Fluorite to pyrochlore phase transformation in nanocrystalline Nd2Zr2O7 Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-23 Chitrarasu Kaliyaperumal, Amirthapandian Sankarakumar, P. Jegadeesan, Thangadurai Paramasivam
Structural phase plays a crucial role in the applications of pyrochlores. Nanocrystalline Nd2Zr2O7 (NZO) pyrochlore was prepared chemical co-precipitation method and its structural phase transformation with heat-treatment temperature (Tc) is studied. Monophasic fluorite structured NZO was observed at 800°C, and it has progressively transformed into pyrochlore phase with further increasing the Tc and the process is complete with monophasic pyrochlore NZO at 1300°C. A detailed study by using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy supported this type of structural phase transition and reported in this work.
Easy synthesis of TiO2 hollow fibers using kapok as a biotemplate for photocatalytic degradation of the herbicide paraquat Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-23 Sittan Wongchareon, Gasidit Panomsuwan
Fabrication and electrical properties of (002)-oriented grown CdS/Si heterojunctions by radio frequency magnetron sputtering Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-23 Yong Li, Peng Fei Ji, Yue Li Song, Feng Qun Zhou, Shu Qing Yuan, Nai Wen, Hong Chun Huang
CdS/Si heterojunctions have been fabricated through depositing (002)-oriented grown CdS on the silicon by using a radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. With increasing deposition times, CdS nanocrystallites are gradually growing. Through analyzing the current density vs voltage characterization, CdS/Si heterojunctions show the rectification effect. The onset voltages, series resistances and ideality factors are heightened with increasing deposition times. However, the reverse current densities are decreasing. For all obtained CdS/Si heterojunctions, the ideality factors are far greater than 1. It is indicated that there are a lot of defects in these heterojunctions. It is believed that through optimizing the fabrication conditions the devices based on CdS/Si heterojunctions will be promising application in the field of optoelectronic devices.
Magnetic properties and element distribution in sintered (Nd,Pr)-Fe-B/Tb-Fe-B composite magnets Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-23 Dong-shan Wang, Zhu-bai Li, Fei Liu, Qiang Ma, Yong-feng Li, Qian Zhao, Xue-feng Zhang
(Nd,Pr)-Fe-B powders were mixed with Tb13Fe81B6 powders to prepare sintered (Nd,Pr,Tb)-Fe-B magnetic materials. A little amount addition of Tb13Fe81B6 powders leads to a faster increase of coercivity, and the coercivity increases from 14.95 kOe to 18.93 kOe at the mass ratio 9.7:0.3 of (Nd,Pr)-Fe-B and Tb13Fe81B6. For the mass ratio of Tb13Fe81B6 more than 0.3 the coercivity increases nearly linearly. Both the remanence and the maximum energy product decrease slightly for a little amount addition of Tb13Fe81B6. The investigation by energy dispersive spectrometer shows that though there are dual main phases in the sintered magnets, the chemical compositions of main phase are much different from those of the master alloys due to the atomic diffusion. It is expected to improve the coercivity more largely by optimizing the element distribution in the sintered composite magnets.
Analysis of phase transition by variation of oxide ion content in BaFe0.9In0.1O3−δ as oxygen storage material using Mössbauer spectroscopy – discovery of magnetic phase transition with cubic structure maintained Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-23 Fumito Fujishiro, Minako Izaki, Chinatsu Sasaoka, Takuya Hashimoto, Katsumi Shozugawa, Motoyuki Matsuo
Perovskite-type BaFe0.9In0.1O3−δ (BFI010) with random distribution of oxide ion vacancy was prepared by Pechini method with sintering under O2 flow (BFI010-O2) and N2 flow (BFI010-N2). Although crystal structures of the obtained specimens could be explained as the same cubic perovskite, the large variation in oxide ion vacancy content δ was observed between these specimens. Relationship between chemical state of Fe ions and δ was evaluated using Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature. It was revealed that valence of Fe was mixture of Fe3+ with isomer shift, I.S., of 0.260 mm/s and Fe4+ with I.S. of −0.073 mm/s with paramagnetic property in BFI010-O2. Mössbauer spectrum of BFI010-N2 could be explained that only Fe3+ with antiferromagnetic interaction existed, indicating different phases could be obtained by variation of δ in BaFe0.9In0.1O3−δ in spite of the same cubic crystal structure. It was concluded that oxygen storage phenomenon due to redox variation of Fe ions occurred between the two different phases without variation of crystal structure.
Synthesis of W-substituted CeO2 powder and its CO2 adsorption under a CO2 atmosphere Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-23 Ikuo Yanase, Kensuke Suzuki, Taisei Ueda, Hidehiko Kobayashi
Effect of metal doping in the photocatalytic properties of carbon xerogel-Nb2O5 composite towards visible light degradation of methylene blue Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-23 Nicolas Perciani de Moraes, Maria Lucia Caetano Pinto da Silva, Liana Alvares Rodrigues
This study explores the development of metal doped hybrid Nb2O5/carbon xerogel photocatalysts. The materials were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dispersive energy spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The X-ray diffractograms of the materials are characteristic of amorphous carbon. The palladium doped composite also exhibits the hexagonal phase of the niobium oxide. The chemical elements are evenly distributed on the materials, confirming the dispersion of the doping metals in the material matrix. All composite materials absorb radiation in the visible light region. All composites exhibited photocatalytic activity under visible radiation, except for the iron doped material. The palladium doped material showed superior efficiency in the degradation of methylene blue, due to its lower band gap and higher absorption of visible light.
