Direct Conversion of Metal-Polyphenolic Coordination Assembly to MnOx-Carbon Nanocomposites for Catalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Zhijie Zhang, Yan Yang, Lei Sun, Rui Liu
Stoichiometric control in Bi4Ti3O12 synthesis by novel hybrid solid state reaction Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 C. Gadea, N. Phatharapeetranun, B. Ksapabutr, J.-C. Grivel, V. Esposito
The synthesis of bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 (BiT) is performed via a novel solid state reaction. The reaction is designed to control the stoichiometric content of the highly volatile element, i.e. Bi. The chemical route consists in trapping bismuth oxide colloids in a stabilized titanium based sol gel solution. The resulting colloidal-solution hybrid ink can be processed via various ceramic processes. After gelation of TiO2 in the sol-gel component the mixture reacts at high temperature (850 °C) to yield the BiT phase. The obtained material is c-axis oriented, and its lattice parameters, shrinkage and density matches the pure Bi4Ti3O12 phase. The sintered material exhibits enhanced higher dielectric constant (232) than usually reported for this phase.
Dielectric properties in the microwave range of Na3Zr2Si2PO12 ceramics Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Dan Chen, Fa Luo, Wancheng Zhou, Dongmei Zhu
Dielectric properties in the microwave range of Na3Zr2Si2PO12 ceramics have been rarely studied. The work attempted to develop a new kind of high temperature microwave absorption material. Na3Zr2Si2PO12 ceramics were sintered at different temperatures by a traditional solid-state reaction method for dielectric and microwave absorption properties study. Results showed that the complex permittivity increased to the maximum at 1250 °C then decreased with the elevated sintering temperature. The effective absorption bandwidth (below -5 dB) was obtained in 8.98-12.4 GHz for the ceramic in 2.3 mm thickness and the lowest reflection loss is -12.9 dB at 10.74 GHz, which indicated that Na3Zr2Si2PO12 ceramics would be potential microwave absorption materials by further improvement.
Effects of Polymethylsilsesquioxane concentration on morphology shape of electrosprayed particles Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Semra Unal, Faik Nuzhet Oktar, Oguzhan Gunduz
The investigation of unique sizes and shapes as they relate to various properties has become a great study for large field applications. Polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ) particles are produced by electrospraying. Morphology of the electrosprayed particles develops from the needle-like to star-like particles by controlling the concentration of the polymer solution. Therefore, electrospraying process instead of conventional methods has opened up an alternative for the fabrication of particles by controlling with three main parameters (applied voltage, flow rate and concentration of the polymer) that are used to manipulate their morphologies during preparation.
Formation of flower-like structures for optimizing the corrosion resistance of Mg alloy Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Mosab Kaseem, Young Gun Ko
A flower-like structure responsible for improving the corrosion resistance of AZ31 Mg alloy was successfully obtained by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) followed by post treatment. The PEO coatings samples obtained in electrolytes with/ without ZrO2 underwent to subsequent immersion treatment in 8-hydroxyquinolate (8-HQ) solution for 72 h. It was observed that the formation of flower-like bis (8-hydroxyquinoline) magnesium inside the micro-pores of PEO coating was triggered when the coating was formed from electrolyte without ZrO2. As a result, a significant improvement in the corrosion resistance of Mg alloy was obtained.
From Sm3+:La2O3-ZnO-Na2O-TeO2 glasses to transparent glass ceramics containing ZnTeO3 and La2Te4O11 nanocrystals - influence of the heat treatment on crystal growth and fluorescence properties Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Marcin Sobczyk, Łukasz Marek, Kamil Korzeniowski
The letter paper presents the synthesis and spectroscopic properties of Sm3+-doped transparent TeO2-based glass ceramics containing ZnTeO3 and La2Te4O11 nanocrystals. The impact of heat treatment is presented and discussed. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope results demonstrate that nanocrystals are precipitated homogenously among the glass matrix. Excitation in the 6P3/2 bands of Sm3+ produces a strong orange and red emission from the 4G5/2 level. The results show noticeable differences between glass precursor, bulk and nanocrystalline Sm3+:La2Te4O11 in luminescence experimental data.
Highly efficient CuO loaded TiO2 nanotube photocatalyst for CO2 photoconversion Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Mohd Hasmizam Razali, Mahani Yusoff
Copper oxide (CuO) loaded titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube photocatalyst was synthesised using the facile hydrothermal method. The synthesised photocatalyst were characterised by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to study their physiochemical properties. The photocatalytic activity of the photocatalysts was tested for carbon dioxide (CO2) photoconversion into fuels. CuO loaded TiO2 nanotube demonstrated higher CO2 conversion (100 %) than TiO2 nanotube (72.20%) because of the former’s effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the presence of CuO.
Compositional Disparity in Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) Thin Film Deposited by RF-Sputtering from a Single Quaternary Compound Target Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 M.T. Ferdaous, P. Chelvanathan, S.A. Shahahmadi, M.M.I. Sapeli, K. Sopian, N. Amin
Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is highly researched photovoltaic (PV) material in recent years because of resource availability and non-toxicity of its constituents. Radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering is one of the potential method of fabricating CZTS thin film due to its suitability to large scale industrial implementation. Of the three methods of depositing CZTS films by RF sputtering, single quaternary target one step sputtering is by far the simplest and straightforward one. However, deposition profile plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of pre-defined target composition transferred to deposited samples. In this study, several deposition parameters, such as RF power, working pressure, target to sample distance were varied and their influences on corresponding compositional variation in deposited samples were studied. A quaternary CZTS target of pre-fixed composition of (Cu=22%, Zn=15%, Sn=13%, S=50%) was used to deposit CZTS thin film at various depositing conditions. High RF power was found to be detrimental and was associated with high Cu loss of up to 53% of original atomic composition.
