Fe2O3/TiO2 film electrodes prepared by the forced hydrolysis method and their photoelectrocatalytic performance Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-13 Wenwei Tang, Yazhou Zhang, Xiaoying Chen, Xinping Zeng
TiO2 composites are ideal pollution control materials. In this paper, Fe2O3/TiO2 film electrodes were prepared by the sol-gel and forced hydrolysis method. The apparent properties and electrochemical properties of the prepared electrodes were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), chronocoulometry and linear sweep voltammetry, and their photoelectrocatalytic properties were investigated under visible light by degradation experiments of Rhodamine B (RhB). The results showed that the particles prepared from 0.1 M Fe(NO3)3 precursor were completely and uniformly distributed on the film surface. During the degradation experiments, the visible-light response current was 23.4 μA, and the decolorized rate for RhB could be up to 92.3%. The semiconductor heterojunction structure comprised of Fe2O3 and TiO2 could effectively separate photo-generated electron hole pairs, inhibit their recombination, accelerate interfacial charge transfer, and enhance photocatalytic properties.
NiO-Fe2O3/carbon nanotubes composite as bifunctional electrocatalyst for rechargeable Zn-air batteries Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-13 Jing Fang, Langtao Hu, Mengran Wang, Lang Gan, Chao Chen, Yongjia Jiang, Bihai Xiao, Yanqing Lai, Jie Li
The oxygen reduction reaction(ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction(OER) are essential to metal-air batteries and fuel cells. Highly efficient and low-cost electrocatalysts for oxygen reactions are in urgent demand. Herein, we synthesized materials through Fe2O3 and NiO depositing on carbon nanotubes(CNTs) by hydrothermal method, which can perform as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for the ORR and OER. These catalysts mainly contain macropores which can provide sufficient surface area for active sites. With metal oxides depositing on CNTs, it overcomes some drawbacks such as low conductivity and agglomeration of metal oxides. The catalysts show great electrocatalytic toward ORR and OER even comparing with commercial Pt-C/RuO2 catalysts. Through constructing an air battery and testing the performance of cycling, the stability of the catalyst can also be proved.
Surfactant- and Sonication- free Exfoliation Approach to Aqueous Graphene Dispersion Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-13 Shufen Wang, Chao Wang, Xiang Ji, Mingzhang Lin
Influence of [6,6]-Phenyl-C61-butyric Acid Methyl Ester doping on Au/CH3NH3PbI3/Au metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photoelectric detectors Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-13 Suzhen luan, Yintao Liu, Yucheng Wang, Renxu Jia
In this manuscript, Au/CH3NH3PbI3/Au metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photoelectric detectors with different concentrations of [6,6]-Phenyl-C61-butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM) doping are studied. It is found that with PCBM doping, the zero voltage shifts of MSM detector are inhibited, and the dark currents increase slightly which result in the smaller light-dark current ratio and detectivity. It is speculated that the vacancies in CH3NH3PbI3 are filled by PCBM, and the captured electrons are release. The MSM detector with 0.01wt% PCBM doping shows high responsivity (35mAW−1), detectivity (4.126×1010Jones) and response time(<2ms) under 5V bias voltage, respectively. It is indicated that appropriate proportion of PCBM doping is a suitable way to optimize the performance of perovskite-based photo-detectors.
Hydrothermal synthesis of highly stable copper sulfide nanorods for efficient photo-thermal conversion Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-12 Junfei Fang, Pengchao Zhang, Gang Zhou
Copper sulfide (CuS) nanostructures have an important application prospect in the field of solar photo-thermal conversion because of their excellent photo-thermal stability. In this paper, nanostructured CuS nanorods were successfully prepared via hydrothermal reaction method. The crystal structure and surface morphology of the as-prepared CuS nanorods were characterized. The optical absorption and photo-thermal conversion performance of the CuS emulsions based on water were studied. The ultraviolet/visible/near infrared (UV/Vis/NIR) absorption spectra tests show that the prepared CuS emulsions have strong optical absorption in both visible light and near infrared light bands. And the photo-thermal conversion results indicate that the CuS emulsions possess good photo-thermal conversion performance, and the maximum temperature of the emulsion reaches about 74.44˚C with the mass fraction of 0.10%. Moreover, in a certain concentration range, the photo-thermal conversion performance will be effectively enhanced with increasing the mass fractions of the emulsions.
Highly Sensitive V2O5·1.6H2O nanostructures for sensing of Helium gas at room temperature Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-12 Pankaj Singh Chauhan, Shantanu Bhattacharya
In this work, we report the facile synthesis of hydrated vanadium pentoxide (V2O5·1.6H2O) nanostars using hydrothermal route and their use was demonstrated and compared with nanowire type structure for sensing of helium gas for the first time. The gas sensing properties were attributed to the electron hopping mechanism in V2O5·1.6H2O nanostructures at room temperature. We observed that the change in morphology of V2O5·1.6H2O helps to augment the overall response (to 53% at 300 ppm) with very low response/recovery time (9/10 seconds). The excellent sensing properties at room temperature, make V2O5·1.6H2O nanostructures a potential material for He gas sensing application.
Improving conductivity in carbon nanotube percolating networks through inclusion of Laponite nanoparticles Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-12 Lukas Valdman, Don Dobbs, Rebecca Cortez, Michael E. Hagerman
Obstacles to the commercialization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in alternative energy and clean water applications include high production costs, aggregation problems, and poor water solubility. We report the use of Laponite nanoparticles to improve the aqueous phase fabrication of single-walled CNT (SWCNT) percolating networks. SWCNT/Laponite films were cast at varied Laponite and CNT ink concentrations to optimize polydispersity. Structural and morphological characterization identified isolated aggregates, coalesced aggregates, and interconnected networks. Conductive atomic force microscopy studies confirmed that the nanocomposite films maintained their electrical transport properties after heteromixing. Incorporating Laponite improved CNT aqueous dispersibility, prevented aggregation, and promoted continuous, homogenous film formation.