The effect of stress-induced martensite ageing on the two-way shape memory effect in Ni53Mn25Ga22 single crystals Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-23 E.E. Timofeeva, E.Yu. Panchenko, M.V. Pichkaleva, A.I. Tagiltsev, Yu.I. Chumlyakov
The influence of stress-induced martensite ageing (SIM-ageing) on the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) in Ni53Mn25Ga22 (at. %) single crystals was studied. The most effective regime of SIM-ageing (423 K, 175 MPa, 2–3 h) inducing the compressive TWSME with the strain of 3.6 (± 0.2) % was established. The stability of the TWSME was investigated at thermal cycling through the temperature interval of martensitic transformations with and without overheating above the SIM-ageing temperature of 423 K. The TWSME strain does not decrease considerably during stress-free thermal cycling. In contrast, overheating above the SIM-ageing temperature on 30 K results in decreasing the TWSME strain down to 1.2 %.
Phase composition and ionic conductivity of zirconia stabilized with scandia and europia Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-23 J.P. Souza, R.L. Grosso, R. Muccillo, E.N.S. Muccillo
Sintered specimens of zirconia-10 mol% scandia pure and codoped (up to 1.25 mol%) with europium sexquioxide were prepared by solid-state synthesis, aiming to stabilize at room temperature the high-conductivity cubic phase. High-temperature X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry results reveal that small amounts of the codopant reduce the enthalpy of phase transition, and full stabilization is evidenced for 1 mol% europium sexquioxide. The low-temperature (< 600 °C) ionic conductivity increases with increasing codopant content.
One-step synthesis of MoS2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-23 Bin Xue, Hai-Yun Jiang, Tao Sun, Fang Mao, Ji-Kui Wu
Controllable in-situ Growth of 3D Villose TiO2 Architectures on Carbon Textiles as Flexible Anode for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-23 Yu Xia, Wan-Sheng Xiong, Yun Jiang, Si-Yu Zhou, Cheng-Long Hu, Rong-Xiang He, Hong-Qian Sang, Bolei Chen, Yumin Liu, Xing-Zhong Zhao
Controllable three-dimensional villose titanium dioxide architectures grown on carbon textiles are fabricated by a facile one-step in-situ hydrothermal method at low temperatures. It has in fact been proven to be an effective method to reduce self-aggregation and promote lithium-ion intercalate/extract via building 3D architectures based on 2D conductive materials. More importantly, the freestanding electrodes without any addition of conductive agents and polymeric binders reveal significant improvement in high-rate capacity and cycling performance.
Interconnected quasi-nanospheres of SnO2/TiO2/C with gap spaces for improved lithium storage Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-19 Dongmei Bao, Qinghua Tian
Herein, by combining the advantages of SnO2, TiO2 and carbon elaborately, we present a stable nanostructure of SnO2-based composite. As a promising anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), it delivers a high capacity of 642.5 mAh g-1 after even 450 cycles, exhibiting outstanding lithium storage performance. This work provides a facile and effective method for addressing the undesirable volume variation issue of SnO2 anodes.
Influence of intercalation and exfoliation conditions on macrostructure and microstructure of exfoliated graphite Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 A.V. Ivanov, N.V. Maksimova, A.O. Kamaev, A.P. Malakho, V.V. Avdeev
Large enhancement of sunlight-driven photocatalytic performance of CdMoO4 prepared by SDBS-assisted microwave hydrothermal method Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Huanhuan Liu, Jiao Huang, Jiufu Chen, Junbo Zhong, Jianzhang Li, Qi Yang, Dongmei Ma
In this paper, CdMoO4 photocatalyst with enhanced sunlight-driven photocatalytic performance was prepared by a microwave hydrothermal method with the assistance of sodium dodecylbenzenseulfonate (SDBS). The photocatalysts were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett -Tellermethod method (BET), surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activities of the photocatalysts were evaluated by the decay of rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution under simulated sunlight irradiation. The results demonstrate that adding SDBS into the reaction system increases the specific surface area, enhances the photo-induced charge separation rate of CdMoO4 and the formation of ·O2-. The photocatalytic activity of SDBS-CdMoO4 is higher than that of the reference CdMoO4, originating from the efficient separation of photo-induced charge pairs and increased specific surface area.
Fabrication of SnS-MgSnO heterojunction solar cells using vacuum thermal evaporation and sol-gel method Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Y. Takano, K. Oyaizu
SnS films present great potential as absorber materials. MgSnO films were chosen as a buffer layer forming a heterojunction with SnS for photovoltaic applications. We investigated the effects of Mg on heterojunction solar cell performance. After amorphous MgSnO films were prepared using sol-gel method, SnS films were deposited using thermal evaporation. The SnS/MgSnO structure showed rectifying and photovoltaic characteristics, although the SnS/SnO2 structure exhibited no rectifying characteristic. The SnS/MgSnO solar cell reached conversion efficiency of 2.1%.
Electroless copper deposition on epoxy glass substrate for electrocatalysis of formaldehyde Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-21 Charif Dehchar, Imene Chikouche, Rochdi Kherrat, Ali Sahari, Ahmed Zouaoui, Abdenacer Merati
In this paper, we investigated the characteristics of a structured copper (Cu) film deposited on the surface of an insulating epoxy glass (EG) substrate via a facile electroless plating process. The film produced by this method was found to be of high purity and has a homogeneous microstructure consisting of an assembly of numerous aggregates that vary in size from 1 to 5 µm depending on the electroless deposition time. The electrocatalytic activity of the prepared electrode was investigated for the electrooxidation of formaldehyde using cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 M NaOH solution. Results show that formaldehyde oxidation takes place at a low potential of -0.34 V with large anodic current densities.
