Corrosion behavior of Zn-Mg alloys in saturated Ca(OH)2 solution Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Yan-qi Wang, Gang Kong, Chun-shan Che, Tian-yu Weng, Zi-wen Sun
The influence of Mg addition on the corrosion behavior of Zn-x%Mg (x= 0.5, 1.5 and 3) alloys in saturated Ca(OH)2 solution was investigated with pure zinc as a reference. The Zn-Mg alloys were passivated but less resistant to corrosion. Mg alloying caused more negative corrosion potential of the Zn-Mg alloys and inhomogeneity of the passivation layer. Alternately preferential dissolution of the primary Zn-rich dendrites (PZD) and Zn-Mg eutectics (ZME) regions was observed. This was probably linked to the galvanic coupling between the PZD and ZME regions, and/or the Mg-rich passivation layer less resistant to corrosion than the Ca-rich passivation layer.
Electrical properties of iron corrosion layers formed in anoxic environments at the nanometer scale Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Florence Mercier-Bion, Jiaying Li, Hélène Lotz, Ludovic Tortech, Delphine Neff, Philippe Dillmann
Synergistic effect of molybdenum coating and SDS surfactant on corrosion inhibition of mild steel in presence of 3.5% NaCl Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Roya Farahmand, Beheshteh Sohrabi, Ali Ghaffarinejad, Mohammad Reza Zamani Meymian
Simulation of stress-assisted localised corrosion using a Cellular Automaton Finite Element approach Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 O.O. Fatoba, R. Leiva-Garcia, S.V. Lishchuk, N.O. Larrosa, R. Akid
In this paper, the overall corrosion damage process is modelled sequentially using cellular automata (CA) to describe the localised corrosion component, and finite element analysis (FEA) to account for the mechanical component resulting from the stress concentration effect of the corrosion defect (pit). Synchronous execution of the CA and FEA, and provision of feedback between both provides a good approximation of stress-assisted pit development. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of simulation results with experimental measurements show good agreement. In particular, the model shows that mechanical effects, notably plastic strain, accelerates the rate of development of localised corrosion.
The galvanic corrosion of welded ultra-high strength steels used for automotive applications Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 N. Wint, J. Leung, J.H. Sullivan, D.J. Penney, Y. Gao
In situ Scanning Vibrating Electrode Technique and time lapse photography were used to study the galvanic corrosion of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel, laser welded to hot stamped ultra high strength steel (UHSS) in 0.017 M NaCl. Samples of HSLA welded to UHSS exhibited corrosion focused on the UHSS. This galvanic effect was due to a -0.2 V difference in OCP for the UHSS. SVET derived metal loss increased by a factor of >2 for this couple. The localised corrosion observed may reduce the fatigue resistance and is of significance considering the increased use of thinner UHSS.
Corrosion behaviour of low temperature nitrided nickel-free, AISI 200 and AISI 300 series austenitic stainless steels in NaCl solution Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Francesca Borgioli, Emanuele Galvanetto, Tiberio Bacci
Low temperature plasma nitriding was performed on CrNi-based (AISI 316 L), CrMn-based (AISI 202) and nickel-free (P558) austenitic stainless steels. For all the used steels modified surface layers consist mainly of S phase without the precipitation of large amounts of nitrides, and they show enhanced surface microhardness and corrosion resistance in NaCl acqueous solution. The different electrochemical corrosion testing techniques evidence that the increase of corrosion potential may be ascribed mainly to nitrogen addition, while regarding the increase of potential, at which localized corrosion phenomena occur, also alloy elements, and in particular Mo, play an important role.
Sensitization and Remediation Effects on Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Al-Mg Naval Alloys Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 M. Seifi, I. Ghamarian, P. Samimi, P.C. Collins, N.J.H. Holroyd, J.J. Lewandowski
Aluminum-magnesium alloys are ideal for a number of structural applications; however, alloys with magnesium content more than 3 wt% can become sensitized and susceptible to environmentally-assisted failure after exposure to moderately elevated temperatures for sufficient periods of time. Commercial Al-Mg alloys were tested in the as-received and sensitized conditions to investigate susceptibility to environmentally-enhanced cracking in fatigue crack growth. Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) of short-transverse (S-T) smooth tensile samples and fatigue crack growth testing of SEN bend specimens was also conducted in various loading orientations (L-T, L-S, S-L and S-T). Sensitization treatments included exposure to temperatures ranging from 60 °C – 175 °C for times ranging from 10 hours to 20,000 hours. Under specific loading conditions and the presence of a local hydrogen source, IGSCC manifested itself as ST and SL splits during the cyclic loading of sufficiently sensitized L-S and L-T test specimens. The regimes of grain boundary cracking have been determined. Initial findings using ESBD data is suggestive that the high angle grain boundaries most likely to suffer IGSCC are those with a sharp gradient in the Taylor factor. Remediation treatments were also conducted on sensitized Al-Mg alloys in an attempt to reverse sensitization and restore alloy properties. While thermal re-mediation was somewhat effective in reducing the environmentally- sensitive fracture, this condition occurred at the expense of a loss in strength and its long-term effectiveness remains questionable. SEM and EBSD were used to document the locus and orientation-dependence of grain boundary failure while TEM was used to determine species present at grain boundaries susceptible to environmentally-enhanced fracture. SSRT testing of S-T samples in various environments revealed different degrees of embrittlement depending on the environment and degree of sensitization. A change in alloy sensitization kinetics occurs at around 100 °C.
