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  • Review of the wettability of solder with a wetting balance test for recent advanced microelectronic packaging
    Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 5.656) Pub Date : 2018-12-05
    Do-Hyun Jung, Jae-Pil Jung

    This paper reviewed the wetting properties of solder for microelectronic packaging. The recent demand for high-density packaging has highlighted the need for a sophisticated and improved solder for the miniaturization of electronics. The wetting properties of molten solder on a substrate, which provides successful soldering and reliable solder joints, is one of the most critical properties for the reliability of components in electronic devices because poor wetting can degrade the reliability of the solder. Therefore, the solder must have good wettability to achieve better solderability. The most common testing method is the wetting balance test known as a Meniscograph. During a wetting test, the analysis can be conducted by calculating the wetting force between the molten solder and substrate as a function of time. In addition, the surface tension and wetting time, which are known as the zero cross time of each sample, are obtained from the respective wetting curves. This paper discusses the wetting balance test, including its principle, parameters, experimental procedure, and analysis of the result from the wetting curve. In addition, this paper introduces the recent advances in the wetting property of solder, such as a nano-reinforced composite solder through the addition of 0.05% of nano-sized La2O3 to the solder matrix, which has resulting in an improved wetting time.

    更新日期:2018-12-06
  • Photocatalytic Nanoheterostructures and Chemically Bonded Junctions Made by Solution-Based Approaches
    Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 5.656) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Andris Šutka, Martin Järvekülg, Kārlis A. Gross

    While single compound semiconductors were initially used for photocatalysis, combining two compounds to form a heterojunction significantly increases the photocatalysis performance. This review will outline how heterojunctions are superior, explain the different heterostructure architectures assembled from nanoparticles, and discuss the importance of achieving a large and quality contact in the junction, the heterojunction. Reference is made to methods for increasing the charge carrier performance and reducing recombination. Solution-based synthesis approaches, have been selected as the preferred route of manufacture, for the low cost scalability, and ability to combine a larger number of compounds. The main objective of this review article is to provide insight to the range of chemical solution-based methods for forming chemically bonded junction in nanoheterostructures for photocatalysis. Methods include chemical precipitation, impregnation, chemical bath deposition, hot injection, solvothermal, photo-deposition, electrochemical deposition, cation exchange and linker assisted assembly. The synthesis of different photocatalysts is addressed for each synthesis method. Solution synthesis is offered for coupling oxide semiconductors (i.e. TiO2, ZnO, WO3, Fe2O3, BiVO4) with other oxides or metal chalcogenide quantum dots or metallic plasmonic nanoparticles.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Recent Progress in Lithium Lanthanum Titanate Electrolyte towards All Solid-State Lithium Ion Secondary Battery
    Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 5.656) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Yuandong Sun, Peiyuan Guan, Yunjian Liu, Haolan Xu, Sean Li, Dewei Chu

    Lithium lanthanum titanate (LLTO) is one of the most promising solid electrolytes for next generation batteries owing to its high ionic conductivity of ∼1 × 10 − 3 S/cm at room temperature. To comprehensively understand the microstructure and ion diffusion mechanism of LLTO, recent research in diffraction and spectroscopy techniques as well as computational study have been reviewed in this paper. The extremely low ionic conductivity at grain boundary as well as the increased electronic conductivity related to the direct contact with metallic lithium has impeded the practical application of LLTO for the solid-state batteries. Various studies including substitution, the introduction of grain boundary layer modifier, high temperature sintering, and synthesis of amorphous LLTO have been applied to solve these major challenges and their effectiveness are discussed in this review. Moreover, different types of synthesis methodologies of LLTO thin films are reviewed and compared in detail. In the end, the recent reports of solid-state battery system are reviewed and discussed.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Development and Application of WC-Based Alloys Bonded with Alternative Binder Phase
    Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 5.656) Pub Date : 2018-09-12
    Jialin Sun, Jun Zhao, Feng Gong, Xiuying Ni, Zuoli Li

