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  • Hydroxyapatite For Poly(α-Hydroxy Esters) Biocomposites Applications
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.69) Pub Date : 2018-11-02
    Hon-Meng Ng, Soo-Tueen Bee, Lee Tin Sin, Chantara T. Ratnam, Abdul Razak Rahmat

    This article focuses on providing a systematic review on various fundamental properties of composite based on poly(α-hydroxy esters) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) for application in bone tissue engineering. Poly(α-hydroxy esters), a well-known synthetic biopolymer has attracted considerable interest to be employed for synthesis of bone graft substitute material with HAp mainly due to its bioresorbability, variable biodegradation rate and melt-processibility. Such features are simultaneously attractive for both biomedical application and industrial-scale productions. Besides the main function of hydroxyapatite as bioactive ceramic filler in composite to induce new bone formation upon polymer bioresorption, HAp can also serve as reinforcement for matrix polymer by providing sufficient mechanical support for cell attachment. Moreover, HAp plays a significant role in determining other composite properties, such as resistance to ingress of body fluid, body temperature ageing, relaxation movement of polymer segment, and in vivo biodegradation. These properties constitute as the fundamental requirements in field of bone tissue regeneration which is desirable to be achieved by unique composite system based on poly(α-hydroxyesters) and HAp particles.

    更新日期:2018-11-05
  • Hierarchically Porous Organic Materials Derived From Copolymers: Preparation and Electrochemical Applications
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.69) Pub Date : 2018-11-02
    Teng Guo, Jiefeng Gao, Mengjiao Xu, Yun Ju, Jiye Li, Huaiguo Xue

    Compared to conventional porous materials with a uniform pore size distribution, hierarchical ones containing interconnected macro-, meso-, and micropores have greatly enhanced material performance due to the increased specific surface area and mass transfer. Copolymer is a good candidate used for construction of such hierarchically porous structures, resulting from its tunable segment composition, unique phase separation, and self-assembly, etc. Hierarchically porous materials derived from copolymers can be served as a versatile support for many reactive molecules. Furthermore, hierarchically porous carbon materials (HPCMs) can also be prepared by carbonization of copolymers, one segment of which is converted to carbon while the other segment is responsible for the pore formation after its removal by pyrolysis. The obtained hierarchically porous copolymers or carbon materials have promising electrochemical applications especially in energy conversion and storage. In the present review, recent advances in preparation of hierarchically porous materials (HPMs) derived from copolymers are reviewed, and their electrochemical applications in supercapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, fuel cells, electrochemical biosensors, and electrocatalysis are also introduced. The rational design and control for the hierarchically porous microstructures are described deeply from the molecular level. Also, the relationship between the micro-structure and the electrochemical performance is revealed. This review can provide us a better understanding of both theory and experiment for the preparation of hierarchically porous organic materials and their electrochemical applications.

    更新日期:2018-11-05
  • Historical Review of Secondary Entry Flows in Polymer Melt Extrusion
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.69) Pub Date : 2018-11-02
    Jan Musil, Martin Zatloukal

    Secondary flow (also termed as stagnation flow, dead space, recirculation zone, and vortex) is rheological phenomenon occurring during flow of polymer melts through abrupt contraction channels as result of flow separation from solid boundary leading to accelerating flow regime with recirculating material in corners. Polymer melt captured in secondary flow slowly rotates in direction opposite to main flow direction and simultaneously moves in third direction through helical motion. This may first reduce flow stability and second increase residence time initiating highly undesirable thermal degradation of polymer melt. Since the first visual experimental observation performed by Tordella and preliminary theoretical prediction made by Langlois and Rivlin at the end of the 1950s, this phenomenon represents one of the most fundamental rheological problems ever with many practical and theoretical impacts discussed here. This comprehensive review written in historical perspective summarizes key factors (Newtonian viscosity, shear thinning, viscoelasticity, flow geometry, and extensional viscosity) influencing secondary entry flows for polymer melts and provides deep and critical discussion of the most important experimental and theoretical works on this topic (such as branched low-density polyethylene, LDPE, linear low-density polyethylene, LLDPE, high-density polyethylene, HDPE, polystyrene, PS, isotactic polypropylene, PP, polymethyl methacrylate, PMMA, polyamide, Nylon PA 66, or polybutadiene, BR).