Over Saturated Metallic-Mg-Ions Diffused Hollow Carbon Nano-Spheres/Pt for Ultrahigh-Performance Hydrogen Storage Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Khaled M. Elsabawy, Ahmed M. Fallatah
The newly synthesized ternary system are consisting of metallic-Mg-ions diffused in hollow carbon nano-spheres (HCNS) that embedded with platinum nano-particles (NP). The ternary system exhibits characteristics features in hydrogen release. It is expected to be superior and efficient as hydrogen carrier to be used for energy release applications. The synthesized Mg/HCNS/Pt ternary system was well characterized by both of XRD and 3D-AFM. The measured H2-desorption capacities were promising values recording 6.78, 6.92, 7.05 and 7.85 wt.% at temperatures 270, 300, 330 and 370°C respectively. These results confirmed that MgH2-storage capacity was enhanced and reinforced by extraordinary BET surface area of 1810 m2g-1 attributable to (HCNS +Pt-NP+ Mg–NP). The kinetics of desorption results indicated that Mg/HCNS/Pt composite can release hydrogen 7.85 wt% at 370°C in 1.42 min.(85.2 sec.) and minimum desorption capacity observed was 6.78 wt% at 270°C in 2.8 min.(168 sec.).
Green Synthesis and Characterization of Aluminium Fumarate Metal-Organic Framework for Heat Transformation Applications Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Sibnath Kayal, Anutosh Chakraborty, How Wei Benjamin Teo
Microporous materials with higher uptake – offtake difference per adsorption – desorption cycle have great potential to design adsorption assisted chillers, heat pumps and thermal batteries. In this context, we report a green reaction method for synthesizing aluminium fumarate (AlFum) metal−organic framework (MOF). The water uptake on AlFum shows S-shape isotherm curve with sharp increase in uptake – offtake difference in a narrow pressure range. The proposed green synthesized AlFum exhibits higher deliverable energy capacity as compared to that of conventional (dimethylformamide based synthesis) AlFum for adsorptive cooling applications.
A Novel Approach for PDMS Thin Films Production towards Application as Substrate for Flexible Biosensors Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Dongyang Wang, Dechun Ba, Zhuang Hao, Yijun Li, Fei Sun, Kun Liu, Guangyu Du, Mei Qi
PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) thin films are widely used in stretchable electronics. However, it still remains challenging to fabricate PDMS thin films in an easy and convenient manner. To address this issue, here we novelly present an approach to ease the fabrication of PDMS membranes using lift-off method. For application as substrates in flexible biosensors, a gold thin film has been deposited on the PDMS thin film. The reliability of electric conductivity has been investigated. Moreover, biocompatibility of the PDMS thin film has been tested by culturing HeLa live cells it. The results demonstrate that the PDMS thin films fabricated by lift-off method has a high prospect towards application as substrate in flexible biosensors.
Visible Light Active Photocatalyst: Hydrothermal Green Synthesized TiO2 NPs for Degradation of Picric Acid Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 D. Hariharan, A. JegathaChristy, M. Jeyanthinath, L.C. Nehru
Recent research on photocatalytic activities has been investigated using visible light region rather consuming ultraviolet region. In this Paper, a facile and eco-friendly method was developed to the synthesis of TiO2 NPs using Aloe Vera gel (AV-TiO2). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using XRD, XPS, HRTEM, EDAX and Raman spectroscopy. The sharp peaks by XRD pattern show the crystallinity and purity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The shape and morphology were studied by HR-TEM images and confirms the NPs size which falls in the range from 6 to 13 nm. Raman spectrum and XPS shows the energy modes and oxidation state of synthesized TiO2 NPs. TiO2-mediated photo-degradation of trinitrophenol (Picric acid- PA) irradiated by visible light source has also been investigated.
Preliminary in vitro and in vivo assessment of modified collagen/hydroxyapatite composite Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Justyna Kozlowska, Arkadiusz Jundzill, Anna Bajek, Magdalena Bodnar, Andrzej Marszalek, Henryk Witmanowski, Alina Sionkowska
In this work a porous collagen/hydroxyapatite matrices were fabricated by the freeze-drying method and then modified using a dehydrothermal treatment. The aim of present study was to investigate the biological properties of prepared scaffolds. Both in vitro as well as in vivo methods were used for these studies. The in vitro study were performed using mouse fibroblasts cells line NIH 3T3 and in vivo by subdermal and peritoneal cavity implantation in rats for up 30 days. The results of in vitro cytotoxity tests indicated that the samples were well tolerated by the cells. Good biocompatibility is demonstrated by the absence of necrosis or abscess formation in the surrounding tissues. This study provides valuable insight, which may lead to new applications of collagen/hydroxyapatite matrices in the field of tissue engineering.