Ultralong Fe3O4 nanowires embedded graphene aerogel composite anodes for lithium ion batteries Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-21 Yu Wang, Yuhong Jin, Mengqiu Jia
Fe3O4 nanowires/graphene aerogel composite is prepared for the first time via a simple two-step method, including a hydrothermal and self-assembly water-bath L-ascorbic acid reduction process. Structural and morphological characterizations confirm that the ultralong Fe3O4 nanowires are embedded into the networks of graphene nanosheets. When exploited as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, Fe3O4 nanowires/graphene aerogel composite exhibits good rate capability (557 mAh g-1 at a current density 2000 mA g-1) and excellent cycling performance (900 mAh g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles) together with good rate performance. This work offers a simple and large-scale preparation process for Fe3O4 nanowires/graphene aerogel composite as an advanced anode material for lithium ion batteries.
Transformation and superelastic characteristics of large hysteresis TiNi matrix shape memory alloys reinforced by V nanowires Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-19 Hu Mao, Hongliang Yang, Xiaobin Shi, Yongtao Li, Junsong Zhang, Jiang Jiang
In this work, two TiNiV alloys with nominal compositions of Ti46Ni44V10 and Ti37Ni38V25 were prepared by casting. Thin wires were acquired by cold drawing. The microstructure, transformation characteristics and mechanical properties of the wires were investigated. The microstructure analysis showed that β-V phase was stretched into nanowires after drawing. The results suggested that the R→B19’ transformation increases with increasing annealing temperature. The tension test showed that after 400 °C annealing, the two alloys exhibited superior superelastic. Both of the alloys exhibit high transformation critical stress and large hysteresis. The Ti46Ni44V10 alloy exhibited critical transformation stress of about 575 MPa and reversible strain of about 7% in 8% superelastic cycle. The Ti37Ni38V25 alloy exhibits critical transformation stress of about 1100 MPa and reversible strain of about 6% when annealed at 400 °C. Ti37Ni38V25 alloy exhibited high absorbed energy of about 54 MJ/m3 in 8% superelastic cycle, which is about 3 times higher than that in the NiTi alloy.
Preparation of textured TiB2-(Ti,Zr)B2 composites by gel-casting in a magnetic field of 6T Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-19 Zhigang Yang, Jianbo Yu, Zhongming Ren, Zhi Wang, Shiqing Ma, Shuxia Ren
Textured TiB2-(Ti,Zr)B2 composites were prepared by gel-casting in 6T and subsequent pressureless sintering without the magnetic field. These results showed that c-axis of TiB2 and ZrB2 grains were oriented to parallel to the direction of the magnetic field in textured green bodies. Separately, the higher c-axis orientation was obtained for TiB2 and the lower c-axis orientation was obtained for ZrB2. After sintering, ZrB2 phases disappeared and new (Ti,Zr)B2 solid solutions appeared by the reaction of ZrB2 and TiB2. The degree of texture of TiB2 increased compared with that in green body. (Ti,Zr)B2 solid solutions also showed high c-axis orientation. With the increase of sintering temperatures from 1800°C to 1950°C, the degree of texture of TiB2 slightly decreased from 0.95 to 0.92 and the degree of texture of (Ti,Zr)B2 showed the big decreasing from 0.80 to 0.62.
Elevated temperature compressive behavior of a beryllium-aluminum casting alloy Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-19 Z.Y. Dou, C. Ma, Y.W. Zhao, H.J. Wang, M. Wang, X. Tan, B.Q. Li, C.L. Jiang, X.D. Liu, J.R. Luo, P.C. Zhang
The performance of elevated temperature compressive deformation of the beryllium-aluminum casting alloy was investigated in the temperature range of 450-660 °C and strain rate 0.1-50 s-1. The temperature mainly affects the load bearing ability and flowability of aluminum and thus the compatible plastic deformation of the alloy, while the strain rate mainly affects the work hardening effect and peak stresses. The deformation mechanism was discussed by combining analysis of the stress-strain curves and microstructures. The constitutive equation relating flow stress, strain rate, and deformation temperature of the alloy is established.
A discussion of La doping on the nucleation of α-Al in Al–Zn–Si coating Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-19 Wei Liu, Bin Liu, Wencan Xu, Yufeng Cheng, Renguo Guan, Qian Li
The addition of trace La significantly affected the properties of the Al–Zn–Si coating. Adding La improved the corrosion resistance of the coating. More importantly, it restrained the nucleation of α-Al dendrites consequently leading to coarser grains. Based on the density functional theory calculations, we found that the doping concentration was important to the spontaneous nucleation of the heterogeneous nucleus in liquid metal, and there should be a transition between homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation.
Formation mechanism of ZnO in dissimilar welding of aluminum alloy to steel Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-19 Honggang Dong, Pengxiao Wang, Xiaohu Hao, Shuai Li, Peng Li, Yulai Gao, Bingge Zhao, Dejun Yan
The role of Zn with different existence forms in three kinds of welded joints was discussed in this paper. Net-like zinc oxide cermet structure formed in aluminum alloy/ stainless steel fusion-brazed joints, and the thickness of interfacial layer increased after post-weld heat treatment. In aluminum alloy/galvanized steel fusion-brazed welded joints, the thickness of interfacial layer first increased, then decreased from weld toe to root, and block Zn aggregated at the bottom of weld. Zn layer also formed in aluminum alloy/galvanized steel refilled friction stir spot welded joint along the interface of aluminum alloy and steel where the joint fractured.