    WC–Co alloys have enjoyed great practical significance owing to their excellent properties during the past decades. Despite the advantages, however, recently there have been concerns about the challenges associated with the use of Co, i.e. price instability (the major incentive for alternative binder development), toxicity and properties degeneration. Thus, the current study applies towards summarize the current knowledge of the impacts of different binders partial or total substitution of the traditional cobalt binder highlighting the influences of metal, intermetallic compound, ceramics (metal oxide) binders on the sintering behavior as well as mechanical properties of WC-based alloys, so as to provide reference for those who would like to enhance the performance of cemented carbides with better reliability advancing them to further wide applications and prepare the alloys in a way that is environment friendly, harmless to human health and low in production cost. It is concluded that the alternative for cobalt in tungsten carbide cemented carbide is economically and technically feasible. Strict control of the chemical composition of the binder coupled with taking into careful account the effects of sintering process and subsequent treatments is of great importance to improve the sintering behavior and tailor mechanical properties of tungsten carbide-based hardmetals.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Transfer-Free Graphene Growth on Dielectric Substrates: A Review of the Growth Mechanism
    Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 5.656) Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Gurjinder Kaur, K. Kavitha, Indranil Lahiri

    Ever since the more-than-decade-old discovery of application of mechanical exfoliation to obtain graphene, this 2-dimensional material was known for its soaring promise in various applications, owing to its excellent properties. Graphene, most popularly grown on metallic substrates by chemical vapour deposition, needs to be transferred onto dielectric substrates for multiple optical and electronic applications. During such complex and expensive transfer steps, defects are introduced into graphene, which deteriorates the quality and thus, properties of graphene. An alternative approach to surmount these problems is the elimination of the transfer process and to directly grow graphene on dielectric substrates, for future electronic and optical applications. This review presents a comprehensive and an up-to-date account of the development of synthesis methods, challenges and future directions for transfer-free graphene growth on dielectric substrates. Special emphasis is given on the fundamentals of growth mechanisms of various transfer-free graphene synthesis processes on dielectric materials.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • The metal-insulator transition in disordered solids: How theoretical prejudices influence its characterization A critical review of analyses of experimental data
    Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 5.656) Pub Date : 2018-01-30
    Arnulf Möbius

    In a recent experimental study, Siegrist et al. [Nature Materials 10, 202–208 (2011)] investigated the metal-insulator transition (MIT) induced by annealing in GeSb2Te4. The authors concluded that this phase-change material exhibits a discontinuous MIT with finite minimum metallic conductivity. The striking contrast between their work and reports on many other disordered substances from the last decades motivates the present in-depth study of the influence of the MIT criterion used on the character of the MIT derived.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • A Review of Advanced Composite and Nanostructured Coatings by Solid-State Cold Spraying Process
    Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 5.656) Pub Date : 2018-01-16
    Wenya Li, Hamid Assadi, Frank Gaertner, Shuo Yin

    Cold spraying (CS) has been widely explored over the last decade due to its low process temperature and limited thermal effect on spray materials. As a solid-state process, the inherent deficiencies of traditional thermal spraying such as oxidation, decomposition, and grain growth are avoided. This article summarizes the research work on the fabrication of composites and nanostructured coatings by the promising CS process. After a brief introduction to CS and its deposition mechanisms, the preparation methods of spray powders are classified. Different methods are appropriate for particles of various properties, and the tendency is to design composite powders by combined methods in order to create coatings with specified properties. Then, the co-deposition mechanism of composite particles as well as research findings on metal–metal, metal–ceramic, and metal–intermetallic composite coatings are reviewed concerning the deposition characteristics, microstructure and its relation to properties. Moreover, CS has been used to deposit a variety of nanostructured materials, including metals, metal–ceramic composites, and even ceramics, retaining their nanocrystalline nature in the coating without grain growth or phase transformation. Finally, the potential applications of CS and issues to be addressed in coating deposition are discussed.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Density Functional Theory Study of Mn+1AXn Phases: A Review
    Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 5.656) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Yuelei Bai, Narasimalu Srikanth, Chee Kai Chua, Kun Zhou