Solution Processed Black Phosphorus Quantum Dots for High Performance Silicon/Organic Hybrid Solar Cells Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-12 Qingduan Li, Jianwei Yang, Chun Huang, Shaozhong Zeng, Jizhao Zou, Xierong Zeng, Xiaohua Li, Qiangang Fu
In this letter, solution-processed black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) were applied to enhance hole extraction of Si/poly-(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly (styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) heterojunction based hybrid solar cells. A remarkable improvement of power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 10.03 % to 13.60 % was achieved by the PEDOT:PSS/BPQDs-incorporated devices. Detailed investigations discover the influence of BPQDs on the hole extraction effect and work mechanism of BPQDs. Our work presents an avenue in using solution processed BPQDs for high performance hybrid solar cells.
Exchange bias effect in Ni50Mn35In15/BiFeO3 heterostructure thin film Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-12 Harish Sharma Akkera, Davinder Kaur
In this study, we studied the exchange bias (EB) effect in Ni50Mn35In15 and Ni50Mn35In15/BiFeO3 heterostructure thin films deposited onto Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate using dc/rf magnetron sputtering. In pure Ni50Mn35In15 film, the shift of the hysteresis loop from the origin up to 110 Oe was observed at 10 K due to coexistence of FM-AFM interface. On the other hand, the shift of the hysteresis loop was significantly enhanced (480 Oe) in Ni50Mn35In15/BiFeO3 heterostructure thin film at 10 K in field cooled. Further, a high exchange bias field of 80 Oe was found at room temperature in Ni50Mn35In15/BiFeO3 heterostructure thin film. The observed exchange bias field (HE) in this heterostructure thin film was attributed to the presence of a pinned and uncompensated spins in the antiferromagnetic at the interface, and induced by the interface exchange coupling between Ni50Mn35In15 and BiFeO3. This behaviour is an additional property for the Ni50Mn35In15/BiFeO3 heterostructure thin film to be used in various other magnetic memory devise applications.
Growth of gold-palladium alloy catalyzed gallium nitride nanowires by chemical vapour deposition Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-12 S. Sanjay, K. Prabakaran, Shubra Singh, K. Baskar
The growth of gallium nitride nanowires on c-plane sapphire substrates using binary catalytic alloy was investigated by manipulating growth time and precursor-to-substrate distance. The variations in structural, optical and morphological behaviour of the samples at different growth conditions were observed using X-ray diffractometer, cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was noticed that, thickness of the nanowires decreased with increase in growth time and precursor-to-substrate distance. Simultaneously, length of the nanowires increased with growth time and varied with precursor-to-substrate distance. The reduction in nanowire thickness was found to have a positive effect in improving luminescence property and bandgap of the grown nanowires. The results indicate that this material system can be catered for optoelectronic device applications.
ONE-POT METHOD TO SYNTHESIS POLYANILINE WRAPPED GRAPHENE AEROGEL/ SILVER NANOPARTICLE COMPOSITES FOR SOLID-STATE SUPERCAPACITOR DEVICES Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-12 Prasit Pattananuwat, Paphinwit Thammasaroj, Weerapong Nuanwat, Jiaqian Qin, Pranut Potiyaraj
Hydrothermal Synthesis of Ammonioalunite with Hexagonal Rose-like Morphology Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-12 Fang Wang, Jianfeng Zhu, Hui Liu
Template-free synthesis of mesoporous ZnCo2O4 nanosheets and quasi-cubes via a simple solvothermal route Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Xingrong Han, Fan Liao, Yanfei Zhang, Huiyu Chen, Chunju Xu
Low temperature sintering and microwave dielectric properties of novel temperature stable Li3Mg2NbO6-0.1TiO2 ceramics Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Gang Wang, Huaiwu Zhang, Cheng Liu, Hua Su, Jie Li, Xin Huang, Gongwen Gan, Fang Xu
Novel temperature stable Li3Mg2NbO6-0.1TiO2 (LMNT) ceramics doped with Li2O-B2O3-Bi2O3-SiO2 (LBBS) glass were synthetized by a solid-state route. The sintering temperature of the LBBS glass doped LMNT ceramics can be effectively lowered to 900 °C. The experimental results revealed that the addition of the LBBS glass can assist to improve the Q×f values while shifting the τf values toward negative direction. Particularly, the 1wt.% of LBBS glass doped LMNT ceramic sintered at 900 °C for 4 h possessed excellent microwave dielectric properties: εr=16, Q×f=42648 GHz, τf=-1ppm/°C., which is potential for LTCC applications.
In4Se3 alloy core thermoelectric fibers Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Min Sun, Guowu Tang, Guoquan Qian, Wangwang Liu, Zhenguo Shi, Dongdan Chen, Qi Qian, Zhongmin Yang
In4Se3 exhibits high thermoelectric performance as a typical example of semiconductors, which is a promising thermoelectric candidate for energy conversion applications. Here, InSe alloy core thermoelectric fibers with glass cladding were fabricated by a reactive molten core drawing method. The as-drawn fiber core was found to be InSe crystals as evidenced by X-ray diffraction. The In4Se3 crystals were obtained in the fiber core by annealing the as-drawn fibers. The Seebeck coefficient of the In4Se3 core fibers (-347 μV/K) was enhanced by ∼ 85% compared with that of the as-drawn InSe core fibers (-189 μV/K). This work constitutes a proof-of-concept that thermoelectric materials can be incorporated into fibers, which have promising applications in fiber-based thermoelectric devices.
Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties of Te-Doped and In, Ba Double-filled CoSb3 Composites by High Pressure Technology Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 L. Deng, L.B. Wang, J. Ni, J.M. Qin, X.P. Jia, H.A. Ma
In this paper, Te-doped multifilled n-type skutterudite compounds were prepared by high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) method and characterized by X-ray and SEM, which showed that InxBa0.2-xCo4Sb11.5Te0.5 samples with fine grain size can be prepared by HPHT rapidly. Both thermal transport properties and electrical transport properties have been characterized in the temperature range of 363 K to 765 K. The combination of (In, Ba) double-filled and Te-doped is more effective than simple Te-doped or the combination of In-filled and Te-doped in reducing lattice thermal conductivity. Finally, the figure of merit value (ZT) of In0.15Ba0.05Co4Sb11.5Te0.5 reached 1.11 at 765 K. This showed that the ZT values of samples can likely be improved through combining multiple filling atoms and doping atoms to broad the range of resonant phonon scattering.
Green synthesized PLA/ silver nanoparticle probe for sensing of Hydrogen Peroxide in biological samples Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 Shebi Alipilakkotte, Lisa Sreejith
Controlled synthesisand characterization of hybrid Sn-doped Co3O4 nanowires for supercapacitors Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 Yi Zhou, Yanli Wang, Jingfeng Wang, Lin Lin, Xiaoyan Wu, Dannong He
Synthesis and characterization of CuO/graphene (Core/shell) quantum dots for electrochemical applications Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Yohan Ko, Jaeho Shim, Chil-Hyoung Lee, Kyu Seung Lee, Hyunjin Cho, Ki-Tae Lee, Dong Ick Son
We report on the in-situ chemical growth of unique core-shell quantum dots (QDs) with single layer graphene on the surface of CuO QDs and their structural, optical and electrical properties. The CuO/graphene QDs were synthesized through a simple and hydrothermal technique. In order to enhance performance electrochemical energy storages, we have developed core (active material)/shell (conductive material) type CuO/graphene QDs as electrode materials using the combined electrolytes (KOH+LiCl). As a result, the performance of electrochemical energy storages exhibits specific capacitance of 154 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1 and cycling stability with 84% capacitance retention after 3,000 cycles.
Electrical and electrochemical properties of undoped CePO4 and doped Ce0.9Cd0.15-xLi2xPO4 nanomaterials (x = 0 and 0.02) Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Salah Kouass, Amor Fadhalaoui, Massoud Kahlaoui, Hassouna Dhaouadi, Fathi Touati
Synthesis of metal ions (Cd2+, Li+) doped CePO4 nanocrystals were achieved through a simple hydrothermal route at 150 °C using citric acid and poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG-6000). The results obtained reveal that the low percentage of (Cd2+, Li+) dopant affect the structure showing a weak decrease in the lattice parameters compared to the CePO4. The total electrical conductivity plots obtained from impedance spectra, between 300 and 450°C, indicated that the activation energies for CePO4, Ce0.9Cd0.15PO4, Ce0.9Cd0.13Li0.04PO4 are 1.05, 0.99 and 0.72 eV, respectively, showing an increase of the total conductivity as Li-content increases. The conduction mechanism is described using correlated barrier hopping model. The partial substitution leads to the improvement capacity when increasing the Li-content from 65 F.g-1 for Ce0.9Cd0.15PO4 to 75 F.g-1 for Ce0.9Cd0.13Li0.04PO4.
Fabrication and damping behavior of a novel Mg/TiNiCu composite Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Qingzhou Wang, Xiaojing Liu, Bo Li, Fuxing Yin, Chunxiang Cui, Yanjun Ding, Zhixian Jiao
A novel Mg/TiNiCu composite was successfully fabricated from porous TiNiCu shape memory alloy (SMA) and pure Mg via non-pressure infiltration process with the aim of developing a new kind of high damping material with excellent mechanical properties. In order to restrain the formation of undesired Mg2Cu phase, the methods of short-time infiltration and rapid consolidation were adopted. Resultant material had homogenously distributed and 3D interconnected Mg particles in the TiNiCu matrix. Compared with porous TiNiCu SMA, in addition to the notable increase of storage modulus the damping property of Mg/TiNiCu composite was also obviously improved, which could be attributed to the superposition effect of multiple damping sources.
Production of hydrogen and carbon nanomaterials using transition metal catalysts through methane decomposition Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 G. Urdiana, R. Valdez, G. Lastra, M.Á. Valenzuela, A. Olivas
Search for potential precursors for Si-atomic layer deposition- a quantum chemical study Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 P. Vajeeston, H. Fjellvåg, O. Nilsen
Thin film of silicon is an interesting material for many technological applications in electronic industry and in energy harvesting technologies, but requires a method for controlled growth of thin films. The purpose of this study is to screen a wide variety of Si content precursors for Si atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactions using state-of-the-art density-functional calculations. Among the studied 85 Si content precursors we found that C7H12OSi–Methoxy-trivinyl-silane and C7H9NSi–Benzyliminosilane show positive indications for ALD reactivity for Si deposition. We believe that this finding will be helpful to develop low-cost, high-energy efficiency thin-film solar cells for future scale up implementation in photovoltaics.
