4 immunohistochemistry 1+). Median pt for day 1 and day 2 was 6.6 and 6.8 g/mL for HER 2+ and 3.7 and 4.3 g/mL for HER2− patients (P < 0.005 either day). The distributions of pt overlapped between the 2 groups, and interpatient variability was greater for HER2+ than HER2− disease (P < 0.005 and 0.001, respectively, on days 1 and 2). Conclusion: By 1 d after injection, uptake of 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab in MBC is strongly associated with patient HER2 status and is indicative of binding to HER2. The variability within and among HER2+ patients, as well as the overlap between the HER2+ and HER2− groups, suggests a role for 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab PET/CT in optimizing treatments that include trastuzumab.
Comparison of the Accuracy of FMT/CT and PET/MRI for the Assessment of Antibody Biodistribution in Squamous Cell Carcinoma Xenografts J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-01-01 Carina Hage; Felix Gremse; Christoph M. Griessinger; Andreas Maurer; Sabrina H.L. Hoffmann; Franz Osl; Bernd J. Pichler; Fabian Kiessling; Werner Scheuer; Thomas Pöschinger
Noninvasive imaging technologies are increasingly used in preclinical drug research for the pharmacokinetic analysis of therapeutic compounds in living animals over time. The different preclinical imaging modalities available differ intrinsically in their detection principle and thus might exhibit limitations for a specific application. Here, we systematically investigated the performance of advanced fluorescence-mediated tomography (FMT)/CT in comparison to PET/MRI for quantitative analysis of the biodistribution of different antibody formats and dependence on the required imaging label in squamous cell carcinoma xenografts. Methods: Different formats of an antibody (monoclonal antibody and the antigen binding fragments F(ab′)2 and Fab) targeting epidermal growth factor receptor were labeled with Alexa750 or 64Cu-NODAGA and injected intravenously into separate cohorts of nude mice bearing subcutaneous A-431 tumors. Two and 24 h after injection, the mice were measured by FMT/CT and PET/MRI. Probe accumulation was quantitatively assessed in organs and tumors. In vivo data were compared between modalities and correlated with ex vivo fluorescence, γ-counting, and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: Both imaging methods faithfully monitored the biodistribution and elimination routes of the compounds, and organ accumulation measured by FMT/CT and PET/MRI correlated significantly with ex vivo measurements. In addition, the accumulation in kidney, muscle, and tumor tissue correlated between FMT/CT and PET/MRI. However, the pharmacokinetics of the Alexa750-labeled antibody formats showed shorter blood half-times and higher liver uptake than the radiolabeled counterparts. Conclusion: FMT/CT imaging allows quantifying the biodistribution of antibodies in nude mice and provides an alternative to PET analysis in preclinical drug research. However, even for large molecules, such as monoclonal antibodies, Alexa750 labeling can change pharmacokinetics and trigger liver uptake.
Noninvasive 89Zr-Transferrin PET Shows Improved Tumor Targeting Compared with 18F-FDG PET in MYC-Overexpressing Human Triple-Negative Breast Cancer J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-01-01 Kelly E. Henry; Thomas R. Dilling; Dalya Abdel-Atti; Kimberly J. Edwards; Michael J. Evans; Jason S. Lewis
The current standard for breast PET imaging is 18F-FDG. The heterogeneity of 18F-FDG uptake in breast cancer limits its utility, varying greatly among receptor status, histopathologic subtypes, and proliferation markers. 18F-FDG PET often exhibits nonspecific internalization and low specificity and sensitivity, especially with tumors smaller than 1 cm3. MYC is a protein involved in oncogenesis and is overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Increased surface expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) is a downstream event of MYC upregulation and has been validated as a clinically relevant target for molecular imaging. Transferrin labeled with 89Zr has successfully identified MYC status in many cancer subtypes preclinically and been shown to predict response and changes in oncogene status via treatment with small-molecule inhibitors that target MYC and PI3K signaling pathways. We hypothesized that 89Zr-transferrin PET will noninvasively detect MYC and TfR and improve upon the current standard of 18F-FDG PET for MYC-overexpressing TNBC. Methods: In this study, 89Zr-transferrin and 18F-FDG imaging were compared in preclinical models of TNBC. TNBC cells (MDA-MB-157, MDA-MB-231, and Hs578T) were treated with bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) inhibitors JQ1 and OTX015 (0.5–1 μM). Cell proliferation, gene expression, and protein expression were assayed to explore the effects of these inhibitors on MYC and TfR. Results: Head-to-head comparison showed that 89Zr-transferrin targets TNBC tumors significantly better (P < 0.05–0.001) than 18F-FDG through PET imaging and biodistribution studies in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 xenografts and a patient-derived xenograft model of TNBC. c-Myc and TfR gene expression was decreased upon treatment with BRD4 inhibitors and c-MYC small interfering RNA (P < 0.01–0.001 for responding cell lines), compared with vehicle treatment. MYC and TfR protein expression, along with receptor-mediated internalization of transferrin, was also significantly decreased upon drug treatment in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 cells (P < 0.01–0.001). Conclusion: 89Zr-transferrin targets human TNBC primary tumors significantly better than 18F-FDG, as shown through PET imaging and biodistribution studies. 89Zr-transferrin is a useful tool to interrogate MYC via TfR-targeted PET imaging in TNBC.