    更新日期:2018-11-05
  • Advancements in the Development of Biostable Polyurethanes
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.69) Pub Date : 2018-10-01
    Pathiraja A. Gunatillake, Loshini S. Dandeniyage, Raju Adhikari, Mark Bown, Robert Shanks, Benu Adhikari

    Strategies to design biostable polyurethanes are briefly reviewed to understand the effect of the polyurethane chemical structure on mechanical properties and resistance to degradation based on reported in vitro and in vivo data. In vitro test methods developed to simulate the biological environment and their suitability to screen new materials for oxidative stability are discussed. Major part of the review is devoted to the family of siloxane-based polyurethanes since materials from this family have advanced to clinical application with demonstrated long-term biostability in cardiovascular devices. The morphology and surface properties of siloxanepolyurethanes are also discussed along with a brief overview of reported studies to evaluate comparative stability of polyurethanes formulated using different strategies.

    更新日期:2018-10-02
  • Nanofibers: Emerging Progress on Fabrication Using Mechanical Force and Recent Applications
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.69) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Hoik Lee, Ick Soo Kim

    Nanofibers have attracted extensive interest over the few decades due to their unique physicochemical properties. Tremendous efforts have been made to explore their applications, and many articles have been published in the literature to date. These studies of nanofibers have focused on two main issues, that is, how to make nanofibers and how they can be used. This review summarizes the current status of nanofiber fabrication and applications of nanofibers. In the fabrication area, we focused on recently developed methods for fabricating nanofibers, which is based on mechanical force. This approach has accelerated the development of new types of nanofibers, and it has made commercial opportunities available for the hundreds of ideas that have been developed in academic fields. This review also presents information concerning the current applications and potential applications of nanofibers in medical engineering, the generation of energy, and the remediation of areas affected by environmental pollution. We have introduced the concept and technology for achieving target applications of nanofibers in the various fields, and this is followed by discussing several highlighted works. We believe that this review could help advance the progress in the development of strategies for the synthesis of nanofibers and broaden their academic and commercial applications.

    更新日期:2018-09-29
  • Polysulfide Polymers: Synthesis, Blending, Nanocomposites, and Applications
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.69) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Amin Pirayesh, Mehdi Salami-Kalajahi, Hossein Roghani-Mamaqani, Faezeh Najafi

    Polysulfide polymers as an important class of polymers are used in different applications as sealants, adhesives, etc. They are usually synthesized by reaction of disodium polysulfides with dihalo compounds to yield liquid or solid polymers. Their most important advantages are excellent adhesion to different surfaces, creation of no defect in sealant under stress and pressure, resistance against to fuels and solvents, very low gas and steam permeability, and high resistance to ozone and UV. This article aims to review methods of synthesis, properties, and applications of polysulfide polymers. Also, polysulfide-based nanocomposites and blends are also briefly discussed.

    更新日期:2018-09-29
  • Bio-Based Polymers for 3D Printing of Bioscaffolds
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.69) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Elisa Yang, Shida Miao, Jing Zhong, Zhiyong Zhang, David K. Mills, Lijie Grace Zhang

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies enable not only faster bioconstructs development but also on-demand and customized manufacturing, offering patients a personalized biomedical solution. This emerging technique has a great potential for fabricating bioscaffolds with complex architectures and geometries and specifically tailored for use in regenerative medicine. The next major innovation in this area will be the development of biocompatible and histiogenic 3D printing materials with bio-based printable polymers. This review will briefly discuss 3D printing techniques and their current limitations, with a focus on novel bio-based polymers as 3D printing feedstock for clinical medicine and tissue regeneration.

    更新日期:2018-09-29
  • Flexible Polymeric Substrates for Electronic Applications
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.69) Pub Date : 2018-05-29
    Ankit Malik, Balasubramanian Kandasubramanian