A new cast Mg-Y-Sm-Zn-Zr alloy with high hardness Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Shaoyuan Lyu, Guodong Li, Tong Hu, Ruixiao Zheng, Wenlong Xiao, Chaoli Ma
The microstructure and aging precipitates of a new cast Mg-Y-Sm-Zn-Zr alloy were investigated. The results showed that eutectic phase forming in solidification process was proved to be (Mg,Zn)3(Y,Sm). The alloy exhibited high hardness (maximum value of 148 HV), which is higher in comparison with other high rare-earth Mg alloy. The aging precipitate β’ is thermally stable at 200°C for the crystal structure of β’ kept unchanged in the whole aging process.
Refractive index profile in titanium-diffused congruent lithium tantalate optical waveguide Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Xiao-Fei Yang, Chao-Yang Zhang, Zi-Bo Zhang, Wing-Han Wong, Edwin Yue-Bun Pun, De-Long Zhang
Porous SnO2 hollow microspheres as anodes for high-performance lithium ion battery Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Haojie Li, Qingmei Su, Jinwei Kang, Min Huang, Miao Feng, Huagui Feng, Ping Huang, Gaohui Du
SnO2 has been studied as a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume change (> 300%) and severe structural collapse during cycles are serious. To solve these issues, the porous SnO2 dumbbell-shaped hollow microspheres (DSHSs) were synthesized by a sacrificial template method. The porous SnO2 DSHSs deliver a capacity of 695 mAh g-1 when the current density returns from 1600 to 100 mA g-1. After being tested at larger current density of 1.0 A g-1 for 100 cycles, the capacity retain 602 mAh g-1. The superior performance of porous SnO2 DSHSs can be attributed to the porous and hollow microstructure, which provides more lithium storage sites; shorter Li-ion diffusion length and sufficient void space.
Sodium ferric EDTA-derived Fe-N-C material for selectively electrocatalytic synthesis of hydrogen peroxide Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Xiang-Hui Yan, Ziwei Meng, Jia Liu, Tong Xue
A cheap sodium ferric EDTA-derived material (EDTAFeNa-KB-HT1) was prepared via one-step pyrolysis of a complex of Ketjenblack EC-300J and inorganic-organic hybrid EDTAFeNa, which was employed as both nitrogen and ferric precursors. The EDTAFeNa-KB-HT1 was proved to be an iron and nitrogen co-doped Fe-N-C material with micro-mesoporous structure and large surface area. The EDTAFeNa-KB-HT1 exhibited high selectivity (80∼100%) towards oxygen reduction reaction for electrocatalytic synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concurrently with generation of large current density, which could be potentially a safe, efficient and environment-friendly fuel cell method for the scale production of H2O2.
A bio-inspired concept to improve crack resistance of gray cast iron Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Xiao Yang, Lifeng Shi, Shichao Niu, Yuchen Shi, Guojin Chen, Jing Ni, Can Wu
The prospect of introducing natural biological secrets to improve the crack resistance of gray cast iron is presented. We demonstrated that the mechanism of resisting crack owned by plant leaf can be referred to fabricate an alternating structure of hard and soft with low cost, high strength, and an exceptional ability to resist crack growth. Laser alloying was introduced to fabricate the hard phase which associated with the original matrix constituted the alternating structure. A homogeneous microstructure and a uniform distribution of chemical composites were achieved in hard phase. Nanoindentation test showed the resistance to plastic deformation of hard phase was improved. Crack propagation tests verified the crack resistance was enhanced by the alternating structure which could change and prolong crack path, and the effectiveness of resisting crack propagation was proportional to the size of hard phase.
Current-driven spontaneous infiltration of molten Al into a porous PSZ preform with a lamellar structure Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-08 Rui-Fen Guo, Ping Shen, Bo Yang, Lian-Teng Yu, Qi-Chuan Jiang
Phase composition, singtering behavior and microwave dielectric properties of M2BiLi2V3O12 (M= Zn, Ca) low temperature co-fired ceramics Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-08 Huanfu Zhou, Kangguo Wang, Wendong Sun, Xiuli Chen, Hong Ruan
M2BiLi2V3O12 (M= Ca, Zn) low temperature co-fired ceramics were investigated in the present work. The ceramics could be densified at 625 oC∼675 oC for 4h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of ceramics shown that Ca2BiLi2V3O12 was a single phase with cubic garnet structure, but Zn2BiLi2V3O12 displayed multiple phases. Both ceramics exhibited good comprehensive performances (Ca2BiLi2V3O12: optimized sintering temperature Ts = 650 oC, εr = 24.7, Q×f = 6,436 GHz, τƒ = 57 ppm/°C. Zn2BiLi2V3O12: Ts = 675 oC, εr = 17.0, Q×f = 17,522 GHz, τƒ = -154 ppm/°C), indicating that they are the candidates for LTCC device applications.
