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  • Recent Progress on the Dispersion and the Strengthening Effect of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene-Reinforced Metal Nanocomposites: A Review
    Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2016-12-20
    Zeeshan Baig, Othman Mamat, Mazli Mustapha

    This article reviews the available literature published to date on the reinforcement of metals with carbon-nanofillers (CNTs and graphene), and also offers a specific focus on issues related to the mechanical and tribological properties of nanocomposites. Carbon-nanofillers (later denoted by C-nanofillers) are known to have extraordinary mechanical properties and multifaceted characteristics and are ideal candidates for the reinforcement of metals for numerous applications. However, their incorporation for practical applications has been challenging researchers for decades. The most important issue is uniform dispersion due to sizeable surface differences between carbon-nanofillers and metals. Other concerns are structural integrity, wetting with metals, and interfacial connections. Nanocomposite applications can only be effective when these challenges are properly addressed and overcome.

    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Recent Developments in Oxide-Based Ionic Conductors: Bulk Materials, Nanoionics, and Their Memory Applications
    Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2016-12-20
    Tao Wan, Lepeng Zhang, Haiwei Du, Xi Lin, Bo Qu, Haolan Xu, Sean Li, Dewei Chu

    Oxide-based ionic conductors have attracted tremendous research interests due to their wide applications in energy storage and conversion devices, such as photovoltaics, fuel cells, batteries, and supercapacitors. Extensive efforts have been undertaken to improve the ionic conductivity of existing materials along with the development of novel conductors. The recent advance of ionic conductors in nanoscale demonstrated their ultra–high ionic conductivity for the promising applications in energy sector. In this work, recent progresses of conventional oxide conductors and the development of novel conductors are reviewed in details. The strategy to exploit the nanoionics of enhancing the ionic conductivity is discussed. Furthermore, the novel applications of nanoionics for the resistive switching memories are summarized.

    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Susceptor-Assisted Enhanced Microwave Processing of Ceramics - A Review
    Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Madhuchhanda Bhattacharya, Tanmay Basak

    Susceptor-assisted microwave processing is a rapidly growing technology due to its superiority over the conventional processing. In contrast to the conventional heating from the surface, the microwave heating occurs volumetrically via direct interaction with the material. Correspondingly, the microwave heating rates are in general much faster than the heating rates in the conventional furnaces, where heat has to be transferred from the heat sources to the material via conduction, convection and radiation. The need for the susceptor stems from the fact that the majority of the ceramics are low lossy materials and they cannot couple well with the microwave at room temperatures. The susceptor provides an easy and non-invasive technique to exploit the rapid microwave processing even for the highly microwave transparent ceramics, such as alumina, silicon nitride, quartz, etc. This article critically evaluates the susceptor-assisted microwave sintering and solid state synthesis of ceramics which have been reported over the last two decades. A wide range of ceramics has been considered and each case has been analyzed in terms of the enhancement of the processing rates and product qualities (grain structure, material properties, etc.) compared to the conventional processing. It has been shown that the susceptor-assisted microwave processing can greatly reduce the processing time while providing an easy pathway to achieve the desired product qualities. The use of the appropriate susceptor is the key to achieve the fast, smooth, and reliable microwave processing of ceramics and this article provides the required database for the appropriate design of the susceptor based on the process requirement.

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Ammonium Nitrate as an Eco–Friendly Oxidizer for Composite Solid Propellants: Promises and Challenges
    Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2016-12-20
    Jisna Jos, Suresh Mathew

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) has received attraction globally not only as a nitrogenous fertilizer but also as an oxidizer in gas generators and propellants. Nowadays, great attention is being focused on the development of composite solid propellants with green oxidizers in realizing eco–friendly combustion products. The ammonium perchlorate (AP), which is the work horse oxidizer in composite propellant, needs replacement due to its environmental and human health issues. In this context, AN is regarded as an alternative to AP because of its easy availability and environmentally friendly chlorine free combustion products. However, AN has its own inherent drawbacks such as hygroscopicity, room temperature phase transition, and low burning rate. Recently, several studies have been focused on its phase stabilization and burning rate modification so as to develop solid propellants with improved properties. The knowledge of thermal characteristics of AN is a crucial factor for its applications in propellants and gas generators. This article details the different aspects of polymorphism, phase stabilization, thermal decomposition, hygroscopicity, specific impulse, and burn rate modification of AN and also addresses ways to overcome the inherent weakness of AN as a propellant oxidizer in formulating an effective propellant composition.

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Noble Metal Decorated Graphene-Based Gas Sensors and Their Fabrication: A Review
    Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.455) Pub Date : 2017-01-06
    Akshay V. Singhal, Hemant Charaya, Indranil Lahiri

    Research on graphene/nanostructure hybrid materials has been gaining momentum in recent years, with wide-ranging applications in gas sensing and detection. Specifically, noble metal decorated graphene-based novel structures were found to be extremely sensitive and selective owing to the synergistic effect of the compound configuration. In this article, recent developments in graphene/noble metal nanostructure hybrids and their promising potential in gas sensing applications has been highlighted. More significantly, an understanding of the electronic mechanism of gas sensing is presented with a specific emphasis on electron transfer and junctions effects at the graphene/nanostructure interfaces. Finally, the future research prospects of application of bi-metallic and tri-metallic nanostructure/graphene-based hybrids and the challenges in this new and rapidly growing domain are discussed.

    更新日期:2017-12-15
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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