Microstructural and property evolution of Ti6Al4V powders with the number of usage in additive manufacturing by electron beam melting Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Chongbin Wei, Xiaolin Ma, Xiaojie Yang, Meng Zhou, Caimei Wang, Yufeng Zheng, Weiping Zhang, Zhijiang Li
Synthesis of ordered cubic smaller supermicroporous mesoprous silica using ionic liquid as template Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Haiyan Zhang, Sen Liu
Effect of Interface Defect Density on Performance of Perovskite Solar Cell: Correlation of Simulation and Experiment Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Arun Singh Chouhan, Naga Prathibha Jasti, Sushobhan Avasthi
Photoresponse of KNbO3–AFeO3 (A = Bi3+ or La3+) ceramics and its relationship with bandgap narrowing Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Carolina Elicker, Cristina Pascual-González, Luciano T. Gularte, Mario L. Moreira, Sergio S. Cava, Antonio Feteira
The crystal structure of (1-x)KNbO3–xBiFeO3 (KNBF) and (1-x)KNbO3-LaFeO3 (KNLF) (where x=0.00; 0.01; 0.02; 0.04; 0.08; 0.16; 0.32) was evaluated by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. XRD data show the crystal symmetry to evolve from orthorhombic to tetragonal with increasing x. The optical bandgap was found to narrow systematically with increasing x. Raman spectroscopy analysis corroborated long-range polar order in all compositions. The photoresponse of x=0.32 shows a typical diode–like behaviour, with current and voltage of 0.115 µA and 0.075 V for KNBF and 0.19 µA and 0.035 V for KNLF, respectively. To our knowledge these represent the largest values among KNbO3–based ceramics, making them promising for photovoltaic applications.
Novel transparent nano-pattern window screen for effective air filtration by electrospinning Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Zhiqiang Cheng, Jinshan Cao, Lijuan Kang, Yunqing Luo, Tingting Li, Wencong Liu
The synthesis of mono-dispersed ε-Fe3N nanoparticles by gas phase reaction with controlled annealing conditions Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Shoufa Liu, Fanguo Li
This paper reported a gas phase reaction to synthesize ε-Fe3N nanoparticles with controlled annealing conditions. Vaporized iron pentacarbonyl (Fe(CO)5) was used as the iron source, and ammonia (NH3) was used as the nitrogen source. In three parallel experiments, the annealing time of the nanoparticles was controlled. The particle morphologies and lattice parameters of the as-synthesized particles were characterized by TEM, and the crystal structure and crystallization level were determined by XRD. The magnetic properties were measured by VSM. The experimental results showed that enhanced crystallization and magnetization were obtained on the nanoparticles with longer annealing time.
Properties of Al-Doped Zinc Oxide and In-Doped Zinc Oxide Bilayer Transparent Conducting Oxides for Solar Cell Applications Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 M. Marikkannan, A. Dinesh, J. Mayandi, V. Vishnukanthan, J.M. Pearce
Novel aluminum and indium doped zinc oxide (ZnO) bilayer transparent conducting oxide thin films was fabricated by simple sol-gel spin coating method and post-annealed at 500 °C for an hour under nitrogen ambient towards solar cell applications. The structural, electrical and optical properties of both the as-deposited and annealed bilayer thin films were characterized. X-ray diffraction studies show hexagonal wurtzite-type structure of ZnO with (002) orientation, which enhanced with annealing. In atomic force microscopy studies, minimum surface roughness was attained for Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/In-doped ZnO (IZO) bilayer TCO film compared to IZO/AZO bilayer film. The AZO/IZO film sheet resistance improved to 0.057 M ohm/square after post-annealing, while the single layer AZO film sheet resistance degraded upon annealing in nitrogen atmosphere. All the films had an average transmittance in the visible region over 96%.
Synergistic Effect of Nano-Ceria Dispersion on Improvement of Li+ Ion Conductivity in Polymer Nanocomposite Electrolytes Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Saumya R. Mohapatra, Manjula G. Nair, A.K. Thakur
Chemical durability of UK vitrified high level waste in Si-saturated solutions Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 M.T. Harrison, G.C. Brown
In the UK, the Waste Vitrification Plant (WVP) at Sellafield converts the highly active liquid (HAL) waste from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel into a glass wasteform suitable for long term storage and disposal. After the completion of reprocessing operations, the highly active liquor (HAL) storage tanks will be emptied and washed out to remove any accumulated solids. These solids are expected to contain high concentrations of molybdenum. Hence, a new glass formulation has been developed specifically for immobilisation of these waste streams. This ‘Ca/Zn’ glass allows for significantly higher waste loadings by the formation of CaMoO4 crystals when the Mo content exceeds its solubility limit in the glass. The product quality of the new Ca/Zn glass is currently undergoing validation, which includes measuring the chemical durability to demonstrate its suitability for long-term storage and disposal. Previous powder-based leach tests have indicated a very slow approach to the low residual dissolution rate regime in contrast to other HLW glasses. Hence, this study investigated the leaching of Ca/Zn glass powders in Si-saturated solutions at high surface area to volume ratios in order to probe the long-term dissolution rate.
SiC foam sandwich structures obtained by Mo-wrap joining Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Pardeep Kumar Gianchandani, Valentina Casalegno, Milena Salvo, Giovanni Bianchi, Alberto Ortona, Monica Ferraris
SiC foams sandwiched between two ceramic matrix composite (CMC) skins are of interest for several high temperature applications ranging from aeronautics to energy production. In this paper, SiC foams were joined to C/SiC composites by the “Mo-wrap” method to obtain sandwich structures. The Mo-wrap method is a recently developed joining technique: it consists of wrapping Si foils inside a Mo wrap in order to prevent molten silicon leaking from the joined area and infiltrating SiC foam and C/SiC during the joining process. Compression and thermal shock resistance tests were performed on the C/SiC – SiC foam - C/SiC sandwich obtaining sound results.
