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  • Non-coding RNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma: molecular functions and pathological implications
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Chun-Ming Wong, Felice Ho-Ching Tsang, Irene Oi-Lin Ng

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading lethal malignancy worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying liver carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. Over the past two decades, overwhelming evidence has demonstrated the regulatory roles of different classes of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in liver carcinogenesis related to a number of aetiologies, including HBV, HCV and NAFLD. Among the ncRNAs, microRNAs, which belong to a distinct class of small ncRNAs, have been proven to play a crucial role in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Deregulation of microRNAs has been broadly implicated in the inactivation of tumour-suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes in HCC. Modern high-throughput sequencing analyses have unprecedentedly identified a very large number of non-coding transcripts. Divergent groups of long ncRNAs have been implicated in liver carcinogenesis through interactions with DNA, RNA or proteins. Overall, ncRNAs represent a burgeoning field of cancer research, and we are only beginning to understand the importance and complicity of the ncRNAs in liver carcinogenesis. In this Review, we summarize the common deregulation of small and long ncRNAs in human HCC. We also comprehensively review the pathological roles of ncRNAs in liver carcinogenesis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and HCC metastasis and discuss the potential applications of ncRNAs as diagnostic tools and therapeutic targets in human HCC.

    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Pancreatic cancer in 2017: Rebooting pancreatic cancer knowledge and treatment options
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 
    Alexander Semaan, Anirban Maitra

    Pancreatic cancer in 2017: Rebooting pancreatic cancer knowledge and treatment options Pancreatic cancer in 2017: Rebooting pancreatic cancer knowledge and treatment options, Published online: 10 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.182 High stromal cellularity in pancreatic cancer is an important factor for ineffective treatment and molecular studies. In 2017, major advancements were made in transcriptional characterization, treatment delivery and clinical regimes, raising hope for a breakthrough against this deadly disease.

    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Pancreatic cancer: Next-generation algorithms for neoantigen selection
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 
    Alexander Hopkins, Elizabeth Jaffee

    Pancreatic cancer: Next-generation algorithms for neoantigen selection Pancreatic cancer: Next-generation algorithms for neoantigen selection, Published online: 10 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.184 Predicting clinical outcomes in cancer using neoantigen burden is imperfect because current algorithms use only the binding affinity of putative neoantigens to HLA. A new study models pancreatic tumour response through a deeper understanding of tumour immunology, providing new tools for identifying neoantigens and characteristics that define their quality.

    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • NAFLD in 2017: Novel insights into mechanisms of disease progression
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Reenam S. Khan, Philip N. Newsome

    NAFLD in 2017: Novel insights into mechanisms of disease progression NAFLD in 2017: Novel insights into mechanisms of disease progression, Published online: 04 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.181 In 2017, there have been substantial advances in our understanding of the immunological and endocrine mechanisms of disease progression in NAFLD, paving the way for novel therapeutic strategies.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • IBS: High FODMAP diet induces LPS-derived intestinal inflammation and visceral hypersensitivity
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Iain Dickson

    IBS: High FODMAP diet induces LPS-derived intestinal inflammation and visceral hypersensitivity IBS: High FODMAP diet induces LPS-derived intestinal inflammation and visceral hypersensitivity, Published online: 04 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.187 IBS: High FODMAP diet induces LPS-derived intestinal inflammation and visceral hypersensitivity

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Pancreatic cancer: No risk from aspirin in pancreatic cancer
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Iain Dickson

    Pancreatic cancer: No risk from aspirin in pancreatic cancer Pancreatic cancer: No risk from aspirin in pancreatic cancer, Published online: 04 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.189 Pancreatic cancer: No risk from aspirin in pancreatic cancer

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma in 2017: Two large steps forward, one small step back
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Marcus-Alexander Wörns, Peter R. Galle