Cerenkov-Activated Sticky Tag for In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-01-01 Sudeep Das; Katja Haedicke; Jan Grimm
A big challenge in the clinical use of Cerenkov luminescence (CL) imaging is its low signal intensity, which is several orders of magnitude below ambient light. Consequently, highly sensitive cameras, sufficient shielding from background light, and long acquisition times are required. To alleviate this problem, we hypothesized a strategy to convert the weak CL signal into a stronger fluorescence signal by using CL-activated formation of nitrenes from azides to locally fix a fluorescent probe in tissue by the formation of a covalent bond. CL-activated drug delivery was also evaluated using the same azide chemistry. The specific delivery of the CL-activated drug to cancer cells could reduce systemic toxicity, which is a limitation in chemotherapy. Methods: A cyanine-class near-infrared fluorescent dye, Cy7, and doxorubicin were synthetically attached to polyfluorinated aryl azide to form Cy7 azide and DOX azide, respectively. Fibrosarcoma cells were incubated with 18F-FDG and exposed to Cy7 azide with subsequent fluorescence imaging. For CL-activated tagging in vivo, tumor-bearing mice were injected first with 90Y-DOTA-RGD, targeting αvβ3 integrins, and then with the Cy7 azide. Fluorescence signal was imaged over time. Breast cancer cells were incubated with DOX azide and 68Ga, after which cell viability was quantified using an assay. Results: CL photoactivation of Cy7 azide in vitro showed significantly higher fluorescence signal from 18F-FDG–treated than untreated cells. In vivo, CL photoactivation could be shown by using the tumor-specific, integrin-targeting 90Y-DOTA-RGD and the localized activation of Cy7 azide. Here, localized CL-induced fluorescence was detected in the tumors and remained significantly higher over several days than in tumors without CL. We also established as a next step CL-activated drug delivery of DOX azide by showing significantly decreasing cell viability of breast cancer cells in a CL dose–dependent manner in vitro using CL photoactivation of DOX azide. Conclusion: We were able to develop a CL-activated “sticky tag” that converts the low CL signal into a stable and long-lasting, highly intense fluorescence signal. This fluorescent footprint of the radioactive signal might be clinically used for intraoperative surgery. The CL-targeted drug delivery strategy may potentially be used for dual-step targeted therapy.