Effect of composition and microstructure of duplex stainless steel on adsorption behaviour and efficiency of corrosion inhibitors in 4 molar hydrochloric acid. Part I: standard DSS 2205 Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Man Yi Ho, Jill Geddes, Evgeny Barmatov, Lynne Crawford, Trevor Hughes
We investigate relationships between the elemental composition and microstructure of DSS 2205 materials and their acid corrosion behaviour (4 M HCl) in the absence and presence of inhibitor (naphthylmethyl quinolinium chloride, NMQCl). Without inhibitor, the corrosion rate decreases with increasing Ni and austenite content. The austenite content is mainly controlled by Ni and N contents. In the presence of inhibitor, at concentrations 4–11.1 mM, the corrosion rate decreases with increasing Ni content and inhibition efficiencies are 94.5–99%. When the inhibitor dosage is 20 mM, the corrosion rate becomes independent of Ni content and inhibition efficiencies are ≥99%.
Water vapour effects on corrosion of Ni-Cr Alloys in CO2 gas at 650°C Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Yun Xie, Jianqiang Zhang, David J. Young
Binary Ni-Cr alloys containing 5-30 wt% Cr were oxidized in Ar-20CO2-20H2O gas at 650°C. Weight gain kinetics for alloys reacted with electropolished surfaces generally increased with increasing Cr content up to 25 wt%. All alloys underwent both internal oxidation and outer NiO formation. The NiO developed as separated, isolated growths on all alloys. Internal oxide zones on high chromium alloys underwent buckling. Weight gain and internal oxidation rates were slower than in dry Ar-20CO2. These differences are discussed in terms of altered diffusion processes in NiO in the presence of H2O, and displacement of metal from the internal oxidation zone.
Effect of flow rate on localized corrosion of X70 steel in supercritical CO2 environments Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Liang Wei, Xiaolu Pang, Kewei Gao
The effect of flow rate on localized corrosion of X70 steel in supercritical CO2-saturated aqueous phase was studied. Results shown that flow rate changed the predominant type from general corrosion (static condition) to localized corrosion (dynamic condition), and the localized corrosion rate gradually increased with time under dynamic condition. The main localized corrosion type initiated at the early corrosion stage the local spalling amorphous layer transformed to FeCO3 scale, and localized corrosion could also occur due to the broken of dense FeCO3 scale. The critical diameter of the pit for FeCO3 scale growth inside it decreased exponentially with flow rate.
Influence of Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment on the oxidation behaviour of 316L stainless steel Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 S. Benafia, D. Retraint, S. Yapi Brou, B. Panicaud, J.L. Grosseau Poussard
The present article investigates the effect of Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) on the high temperature oxidation of AISI 316L, during isothermal oxidation between 650 and 750 °C in air. The observations show a beneficial effect of the SMAT process on the oxidation resistance of 316L steel, for high temperatures. Indeed, the oxidation kinetics of the treated samples is shown to be related to a preferential growth of chromia starting at 700 °C up to 750 °C. This leads us to conclude that the SMAT used on the 316L reverses the main oxide phase, inhibiting the growth of the hematite and promoting the chromia.
Development and characterisation of zinc oxalate conversion coatings on zinc Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 J.M. Ferreira Jr, M. Oliveira, G.F. Trindade, L.C.L. Santos, C.R. Tomachuk
The interactions between oxalic acid and zinc substrates have been studied through the deposition of zinc oxalate coating by immersion. The corrosion behaviour of zinc was investigated by surface observation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Better protective properties were observed for samples treated with 10-1 M oxalic acid compared to other concentrations and the enrichment of corrosion product by Na was observed. The electrochemical results reveal that the oxalate coating increases corrosion protection in corrosive medium. It is proposed that the zinc oxalate coating formed act as a basis for anchoring zinc corrosion products forming simonkolleite improving corrosion resistance.