Ag3VO4/AgI composites for photocatalytic degradation of dyes and tetracycline hydrochloride under visible light Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-08 Junlei Zhang, Zhen Ma
Preparation of nanoscale-dispersed g–C3N4/graphene oxide composite photocatalyst with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-08 Hui Wang, Qianhong Shen, Zengyu You, Yuxuan Su, Yang Yu, Abbas Babapour, Fang Zhang, Di Cheng, Hui Yang
Functionalized MOFs-controlled formation of novel Ni-Co nanoheterostructure@carbon hybrid as the electrodes for supercapacitor Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-08 Junjie Qiu, Engao Dai, Jiao Xu, Shucheng Liu, Yi Liu
Temperature stable dielectric properties of lead-free BiFeO3–BaTiO3 modified with LiTaO3 ceramics Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-08 Fazli Akram, Rizwan Ahmed Malik, Ali Hussain, Tae-Kwon Song, Won-Jeong Kim, Myong-Ho Kim
LiTaO3 (LT)-modified (1–x)(0.675BiFeO3–0.325BaTiO3)+0.6 mol.% MnO2+0.4 mol.% CuO (BFBTMC–xLT, where x = 0–0.030) ceramics were synthesized by solid state reaction method. The crystal symmetry, ferroelectric response, and temperature stable dielectric properties were investigated as a function of different LT-content. The X-ray diffraction study of BFBTMC–LT piezoceramics revealed no remarkable variation in the crystal symmetry. The value of maximum polarization (Pm ≈ 24 μC/cm2) and remnant polarization (Pr ≈ 18 μC/cm2) were obtained at BFBTMC–0.010LT composition. The maximum temperature of permittivity (Tmax) decreased by the addition of LT-content in BFBTMC materials. The un-doped sample was ferroelectric; a change to relaxor behavior occurred by the addition of LT-content, with broad frequency dependent curves of dielectric mid-value permittivity (εrmid) and tangent loss as a function of temperature. A significant enhancement occurred at 3 mol.% LT-modified BFBTMC ceramics, with εrmid = 5000±9.5% (250–450 oC at 1 kHz). These results are favorable for practical applications in high temperature dielectrics.
3D-printed thick structured gelatin membrane for engineering of heterogeneous tissues Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-08 Lobat Tayebi, Morteza Rasoulianboroujeni, Zhanfeng Cui, Hua Ye
Although biological membranes may look like a 2D assembly, they often have complex structures in their 3rd dimension. Using layer-by-layer assembly, 3D-printing can offer an advanced and unique approach for the fabrication of such models. However, printing of some widely used hydrogels, such as gelatin, encounters experimental difficulties due to their rheological properties. In this paper, we (a) discuss the complexities involved in printing gelatin, (b) offer a reproducible approach to overcome such difficulties, and (c) present the detailed design criteria and the production process of such 3D-printed gelatin membranes by exemplifying scaffolds suitable for growth of full-thickness oral mucosa as a heterogeneous tissue.
The effect of ZIF-8 on the phase structure and morphology of bead-like CuMn2O4/ZnO photocatalystic electrospun nanofibers Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-08 Hui Li, Ying Chen, Qian Ma, Junpeng Wang, Quande Che, Gang Wang, Yilang Tan, Ping Yang
A novel Cu(OH)2 coated filter paper with superhydrophobicity for the efficient separation of water-in-oil emulsions Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-06 Chenyang Cao, Jiang Cheng
A novel filter paper (FP) with superhydrophobicitiy and superoleophilicity was prepared via adsorption and immersion process for the separation of surfactant-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions. The realization of superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 153° benefits from the Cu(OH)2 nanostructure formed on FP and subsequent stearic acid (STA) modification. The three-dimensional network of FP as well as superhydrophobic and superoleophilic property can facilitate the demulsification of emulsified oil, thus the only gravity-driven separations of various water-in-oil emulsions with high oil flux and good recyclability have been achieved. The superhydrophobic FP can be massively applied in emulsion separation due to its facile preparation and superior performance.
A simple strategy to tailor the microstructure and wear-resistance of sputtered WS2 films Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-06 Shusheng Xu, Ming Hu, Jiayi Sun, Lijun Weng, Weimin Liu, Xiaoming Gao
Sputtered WS2 films can be modified by adding some amount of hetero-elements to overcome the porous columnar microstructure and thereby to enhance the wear resistance. However, the recession of tribological properties of WS2-hetero-element composite films in low earth orbit environment would be a potential danger because most hetero-elements succumbed to oxidation by atomic oxygen. Herein, by altering deposition argon pressure to adjust the plasmas bombard function on growing WS2 film, the characteristic porous microstructure disappeared. At the optimization condition, the sputtered WS2 film exhibited a dense microstructure, high ratio of S to W, and thereby much better wear-resistance. However, the excessive bombardment would result in the prominent loss of S atoms in WS2 film and the deterioration of tribological properties.
Ruddlesden-Popper type La2NiO4+δ oxide as a pseudocapacitor electrode Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-06 Zhongsheng Sang, Wei Che, Shengbing Yang, Yihui Liu
Ruddlesden-Popper type La2NiO4+δ (LNO) oxide was investigated as a novel pseudocapacitive electrode and performed high performance with the capacitance of 657.4 F·g-1 under the scan rate of 2 mV·s-1 in 3 M KOH electrolyte. Two cathodic peaks and one anodic peak in CV curves of LNO in KOH electrolyte indicate the special oxygen insertion/extrusion processes because its structure alternates with perovskite LaNiO3 layers and LaO rock-salt layers in succession. Cycle performance of LNO at a relatively high current density of 10 A·g-1 is approximately 96.2% after 500 cycles in 3 M KOH electrolyte, showing good cycling stability. This confirms LNO as a potential candidate for high performance pseudocapacitor electrodes.
On possible reactions between boron carbide and silicon at elevated temperatures Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-06 Andrey Yurkov, Anton Naschokin, Artem Malakho, Victor Avdeev
Ternary compounds like B5SiC2 and B3Si2C2 as products of reaction between B4C and silicon were proposed to exist in early investigations. According to the recent publications the products of high temperature reaction are SiC and the ternary phase(s) BxCyCz. The crystals of the newly appearing ternary phase(s) have relatively big dimensions (10-20 μm), rather strict crystal facets. Twinning may be frequent for these phases. According to energy dispersive and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy the composition of these crystals tends to B3Si2C2, their diffraction lines are similar to those of BxSiyCz phase, described earlier.