Dose Mapping After Endoradiotherapy with 177Lu-DOTATATE/DOTATOC by a Single Measurement After 4 Days J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-01-01 Heribert Hänscheid; Constantin Lapa; Andreas K. Buck; Michael Lassmann; Rudolf A. Werner
Dosimetry of organs and tumors helps to assess risks and benefit of treatment with 177Lu-DOTATATE/DOTATOC. However, it is often not performed in clinical routine because of additional efforts, the complexity of data collection and analysis, and the additional burden for the patients. Aiming at a simplification of dosimetry, we analyzed the accuracy of a theoretically substantiated approximation, which allows the calculation of absorbed doses from a single measurement of the abdominal activity distribution. Methods: Activity kinetics were retrospectively assessed from planar images in 29 patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs; n = 21) or meningioma (n = 8) after the administration of 177Lu-DOTATATE (n = 22) or 177Lu-DOTATOC (n = 7). Mono- or biexponential functions were fitted to measured data in 54 kidneys, 25 livers, 27 spleens, and 30 NET lesions. It was evaluated for each fit function how well the integral over time was represented by an approximation calculated as the product of the time tl of a single measurement, the expected reading at time tl, and the factor 2/ln(2). Tissue-specific deviations of the approximation from the time integral were calculated for time points tl of 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h. Results: The correlation between time integral and approximation improved with increasing time tl. Pearson r exceeded 0.95 for a tl of 96 h or more in all tissues. The lowest maximum errors were observed at a tl of 96 h, with deviations of the approximation from the time integral of median +5% (range, −9% to +17%) for kidneys, +6% (range, −7% to +12%) for livers, +8% (range, +2% to +20%) for spleens, and +6% (range, −11% to +16%) for NET lesions. Accuracy was reduced for measurements after 72 or 120 h. For measurements after 24, 48, and 144 h, the approximation led to large deviations for some of the patients, in particular unacceptable underestimates of the absorbed dose to the kidneys. Conclusion: A single quantitative measurement of the abdominal activity concentration by SPECT/CT 4 d after the administration of 177Lu-DOTATATE/DOTATOC provides a 3-dimensional dose map and can be used to estimate the doses actually absorbed in the treatment cycle with minor additional resources and effort.
The Impact of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT on Management Intent in Prostate Cancer: Results of an Australian Prospective Multicenter Study J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-01-01 Paul J. Roach; Roslyn Francis; Louise Emmett; Edward Hsiao; Andrew Kneebone; George Hruby; Thomas Eade; Quoc A. Nguyen; Benjamin D. Thompson; Thomas Cusick; Michael McCarthy; Colin Tang; Bao Ho; Philip D. Stricker; Andrew M. Scott
68Ga-PSMA PET/CT scanning has been shown to be more sensitive than conventional imaging techniques in patients with prostate cancer. This prospective Australian multicenter study assessed whether 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT imaging affects management intent in patients with primary or recurrent prostate cancer. Methods: Before undertaking 68Ga-PSMA PET imaging, referring medical specialists completed a questionnaire detailing relevant demographic and clinical data as well as their proposed management plan. A separate follow-up questionnaire was completed after the 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT scan results were available to determine whether the management plan would change. Results: A total of 431 patients with prostate cancer from 4 Australian centers had pre– and post–68Ga-PSMA management plans completed. Scans were obtained for primary staging of intermediate- and high-risk disease in 25% of patients and for restaging/biochemical recurrence in 75% of patients. Overall, 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT scanning led to a change in planned management in 51% of patients. The impact was greater in the group of patients with biochemical failure after definitive surgery or radiation treatment (62% change in management intent) than in patients undergoing primary staging (21% change). Imaging with 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT revealed unsuspected disease in the prostate bed in 27% of patients, locoregional lymph nodes in 39%, and distant metastatic disease in 16%. Conclusion: 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT scans detect previously unsuspected disease and may influence planned clinical management in a high proportion of patients with prostate cancer. The impact was greater in patients with biochemical recurrence. These results demonstrate the potential clinical value of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in management of prostate cancer.
Impact of 68Ga-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT on Prostate Cancer Management J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-01-01 Asim Afaq; Suliman Alahmed; Shih-hsin Chen; Thabo Lengana; Athar Haroon; Heather Payne; Hashim Ahmed; Shonit Punwani; Mike Sathekge; Jamshed Bomanji
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of 68Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (68Ga-PSMA) PET/CT on the management of prostate cancer in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR). Methods: Documented management plans before and after 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in 100 patients with BCR were retrospectively reviewed, and changes in plans were recorded. Results: Management changed after 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in 39 patients (39%). The management changes occurred in 23 (33.8%) of 68 patients with radical prostatectomy and 16 (50%) of 32 patients previously treated with radical radiotherapy. Positive scan results (P < 0.001) and higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels (P = 0.024) were associated with management changes. No significant association with management change was found for Gleason grade, stage, presence of metastatic disease, PSA velocity, or PSA doubling time. Conclusion: 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT altered management in 39% of patients with BCR, and changes occurred more often in patients with radical radiotherapy treatment, positive 68Ga-PSMA scan results, and higher PSA levels.