    The miniaturization of electronics has been following Moore's Law for decades and has resulted in the development of sequentially evolutionized multifunctional nanoengineered devices. The conventional electronic devices are processed over planar hierarchically nanopatterned substrates having mechanical rigidity and stiffness which limit the degree of utility due to its inability to interface with soft curvilinear morphology, brittle nature, and inferior optical transparency. However, flexible substrates assembled over polymeric framework would, therefore, play a key role by offering light weighted thin film architecture, wearability, improved optical transparency, and morphological configuration to curvilinearity. The flexibility of substrate is defined when the material is processed such that individual component complies to a comparable degree of bending without deterioration of electronic/optoelectronic performance. Since the fabricated structure is pliable, the mechanical integrity of the structure governs the electromechanical performance of flexible electronic devices. The structure may undergo delamination, which occurs due to the stress field gradient developed due to the coefficient of thermal expansion, thereby generating a built-in strain potentially capable of breaking the adhering bonds. This article provides a consolidated review of numerous processing techniques to fabricate flexible electronics ranging from printing, sol-gel, chemical vapor deposition to chemical synthesis route, etc. and their applications in thin-film transistors, solar cells, sensors, health monitoring e-skins, optical devices, etc. along with a theoretical mechanical two layer film substrate model.

    更新日期:2018-09-29
  • Particle Coagulation of Emulsion Polymers: A Review of Experimental and Modelling Studies
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.69) Pub Date : 2018-05-17
    Dang Cheng, Solmaz Ariafar, Nida Sheibat-Othman, Jordan Pohn, Timothy F. L. McKenna

    Particle coagulation, in conjunction with nucleation and growth, plays a significant role in determining the evolution of particle size distribution in emulsion polymerizations. Therefore, many modelling and experimental studies have been carried out to have a better understanding and control of the particle coagulation phenomenon in order to achieve high-quality as well as highly efficient industrial production. This article presents a review of modelling and experimental studies focused on the particle coagulation phenomenon in emulsion polymerizations. The state-of-art of particle coagulation modelling pertaining to emulsion polymerizations is discussed. Experimental studies concerned with latex coagulation processes are summarized next. The review finishes by discussing outstanding problems that need attention and sharing our perspectives on future developments.

    更新日期:2018-09-29
  • The Future of Flame Retardant Polymers – Unmet Needs and Likely New Approaches
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.69) Pub Date : 2018-05-14
    Alexander B. Morgan

    Thermoplastic and thermoset polymers in use today have fire risk and fire hazard associated with them that is not always well known to the public or material scientists. Recent events in the United Kingdom and California show that, if not considered carefully, use of flammable materials can result in catastrophic losses of both life and property. Further, current understanding has shown that simply adding flame retardant chemicals to polymers to address fire hazard and risk is not sufficient, as there is an increased demand from consumers, government, and industry for improved durability, recyclability, fire safety, and reduced environmental impact. These new requirements are beginning to change flame retardant chemistry for polymers, which has been mostly unchanged for the past 50 years. Existing flame retardant chemical technology will be briefly reviewed to show what is available today, followed by a discussion of potential future flame retardant approaches. Future possibilities such as polymeric, reactive, inorganic, and transition metal chemistries will be surveyed and discussed, with emphasis on what is not fully understood or validated for commercial use or future research and development investment. Current unmet fire safety needs of polymers, based upon current information and technological trends, will also be discussed.

    更新日期:2018-09-29
  • Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Microbial Fuel Cells: A Review
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.69) Pub Date : 2018-05-07
    Suparna Das, Kingshuk Dutta, Dipak Rana

    Development and commercialization of alternative energy harnessing and storing devices are most necessarily required in today's world. Progressive increase in consumption of energy by the ever-increasing human population, coupled with depletion in conventional non- renewable energy reserves of the world, demands development of renewable energy production. Fuel cells have projected themselves as prospective renewable energy devices. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a category of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), which are comparatively new entities in the field of fuel cell devices. MFCs are unique in such manner that they can produce electricity from industrial and domestic wastewaters while efficiently carry out wastewater purification in the course of this operation; therefore, they can be viewed as dual-utility devices. An MFC often comprises a polymeric ion-exchange membrane as an employed electrolyte. Proper functioning of this membrane is critical toward the overall performance of the cell. Commercial Nafion membranes have found use in majority of the MFC devices reported. However, certain drawbacks of Nafion membranes have recently led to the development of alternative materials for the purpose of fabricating polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs). This review highlights the various PEMs developed so far for application in MFCs.