Synthesis of Pt-Co micro/nanoporous array with high activity for methanol electrooxidation Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-05 Jianwei Zhao, Yongcan Zhou, Lirong Qin, Min Zhao
Pt-Co micro/nanoporous array was fabricated by electrochemical deposition with the aid of a colloidal monolayer as a template. Morphology observation revealed that the prepared Pt-Co array was composed of ordered, hexagonal and spherical hollow holes with uniform nanogaps on the inner pore walls. The average Co content in the array was about 20 at%. The electrochemical measurements showed that the Pt-Co porous array exhibited high catalytic activity and stability for methanol electrooxidation in alkaline medium, which made it more attractive for fuel cell applications.
Epipremnum aureum derived porous carbon for high-performance supercapacitors Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-05 Ruoyu Xia, Jiachen Zhou, Xiaohan Wu, Jia Huang
Porous carbon sheets (PCSs) was synthesized via carbonization and activation from epipremnum aureum leaves for their ability to absorb harmful substances. The specific surface area (SSA) was increased to 1,076 m2 g-1 with pore volume to 0.508 cm3 g-1 after KOH activation. As an electrode material for supercapacitors (SCs), PCSs had a high specific capacitance of 243 F g-1 at the current density of 0.1 A g-1. PCS-based SCs exhibited excellent electrochemical reversibility and good cycling performance (94.4% after 10,000 cycles). The outstanding capacitive behaviors indicated PCSs had fast ion transfer path, good conductivity and excellent cycling stability, which can be potentially applied in energy storage field.
Preparation and thermal properties of polyethylene glycol/expanded graphite as novel form-stable phase change material for indoor energy saving Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-05 Yingni Yang, Yao Pang, Yi Liu, Hongwu Guo
Phase change material (PCM) is a new kind of material for energy storage; its thermal properties are key factors in determining the application areas and the actual effect. The polyethylene glycol (PEG)/expanded graphite (EG) composite was prepared as a novel form-stable PCM by vacuum impregnation in this study. Nitrogen adsorption test indicated that EG belonged to materials in mesoporous scale with developed porous structure and prodigious adsorbility. The PEG/EG PCM owned excellent sealing performance and remarkable thermal storage capacity. The phase change temperatures and latent heats of the PEG/EG PCM were in range of 18.89-25.93 °C and 97.56-98.59 J·g-1 respectively. TGA and thermal performance manifested that the PEG/EG PCM presented good thermal stability and EG performed favorable conductivity and improved the thermal storage efficiency. The obtained PCMs were suitable for indoor energy saving and thermal comfort improvement.
Ion Transfer in Ni-containing Composite Anodes of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: a Microstructural Study Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-05 S.I. Bredikhin, D.A. Agarkov, A.S. Aronin, I.N. Burmistrov, D.V. Matveev, V.V. Kharton
High-resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopy of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes made of Ni and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), revealed a substantial microstructural reconstruction induced by the anodic current. These microstructural alterations, primarily the growth of NiO inclusions at the Ni | YSZ interface, the resultant orientation relationship between the NiO and YSZ grains, and Ni grain fragmentation on subsequent reduction, provide a straightforward evidence for the so-called oxygen spillover mechanism of the anodic reaction.
Mechanical Behavior and Electrochemical Stability of Gas-Nitrided FeMnAlC Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Shun-Jen Hsueh, Jhen-Yi Huang, Chuen-Guang Chao, Jenh-Yih Juang, Tzeng-Feng Liu
The mechanical performance and electrochemical stability in simulated body fluid (SBF) of a lightweight Fe-30Mn-10Al-1C (in wt.%) alloy after gas nitridation were investigated. The gas nitriding process was performed at 550 °C for 5 h under pure NH3 atmosphere. The nitrided layer was ∼ 45 μm-thick and consisted predominantly of fine AlN. The surface microhardness, ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation of the present gas-nitrided alloy are 1814 Hv, 1078 MPa, 1024 MPa, and 77%, respectively. The corrosion tests in SBF showed that the gas-nitrided alloy exhibited a corrosion current density (Icorr) of 5.0×10-9 A/cm2, a pitting corrosion current density (Ipit) of 5.1×10-7 A/cm2, and a passivation region with ΔE (≡Ep−Ecorr) ≈+1804 mV, respectively, which are substantially better than those obtained in the plasma-nitrided and hydroxyapatite-coated 316L stainless steel. The results demonstrated that the present gas-nitrided alloy having an excellent combination of strength, ductility and corrosion resistance is a promising candidate to replace 316L stainless steel for medical implants.
AddJoining: a novel additive manufacturing approach for layered metal-polymer hybrid structures Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 R. Falck, S.M. Goushegir, J.F. dos Santos, S.T. Amancio-Filho
A novel assembling technique based on additive manufacturing and materials joining principles has been introduced for layered metal-polymer hybrid structures. The AddJoining technique produces layered hybrid structures, using polymer 3D printing methods. The feasibility of the technique was demonstrated using fused deposition modeling for single-lap joint configuration. Microstructure and mechanical strength of the joints were studied using two combinations of materials; aluminum 2024-T3 with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and aluminum 2024-T3 with alternate layers of polyamide-6 and carbon-fiber-reinforced polyamide-6. The latter reached an average ultimate lap-shear strength of 21.9 ± 1.1 MPa. This exploratory investigation showed the potential of AddJoining to produce metal-polymer layered structures.