    Hepatocellular carcinoma in 2017: Two large steps forward, one small step back Hepatocellular carcinoma in 2017: Two large steps forward, one small step back, Published online: 04 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.174 In 2017, the FDA approved regorafenib and nivolumab for the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma following prior sorafenib treatment, opening the door for an effective systemic second-line therapy in advanced disease. By contrast, the addition of sorafenib to transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads did not improve progression-free survival in the intermediate disease stage.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Stem cells in 2017: Digesting recent stem cell advances in the gut
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Nick Barker

    Stem cells in 2017: Digesting recent stem cell advances in the gut Stem cells in 2017: Digesting recent stem cell advances in the gut, Published online: 04 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.176 2017 has witnessed major advances in gut stem cell and cancer stem cell research, delivering key insights into their regulation, more defined culture methods and novel stem cell markers that collectively drive us ever closer to breakthroughs for regenerative medicine and cancer treatment in the clinic.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Hirschsprung disease — integrating basic science and clinical medicine to improve outcomes
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Robert O. Heuckeroth

    Hirschsprung disease is defined by the absence of enteric neurons at the end of the bowel. The enteric nervous system (ENS) is the intrinsic nervous system of the bowel and regulates most aspects of bowel function. When the ENS is missing, there are no neurally mediated propulsive motility patterns, and the bowel remains contracted, causing functional obstruction. Symptoms of Hirschsprung disease include constipation, vomiting, abdominal distension and growth failure. Untreated disease usually causes death in childhood because bloodstream bacterial infections occur in the context of bowel inflammation (enterocolitis) or bowel perforation. Current treatment is surgical resection of the bowel to remove or bypass regions where the ENS is missing, but many children have problems after surgery. Although the anatomy of Hirschsprung disease is simple, many clinical features remain enigmatic, and diagnosis and management remain challenging. For example, the age of presentation and the type of symptoms that occur vary dramatically among patients, even though every affected child has missing neurons in the distal bowel at birth. In this Review, basic science discoveries are linked to clinical manifestations of Hirschsprung disease, including partial penetrance, enterocolitis and genetics. Insights into disease mechanisms that might lead to new prevention, diagnostic and treatment strategies are described.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Therapy: Oral capsule FMT effective for C. difficile infection
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Iain Dickson

    Therapy: Oral capsule FMT effective for C. difficile infection Therapy: Oral capsule FMT effective for C. difficile infection, Published online: 04 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.188 Therapy: Oral capsule FMT effective for C. difficile infection

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Gut microbiota in 2017: Contribution of gut microbiota–host cooperation to drug efficacy
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-12-20
    Nathalie M. Delzenne, Laure B. Bindels

    Gut microbiota in 2017: Contribution of gut microbiota–host cooperation to drug efficacy Gut microbiota in 2017: Contribution of gut microbiota–host cooperation to drug efficacy, Published online: 20 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.170 2017 has witnessed key advances in knowledge about the metabolic capacities of the gut microbiota, enabling the progression of our understanding of the principles driving xenobiotic–bacteria–host interplay. This research paves the way for the long road towards personalized medicine and nutrition, which could be based on gut microbial metabolism.

    更新日期:2017-12-20
  • Biliary tract: MMP7 — a diagnostic biomarker for biliary atresia
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-12-13
    Hugh Thomas

    Biliary tract: MMP7 — a diagnostic biomarker for biliary atresia Biliary tract: MMP7 — a diagnostic biomarker for biliary atresia, Published online: 13 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.175 Biliary tract: MMP7 — a diagnostic biomarker for biliary atresia

    更新日期:2017-12-13
  • Developmental biology: Stable epigenetic signatures in intestinal organoids
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-12-13
    Iain Dickson

    Developmental biology: Stable epigenetic signatures in intestinal organoids Developmental biology: Stable epigenetic signatures in intestinal organoids, Published online: 13 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.179 Developmental biology: Stable epigenetic signatures in intestinal organoids

    更新日期:2017-12-13
  • Treatment for unresectable or metastatic oesophageal cancer: current evidence and trends
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-12-13
    Peter S. N. van Rossum, Nadia Haj Mohammad, Frank P. Vleggaar, Richard van Hillegersberg

    Treatment for unresectable or metastatic oesophageal cancer: current evidence and trends Treatment for unresectable or metastatic oesophageal cancer: current evidence and trends, Published online: 13 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.162 Approximately half of patients diagnosed with oesophageal cancer have metastatic or unresectable disease. Here, the authors discuss the multidisciplinary interventions available to manage dysphagia, improve quality of life and prolong survival in these individuals.