High temperature wettability between CMAS and YSZ coating with tailored surface microstructures Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-19 Y.X. Kang, Y. Bai, G.Q. Du, F.L. Yu, C.G. Bao, Y.T. Wang, F. Ding
In the present work, the wetting behaviors of molten calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicate (CMAS) on femtosecond laser ablated YSZ coatings are comparatively studied. The results suggest that femtosecond laser ablated coating possesses smaller initial contact angle compared with as-sprayed or polished YSZ coatings, but lower spreading rate and larger equilibrium contact angle. This difference can be attributed to: 1) restricted CMAS spreading by the ablated squares through pinning the solid-liquid-vapor triple-phase contact line; 2) retarded CMAS penetration by microrod-shaped structure inside the ablated squares. This study provides an effective method to improve the CMAS resistance of YSZ coating by femtosecond laser.
Viscosity of As20Se80 amorphous chalcogenide films Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-19 S. Molnar, R. Bohdan, V. Takats, Yu. Kaganovskii, S. Kokenyesi
The knowledge of viscosity, which determines the flow of material under applied stresses, is important for many processes of the material production. Data on viscosity of thin amorphous films are necessary for development of molding technology, which allows fast fabrication of various components for integrated optics. Chalcogenide films attract great attention due to their non-linear optical properties and possibility of viscosity variation by light illumination. Despite of importance of data on the film viscosity, no methods of their direct measurements were reported. We propose such method and apply it for measurements of viscosity of As20Se80 chalcogenide films in a temperature range 378 – 403 K. We have obtained that coefficients of viscosity vary in the range 3×107 - 1010 Pa·s, with the activation energy 2.9 eV. The thin film viscosity coefficients are 2 - 5 times smaller compared to those for massive glasses.
Strong and Biocompatible Poly(lactic acid) Membrane Enhanced by Ti3C2Tz (MXene) Nanosheets for Guided Bone Regeneration Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-19 Ke Chen, Youhu Chen, Qihuang Deng, Seol-Ha Jeong, Tae-Sik Jang, Shiyu Du, Hyoun-Ee Kim, Qing Huang, Cheol-Min Han
Kinetics of isothermal B2 → B19’ martensitic transformation in Ti49Ni51 shape memory alloy Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-18 N. Resnina, S. Belyaev, E. Demidova, A. Ivanov, V. Andreev
The B2→B19' martensitic transformation in a quenched Ni-rich NiTi alloy was found to proceed under isothermal conditions at temperatures both within and outside of the transformation temperature range as observed during continuous cooling measurement. The variation in the volume fraction of the martensite that appeared during isothermal holding of quenched Ni-rich NiTi alloy at different temperatures T∗ was measured. It was found that the maximum volume fraction of the martensite (45%) appeared during holding at Ms temperature for 30 min. It was found that the kinetics of the isothermal transformation was different for T∗>Ms and T∗
Electrospun Xanthan gum-Chitosan nanofibers as delivery carrier of hydrophobic bioactives Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Elhamalsadat Shekarforoush, Fatemeh Ajalloueian, Guanghong Zeng, Ana C. Mendes, Ioannis S. Chronakis
Viscoelastic gels of xanthan gum-chitosan(X-Ch) were electrospun to produce nanofibers, stable in aqueous media, for the encapsulation and release of curcumin (Cu). After 120h, the nanofibers released lower amount of curcumin (∼20%) at pH 2.2 comparatively to the release in neutral media (∼50%), suggesting that X-Ch nanofibers could be used as a carrier for the encapsulation of hydrophobic bioactive compounds with long-term pH-stimulated release properties.
High sensitive solar blind phototransistor based on ZnO nanorods/IGZO heterostructure annealed by laser Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Zhi Tao, Xiang Liu, Wei Lei, Jing Chen
In this work, we report on fabrication of a solar blind phototransistor based on ZnO Nanorods (NRs) integrated into InGaZnO4 (IGZO) substrate to obtain highly sensitive UV detection in solar blind spectrum. Highly efficient solar-blind UV detection can be demonstrated in this phototransistor with the photo-responsivity (R) of 1.9×105 1.9 × 10 5 A/W, quantum efficiency (EQE) of,photo-sensitivityof , p h o t o - s e n s i t i v i t y o f , photo-sensitivity of ∼9.5×105 9.5 × 10 5 and photo-detectivity of ∼Jones,respectively,irradiatedwiththe280nmincidentlight Jones , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i r r a d i a t e d w i t h t h e 280 n m i n c i d e n t l i g h t Jones, respectively, irradiated with the 280nm incident light. The results imply that ZnO NRs/IGZO phototransistor with laser annealing is a promising candidate for the development of highly sensitive solar-blind photodetector.
New insight into gas sensing property of ZnO nanorods and nanosheets Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Ling Zhu, Wen Zeng, Yanqiong Li
Effect of Pretreatment on Catalytic Activity of Cobalt Sulfide Thin Film for Oxygen Evolution Reaction. Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 SB. Kale, AC. Lokhande, RB. Pujari, CD. Lokhande
Cobalt sulfide thin films have been successfully synthesized on stainless steel substrate using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The as prepared cobalt sulfide thin film is pretreated anodically at constant current density of 10 mA cm-2 for 14 h and its physical and structural properties are studied. The electrochemical study in 1 M KOH shows enhancement in catalytic activity after treatment. The linear sweep voltammetry study shows decrease in overpotential from 300 mV to 270 mV after anodic constant current treatment, making cobalt sulfide catalytically more active.
Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic performances of electrospun cadmium titanate nanofibers immobilized into the reduced graphene oxide sheets Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Bishweshwar Pant, Mira Park, Soo-Jin Park
How to Determine Surface Roughness of Copper Substrate for Robust Pressureless Sintered Silver in Air Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-13 Meiyu Wang, Yunhui Mei, Xin Li, Rolando Burgos, Dushan Boroyevich, Guo-Quan Lu
It is significant to attach power devices on low-cost copper (Cu) substrates by pressureless silver-sintering in air. The Cu surface in direct-bond-copper (DBC) substrates could have a wide range of surface roughness due to the various processing techniques. It is crucial to find out how the surface roughness influences the bonding strength of the sintered-silver (Ag) die-attachment. In this study, we did die-attach on Cu substrates with surface roughness Ra=0.15-8.41 µm and Rz=1.22-50.97 µm by pressureless sintering of nanosilver paste in air. When the surface roughness (Ra of 0.65 μm) is slightly larger than the silver nanoparticles (diameter of 0.6 μm), the high shear strength in excess of 50 MPa was achieved, likely due to both strong metallic bonds and mechanical interlock. This work could help to prepare DBC substrates with optimized surface roughness to accommodate the viscosity, the particle size, and the sintering shrinkage of the silver paste for well using the sintered-Ag die-attach technology.
Liquid Gallium Encapsulated in Carbon Nanofibers for High Performance Lithium Storage Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-13 Jing Wang, Liu Wang, Yang Ma, Shubin Yang
Investigation of synthesis and magnetic property of rod-shaped NiFe2O4 via chemical precipitation-topotactic reaction employing needle-like γ-FeOOH and α-FeOOH as templates Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-13 Xiaohui Cao, Jinhong Meng, Qingmei Meng, Hongfei Dong, Jun Zhang
Using γ-FeOOH and α-FeOOH as template materials rod-shaped NiFe2O4 were prepared by chemical precipitation-topotactic reaction method. A comparison was made on their precursors, synthesis processes and final calcinated products. The results showed that the rod-shaped NiFe2O4 prepared from needle-like γ-FeOOH and α-FeOOH experienced different formation routes, and their crystallinity and morphology depend on the formation routes. The rod-shaped NiFe2O4 prepared from α-FeOOH shows a higher saturation magnetization, and the crystallinity plays an important role in its magnetic performance.
Hydrothermal synthesis of Ag-ZrO2/r-GO coating on CoCrMo substrate Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-13 L.J. Zhao, W. Zai, M.H. Wong, H.C. Man
A simple hydrothermal method was used to synthesize silver-doped zirconia-reduced graphite oxide (Ag-ZrO2/r-GO) composite coating on CoCrMo, an alloy commonly used in artificial hip joints. The Ag-ZrO2/r-GO coating is mainly intended to extend the service life of artificial hip joints via a rational coating design, which consists of three components, namely, a ceramic component ZrO2, a friction reducing component r-GO, and an antibacterial agent Ag. After hydrothermal treatment in Zr(SO4)2·4H2O solution containing GO at 200 °C for 24 h, ZrO2/r-GO coating of about 12.5 µm thick was formed on CoCrMo substrate. Ag was incorporated subsequently by soaking in AgNO3 solution and calcination was carried out to improve the adhesion of the coating on CoCrMo substrate.
Honeycomb-like TiO2@GO nanocomposites for the photodegradation of oxytetracycline Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-13 Qiang Zhen, Liangchao Gao, Chencen Sun, Hanqin Gong, Pengfei Hu, Shaolei Song, Rong Li
MoS2 Nanosheets Strongly Coupled with Cotton-Derived Carbon Microtubes for Ultrafast Sodium Ion Insertion Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-12 Qing Xia, Qiangqiang Tan
Molybdenum disulfide possesses a layered 2D structure and a high reversible capacity, which is an ideal candidate electrode for sodium ion batteries. However, the bulk MoS2 suffers from low electronic conductivity and volume variation during cycling, resulting in inferior electrode reaction kinetics and fast capacity decay. In this work, we develop a hierarchical structure comprising MoS2 nanosheets strongly coupled with carbon microtubes (CMTs) derived from cotton by a simple hydrothermal method and a subsequent heat-treatment procedure. The MoS2 nanosheets, the amorphous carbon, and the carbon microtubes in the composite are synergistically building a robust structure, which is favorable for fast sodium ions insertion/extraction and electrons transmission. The prepared MoS2/CMTs electrodes as anodes for sodium ion batteries display stable cycle performance and extended cycle life.
A stable hybrid anode of graphene/silicon nanowires array for high performance lithium-ion battery Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-11 Fengjuan Miao, Rui Miao, Wenyi Wu, Wanjuan Cong, Yu Zang, Bairui Tao
In this study, a graphene/ SiNWs microcomposite was used as the anode for Li-ion battery. The graphene was obtained by electrochemical exfoliation, SiNWs had porous and aligned structures to construct adequate ion transport paths and avoid aggregation of graphene. The graphene/ SiNWs anode can effectively enhance the electrical conductivity and overcome volume changes of silicon during cycling. These results suggest that graphene/SiNWs is a promising material for high performance Li-ion battery applications.