A novel Fe20Co20Ni41Al19 eutectic high entropy alloy with excellent tensile properties Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Xi Jin, Yang Zhou, Lu Zhang, Xingyu Du, Bangsheng Li
Eutectic high entropy alloys (EHEAs) are recently of great interest due to their excellent mechanical properties. However, only a few EHEAs have so far been designed because of the lack of multi-component phase diagrams. Here, a new Fe20Co20Ni41Al19 EHEA was successfully designed and studied. The alloy exhibited a nano-lamellar eutectic microstructure composed of ordered BCC (B2) phase and ordered FCC (L12) phase. The room-temperature tensile strength and total elongation of the alloy were as high as 1103MPa and 18.7%, respectively, which were better than those of a majority of as-cast high entropy alloys. The new alloy has a potential application in industry and will promote the further study of EHEAs.
Copper immobilization on carboxylic acid-rich Fe3O4-Pectin: Cu2+@Fe3O4-Pectin a superparamagnetic nanobiopolymer source for click reaction Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Esmail Doustkhah, Mohammad Heidarizadeh, Sadegh Rostamnia, Asadollah Hassankhani, Bagher Kazemi, Xiao Liu
Enhanced Ethanol Gas Sensing Performance of ZnO Nanoflowers Decorated with LaMnO3 Perovskite Nanoparticles Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 He Zhang, Jianxin Yi
ZnO nanoflowers synthesized via a hydrothermal route were decorated with LaMnO3 perovskite oxide and the gas sensing performance was studied. The perovskite particles had a size of several to tens of nanometers, and were uniformly adhered to the smooth surface of ZnO nanoflowers. In comparison with the pristine ZnO sensor, 1 wt.% LaMnO3 decoration led to significantly enhanced ethanol sensing performance. The response of the LaMnO3@ZnO sensor to ethanol gas was increased by 74% and the response time was reduced by ∼5 times. Moreover, lower optimal working temperature, higher sensitivity, much faster recovery speed, and improved ethanol selectivity were achieved. The greatly improved ethanol sensing performance of the LaMnO3@ZnO sensor may be ascribed to formation of p-n heterojunction and the excellent catalytic activity to oxygen reduction reaction of LaMnO3.
Rate dependency of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass: strength and fracture characteristic Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Jitang Fan
Compressive mechanical response of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass is investigated in the strain rate range of 0.0001/s to 9000/s. Negative strain rate dependency of the peak stress is revealed which shows a 30% decrease compared with the static date. Rate dependent melting phenomenon is indicated by measuring the width of vein-like structures on the fracture surface after each compression at different strain rates. The mechanisms of temperature rise localizing in a shear band are explored for analyzing the melting behavior, the reduced viscosity and the resultant stress decrease. The characteristic transition from non-Newtonian to Newtonian flow in the shear bands correlated to the strain rate is addressed. The melting liquid is also involved in the dynamic deformation straining through forming high-density nano-space wrinkle structures for a considerable toughness.
Gold nanoparticles decorated silver-nanowire films for transparent electrode with excellent thermal stability Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Hao Chen, Liu Wang, Jin Li, Youxing Yu, Xiaofang Bi
Silver nanowires (AgNWs) were decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using a facile spraying/dip-coating method so that the AgNW@AuNP film was fabricated as a promising alternative to conventional ITO film. The AgNW@AuNP film shows a network structure with AuNPs (<10 nm) decoration on the surface of AgNWs. This novel film exhibits excellent thermal stability (∼350 °C) due to the suppressed atom migration on silver surface, and a low sheet resistance of 8.1Ω/□ with just an absorbance incensement less than 6% compared to bare AgNW film. The films have potential applications as transparent conductive materials for optoelectronic and photoelectrochemical devices in harsh environment.
CrOOH as high-performance surface passivation material for dye-sensitized solar cell Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-03 Marinela Miclau, Anamaria Dabici, Melinda Vajda, Daniel Ursu
α-CrOOH was firstly explored as a passivation material for p-type dye-sensitized solar cell based on 3R-CuCrO2 delafossite and its beneficial effect on photovoltaic performance of p-type DSSC was demonstrated. α-CrOOH nanomaterial was obtained by a simple hydrothermal method using strong acid solution. The n-type α-CrOOH passivation of the p-type 3R-CuCrO2 film has provided a doubling of JSC and a threefold increase in the VOC compared to the pure 3R-CuCrO2 photocathode in DSSC. This remarkable enhancement could be explained in that α-CrOOH layer acts as a barrier layer for charge recombination between the holes in the valence band and the electrolyte or dye. In addition, formed p-n junction would facilitate the charge separation. Therefore, the α-CrOOH is proposed as a promising material to modify the photocathode of p-type DSSC with excellent photovoltaic efficiency.
Enhanced catalytic efficiency of FeMnTiOx SCR catalysts through adding tourmaline nanopowders during the one-step sol-gel process Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-03 Zhibo Xie, Fei Wang, Jinsheng Liang, Zishuo Wang, Na Hui, Yan Ding
In this work, the FeMnTiOx catalysts were modified firstly by tourmaline nanopowders via one-step sol-gel method, aiming at improving the catalytic efficiency. The effects of tourmaline nanopowders on the growth, micro morphology and surface elements valence distribution of the catalysts were systematically analyzed, which showed the tourmaline nanopowders had obvious influence on the growth mechanism of FeMnTiOx. The nano size solid solution catalyst was formed and loaded a 28.52nm thickness shell on the surface of tourmaline nanopowders, and the contents of surface chemical oxygen, Mn3+ and Mn4+ were enhanced obviously due to the unique structure formed by tourmaline nanopowders. Accordingly, both the operation temperature window and catalytic efficiency of the modified FeMnTiOx catalysts as prepared were improved significantly, which was demonstrated to be an economical and efficient method in the field of low temperature SCR technology.
