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  • Progress in Toughening Poly(Lactic Acid) with Renewable Polymers
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.459) Pub Date : 2017-03-15
    Ming Wang, Ying Wu, Yi-Dong Li, Jian-Bing Zeng

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is regarded as one of the most promising biobased and biodegradable polymers due its various advantages including high mechanical strength, easy processability, high melting temperature, renewability, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. However, the inherent brittleness significantly restricts its wide application. Therefore, toughening PLA has attracted more and more attention and various materials have been used to blend with PLA for toughening. Considering the fact that the use of petroleum-based species to toughen PLA would partially sacrifice the sustainability, various renewable polymers have recently been employed to toughen PLA. A series of important achievements have been obtained but not reviewed. This article aims to review progress in toughening PLA with renewable polymers. The toughening theories and compatibilization strategies are also briefly introduced.

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Hyaluronic Acid-Based Biomaterials: A Versatile and Smart Approach to Tissue Regeneration and Treating Traumatic, Surgical, and Chronic Wounds
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.459) Pub Date : 2017-05-10
    Zahid Hussain, Hnin Ei Thu, Haliza Katas, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari

    Wound healing is a multipart and dynamic process of replacing devitalized and damaged cellular structures and tissue layers. Numerous conventional wound dressings are employed for the management of wounds but there is a lack of absolute and versatile choice. An ideal wound healing modality should provide a moist environment, offer protection from secondary infections, eliminate wound exudate, and stimulate tissue regeneration. Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been known to promote angiogenesis, granulation tissue formation, remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM), and wound healing. Accumulation and turnover of ECM is a hallmark of tissue injury, repair, and remodeling in wound healing. HA is a major component of ECM and plays an important role in regulating tissue injury, accelerating tissue repair, and controlling disease outcomes. A wide range of in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies have demonstrated the wound healing efficacy of HA-based biomaterials not only in the treatment of wound in the tympanic membrane, skin, and articular cartilage but also in tracheal and corneal wound healing. Recent progress and improved therapeutic efficacy achieved through partial modification and formation of HA-based biomaterials, including HA-scaffolds, sponge-like hydrogels, anti-adhesive sheets, cultured dermal substitutes, thin membranes, and dermal matrix grafts have been discussed. The current review summarizes the evidence for the therapeutic effectiveness of HA-based biomaterials in the treatment of traumatic, surgical, and chronic wounds and tissue regeneration.

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Marine Biopolymer-Based Nanomaterials as a Novel Platform for Theranostic Applications
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.459) Pub Date : 2017-05-02
    Panchanathan Manivasagan, Subramaniyan Bharathiraja, Madhappan Santha Moorthy, Yun-Ok Oh, Hansu Seo, Junghwan Oh

    Marine biopolymer-based nanomaterials are one of the most active research areas in recent decades for theranostic applications. Marine biopolymers are interesting biomaterials for clinical applications because of their good biocompatibility, biodegradability, inexpensiveness, abundance, stability, ease of surface modification, and nontoxic nature. New nanoparticles in development are coated with marine polymers to combine therapeutic and diagnostic (theranostic) applications because of the strongly enhanced absorption and scattering in near-infrared (NIR) regions. In this review, the use of marine biopolymer-based nanomaterials for theranostic applications is evaluated, addressing potential applications in drug delivery, photothermal therapy (PTT), photodynamic therapy (PDT), hyperthermia therapy, photoacoustic imaging (PAI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT). In addition, the most recent progress in the biocompatibility of marine biopolymer-based nanomaterials in vitro and in vivo are discussed, along with a promising future scope for the treatment of major life-threatening diseases such as cancer.

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Biomass Liquefaction and Alkoxylation: A Review of Structural Characterization Methods for Bio-based Polyols
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.459) Pub Date : 2017-03-13
    Jason D'Souza, Rafael Camargo, Ning Yan

    The conversion of biomass via liquefaction and alkoxylation has been shown to be a versatile and promising route for producing bio-based polyols for polyurethane synthesis. Despite the complexity of bio-based polyols, this review showcases how detailed structural characterization of bio-based polyols is feasible to elucidate their structural attributes. Key polyol characteristics including polyol composition (classes of compounds, aromatic content, homopolymer content), alcohol type, and molecular structure (molecular weight and molecular weight distributions, polymer linkages) together with methods for identification of degradation products and side reactions, and analysis of residues are discussed. Finally, the challenges and outlook associated with structural identification of bio-based polyols are presented.

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Measurement Methods for Solubility and Diffusivity of Gases and Supercritical Fluids in Polymers and Its Applications
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.459) Pub Date : 2017-06-16
    Jason K. Lee, Selina X. Yao, Guangming Li, Martin B. G. Jun, Patrick C. Lee

    Over the last century, polymer processes involving a gas or supercritical fluid (SCF) have attracted significant attention. The attributes of a gas/SCF in polymers benefited many polymer processing applications. In polymer applications, the solubility and diffusivity of the gas/SCF in polymers are important parameters. This review discusses experimental and theoretical methods for determining gas/SCF solubility and diffusivity in polymers. The Henry's law, Flory-Huggins, Sanchez-Lacombe, Simha-Somcynsky, and statistical association fluid theories are discussed for gas/SCF solubility in polymers. The experimental methods are categorized into five: gravimetric, piezoelectric, manometric, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methods, and are compared in terms of the operating temperatures, pressures, and types of a gas/SCF. The solubility from different methods in literatures has been compared in summary plots. In addition, the main advantages and disadvantages of each of the measurement methods are tabulated. In the diffusivity section, the steady and unsteady diffusion including the Crank's, dual-mode sorption, gas-polymer matrix, free volume, mass transfer, and empirical models are reviewed. For unsteady diffusion, the pressure decay and the gravimetric method are discussed. For steady state diffusion, the permeation method is discussed as the experimental methods. The different methods used for obtaining information on diffusivity are tabulated for comparisons.

    更新日期:2017-12-15
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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