    更新日期:2017-12-13
  • Experimental model: A new mouse model of Alagille syndrome
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-12-13
    Iain Dickson

    Experimental model: A new mouse model of Alagille syndrome Experimental model: A new mouse model of Alagille syndrome, Published online: 13 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.180 Experimental model: A new mouse model of Alagille syndrome

    更新日期:2017-12-13
  • Stem cells: Stem cell therapy for liver cirrhosis unREALISTIC?
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-12-13
    Iain Dickson

    Stem cells: Stem cell therapy for liver cirrhosis unREALISTIC? Stem cells: Stem cell therapy for liver cirrhosis unREALISTIC?, Published online: 13 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.178 Stem cells: Stem cell therapy for liver cirrhosis unREALISTIC?

    更新日期:2017-12-13
  • Gut microbiota: A mother's microbiota: intergenerational transfer
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-12-06
    Katrina Ray

    Gut microbiota: A mother's microbiota: intergenerational transfer Gut microbiota: A mother's microbiota: intergenerational transfer, Published online: 06 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.171 Gut microbiota: A mother's microbiota: intergenerational transfer

    更新日期:2017-12-06
  • IBD in 2017: Development of therapy for and prediction of IBD — getting personal
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-12-06
    Raja Atreya, Britta Siegmund

    IBD in 2017: Development of therapy for and prediction of IBD — getting personal IBD in 2017: Development of therapy for and prediction of IBD — getting personal, Published online: 06 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.166 The central studies published in 2017 address novel IBD therapeutic strategies and prediction of the future disease course or response to a distinct therapy. Together, these studies contribute to the understanding of the regulation of mucosal homeostasis and at the same time serve to develop novel personalized treatment algorithms in patients in whom a severe disease course can be predicted.

    更新日期:2017-12-06
  • Oesophagus: A new candidate for the progenitor cell of Barrett metaplasia
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-29
    Rhonda F. Souza, Stuart J. Spechler

    Oesophagus: A new candidate for the progenitor cell of Barrett metaplasia Oesophagus: A new candidate for the progenitor cell of Barrett metaplasia, Published online: 29 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.167 At the squamocolumnar junction of mice and humans,a new study has identified a unique population of transitional basal cells that express molecular markers of both oesophageal stratified squamous epithelium and gastrointestinal columnar epithelium. These transitional basal cells are an attractive candidate for the cell of origin for Barrett oesophagus.

    更新日期:2017-11-29
  • Cellular senescence in gastrointestinal diseases: from pathogenesis to therapeutics
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-29
    Nina Frey, Sascha Venturelli, Lars Zender, Michael Bitzer

    Cellular senescence in gastrointestinal diseases: from pathogenesis to therapeutics Cellular senescence in gastrointestinal diseases: from pathogenesis to therapeutics, Published online: 29 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.146 Cellular senescence is induced in response to various stresses and can either prevent or fuel disease and tumorigenesis. Here, the authors provide an overview of senescence aimed at gastroenterologists and hepatologists and detail how modulation of senescence might be used for therapeutic purposes.

    更新日期:2017-11-29
  • Liver: Delineating the role of angiogenesis in liver fibrosis
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-29
    Hugh Thomas

    Liver: Delineating the role of angiogenesis in liver fibrosis Liver: Delineating the role of angiogenesis in liver fibrosis, Published online: 29 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.168 Liver: Delineating the role of angiogenesis in liver fibrosis

    更新日期:2017-11-29
  • Optogenetic and chemogenetic techniques for neurogastroenterology
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-29
    Werend Boesmans, Marlene M. Hao, Pieter Vanden Berghe

    Optogenetic and chemogenetic techniques for neurogastroenterology Optogenetic and chemogenetic techniques for neurogastroenterology, Published online: 29 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.151 Optogenetic and chemogenetic approaches hold great promise in neurogastroenterological research. In this Review, the authors discuss the advantages and limitations of available tools and cover optimal approaches for targeting specific cell types in the gut.