Oxidation Behavior in Wet Oxygen Environment of Al2O3 modified SiCf/(SiC+B4C) at 1200°C Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-11 Qingliang Shan, Jianbao Hu, Jinshan Yang, Yanmei Kan, Haijun Zhou, Guangxiang Zhu, Yudong Xue, Shaoming Dong
The influence of Al2O3 on the oxidation behavior of SiCf/(SiC+B4C) composite materials at 1200°C in O2/H2O (40/60) atmosphere was studied employing Scanning Electron Microscope, X-ray Diffraction and Material Universal Testing Machine. Results showed that Al2O3 could impede the crystallization of oxide (cristobalite) during cooling, and lead to a dense and smooth oxidized layer. Furthermore, the strength retention rate increases from 70.44 to 85.94 % with Al2O3 after oxidization for 200h. The above results are attributed to high viscosity and low reaction activity with steam of the aluminosilicates melt. Therefore, Al2O3 can significantly improve the oxidation resistance of SiCf/(SiC+B4C) composites in O2/H2O atmosphere.
Preparation and performance investigation of polydimethylsiloxane microsphere/polyvinyl alcohol composite hydrogel Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-11 Haining Wang, Fu Wang, Xiuqi Li, Xingping Peng, Zhipeng Ci, Zhaofeng Wang
In this work, we designed an emulsion method to prepare polydimethylsiloxane microspheres in polyvinyl alcohol aqueous solution. Here, polyvinyl alcohol was utilized as both emulgator/dispersant and raw material, and homogeneous polydimethylsiloxane microsphere/polyvinyl alcohol composite hydrogels were fabricated. This strategy avoided the aggregation/adhesion of polydimethylsiloxane microspheres, and provided new thought for compositing the immiscible phases. The as-obtained composite hydrogels showed relatively high equilibrium water content and swelling ratio, as well as enhanced water retention and compressive modulus.
Facile fabrication of hierarchical porous ZnO/Fe3O4 composites with enhanced magnetic, photocatalytic and antibacterial properties Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-11 Jin-Chung Sin, Shao-Qi Tan, Jian-Ai Quek, Sze-Mun Lam, Abdul Rahman Mohamed
Hierarchical porous ZnO/Fe3O4 composites were fabricated through a facile surfactant-free method. The as-prepared samples were characterized using different instrumental techniques. The X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray results showed that the as-prepared samples were two-phase photocatalysts consisted of ZnO and Fe3O4. The UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy result indicated that the addition of Fe3O4 modified the optical properties of the photocatalysts. Under visible light irradiation, the ZnO/Fe3O4 exhibited enhanced photocatalytic performance for phenol degradation and Escherichia coli inactivation compared to ZnO. The photocatalytic enhancement of ZnO/Fe3O4 was attributed to the effective electron-hole pairs separation as verified by the photoluminescence spectra. The ZnO/Fe3O4 also exhibited magnetic properties, which can easily be recovered using an external magnet along with good reusability.
Fiber Membrane with Orthogonal Aligned Surface for Guided Tissue Regeneration Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-11 Yao Ge, Rui-peng Chen, Hong Li, Zhen-zhao Guo
A novel guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane with orthogonal aligned fibers in surface layers and random fibers within interlayer was developed by multilayer electrospinning. The mechanical strength of tri-layer membrane was between random and aligned membranes. The promotion of the proliferations of MC3T3-E1 and NIH-3T3 cells on the tri-layer membrane were observed during monoculture. When cells were cocultured, the tri-layer membrane was effective in impeding MC3T3-E1 and NIH-3T3 cell infiltration by guiding cells to grow along the direction of the fiber alignment.
Surface orientation dependence of hydrogen flux in lenticular martensite of an Fe-Ni-C alloy clarified through in situ silver decoration technique Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-11 Motomichi Koyama, Daisuke Yamasaki, Kaneaki Tsuzaki
An in situ silver decoration technique was applied to investigate the effect of microstructure on hydrogen flux in an austenite/αˊ-martensite dual-phase Fe-32Ni-0.2C alloy. Using time-resolved hydrogen mapping, the surface orientation of the body-centered cubic lenticular martensite was found to have a significant effect on hydrogen flux. The hydrogen flux was particularly high at the near-<001>, while it was the lowest at the near-<111> surface. This dependence of hydrogen flux on the surface orientation is attributed to hydrogen trapping at dislocations in the martensite. Particularly, <111> twinning-shear in the martensite enhances hydrogen trapping at dislocations, suppressing hydrogen diffusion in the shortest path of grains orientated to <111>.
Horizontal growth direction of dendritic solidification during selective electron beam melting of a Co-based alloy Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-08 M.A.L. Phan, D. Fraser, S. Gulizia, Z.W. Chen
A widely known feature of grain growth during powder-bed fusion selective electron beam melting (SEBM) is columnar growth with grains cross many layers along the building direction. Conditions for disrupting this growth direction dominancy have not been well studied. In this study, two different focus offset values were used while other parameters were kept unchanged to result in the shape of melt pool/track being varied significantly and thus the grain growth direction changed considerably for a significant portion of the track. It has been found that as the beam became more focused, the cross section of the melt track became more U-shaped. The lateral heat transfer dominance in top region then resulted in the growth of dendrites, epitaxial and in columnar form, horizontally. The layer thickness of these horizontal dendrites is up to 80 μm and is significant considering the additive layer thickness being 70 μm.