Delamination-indicating of atmosphere-plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating system using Eu3+ luminescence mapping Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Chunling Li, Xueling Fan, Peng Jiang, Xiaochao Jin
The strong scattering of the microstructures severely weakens light transmitted through the atmosphere-plasma-sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coating system (TBCs), which poses a great challenge to indicate APS TBCs delamination using optical inspection method. In this paper, to indicate the delamination in APS TBCs, an innovative method was proposed based on a luminescent sublayer that produces significantly greater emission intensity from delaminated regions of the TBCs. The top coat was prepared with a Eu3+-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ:Eu3+) luminescent layer below an undoped YSZ layer. The delamination was prepared using a dissolved salt method. Specimens were vacuum-impregnated with mineral oil to improve the transparency of the coating, and thus to reduce the effects of pores and microcracks on luminescence signal. For specimens with a Eu3+-doped YSZ luminescent sublayer, luminescence intensity mapping showed excellent contrast between the delaminated region and the surrounding adherent region.
Unary- or binary-plasmonic nanoparticle-assemblies formed within hollow silica particles with a surfactant-assisted method Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Haruyuki Ishii, Yohei Ishikawa, Daisuke Nagao, Mikio Konno
AgBi2I7 Layers with Controlled Surface Morphology for Solar Cells with Improved Charge Collection Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Zhipeng Shao, Thierry Le Mercier, Marie Béatrice Madec, Thierry Pauporté
Controllable assembly of sandwich-structured SnO2/Fe2O3 multilayer nanosheets for high sensitive acetone detection Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Junping Liu, Yanzhe Wang, Lianqiang Wang, Hongwei Tian, Yi Zeng
A new type of hierarchically nonspherical architecture with sandwich-structured multilayer nanosheets has been successfully prepared via a controllable multistep approach in case of SnO2/Fe2O3 heterostructures. The morphological characterization reveals that unique sandwich-structured SnO2/Fe2O3 multilayer nanosheets (MNSs) are constructed via the self-assembly of densely well-aligned Fe2O3 nanorod layers to cover and fill the interlayers of hexagonal SnO2 hollow multilayer nanosheets (HMNs). When used as the sensing materials for acetone detection, the sandwich hetero-nanostructures demonstrate evidently improved sensing performance compared to pure SnO2. The significantly improved sensing performance can be attributed not only to the rational microstructures for fast transfer of gas molecules, but also to the additional effects of loaded Fe2O3 ultrathin nanorods.
Porous cobalt metal-organic framework with ultracapacitor activity Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 S. Prakash, P. Muthuraja, K. Balamurugan, J. Anandha Raj, P. Manisankar
A multicolor phosphor of self- and Eu3+-activated La3Ga4TiO14 Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Bin Deng, Zhaoyi Wu, Chong-song Zhou, Hui Liu, Jun Chen, Ruijin Yu
A new phosphor of La3-3xEu3xGa4TiO14 (x=0-0.1) was synthesized via the solid-state reaction. The structure refinements verified the pure trigonal structure. La3Ga4TiO14 has a self-activated white-luminescence at room temperature. This is special in comparison with the reported Ti-phosphors, which usually show the room-temperature quenched blue or yellow emissions. The near-UV and blue-light can efficiently excite La3-3xEu3xGa4TiO14 (x=0.01-0.1) showing the orange-red tunable luminescence with a dependence on Eu3+-contents. The experimental lamps were fabricated using LED-chips in combination with single phosphor of La3-3xEu3xGa4TiO14 (x=0, 0.03, 0.07) driven by 2mA current. This is a promising candidate in solid-state lighting and displays.
Enhanced performance of sodium doped TiO2 nanorods based dye sensitized solar cells sensitized with extract from petals of Hibiscus Sabdariffa (Roselle) Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 S. Shalini, R. Balasundaraprabhu, T. Satish Kumar, N. Muthukumarasamy, S. Prasanna, K. Sivakumaran, M.D. Kannan
Sodium (Na) doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods were successfully synthesized by one-step hydrothermal method. The effect of sodium doping in improving the performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) has been discussed. Field Emission scanning electron micrograph (FESEM) revealed the formation of nanorods and nanoflowers for doped samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of doped samples reveal slight shift towards lower angle confirming the effective substitution of Ti4+ by Na+. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6% sodium doped TiO2 based DSSC was 1.65% and is 79% higher than the undoped TiO2 based DSSC that exhibited an efficiency of 0.92%. This improvement in efficiency is ascribed due to less electron-hole recombination rate.
Synthesis of Hollow Porous Carbon Microspheres and Their Application to Room-temperature Na-S Batteries Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Wenyan Du, Qiuju Xu, Renming Zhan, Youquan Zhang, Yushan Luo, Maowen Xu
A novel electrode material of room-temperature Na-S batteries was designed by hollow porous carbon microspheres (HPCM) derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which were used as a matrix to form HPCM/S composite by melt-infiltrating method. The electrochemical performance show that the HPCM/S composite as cathode delivered a reversible capacity over 617 mA h g-1 at 0.7C, maintaining over 311 mA h g-1 capacities after 60 cycles. The good electrochemical properties can be attributed to the hollow and porous structure of HPCM, which can host sulfur efficiently and alleviate the volume expansion caused by polysulfide.