    更新日期:2018-09-29
  • Flammability of Polymer/Clay Aerogel Composites: An Overview
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.69) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    Hong-Bing Chen, David A. Schiraldi

    Polymer/clay aerogel composites fabricated using the freeze-drying method and water as solvent has drawn extensive attentions during the past decade. Such aerogels possess layered or network microstructures, low thermal conductivities, and good thermal stabilities; of special interest, they generally have very low flammability, which could be influenced by the composition and microstructure of the aerogel composites. The fire performance of the aerogels can be further improved with flame retardant modifications. Polymer/clay aerogel composites can also serve as effective flame retardant coatings. The mechanisms of the flame retardancy of polymer/clay aerogel composites are also discussed herein. The thorough survey of the current literatures offers useful information to realize potential of polymer/clay aerogels and help guidance to design novel high-performance polymer/clay aerogel composites.

    更新日期:2018-09-29
  • Routes to Make Natural Rubber Heal: A Review
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.69) Pub Date : 2018-04-23
    Marianella Hernández Santana, Michael den Brabander, Santiago García, Sybrand van der Zwaag

    This review outlines latest developments in the field of self-healing rubbers and elastomers, analyzing their potential application to natural rubber (NR). Different validated healing concepts are presented and the possibilities of applying them to NR are discussed. Research in this field should aim at modifying the chemical structure of NR as to enhance physical or chemical reversible interactions either intermolecular or intramolecular. The realization of better mechanical properties at relevant working conditions and with milder healing conditions remains a challenge for all self-healing rubbers. This overview should be seen as setting the conceptual framework for new developments with a more clearly defined industrial focus.

    更新日期:2018-09-29
  • Recent Updates on the Barrier Properties of Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (EVOH): A Review
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.69) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Caroline Maes, Wout Luyten, Geert Herremans, Roos Peeters, Robert Carleer, Mieke Buntinx

    The gas barrier properties of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) against oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor have been widely investigated in relation to different material characteristics, environmental conditions and new processing technologies. Recently, EVOH is gaining more attention as a barrier material against other gases and organic substances such as aromas, flavors, fuels, chemicals (e.g., BTEX), and as a functional barrier, e.g., to avoid mineral oil migration. This review contains an update on permeability data of EVOH emphasizing its potential as a barrier material for new and versatile applications in food and pharmaceutical packaging, agriculture, construction, automotive, etc.

    更新日期:2018-05-04
  • Biomaterials of Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Natural Polymers
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.69) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Mirela Teodorescu, Maria Bercea, Simona Morariu

    Polysaccharides and proteins are abundantly found in nature and are highly recommended for developing eco-friendly materials due to their special properties (biodegradability, biocompatibility, non-toxicity, low cost, etc.). However, they sometimes fail to meet specific requirements due to poor mechanical and physical properties. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is one of the promising synthetic polymers with superior properties that can be blended with natural polymers for obtaining novel biomaterials with improved performances. This review addresses recent advance in PVA/polysaccharides and PVA/proteins biocomposites design and fabrication, mainly for the past two decades.

    更新日期:2018-05-04
  • Microencapsulation by in situ Polymerization of Amino Resins
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.69) Pub Date : 2017-10-26
    Olivier Nguon, François Lagugné-Labarthet, Frank A. Brandys, Jian Li, Elizabeth R. Gillies

    By surrounding small droplets with a coating, one can obtain micrometer-size capsules (microcapsules), and combine multiple properties into a single system. This technology has allowed the design of advanced and functional materials. Amino resins are composed principally of urea and/or melamine and formaldehyde, and exhibit advantages as wall-forming materials, such as high mechanical strength and chemical resistance. In this review, a general description of the encapsulation process by in situ polymerization of amino resins is given. Characterization methods, and the influence of the physical and design parameters are discussed. A mechanistic description and some of the promising avenues of research are also presented.

    更新日期:2018-05-04
  • Influence of Voluminous Substituents in Polyimides on Their Physical Properties
    Polym. Rev. (IF 6.69) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    I. A. Ronova, A. Yu. Alentiev, M. Bruma

    Seven series of polyimides have been analyzed and compared with regard to the correlation between their conformational rigidity parameters, such as the Kuhn segment, the characteristic ratio, the Van der Waals volume and free volume, and some physical properties, such as glass transition temperature, dielectric permittivity, and permeability to different gases. This review concentrates on the author's own work, placed in the context of the broader field. The conformational rigidity parameters were calculated by using the Monte Carlo method, while the values of physical properties were taken from published articles.

    更新日期:2018-05-04
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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