Green up-conversion luminescence of erbium-doped oxyfluoride germanate fiber under continuous-wave laser-diode excitation Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-03 Wojciech A. Pisarski, Joanna Janek, Joanna Pisarska, Marcin Kochanowicz, Jacek Zmojda, Jan Dorosz, Maciej Sitarz, Dominik Dorosz
Up-conversion luminescence of Er3+-doped oxyfluoride germanate optical fiber is observed under laser-diode excitation. The enhanced green emission line is due to 2H11/2,4S3/2 → 4I15/2 transition of Er3+. The integrated luminescence intensity related to 2H11/2,4S3/2 → 4I15/2 (green) and 4F9/2 → 4I15/2 (red) transitions of Er3+ is reduced with increasing temperature. Several spectroscopic parameters of Er3+ ions in optical fibers were determined. The spectral linewidth is reduced, whereas the maximum of emission peak is shifted to longer wavelengths with increasing fiber length.
Oxygen vacancy dependent structural phases in KNbO3 Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-03 C.M. Dudhe, S.J. Khambadkar
Redox deposition of birnessite MnO2 on ZIF-8 derived porous carbon at room temperature for supercapacitor electrodes Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-03 Haibo Sun, Huazhi Gu, Lixing Zhang, Yao Chen
The C/MnO2 composites were prepared by redox reaction between KMnO4 and the porous carbon derived from sonicated ZIF-8 at room temperature. The C/MnO2 composite has a specific capacitance of 159 F g-1. The specific capacitance of MnO2 in the composite is beyond 193 F g-1.
Covalently bonded GNPs-NH-PANI nanorod arrays modified by Fe3O4 nanoparticles as high-performance electromagnetic wave absorption materials Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-03 Weidong Zhang, Xue Zhang, Yali Qiao, Hongxia Yan, Shuhua Qi
To meet the demand of electromagnetic interference shielding, low-cost and easily available microwave absorbers are urgently required. A novel kind of covalently bonded GNPs-NH-PANI nanorod arrays modified by Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4/GNPs-NH-PANI) with hierarchical structures was synthesized. The Fe3O4/GNPs-NH-PANI composite shows the maximum absorption of ﹣40.31 dB at a thickness of 2.6 mm, and the corresponding bandwidth with effective attenuation (RL<-10 dB) is up to 9.62 GHz (7.85−17.47 GHz), suggesting that this cheap and available absorber is believed to be an optimal choice for the application of microwave attenuation.
Secondary phases in Cu2ZnSnS4 films obtained by spray pyrolysis at different substrate temperatures and Cu contents Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-03 I.S. Babichuk, S. Golovynskyi, V.V. Brus, I.V. Babichuk, O. Datsenko, Ji Li, Guiwen Xu, I. Golovynska, O.M. Hreshchuk, I.G. Orletsky, Junle Qu, V.O. Yukhymchuk, P.D. Maryanchuk
Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films prepared by the spray pyrolysis method were studied. This deposition method does not require sophisticated technological setup and allows to easily varying different technological parameters, which is perspective in terms of mass application. Here we show how the variation of the substrate temperature and of the Cu/Zn stoichiometry ratio in the precursor solutions influence the optical and structural properties of CZTS film. The Raman spectra reveal that an increase in the substrate temperature and Cu content leads to a higher disorder of the crystal structure and to the secondary phase formation, in particular, Cu2-xS. In turn, the formation of secondary phases significantly affected the CZTS bandgap. We have found that the films with the substrate temperature 289°C and the Cu/Zn stoichiometric ratio equal to 2.0 comprise a minimum content of secondary phases and having the best crystal structure.
Preparation of highly hydrophobic CeO2 films using glancing angle deposition Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Tao An, Xiaofang Deng, Yuxin Gao, Shujie Liu, Chunyue Dou, Jinning Ju
Atomic shadowing during kinetically limited physical vapor deposition usually causes the formation of one-dimensional nanostructures with novel shapes. In this letter, we report the variety of surface topography and shapes of columns of CeO2 films deposited at different temperatures using glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique. The wettability of the films was also investigated. The results show that the surface varies from a mountainous surface to a triangular pyramid surface and then to a surface composing of large stone and irregular screes with the increase of deposition temperature, meanwhile, the columns vary from loose earheads to isolated nanorods and then to relatively dense columns. Rough and triangular pyramid surface and regular nanorods were successfully obtained at a temperature of 400 oC. Water contact angle (WCA) tests show that rough and regular surfaces exhibit higher hydrophobicity, and a maximum WCA of 143.2o was obtained at a deposition temperature of 400 oC.
High photoluminescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots with unique double wavelength fluorescence emission for cell imaging Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Wenli Gao, Yiming Ma, Yanmei Zhou, Haohan Song, Li Li, Shanhu Liu, Xiaoqiang Liu, Bin Gao, Chuanzhi Liu, Kunpeng Zhang
High photoluminescent (PL) nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) have been synthesized using ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) and urea as raw materials by simple one-pot hydrothermal process. The N-CDs possess bright blue fluorescence (centred at 450 nm; 36.2% quantum yield) and green fluorescence (centred at 530 nm; 47.6% quantum yield) only by adjusting the excitation wavelength from 310 nm to 510 nm. The N-CDs exhibited high N content of 32.81 wt%, low cytotoxicity, and good PL stability at different pH values, ion strengths and temperature, respectively. As-prepared N-CDs were explored for cell imaging with great biocompatibility. The remarkable properties of N-CDs indicated their potential toward sensing and biological applications.
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