    更新日期:2017-11-29
  • The devotion to surrogate outcomes in drug development for liver disease
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-29
    Ian A. Rowe

    The devotion to surrogate outcomes in drug development for liver disease The devotion to surrogate outcomes in drug development for liver disease, Published online: 29 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.155 Surrogate end points are often used in clinical trials where the time to clinical outcomes is long. In patients with liver disease, these surrogate outcomes are rarely validated. Without validation, treatment effects reported in trials might not directly translate to patient benefit after licensing.

    更新日期:2017-11-29
  • Liver cancer: A complex interplay between inflammation and immunity in liver cancer
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Katrina Ray

    Liver cancer: A complex interplay between inflammation and immunity in liver cancer Liver cancer: A complex interplay between inflammation and immunity in liver cancer, Published online: 22 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.165 Liver cancer: A complex interplay between inflammation and immunity in liver cancer

    更新日期:2017-11-22
  • Hepatitis E virus: advances and challenges
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Ila Nimgaonkar, Qiang Ding, Robert E. Schwartz, Alexander Ploss

    Hepatitis E virus: advances and challenges Hepatitis E virus: advances and challenges, Published online: 22 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.150 Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a public health concern in both developing and developed countries. Here, the authors describe advances in understanding HEV biology, clinical infection and the challenges still to be overcome in HEV research, particularly with respect to cell culture and animal models.

    更新日期:2017-11-22
  • Pancreatic cancer: Tailored therapy for pancreatic tumour subtype
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Iain Dickson

    Pancreatic cancer: Tailored therapy for pancreatic tumour subtype Pancreatic cancer: Tailored therapy for pancreatic tumour subtype, Published online: 15 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.163

    更新日期:2017-11-15
  • IBD: Inflammatory biomarkers improve management of Crohn's disease
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Hugh Thomas

    IBD: Inflammatory biomarkers improve management of Crohn's disease IBD: Inflammatory biomarkers improve management of Crohn's disease, Published online: 15 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.164

    更新日期:2017-11-15
  • Opioid misuse in gastroenterology and non-opioid management of abdominal pain
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Eva Szigethy, Mitchell Knisely, Douglas Drossman

    Opioid misuse in gastroenterology and non-opioid management of abdominal pain Opioid misuse in gastroenterology and non-opioid management of abdominal pain, Published online: 15 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.141 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Chronic opioid use is increasing worldwide and has negative effects in the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. This Review summarizes the evidence and consequences of opioid misuse in gastroenterology, as well as alternative pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies for pain management in patients with gastrointestinal disorders. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-15
  • Position paper: The potential role of optical biopsy in the study and diagnosis of environmental enteric dysfunction
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Alex J. Thompson, Michael Hughes, Salzitsa Anastasova, Laurie S. Conklin, Tudor Thomas, Cadman Leggett, William A. Faubion, Thomas J. Miller, Peter Delaney, François Lacombe, Sacha Loiseau, Alexander Meining, Rebecca Richards-Kortum, Guillermo J. Tearney, Paul Kelly, Guang-Zhong Yang

    Position paper: The potential role of optical biopsy in the study and diagnosis of environmental enteric dysfunction Position paper: The potential role of optical biopsy in the study and diagnosis of environmental enteric dysfunction, Published online: 15 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.147 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is an important cause of impaired development and stunting in children in the developing world. In this Consensus Statement, the authors assess the potential of optical biopsy technologies to facilitate the study and diagnosis of this global burden. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-15
  • Gut microbiota: Oral bacteria: a cause of IBD?
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Iain Dickson