    Mn+1AXn phases (MAX phases for short with M: transition metal, A: A group elements, X: C or N, and n = 1–3) have attracted considerable attention due to the unique combination of the ceramic- and metal-like properties. The density functional theory (DFT) has emerged as a powerful theoretical approach that complements experimental testing and serves as a predictive tool in the identification and characterization of MAX phases. After the beginning with a brief introduction of the MAX phase and DFT, we review the DFT study on this class of materials, including crystal structure, electronic structure, point defects, lattice dynamics, and related properties, phase stability, compressibility, and elastic properties. Comparison between the theoretical values and available experimental ones shows that they are in decent agreement for most part, especially in the lattice constants, elastic properties, and compressibility. This article is concluded with an outlook of future research on DFT study of MAX phases, major challenges to be met and possible solutions in some cases.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Overview of Hydroxyapatite–Graphene Nanoplatelets Composite as Bone Graft Substitute: Mechanical Behavior and In-vitro Biofunctionality
    Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 5.656) Pub Date : 2017-06-30
    Wan Jeffrey Basirun, Bahman Nasiri-Tabrizi, Saeid Baradaran

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) and related materials have been frequently studied as ceramic-based bone graft materials due to their outstanding biocompatibility and osteoconduction. Since the bones are the load supporting parts of a vertebrate, they must have good fracture toughness (KIC) to avoid fracture at high loading during limb movements. However, the main shortcomings of HA are the poor fracture toughness and brittleness. The mechanical properties of HA need to be improved for orthopedic applications, therefore it is often fabricated with other materials into a composite. This article focuses on the effect of carbon nanostructures (CNSs) especially graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on the mechanical, physicochemical properties and in-vitro bio-functional performances of HA. We provide an overview on the preparation and characterization of the HA–GNPs composites. To conclude, the challenges in the fabrication of multi-substituted HA–GNPs composites and future outlooks in the biomedical domain are discussed.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • The Role of Intra-Yarn Shear in Integrated Multi-Scale Deformation Analyses of Woven Fabrics: A Critical Review
    Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 5.656) Pub Date : 2017-08-21
    M. Haghi Kashani, A. Hosseini, F. Sassani, F. K. Ko, A. S. Milani

    This article attempts to bring an enhanced insight into the analysis of in-plane shear behavior of woven fabrics. Two common methods have been used to characterize the shear behavior of woven preforms, namely the Bias Extension (BE) and Picture Frame (PF) tests. In spite of the identical macro-scale shear deformation of fabrics in these two characterization procedures, the current study demonstrates that their underlying micro- and meso-scale deformation mechanisms are quite distinct. The trellising mechanism, which is based on the well-known Pin-Joint Theory (PJT), has been regarded for a long time as the sole model to describe the meso-scale deformation of woven fabrics in both the BE and PF tests. Throughout this article, this mechanism is challenged for the PF test by undertaking a multi-scale analysis along with a critical review and integration of the previous experimental, analytical, and numerical studies. Intra-yarn shear, which has not been fully understood yet, is substantiated as a potential meso-level deformation mechanism occurring in the PF test. Accordingly, a new meso-level deformation model is proposed and compared with the trellising shear pattern in the BE setup. Afterward, the comparison is extended from meso-level to macro-level in order to provide more in-depth hypotheses for explaining differences reported in the literature between the shear characteristics of fabrics using BE and PF tests. Finally, some guidelines have been sought to select more reliable characterization method given a forming process.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Recent Advancements in Bulk Metallic Glasses and Their Applications: A Review
    Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 5.656) Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    Muhammad Mudasser Khan, Ali Nemati, Zia Ur Rahman, Umair Hussain Shah, Hassnain Asgar, Waseem Haider

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), that display extraordinary properties of high strength, corrosion resistance, polymer-like formability, and excellent magnetic properties, are emerging as modern quintessential engineering materials. BMGs have garnered significant research enthusiasm owing to their tremendous technological and scientific standing. In this article, the recent advancements in the field of BMGs and their applications are put in a nutshell. Novel state-of-the-art production routes and nano/microimprinting strategies with salient features capable of circumventing the processing related complexities as well as accelerating modern developments, are briefly summarized. Heterogeneous BMG composite systems that lead to incredible combination of otherwise conflicting properties are highlighted. Biocorrosion studies and recent developments in the field of magnetic BMGs are presented owing to their significance for prospective biomedical and magnetic applications, respectively. In the last section, the current status of BMGs applications in the field of catalysis, biomedical materials, structural materials, functional materials, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and micro/macro devices are summed up.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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