Electrochemical assessment of Ca3Co4O9 nanofibres obtained by Solution Blow Spinning Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Vinícius D. Silva, Thiago A. Simões, Francisco J.A. Loureiro, Duncan P. Fagg, Eliton S. Medeiros, Daniel A. Macedo
Highly Porous Thermoplastic Composite and Carbon Aerogel from Cellulose Nanocrystals Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 James D. Beard, Stephen J. Eichhorn
Molten Salt Synthesis, Characterization and Luminescence of Tb3-xCexAl5O12 (TAG:Ce) Phosphors Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Wei Zhang, Guisheng Zhu, Ruiping Zou
The Tb3-xCexAl5O12 (TAG:Ce) phosphors with various cerium doped concentrations were successfully prepared via molten salt (MS) synthesis method using the eutectic mixtures of NaNO2-KNO2 as the flux. Tb3Al5O12 phase can be formed at a temperature as low as 450 °C, but the as-prepared TAG:Ce phosphor with a 250 nm average particle size do not have noticeable emission and excitation spectra. However, after being annealed in a reducing atmosphere at 1100 °C, the phosphor was found to have the same particle size, and more importantly, stronger emission and excitation spectra as well. The results show that the modified MS method provides a feasible approach to produce TAG:Ce phosphor for optoelectronic applications.
Controllable Nano-texturing of Diamond Wire Sawing Polysilicon Wafers through Low-cost Copper Catalyzed Chemical Etching Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Guizhang Sheng, YuXin Zou, Shaoyuan Li, Wenhui Ma, Zhao Ding, Fengshuo Xi, Chao Geng, Zudong He, Zhengjie Chen, Jia Yang, Yun Lei
The depressing texturation and stubborn directional saw marks on diamond wire sawing (DWS) polysilicon wafers has resulted in severe limitations for the mass application of DWS technology in PV market. Herein, a simple and low-cost copper-assisted chemical etching method was presented to controllably nano-texturing DWS polysilicon wafers. The work firstly reveals the adjustment of anion species in copper salts can readily control the nanostructure during the copper-catalyzed etching process. After etching, the obtained inverted pyramid structure can effectively reduce the reflectivity of the silicon wafer surface, the reflectance can be as low as 5.8% in the wavelength range of 300∼1100 nm. Moreover, the surface saw marks are removed after etching, and the novel texture method guarantee the low recombination rates. The effective texturing method shows a promising potential application in the photovoltaic field.
Limitations of calculating stress relaxation limit by function-fitting of Inconel718 superalloy Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Jing Yang, He Jiang, Zhihao Yao, Jianxin Dong
Stress relaxation tests were carried out to identify stress relaxation limit of Inconel718 under different testing conditions. Experimental results indicated that stress relaxation limits calculated by function-fitting were consistent with testing data at service temperatures and low initial stress because of the rapid reaching of steady state. However, there exist large deviations using the same method under testing conditions of over-temperatures or high initial stress (near yield stress). Reasons for these are related to stress relaxation mechanism which can be illustrated by microstructure evolution: diffusion motion accelerates remarkably at high temperature, while multiple forms of plastic deformation occurs at high initial stress.
Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with polypyrrole (PPy) aerogel: a highly performance material as excellent electromagnetic absorber Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Xiaodong Sun, Xuliang Lv, Xiaopeng Li, Xin Yuan, Ling Li, Guangxin Gu
Massive efforts have been focused on effective electromagnetic absorbing materials, which have promising applications in suppressing or eliminating the electromagnetic radiation. In this study, Fe3O4@SiO2@PPy composites were prepared via a facile one-pot polyreaction. The results demonstrate that the composites loaded with 30 wt% possess an excellent electromagnetic absorbing property. Specifically, the minimum reflection loss value is −56.90 dB at 10.41 GHz at an absorber thickness of 3.7 mm. The broadest effective frequency bandwidth (reflection loss less than −10 dB) is 6.38 GHz at an absorber thickness of 3 mm. The outstanding performance implies that the Fe3O4@SiO2@PPy composites have a huge potential for application as advanced electromagnetic absorber with the advantages of strong absorption, wide bandwidth and low density.
A low-cost, high-efficiency and durable homogeneous system for molecular hydrogen Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Qifeng Liu, Bingrui Liu, Qian Zhang, Jianping Gao, Jingjun Ma
High-efficiency hydrogen evolution is obtained from a novel fluorescein homogeneous system, comprising a noble metal free fluorescein as the photosensitizer, Pt nanoparticle as the cocatalyst and TEOA as the holes scavenger in an aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The highest H2 production rate is 491.40 μmol/h (λ > 420 nm) and quantum efficiencies of our system are among the highest reported for the molecular hydrogen systems in the visible light range. Unlike many reported molecular hydrogen systems are either unstable under illumination and expensive, or have weak photocatalytic performances, our low-cost system exhibits excellent activity and endurance. We believe that this low-cost, high-efficiency and durable homogeneous system for molecular hydrogen may result in new breakthroughs for the hydrogen energy and solar energy utilization.