A facile method for synthesis of Co2Mn(PO4)2 nanorods as high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-08 Hui Mao, Yongteng Qian, Zhunian Jin, Yan Zhang
Confine sulfur in urchin-like nitrogen doped carbon particles for lithium-sulfur batteries Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-08 Na Li, Xuan He, Kanghua Chen, Songyi Chen, Fangyu Gan
Melt-diffusion and vapor-phase infusion is widely used to introduce sulfur into the pores of carbon matrix to improve the performance of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. However, it is limited performance enhancement due to low sulfur content and unavoidable land on the outer surface of host material. Herein, we introduce an effective and facile strategy to prepare an urchin-like S@N-doped carbon composite by in situ oxidizing the N-carbon coated metal sulfide precursor. The prepared urchin-like S@N-doped carbon particle cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries exhibits a high initial capacity of 820 mAh-1 and excellent cycling performance of 760 mAh-1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 C with a high mass sulfur loading (78.9 wt %, 3.5 mAh cm-2). This work provides an efficient route to prepare sulfur/porous carbons for energy storage application.
Large-scale synthesis of Fe3Se4/C composites assembled by aligned nanorods as advanced anode material for lithium storage Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-07 Quanning Ma, Qianyu Zhuang, He Song, Chaochao Zhao, Zhonghua Zhang, Jing Liu, Hongrui Peng, Changming Mao, Guicun Li
Carbon coated Fe3Se4 (Fe3Se4/C) composites are synthesized on a large scale by facile solid-state reaction between the commercial FeC2O4·2H2O and selenium powders using citric acid as carbon source. The Fe3Se4/C composites with porous structures are composed of aligned carbon coated nanorods. As anode material, the Fe3Se4/C composites show higher reversible discharge specific capacity and cycling stability than unmodified Fe3Se4, performing 711.1 mAh g-1 and 551 mAh g-1 for first and second discharge capacities at 0.1 A g-1, and delivering a reversible capacity of 434.4 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1 with a capacity retention of 98.3% after 100 cycles. The improved electrochemical properties could be ascribed to the introduction of coated carbon, enhancing structure stability during cycling and improving the electrical conductivity.
Facile fabrication of functional silica aerogel with gradient transmittance and refractive indices via slope-rotation method Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-07 Xiao Pang, Xuan Luo, Jiayi Zhu, Lin Zhang
Functionally gradient silica aerogels have been applied in many areas with their gradient porosity, refractive indices and acoustical impedance. For the purpose of accurately controlling the process of gradient formation, a new approach called slope-rotation method was proposed. Such a method could benignly fabricate gradient density sol by sloping, rotating and mixing the two different density sols in one-step. Gradient density aerogel was obtained after ethanol supercritical drying. The microstructure and density distribution of aerogels were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray phase contrast. The transmittance and refractive index were tested by UV-visible absorption spectrum and a self-built device. The results indicated that the transmittance and refractive index had been gradient changed with the gradient density. This approach was an effective method for the preparation of gradient density silica aerogels and could be suitable for producing gradient density porous materials derived from a sol-gel process.
Microstructure evolution of nonstoichiometric ZrC0.6 with ordered carbon vacancies under ion irradiation Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-06 Boxin Wei, Yujin Wang, Haibin Zhang, Dong Wang, Shuming Peng, Yu Zhou
ZrC0.6 with ordered carbon vacancies was irradiated with a 4 MeV Au ion beam at room temperature at fluences of 2×1016 ions/cm2, corresponding to 130 displacements per atom (dpa). Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were performed to investigate the microstructure evolution of ZrC0.6 under ion irradiation. The lattice parameter did not clearly increase (lattice expansion of 0.013%) for irradiated ZrC0.6, which indicated that the inherent carbon vacancies acted as sinks for the interstitial atoms generated by irradiation. The peaks of Zr2C-ordered phase in GIXRD patterns and reflections of ordered Zr2C in microdiffraction patterns of the damaged layer disappeared, which indicated that superstructure modulation of the ordered carbon vacancies for Zr2C was destroyed under Au ion irradiation, and demonstrated that introducing vacancy defects in ZrC enhanced the tolerance of radiation damage.
Carbon-coated Ni(OH)2-NiAl LDH hierarchical nanostructures on Ni foam as a high areal capacitance electrode for supercapacitor application Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-06 Xinyue Li, Gengping Wan, Jingyue Xiao, Lihong Wu, Shaohua Shi, Guizhen Wang
In this work, carbon-coated Ni(OH)2/NiAl layered double hydroxide hierarchical nanostructures (Ni(OH)2/NiAl-LDH@C) in situ grown on Ni foam are synthesized by integrating an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique with a simple hydrothermal treatment. Such a unique hierarchical structure provides areal capacitance as high as 14.0 F cm-2 at 5 mA cm-2 with excellent rate capability (8.09 F cm-2 at 50 mA cm-2), and maintains 87.2% of the initial capacitance even after 2000 cycles. These excellent electrochemical performances demonstrate that the binder-free Ni(OH)2/NiAl-LDH@C as battery-like electrode has great competitiveness for supercapacitors in future energy storage applications.