    Gut microbiota: Oral bacteria: a cause of IBD? Gut microbiota: Oral bacteria: a cause of IBD?, Published online: 08 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.161

    更新日期:2017-11-08
  • Surgery: Robotic assistance confers no benefit in rectal cancer surgery
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Hugh Thomas

    Surgery: Robotic assistance confers no benefit in rectal cancer surgery Surgery: Robotic assistance confers no benefit in rectal cancer surgery, Published online: 08 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.160

    更新日期:2017-11-08
  • Therapy: The ATTRACTION of nivolumab for gastric and gastro-oesophageal junction cancer
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Katrina Ray

    Therapy: The ATTRACTION of nivolumab for gastric and gastro-oesophageal junction cancer Therapy: The ATTRACTION of nivolumab for gastric and gastro-oesophageal junction cancer, Published online: 02 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.157

    更新日期:2017-11-02
  • IBD: The changing epidemiology of IBD
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Katrina Ray

    IBD: The changing epidemiology of IBD IBD: The changing epidemiology of IBD, Published online: 02 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.159

    更新日期:2017-11-02
  • Evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Christopher L. Bowlus, Kristin A. Olson, M. Eric Gershwin

    Evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures Evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures, Published online: 02 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.154

    更新日期:2017-11-02
  • Colorectal cancer: miR-100 and miR-125b induce cetuximab resistance in CRC
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Hugh Thomas

    Colorectal cancer: miR-100 and miR-125b induce cetuximab resistance in CRC Colorectal cancer: miR-100 and miR-125b induce cetuximab resistance in CRC, Published online: 02 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.156

    更新日期:2017-11-02
  • Gut microbiota: Oral microbiome could provide clues to CRC
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Katrina Ray

    Gut microbiota: Oral microbiome could provide clues to CRC Gut microbiota: Oral microbiome could provide clues to CRC, Published online: 02 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.158

    更新日期:2017-11-02
  • Liver cancer: Sensitizing hepatocellular carcinoma to oncolytic virus therapy
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Jennifer Altomonte

    Liver cancer: Sensitizing hepatocellular carcinoma to oncolytic virus therapy Liver cancer: Sensitizing hepatocellular carcinoma to oncolytic virus therapy, Published online: 02 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.153 NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup= Oncolytic viruses have made headlines owing to increasing numbers of reports of clinical success. Compelling data now indicate that small anticancer molecules can serve as potent sensitizers of tumour cells in hepatocellular carcinoma to enhance the oncolytic potential of systemically applied viruses. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-02
  • Alcoholic liver disease: Gut–liver axis: PPIs, Enterococcus and promotion of alcoholic liver disease
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Katrina Ray

    Alcoholic liver disease: Gut–liver axis: PPIs, Enterococcus and promotion of alcoholic liver disease Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.152

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Gastric cancer: The gastric microbiota — bacterial diversity and implications
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-10-18
    Manish A. Shah

    Gastric cancer: The gastric microbiota — bacterial diversity and implications Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Published online: 18 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.140 Although Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer, bacterial communities that reside in the stomach are mostly unacknowledged. A new study shows that some gastric bacterial communities have emigrated from our mouth, prefer certain neighbours and prefer certain environments. By understanding the interactions of these bacteria, we hope to understand the environment most conducive to gastric cancer carcinogenesis.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • NAFLD: HIF2α: a new therapeutic target for NAFLD
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-10-18
    Iain Dickson

    NAFLD: HIF2α: a new therapeutic target for NAFLD Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Published online: 18 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.148

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Environmental triggers in IBD: a review of progress and evidence
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-10-11
    Ashwin N. Ananthakrishnan, Charles N. Bernstein, Dimitrios Iliopoulos, Andrew Macpherson, Markus F. Neurath, Raja A. Raja Ali, Stephan R. Vavricka, Claudio Fiocchi