Chiral carbonaceous nanotubes prepared by carbonization of chiral organic self-assemblies Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Jing Hu, Yongmin Guo, Baozong Li, Yi Li, Yonggang Yang
Bessel’s polynomial fitting for electrospun polyacrylonitrile/polyaniline blend nanofibers based ammonia sensor Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Rajashree S. Anwane, Subhash B. Kondawar, Dattatray J. Late
In the present paper, we report the fabrication of electrospun polyacrylonitrile/polyaniline (PAN/PANI) blend nanofibers by electrospinning and polymerization and Bessel’s polynomial model applied for its ammonia sensing characteristics. As-fabricated PAN/PANI blend nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for the confirmation of fibers with nanoscale and blends of PAN and PANI. The semiconducting behavior of the PAN/PANI blend nanofibers was found to respond quickly towards ammonia gas. Sensitivity of the blend was obtained at near room temperature for different concentrations of ammonia. Bessel’s polynomial function was found to be well fitted with the experimental data for the response towards ammonia gas.
Non-doped Li2CO3 ceramics as a new radio-photoluminescence material Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Fumiya Nakamura, Takumi Kato, Go Okada, Naoki Kawano, Noriaki Kawaguchi, Takayuki Yanagida
In this letter, we repot a new radio-photoluminescence (RPL) material. The RPL was observed non-doped Li2CO3 ceramics sintered in vacuum. Under 340 ± 40 nm excitation, a photoluminescence (PL) emission peak appeared around 470 nm, the intensity of which increases with X-ray irradiation dose. The RPL signal was very sensitive to X-ray dose, and the response signal was measurable as low as 0.1 mGy although the synthesis and measurement set-up were not optimized. This sensitivity is equivalent to that of commercial RPL dosimeters. In addition, the effective atomic number of Li2CO3 (Zeff = 7.32) is closer to that of biological tissue than any other dosimeter materials used in practice. From these reasons, we believe that this material should be a promising candidate for RPL dosimeters.
Enhanced thermoelectric performance of SnTe film with optimized carrier transport induced by facile post-annealing process Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Shuang Xu, Wei Zhu, Lu Zhang, Zhiwei Zhang, Yuan Deng
Annealing treatment plays a vital role in tuning the microstructure and improving the performance of the thermoelectric film. In this work, SnTe thin films were fabricated by thermal evaporation technique and then annealed at a series of temperatures. The effects of annealing temperature on the element composite, surface morphology, crystal structure and thermoelectric properties were investigated. The electrical conductivity of the annealed films was increased while the Seebeck coefficient was declined slightly, due to the largely enhanced carrier concentrations and slightly reduced carrier mobility. In specific, the maximum Seebeck coefficient of 155 μV K-1 and power factor of 29 μW cm-1 K-2 were achieved at the annealing temperature of 400 °C. Our results may provide an effective strategy to improve the properties of thermoelectric films.
Molar mass and temperature dependence of rheological properties of polymethylmethacrylate melt Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Zhili Lu, Yamin Pan, Xianhu Liu, Guoqiang Zheng, Dirk W Schubert, Chuntai Liu
The influence of molar mass and temperature on the rheological properties of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) melts was investigated by dynamical mechanical and creep-recovery experiments. The results shown that the steady state viscosities obtained from both experimental modes were in good agreement, and a well linear relationship between the activation energy and molar mass was obtained. The creep compliance of PMMA increased with the molar mass increased or temperature decreased, while the linear steady state recoverable compliance was found to be independent of the molar mass and temperature. Moreover, it was found that the master curves followed the time-temperature superposition principle well in the whole frequency range or time scale.
Substrate-Regulated Nanoscale Friction of Graphene Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Michael Munther, Tyler Palma, Ali Beheshti, Keivan Davami
In the present study, nanotribological measurements were performed via atomic force microscopy on Si/SiO2-supported graphene monolayers with varying oxide layer thicknesses. The observations uncovered significant discrepancies in resulting friction forces between each graphene sample. Nanoscale interfacial friction forces were observed to increase from ∼0.49 nN to ∼1.00 nN when the oxide layer thickness was increased from 90 nm to 300 nm. The findings were determined to be the result of increased phonon scattering which is responsible for the removal of the vibrational reduction of nanoscale friction. Such discrepancies in friction forces points toward the potential tunability of nanoscale friction in supported graphene.
Controllable construction of Cr2O3-ZnO hierarchical heterostructures and their formaldehyde gas sensing properties Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Tianyi Wang, Bingbing Liu, Quanjun Li, Shuangming Wang
The designed Cr2O3-ZnO hierarchical heterostructures have been successfully synthesized by a facile two-step route. The SEM, TEM, XRD and EDS mapping characterizations demonstrate that Cr2O3 nanoparticles are well decorated on surfaces of nanosheet-assembled flowerlike ZnO, constructing three dimensional Cr2O3-ZnO hierarchical heterostructures. Such hierarchical architectures are developed and applied in formaldehyde (HCHO) gas detection. The gas sensing results indicate that Cr2O3-ZnO heterostructures based sensors exhibit superior HCHO gas sensing properties with rapid response/recovery behavior (1 s/5 s) toward 100 ppm formaldehyde (HCHO) gas, and favorable stability and repeatability with the on/off phenomenon when switching between HCHO and air at a optimal working temperature of 220 oC. The superior formaldehyde gas sensing performances are predominantly attributed to the appropriate sensitization effect induced by Cr2O3 nanoparticles and the special three dimensional hierarchical architectures.