The Structure, Oxygen Vacancies and Magnetic Properties of TiOx (0 < x < 2) Synthesized by Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition and Reduction Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-06 Shuxia Ren, Lingzhi Tang, Qiang Sun, Zhenhua Li, Huifang Yang, Jinjin Zhao
TiO2 thin film was deposited by Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD), and TiOx (0<x<2) thin film was synthesized by plasma assisted reduction. The microstructure and morphology of the thin films were determined by SEM and TEM. The crystallization was characterized by X-ray Diffractometer, and surface chemical states were determined by XPS. The structural fingerprint was observed by Raman Spectroscopy, and the magnetic properties were determined by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer in the magnetic field up to 2 Tesla. The results showed that the plasma reduction can result in oxygen vacancies in TiOx thin film, which could bring large impacts on the magnetic properties of the thin films. A higher concentration of oxygen vacancies resulted in larger ferromagnetic behaviors.
Synthesis of mesoporous silicon from industrial waste sodium-based slag Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-06 Liuqing Huang, Juan Chen, Xiaobing Yang, Jintang Li, Xuetao Luo
An increasing amount of waste sodium-based slag was generated during the purification process of metallurgical silicon that causes a posed problem to the environment. Here, a simple but effective approach was developed for the synthesis of mesoporous silicon from waste sodium-based slag. The as-received slag was leached and then calcined to fabricate silica as a precursor. Subsequently, the nanostructured silicon was produced through the reduction of the silica in a magnesium (Mg) vapor. The mechanism suggested that the Mg-containing phases (Mg2Si, Mg2SiO3, and MgO) were performed as an intermediary agent and facilitated the formation of nano-scale silicon. Nitrogen (N2) adsorption study of the final silicon product showed a BET surface area of 75.5m2/g and a distributional BJH pore size of 3.7 nm. Significantly, the N2 absorption capacity of the mesoporous silicon reached 200 m3/g. The aim of this study is to recycle the waste sodium-based slag and provide an alternative for the synthesis of mesoporous silicon materials.
A novel and efficient approach to prepare few-layer graphene with high quality Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-06 Mengjie Liu, Ting Liu, Wenyu Wu, Xuesha Zhang, Ruijun Zhang
Herein, we proposed a novel approach to prepare the graphene with high quality, which was realized by exfoliating the KOH-etched graphite in H2O2 solution under microwave irradiation. The as-prepared graphene exhibits a smooth and transparent feature, and possesses high electrical conductivity of up to 2×105 S m-1. Compared with the conventional oxidation-reduction method, the present method is significantly efficient, and, most importantly, does not involve the use of acid and strong oxidizing agent, which will make it more competent in the scalable production of graphene.
Facile Preparation of Fullerene Nanorods for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-05 Yongling An, Yuan Tian, Huifang Fei, Guifang Zeng, Hongwei Duan, Sichao Zhang, Peng Zhou, Lijie Ci, Jinkui Feng
Improved performances of hybrid supercapacitors using granule Li4Ti5O12/ Activated carbon composite Anode Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-05 Seung-Hwan Lee
Hybrid energy storage devices have been studied with combining the high energy of lithium ion batteries and high power and long life of supercapacitor in a single system. We successfully fabricated hybrid supercapacitors using granule Li4Ti5O12/activated carbon anode and activated carbon cathode for high electrochemical performances. The hybrid supercapacitors deliver a high capacity (63 F g-1) as well as a superior rate capability (81.9 % retention from 0.5 to 5 A g-1) and a cycling stability (92.8 % retention after 7000 cycles at 3 A g-1). This is related to a small internal resistance value. Therefore, hybrid supercapacitors based on LTO/AC and AC electrodes are a promising and innovative solution for high performance hybrid supercapacitor.
Encapsulation of indocyanine green in poly(lactic acid) nanofibers for using as a nanoprobe in biomedical diagnostics Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-05 Zeynep Ruya Ege, Aydın Akan, Faik Nuzhet Oktar, Chi-Chang Lin, Betül Karademir, Oguzhan Gunduz
The mechanism of pore segregation in the sintered nano Ag for high temperature power electronics applications Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-05 Zhenyu Zhao, Guisheng Zou, Hongqiang Zhang, Hui Ren, Lei Liu, Y. Norman Zhou
The formation of tungsten and tungsten carbides by CVD synthesis and the proposed mechanism of chemical transformations and crystallization processes Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-04 V.V. Dushik, N.V. Rozhanskii, V.O. Lifshits, T.V. Rybkina, V.P. Kuzmin
Tungsten (α-W and β-W modifications) and various tungsten carbides (W2C, WC1-x, WC) coatings were formed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in WF6, C3H8, H2 gas reactions. The structure of reaction products was studied by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The microhardness of coatings was determined by Vickers method. The mechanism of the CVD process is proposed to explain the formation of W or various (W-C) coatings and the variety of grain sizes in corresponding deposits.
A novel application of Cu2FeSnS4 particles prepared by solvothermal route as solar photo-Fenton catalyst Mater. Lett. (IF 2.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-04 Julia da Silveira Salla, Siara Silvestri, Erico Marlon de Moraes Flores, Edson Luiz Foletto
Cu2FeSnS4 (CFTS) particles were synthesized via a simple and versatile solvothermal route. The material was employed as a catalyst for the degradation of tartrazine dye from aqueous solution through the solar photo-Fenton process, reaching 95% of dye degradation at 50 min of reaction time. Powders containing a mesoporous structure with high surface area and total pore volume were obtained. The catalyst showed high chemical stability and degradation efficiency of tartrazine dye after five recycles. Therefore, CFTS shows intrinsic characteristics for potential application as a solar photo-Fenton catalyst in the tartrazine degradation from aqueous solution.
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