    A number of environmental factors have been associated with the development of IBD. Alteration of the gut microbiota, or dysbiosis, is closely linked to initiation or progression of IBD, but whether dysbiosis is a primary or secondary event is unclear. Nevertheless, early-life events such as birth, breastfeeding and exposure to antibiotics, as well as later childhood events, are considered potential risk factors for IBD. Air pollution, a consequence of the progressive contamination of the environment by countless compounds, is another factor associated with IBD, as particulate matter or other components can alter the host's mucosal defences and trigger immune responses. Hypoxia associated with high altitude is also a factor under investigation as a potential new trigger of IBD flares. A key issue is how to translate environmental factors into mechanisms of IBD, and systems biology is increasingly recognized as a strategic tool to unravel the molecular alterations leading to IBD. Environmental factors add a substantial level of complexity to the understanding of IBD pathogenesis but also promote the fundamental notion that complex diseases such as IBD require complex therapies that go well beyond the current single-agent treatment approach. This Review describes the current conceptualization, evidence, progress and direction surrounding the association of environmental factors with IBD.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Current and emerging therapeutic targets for IBD
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Markus Neurath

    Current and emerging therapeutic targets for IBD Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Published online: 11 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.138

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Pancreatic cancer: Intra-tumour bacteria promote gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Hugh Thomas

    Pancreatic cancer: Intra-tumour bacteria promote gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Published online: 11 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.142

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • NAFLD: Early promise for ASK1 inhibition in NASH
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Katrina Ray

    NAFLD: Early promise for ASK1 inhibition in NASH Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Published online: 11 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.144

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Coeliac disease: to biopsy or not?
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-10-11
    Norelle R. Reilly, Steffen Husby, David S. Sanders, Peter H. R. Green

    Coeliac disease is increasingly recognized as a global problem in both children and adults. Traditionally, the findings of characteristic changes of villous atrophy and increased intraepithelial lymphocytosis identified in duodenal biopsy samples taken during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy have been required for diagnosis. Although biopsies remain advised as necessary for the diagnosis of coeliac disease in adults, European guidelines for children provide a biopsy-sparing diagnostic pathway. This approach has been enabled by the high specificity and sensitivity of serological testing. However, these guidelines are not universally accepted. In this Perspective, we discuss the pros and cons of a biopsy-avoiding pathway for the diagnosis of coeliac disease, especially in this current era of the call for more biopsies, even from the duodenal bulb, in the diagnosis of coeliac disease. In addition, a contrast between paediatric and adult guidelines is presented.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Intestinal hypoxia and hypoxia-induced signalling as therapeutic targets for IBD
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    Sophie Van Welden, Andrew C. Selfridge, Pieter Hindryckx

    Tissue hypoxia occurs when local oxygen demand exceeds oxygen supply. In chronic inflammatory conditions such as IBD, the increased oxygen demand by resident and gut-infiltrating immune cells coupled with vascular dysfunction brings about a marked reduction in mucosal oxygen concentrations. To counter the hypoxic challenge and ensure their survival, mucosal cells induce adaptive responses, including the activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and modulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Both pathways are tightly regulated by oxygen-sensitive prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs), which therefore represent promising therapeutic targets for IBD. In this Review, we discuss the involvement of mucosal hypoxia and hypoxia-induced signalling in the pathogenesis of IBD and elaborate in detail on the role of HIFs, NF-κB and PHDs in different cell types during intestinal inflammation. We also provide an update on the development of PHD inhibitors and discuss their therapeutic potential in IBD.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Liver cancer: Translating '–omics' results into precision medicine for hepatocellular carcinoma
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-08-02
    Daniela Sia, Josep M. Llovet

    A large-scale comprehensive analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on the integration of six distinct data platforms has pinpointed novel oncogenic processes and prognostic subgroups. These findings confirm previously identified molecular subclasses and fuel the need for a clear strategy of precision medicine in HCC.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Oesophageal cancer: RNA editing of SLC22A3 mRNAs: causative relevance to familial ESCC?
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-07-26
    Kazuko Nishikura