Study of corrosion behavior of copper in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution containing extracellular polymeric substances of an aerotolerant sulphate-reducing bacteria Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Shiqiang Chen, Dun Zhang
Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of an aerotolerant sulphate-reducing bacteria were extracted, and they contained mainly polysaccharides and proteins. Effects of EPS on corrosion behavior of copper were investigated through electrochemical methods and surface analysis techniques in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution under aerobic condition. Results indicated that after a short-period immersion, EPS inhibit copper corrosion, and their inhibition effect decreases with increasing EPS concentration. For long-term immersion, copper corrosion is promoted due to the destruction of the protective Cu2O film by EPS.
Evaluation of Multi-layered Graphene Nano-platelet Composite Coatings for Corrosion Control Part I - Contact Potentials and Gas Permeability Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 C.A.J. Richards, C.F. Glover, G. Williams, H.N. McMurray, J. Baker
The electronic and diffusion-blocking properties of graphene nano-platelets (GNPs) are quantified with a view to understanding their action as (possible) additives to anti-corrosion coatings. Platelet size and thickness are determined by SEM and BET specific surface area measurements. A Scanning Kelvin probe is used to show that a contact potential of up to 1.4 V develops between GNP particles and various metal substrates: silver, copper, iron and zinc. A novel photochemical method is used to show that oxygen permeation rates through a PVB-GNP (polyvinylbutyral) composite coating decrease by over an order of magnitude as GNP volume fraction increases to 0.056.
Corrosion inhibition of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy in 3.5 % NaCl by thiosemicarbazone derivatives Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 B.G. Prakashaiah, D. Vinaya Kumara, A. Anup Pandith, A. Nityananda Shetty, B.E., Amitha Rani
Three thiosemicarzone derivatives, namely (E)-2-(2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide(MHC), (E)-2-(2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide (DHC) and (E)-2-(2,3,4-trihydroxybenzylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide (THC) were synthesized and their corrosion inhibition action on 2024-T3 aluminum alloy was studied in 3.5% NaCl solution. The surface morphology and surface composition of the corroded alloy were examined using FESEM, 3D profilometry, EDX spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The synthesized inhibitors were found to provide corrosion protection on AA2024-T3 by forming an adsorbed layer of the complex on the alloy surface. They exhibited inhibition efficiency in the order, MHC < DHC < THC. Quantum chemical calculations corroborated the experimental results.
Wet etching of dilute nitride GaInNAs, GaInNAsSb, and GaNAsSb alloys lattice-matched to GaAs Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Marianna Raappana, Ville Polojärvi, Arto Aho, Jaakko Mäkelä, Timo Aho, Antti Tukiainen, Pekka Laukkanen, Mircea Guina
We have studied the etching of GaInNAs, GaInNAsSb, and GaNAsSb alloys by NH4OH, H2SO4, and H3PO4 based solutions. NH4OH based solutions resulted in smooth surface, while other solutions created rougher and granular surfaces. The etch rates were found to increase with the Sb content. For GaInNAs, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the enrichment of In on the etched surfaces, indicating In or In oxides having a smaller removal rate compared to Ga or Ga oxides. The enrichment of In was associated with smoother surfaces after etching and an enhanced photoluminescence caused by lower surface recombination due to reduced surface state density.
DFT study of imidazoles adsorption on the grain boundary of Cu (100) surface Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Hongbo Wang, Yilei Hao, Shenghui Chen, Meng Cheng, Chunling Li, Shuangqing Sun, Songqing Hu
Density functional theory was used to investigate the adsorption of imidazole (IMD), benzotriazole (BTAH) and 2-mercaptobenzoxazole (MBO) on the grain boundary (GB) of Cu (100) surface. Results show that molecules prefer to adsorb on the grain boundary with the larger distortion degree and more adsorption sites. The main interaction of molecules and grain boundary is chemisorption through C, N, S<img border="0" alt="single bond" src="https://cdn.els-cdn.com/sd/entities/sbnd">Cu bonds in both perpendicular and parallel modes. Hydrogen bonds and the lateral dipole-dipole interactions are also found. Based on the adsorption behaviour, the coverage effect and charge redistribution might be two possible inhibition mechanisms of inhibitor molecules.