A novel Ce3+: Y3Al5O12 and Eu2+: Sr2Si5N8 dual phosphors-in-glass thick film for warm white LED Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Rui Zhang, Boyang Wang, Peng Zhou, Xiaoli Wu, Xiaohua Huang, Bo Wang
As a promising color converter in warm white LEDs, phosphors-in-glass (PiG) thick film is still suffering from the deficiency of high-efficient red phosphors. Herein, commercial Ce3+: Y3Al5O12 and/or Eu2+: Sr2Si5N8 phosphors were successfully embedded into a phosphate glass matrix coated on a soda-lime-silicate glass substrate. Their structural and luminescent properties were respectively investigated by XRD, SEM and photoluminescence spectra analysis. Color-tunable emission was achieved by varying the weight ratio of red to yellow phosphors. After fabricating LED devices with the optimal sample, considerable luminous performance was achieved with luminous efficacy of 72.1 lm/W, correlated color temperature of 5612 K and color rendering index Ra of 82.5. It suggested that the Ce3+: Y3Al5O12/Eu2+: Sr2Si5N8 PiG thick film exhibits a significant potential for high-power warm white LEDs.
Synthesis of Coppers Sulfite hexapods by simple hydrothermal route Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 J.E. Samaniego-Benitez, Alejandra Garcia-Garcia, R. Ramirez-Bon
In this work, the obtaining of Cu7.2S4 hexapods by a hydrothermal process of two stages is reported. First, hexapods of Cu2O were obtained using copper chloride, and then in the second stage, sodium sulfite was used at different weight ratios in relation with Cu2O for the transformation into Cu7.2S4. The XRD, SEM, Raman, and XPS studies show that at 1:1 weight-ratio the conversion is not completely achieved and the presence of the two phases in the hexapod is detected. By increasing the weight-ratio to 1:2, Cu7.2S4 hexapods with smooth surface were totally transformed into Cu7.2S4 ones with modified surface completely covered by nanosheets.
Towards high thermal stability of optical sensing materials with bio-inspired nanostructure Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Xiao Yang, Luo Zhang, Meng Yang, Shichao Niu, Honglie Song, Jing Ni, Can Wu, Guojin Chen
Formation of twin boundaries in commercial purity aluminum with addition of Ti refiner Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Zhongwei Chen, Jianping Gao, Kang Yan
Gradient Wetting State for Droplet Transportation and Efficient Fog Harvest on Nanopillared Cicada Wing Surface Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Heng Xie, Han-Xiong Huang, Hao-Yang Mi
Thermodynamic Assessment of the B-Nd-Cr system Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Guojun Zhou, Anhui. Cai, Yun. Luo
A thermodynamic description for the B-Nd-Cr system has been developed on the basis of the constituent binaries and critically reviewed ternary experimental data. The published thermodynamic descriptions for the B-Nd and Nd–Cr binaries were directly used and that for the B–Cr binary was optimized in the present study. The invariant reactions of Liquid↔Bcc1+Bcc2 (1237K) in the Nd-Cr system, the phase stability of B4CrNd and B6Cr2Nd, the liquidus projection and isothermal section were calculated accordingly based on the currently obtained thermodynamic description and compared with the experimental results. The calculation results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Microstructure and mechanical properties of selective laser melted Mg-9wt.%Al powder mixture Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Xiaomiao Niu, Hongyao Shen, Jianzhong Fu
Selective laser melting (SLM) of Mg-Al powder mixture is a promising method to additively manufacture Mg-Al alloy components without using pre-alloyed powder as feedstock. However, the microstructure and consequent tensile properties of SLMed Mg-9wt.%Al powder mixture have not been systematically investigated. In this work, spherical Mg and Al powder with a weight ratio of 91:9 were mixed using ball milling and the mixture was SLMed at different processing parameters. Mg-Al alloy was successfully fabricated and the highest relative density achieved was 95.7%. The results of scanning electron microscopy showed that the microstructure and volume of defects could be controlled by tuning the processing parameters. The highest ultimate tensile strength achieved was 274Mpa, which was comparable to the strength of SLMed pre-alloyed Mg-9wt.%Al as reported in literature. Based on this study, SLM of different Mg powder mixture can be investigated in future.
Alloy engineering for enhanced photodetection in VxSn1-xSe2 ternary crystals Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Chetan K. Zankat, Pratik Pataniya, G.K. Solanki, K.D. Patel, V.M. Pathak
We demonstrate improved photo detection properties in VxSn1-xSe2 (x = 0, 0.15, 0.25, 0.5) ternary alloys by varying vanadium and tin contents. The performance of photo detectors was explored under 670 nm laser of power intensity 3 mW/cm2 at 1mV bias. The typical detector parameters such as responsivity, external quantum efficiency and detectivity were determined. The enhanced photodetection with significantly improved responsivity and fast response time of 600 ms is achieved by alloy engineering in VxSn1-xSe2 (x = 0, 0.15, 0.25, 0.5) ternary alloy. This study can open a new pathway to tune the properties, important for producing tuneable high performance electronic devices.