Radionuclide Tumor Targeting Using ADAPT Scaffold Proteins: Aspects of Label Positioning and Residualizing Properties of the Label J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-01-01 Sarah Lindbo; Javad Garousi; Bogdan Mitran; Mohamed Altai; Jos Buijs; Anna Orlova; Sophia Hober; Vladimir Tolmachev
Visualization of cancer-associated alterations of molecular phenotype using radionuclide imaging is a noninvasive approach to stratifying patients for targeted therapies. The engineered albumin-binding domain–derived affinity protein (ADAPT) is a promising tracer for radionuclide molecular imaging because of its small size (6.5 kDa), which satisfies the precondition for efficient tumor penetration and rapid clearance. Previous studies demonstrated that the human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)–targeting ADAPT6 labeled with radiometals at the N terminus is able to image HER2 expression in xenografts a few hours after injection. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the use of a nonresidualizing label or placement of the labels at the C terminus would further improve the targeting properties of ADAPT6. Methods: Two constructs, Cys2-ADAPT6 and Cys59-ADAPT6, having the (HE)3DANS sequence at the N terminus were produced and site-specifically labeled using 111In-DOTA or 125I-iodo-((4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl) maleimide (HPEM). The conjugates were compared in vitro and in vivo. HER2-targeting properties and biodistribution were evaluated in BALB/C nu/nu mice bearing ovarian carcinoma cell (SKOV-3) xenografts. Results: Specific HER2 binding and high affinity were preserved after labeling. Both Cys2-ADAPT6 and Cys59-ADAPT6 were internalized slowly by HER2-expressing cancer cells. Depending on the label position, uptake at 4 h after injection varied from 10% to 22% of the injected dose per gram of tumor tissue. Regardless of terminus position, the 125I-HPEM label provided more than 140-fold lower renal uptake than the 111In-DOTA label at 4 after injection. The tumor-to-organ ratios were, in contrast, higher for both of the 111In-DOTA–labeled ADAPT variants in other organs. Tumor-to-blood ratios for 111In-labeled Cys2-ADAPT6 and Cys59-ADAPT6 did not differ significantly (250–280), but 111In-DOTA-Cys59-ADAPT6 provided significantly higher tumor-to-lung, tumor-to-liver, tumor-to-spleen, and tumor-to-muscle ratios. Radioiodinated variants had similar tumor-to-organ ratios, but 125I-HPEM-Cys59-ADAPT6 had significantly higher tumor uptake and a higher tumor-to-kidney ratio. Conclusion: Residualizing properties of the label strongly influence the targeting properties of ADAPT6. The position of the radiolabel influences targeting as well, although to a lesser extent. Placement of a label at the C terminus yields the best biodistribution features for both radiometal and radiohalogen labels. Low renal retention of the radioiodine label creates a precondition for radionuclide therapy using 131I-labeled HPEM-Cys59-ADAPT6.
Effects of Hypercapnia on Myocardial Blood Flow in Healthy Human Subjects J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-01-01 Matthieu Pelletier-Galarneau; Robert A. deKemp; Chad R.R.N. Hunter; Ran Klein; Michael Klein; Joel Ironstone; Joseph A. Fisher; Terrence D. Ruddy
Elevation of the end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETco2) increases cerebral and myocardial blood flow (MBF), suggesting that it may be a suitable alternative to pharmacologic stress or exercise for myocardial perfusion imaging. The purpose of this study was to document the pharmacodynamics of CO2 for MBF using prospective end-tidal targeting to precisely control arterial Pco2 and PET to measure the outcome variable, MBF. Methods: Ten healthy men underwent serial 82Rb PET/CT imaging. Imaging was performed at rest and during 6-min hypercapnic plateaus (baseline; PETco2 at 50, 55, and 60 mm Hg; repeat of PETco2 at 60 mm Hg; and repeat of baseline). MBF was measured using 82Rb injected 3 min after the beginning of hypercapnia and a 1-tissue-compartment model with flow-dependent extraction correction. Results were compared with those obtained during an adenosine stress test (140 μg/kg/min). Results: Baseline PETco2 was 38.9 ± 0.8 (mean ± SD) mm Hg (range, 35–43 mm Hg). All PETco2 targets were sustained, with SDs of less than 1.5 mm Hg. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, rate × pressure product, and respiratory frequency increased with progressive hypercapnia. MBF increased significantly at each level of hypercapnia to 1.92-fold over baseline (0.86 ± 0.24 vs. 0.45 ± 0.08 mL/min/g; P = 0.002) at a PETco2 of 60 mm Hg. MBF after the administration of adenosine was significantly greater than that with the maximal hypercapnic stimulus (2.00 vs. 0.86 mL/min/g; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the response of MBF to different levels of hypercapnia in healthy humans with PET. MBF increased with increasing levels of hypercapnia; MBF at a PETco2 of 60 mm Hg was double that at baseline.