    A new study reveals an involvement of SLC22A3 in the development of familial oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Reduced expression of SLC22A3 is detected not only in ESCC tumours but also in non-tumour tissues of patients with familial ESCC. Interestingly, adenosine-to-inosine editing of SLC22A3 mRNA is proposed to drive early tumour invasion and metastasis, by inhibiting SLC22A3 expression.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease: pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-08-09
    Julián Panés, Jordi Rimola

    Perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease has a major negative effect on patient quality of life and is a predictor of poor long-term outcomes. Factors involved in the pathogenesis of perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease include an increased production of transforming growth factor β, TNF and IL-13 in the inflammatory infiltrate that induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases, leading to tissue remodelling and fistula formation. Care of patients with perianal Crohn's disease requires a multidisciplinary approach. A complete assessment of fistula characteristics is the basis for optimal management and must include the clinical evaluation of fistula openings, endoscopic assessment of the presence of proctitis, and MRI to determine the anatomy of fistula tracts and presence of abscesses. Local injection of mesenchymal stem cells can induce remission in patients not responding to medical therapies, or to avoid the exposure to systemic immunosuppression in patients naive to biologics in the absence of active luminal disease. Surgery is still required in a high proportion of patients and should not be delayed when criteria for drug failure is met. In this Review, we provide an up-to-date overview on the pathogenesis and diagnosis of fistulizing Crohn's disease, as well as therapeutic strategies.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Direct-acting antiviral agents for HCV infection affecting people who inject drugs
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-08-23
    Jason Grebely, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Gregory J. Dore

    Globally, 12 million people are estimated to have injected drugs in the past year, 50% of whom have chronic HCV infection, with people who have previously injected drugs presenting an additional large reservoir of infection. The availability of simple and tolerable interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for HCV infection, which have a cure rate of >95% represents one of the most exciting advances in clinical medicine in the past few decades. Adherence and response to DAA therapy among people who inject drugs (PWID) receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST) in clinical trials are comparable to populations without a history of injecting drugs. Further data are required among current PWID not receiving OST. Given the potential prevention benefits of treatment, DAAs have enhanced cost-effectiveness among PWID. As HCV therapy is expanded to populations of PWID with high-risk behaviours for re-exposure, acknowledgement that HCV reinfection will occur is crucial, and appropriate strategies must be in place to maximize prevention of reinfection and offer retreatment for reinfection. This Review will also discuss essential components for broadening access to HCV care for PWID as we strive for the global elimination of HCV infection.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Gut microbiota and IBD: causation or correlation?
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Josephine Ni, Gary D. Wu, Lindsey Albenberg, Vesselin T. Tomov

    A general consensus exists that IBD is associated with compositional and metabolic changes in the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis). However, a direct causal relationship between dysbiosis and IBD has not been definitively established in humans. Findings from animal models have revealed diverse and context-specific roles of the gut microbiota in health and disease, ranging from protective to pro-inflammatory actions. Moreover, evidence from these experimental models suggest that although gut bacteria often drive immune activation, chronic inflammation in turn shapes the gut microbiota and contributes to dysbiosis. The purpose of this Review is to summarize current associations between IBD and dysbiosis, describe the role of the gut microbiota in the context of specific animal models of colitis, and discuss the potential role of microbiota-focused interventions in the treatment of human IBD. Ultimately, more studies will be needed to define host–microbial relationships relevant to human disease and amenable to therapeutic interventions.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Regenerative medicine and cell-based approaches to restore pancreatic function
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-08-16
    Cara Ellis, Adam Ramzy, Timothy J. Kieffer