Low voltage driven electro-active shape memory composites with 3D AgNWs conductive networks Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Pingping Wang, Shuqi Liu, Song Chen, Haizhou Liu, Yunhui Wu, Lan Liu
3-Dimensional silver nanowires (3D AgNWs) conductive networks attached on melamine foams (MFs) were pre-constructed in shape memory epoxy resin through dip-coating and vacuum infusion in this work. Due to the porous structure and excellent mechanical properties of MFs, AgNWs were distributed selectively and stably in the resin, bringing in high conductivity to the composites (∼25S/cm at 0.8 wt% AgNWs content). Owing to the high conductivity, the composites possess excellent shape memory properties, which can recover in 25s with ultralow fillers content under 3 volts.
Dynamic Mechanical Characterization of Poly(Glycerol Sebacate)/Poly(Butylene Succinate-Butylene Dilinoleate) Blends for Cardiac Tissue Engineering by Flat Punch Nanoindentation Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-11 B. Merle, X. Kraus, M. Tallawi, B. Scharfe, M. El Fray, K.E. Aifantis, A.R. Boccaccini, M. Göken
The viscoelastic properties of polymer blends of poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) and poly(butylene succinate-dilinoleate) (PBS-DLA) copolymer intended for cardiac tissue patches are investigated by dynamic flat punch nanoindentation at frequencies ranging from 1 to 45 Hz. The storage modulus is found to depend weakly on the testing frequency, the lowest value being for 1 Hz, which corresponds to the usual heart rate. More significantly, it is found that varying the PGS content between 40 and 70 wt% allows tuning the storage modulus of the blends between 11 and 38 MPa. The reliability of the nanoindentation method is validated by reference dynamic mechanical measurements on thicker PBS-DLA samples using a tensile testing machine.
Preparation and electrochemical performances of doped MXene/ poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composites Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Zhongxing Chen, Yongqin Han, Tingxi Li, Xingwei Zhang, Tianqi Wang, Zonglin Zhang
Mono- and co-doped MXene(Ti3C2Tx)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)(PEDOT) composites (MPTs) are prepared by in situ chemical method. The obtained codoped-MPTs electrode materials with lamellar composite microstructure, which could facilitate the transmission of electrons and ions, provide improved electrochemical performances. The potential window of the doped MPTs can be enlarged to 1.8V. Compared with 1,5-naphathalene disulfonic acid/H3PMo12O40 codoped MPTs, 1,5-naphathalene disulfonic acid/ anthraquinone -2-sulfonate (AQS) codoped MPTs can provide higher specific capacitance of 323F/g (more than two times as much as that of pristine MXene and PEDOT) and ideal capacitive behavior, which could be attributed to the co-doping effect as well as the Faradaic reaction of AQS.
A Biocompatible Strategy for the Construction of Cell Patch Using Upconversion Nanoparticles-Conjugated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Xiaohan Zhou, Pengli Zheng, Yan Jin, Wencong Zhao, Zhenhua Li
Here, we report a new method to conjugate nanoparticles with live cells with high efficiency and biocompatibility. Distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE)-PEG polymers was first gifted with cyclodextrin and then anchored on the surface of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Then azobenzene derivative (Azo)-modified upconversion nanoparticles were conjugated to cells to construct live cells-based nanoparticle delivery system by host-guest interactions between cyclodextrin and Azo. Owing to free of chemical reactions of the DSPE-anchoring and host-guest interactions process, the conjugating strategy is very biocompatible. In vitro study illustrated that the differentiation potential of stem cells was not affected after anchoring nanoparticles indicating a biocompatible conjugating method for the construction of cell patch.
Modification of hydrophobicity properties of diamond like carbon films using glancing angle deposition method Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 R. Zarei Moghadam, M.H. Ehsani, H. Rezagholipour Dizaji, P. Kameli, M. Jannesari
We report the effect of glancing angle deposition (GLAD) method on hydrophobicity properties of diamond like carbon (DLC) films. DLC films were manufactured using direct ion beam method by methane (CH4) precursor gas. DLC films were prepared by GLAD technique at different incident flux angles (α=0°, 45°, 75°, and 85°). We indicated increment in water contact angle from 83.6° to 119.4° with increasing the deposition angle and porosity of films. The top and cross sectional field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images of films indicated noticeable changes in structure and morphology of the prepared specimens as functions of incident angles.
Effects of silver catalyst concentration in metal assisted chemical etching of silicon Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Ragavendran Venkatesan, Muthu Kumar Arivalagan, Vishnukanthan Venkatachalapathy, Joshua M. Pearce, Jeyanthinath Mayandi
A systematic investigation is performed to determine the effects of the concentration of silver on metal assisted chemical etching (MaCE) for nanostructure formation mechanisms on silicon as well as their resultant optical properties. Silver nitrate concentrations of 8mM, 4mM, 3mM and 2mM with hydrogen fluoride were used for the preparation of p-type silicon nanostructures. Experimentally, it is observed that when the catalysis molarity concentration is decreased in the etching processes, it resulted in nanostructures ranging from 140 to 60 nm, respectively over the concentrations investigated. A detailed analysis of the optical properties and structure provided insight into the physics of their formation. In addition, the results show the silicon nanostructures formed black silicon where in the visible region of the spectrum the reflectance dropped by an order of magnitude. The results indicate MaCE is a promising approach to the manufacturing of antireflection coatings on black silicon-based solar photovoltaic cells. MaCE is a simple and scalable approach to enhance the optical absorption of silicon and improve the overall efficiency of the solar cell without adding significantly to the complexity, capital expenditure or cost of production.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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