Pseudoreference Regions for Glial Imaging with 11C-PBR28: Investigation in 2 Clinical Cohorts J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-01-01 Daniel S. Albrecht; Marc D. Normandin; Sergey Shcherbinin; Dustin W. Wooten; Adam J. Schwarz; Nicole R. Zürcher; Vanessa N. Barth; Nicolas J. Guehl; Oluwaseun Akeju; Nazem Atassi; Mattia Veronese; Federico Turkheimer; Jacob M. Hooker; Marco L. Loggia
The translocator protein (TSPO) is a commonly used imaging target to investigate neuroinflammation. Although TSPO imaging demonstrates great promise, its signal exhibits substantial interindividual variability, which needs to be accounted for to uncover group effects that are truly reflective of neuroimmune activation. Recent evidence suggests that relative metrics computed using pseudoreference approaches can minimize within-group variability and increase sensitivity to detect physiologically meaningful group differences. Here, we evaluated various ratio approaches for TSPO imaging and compared them with standard kinetic modeling techniques, analyzing 2 different disease cohorts. Patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and matching healthy controls received 11C-PBR28 PET scans. The occipital cortex, cerebellum and whole brain were first evaluated as candidate pseudoreference regions by testing for the absence of group differences in SUV and distribution volume (VT) estimated with an arterial input function. The SUV from target regions (cLBP study, thalamus; ALS study, precentral gyrus) was normalized with the SUV from candidate pseudoreference regions (i.e., occipital cortex, cerebellum, and whole brain) to obtain SUVRoccip, SUVRcereb, and SUVRWB. The sensitivity to detect group differences in target regions was compared using various SUVR approaches, as well as distribution volume ratio (DVR) estimated with (blDVR) or without arterial input function (refDVR), and VT. Additional voxelwise SUVR group analyses were performed. We observed no significant group differences in pseudoreference VT or SUV, excepting whole-brain VT, which was higher in cLBP patients than controls. Target VT elevations in patients (P = 0.028 and 0.051 in cLBP and ALS, respectively) were similarly detected by SUVRoccip and SUVRWB, and by refDVR and blDVR (less reliably by SUVRcereb). In voxelwise analyses, SUVRoccip, but not SUVRcereb, identified regional group differences initially observed with SUVRWB, and in additional areas suspected to be affected in the pathology examined. All ratio metrics were highly cross-correlated, but generally were not associated with VT. Although important caveats need to be considered when using relative metrics, ratio analyses appear to be similarly sensitive to detect pathology-related group differences in 11C-PBR28 signal as classic kinetic modeling techniques. The occipital cortex may be a suitable pseudoreference region, at least for the populations evaluated, pending further validation in larger cohorts.
Off-Target 18F-AV-1451 Binding in the Basal Ganglia Correlates with Age-Related Iron Accumulation J Nucl. Med. (IF 6.646) Pub Date : 2018-01-01 Jae Yong Choi; Hanna Cho; Sung Jun Ahn; Jae Hoon Lee; Young Hoon Ryu; Myung Sik Lee; Chul Hyoung Lyoo
Off-target binding in the basal ganglia is commonly observed in the 18F-AV-1451 PET studies of the elderly. We sought to investigate the relationship between this phenomenon in the basal ganglia and iron accumulation using iron-sensitive R2* MRI. Methods: Fifty-nine healthy controls and 61 patients with Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment underwent 18F-AV-1451 PET and R2* MRI studies. A correlation analysis was performed for age, 18F-AV-1451 binding, and R2* values. Results: There was an age-related increase in both 18F-AV-1451 binding in the basal ganglia and R2* values in the putamen in both the controls and the Alzheimer disease/mild cognitive impairment patients. 18F-AV-1451 binding in the basal ganglia increased with R2* values. Conclusion: Off-target 18F-AV-1451 binding in the basal ganglia is associated with the age-related increases in iron accumulation. Postmortem studies are required to further investigate the nature of this association.
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