    The pancreas is a complex organ with exocrine and endocrine components. Many pathologies impair exocrine function, including chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Conversely, when the endocrine pancreas fails to secrete sufficient insulin, patients develop diabetes mellitus. Pathology in either the endocrine or exocrine pancreas results in devastating economic and personal consequences. The current standard therapy for treating patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus is daily exogenous insulin injections, but cell sources of insulin provide superior glycaemic regulation and research is now focused on the goal of regenerating or replacing β cells. Stem-cell-based models might be useful to study exocrine pancreatic disorders, and mesenchymal stem cells or secreted factors might delay disease progression. Although the standards that bioengineered cells must meet before being considered as a viable therapy are not yet established, any potential therapy must be acceptably safe and functionally superior to current therapies. Here, we describe progress and challenges in cell-based methods to restore pancreatic function, with a focus on optimizing the site for cell delivery and decreasing requirements for immunosuppression through encapsulation. We also discuss the tools and strategies being used to generate exocrine pancreas and insulin-producing β-cell surrogates in situ and highlight obstacles to clinical application.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • A clinician's guide to microbiome analysis
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-08-09
    Marcus J. Claesson, Adam G. Clooney, Paul W. O'Toole

    Microbiome analysis involves determining the composition and function of a community of microorganisms in a particular location. For the gastroenterologist, this technology opens up a rapidly evolving set of challenges and opportunities for generating novel insights into the health of patients on the basis of microbiota characterizations from intestinal, hepatic or extraintestinal samples. Alterations in gut microbiota composition correlate with intestinal and extraintestinal disease and, although only a few mechanisms are known, the microbiota are still an attractive target for developing biomarkers for disease detection and management as well as potential therapeutic applications. In this Review, we summarize the major decision points confronting new entrants to the field or for those designing new projects in microbiome research. We provide recommendations based on current technology options and our experience of sequencing platform choices. We also offer perspectives on future applications of microbiome research, which we hope convey the promise of this technology for clinical applications.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • The IBD interactome: an integrated view of aetiology, pathogenesis and therapy
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-08-23
    Heitor S. P. de Souza, Claudio Fiocchi, Dimitrios Iliopoulos

    IBD is a complex disease characterized by multiple interacting pathogenic components. In this Perspectives, the authors advocate studying the 'IBD interactome' to build a molecular network of IBD, and discuss new concepts and tools to implement an unbiased systems approach that could facilitate development of novel therapies.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • In the news
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-08-09
    Hugh Thomas

    From BSG 2017Manchester played host to the annual meeting of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) this year, which took in 4 days of symposia, hands-on training, lectures and industry exhibits. After a Gastroenterology Master Class on the first day of the meeting, which

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Liver: Cholangiocytes regenerate hepatocytes during severe liver injury
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-07-26
    Iain Dickson

    New mouse models of hepatocyte regeneration have identified cholangiocytes as the cellular source of regeneration in the injured adult liver, according to research published in Nature. These findings could help reveal regenerative signalling pathways in the liver and ultimately aid the development of new

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • NAFLD: Type 2 immunity drives progression of NAFLD
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Katrina Ray

    A new study reveals contrasting effects of polarized immune responses in different tissues during obesity. According to research published in Science Translational Medicine, a type 2 immune response, characterized by accumulation of eosinophils, exacerbates progression of NAFLD and NASH yet is protective in metabolic

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Regenerative medicine: Bioengineering the common bile duct
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-07-12
    Hugh Thomas

    Extrahepatic cholangiocyte organoids (ECOs) derived from primary human tissue can successfully repair common bile duct defects in mice, a new study shows.Bile duct disorders are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, with reconstruction of affected tissue limited by the availability of healthy donors.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Pancreatic cancer: Biomarkers for the early detection of PDAC
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-08-02
    Katrina Ray

    A new study reports a novel biomarker panel for the detection of early-stage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Measured using conventional ELISAs, the test combines the detection of two blood-based biomarkers, thrombospondin-2 (THBS2) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9).Lack of diagnostic tests for the early detection

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • NAFLD: PNPLA3 and obesity: a synergistic relationship in NAFLD
    Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 13.678) Pub Date : 2017-06-14
    Jake P. Mann, Quentin M. Anstee

    NAFLD, the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, is a multifactorial condition — environmental factors influence an inherited genetic risk. Stender et al. now describe the additive effect of obesity and NAFLD-associated genetic polymorphisms on steatosis, elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels and cirrhosis, remarkably illustrating the principle of gene–environment interactions.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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