Corrosion behavior of WC-Co coatings deposited by cold gas spray onto AA 7075-T6 Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 F.S. da Silva, N. Cinca, S. Dosta, I.G. Cano, M. Couto, J.M. Guilemany, A.V. Benedetti
Corrosion behavior of non-equilibrium Zr-Sn-Nb-Fe-Cu-O alloys in high-temperature 0.01 M LiOH aqueous solution and degradation of the surface oxide films Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Liang-Yu Chen, Peng Shen, Lina Zhang, Sheng Lu, Linjiang Chai, Zhinan Yang, Lai-Chang Zhang
This work uses qualitative analyses to investigate the corrosion behavior of two non-equilibrium Zr–Sn–Nb–Fe–Cu–O alloys in 0.01 M LiOH aqueous solution at 360 °C/18.6 MPa. Precipitates of second-phase particles (SPPs) and local recrystallization in the matrix are observed near the oxide/metal interface during extended periods of corrosion. Oxides formed on both alloys exhibit different hardness and gradually degrade. The oxides embedded with more SPPs show a lower hardness and therefore break down earlier. The variations of non-equilibrium microstructures of the substrates influence the properties of the oxides, thereby determining the corrosion performance of the alloys.
Corrosion behavior and mechanism of 3Cr steel in CO2 environment with various Ca2+ concentration Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Bei Wang, Lining Xu, Guozhang Liu, Minxu Lu
The effect of Ca2+ on the corrosion behavior of 3Cr steel was investigated using immersion tests and electrochemical measurements. The results demonstrated that with an increase in Ca2+ concentration in the solution, the corrosion rate of 3Cr steel decreased and the Ca2+ content in the corrosion scale increased. Ca is involved in the formation of both the inner and outer corrosion scales of 3Cr steel. Polarization curves revealed that Ca2+ could enhance the pseudopassivation of 3Cr steel. EIS results demonstrated that Ca2+ can decrease the porosity of corrosion films. Additionally, Ca2+ could accelerate the precipitation of FeCO3 (CaxFe1−xCO3) by reducing its solubility and saturation degree.
A review of uranium corrosion by hydrogen and the formation of uranium hydride Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 A. Banos, N.J. Harker, T.B. Scott
Uranium hydride (UH3) is the direct product of the reaction between uranium metal and gaseous hydrogen. In the context of uranium storage, this corrosion reaction is considered deleterious, not just because the structure of the metal may become significantly degraded but also because the resulting hydride is pyrophoric and therefore potentially flammable in air if present in significant quantity. The current review draws from the literature surrounding the uranium-hydrogen system accrued over a 70-year period, providing a comprehensive assessment of what is known about hydride formation, decomposition and oxidation in the context of uranium storage applications
The inhibition efficiency of different species on AA2024/graphite galvanic coupling models depicted by SVET Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 L.B. Coelho, M.-G. Olivier
Corrosion at the carbon steel-clay borehole water interface under anoxic alkaline and fluctuating temperature conditions Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Michel L. Schlegel, Sophia Necib, Sylvie Daumas, Marc Labat, Cécile Blanc, Eddy Foy, Yannick Linard
Coupons of carbon steel were corroded in situ in anoxic clay porewater under slightly alkaline conditions. Sample damage was less than 1 μm for 9 months at 85 °C only, and corrosion interfaces were covered by a thin, protective layer of Fe-silicate. The damage was more significant for samples exposed to room temperature transients (up to 38 μm for two years), and the long-term surface differentiated in cathodic (Fe-silicate covered) areas and anodic crevices filled with siderite, chukanovite, β-Fe2(OH)3Cl, and covered by tubercles. Sulfide compounds were detected, and were related to the metabolism of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes detected by microbiological techniques.
Microstructure and oxidation behaviour of plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY coatings with and without Ta on Ti44Al6Nb1Cr alloys Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Ruirun Chen, Xue Gong, You Wang, Gang Qin, Nannan Zhang, Yanqing Su, Hongsheng Ding, Jingjie Guo, Hengzhi Fu
NiCoCrAlY coatings with and without Ta were plasma-sprayed onto Ti44Al6Nb1Cr alloy to investigate their microstructure and oxidation resistance at 900 °C for 100 h. The results indicated that the oxidation resistance of the NiCoCrAlY coating was better than that of the NiCoCrAlYTa coating. The formation of Al2O3 scale on the NiCoCrAlYTa coating was inhibited due to the low Al concentration and the dragging effect of Ta. Furthermore, loose NiO/CoO scale on the NiCoCrAlYTa coating promoted the inward diffusion of oxygen. As a result, an Al2O3 layer was formed at the interface, suppressing interdiffusion between coating and substrate.
Evaluation of multi-layered graphene nano-platelet composite coatings for corrosion control Part II – Cathodic delamination kinetics Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 C.F. Glover, C.A.J. Richards, G. Williams, H.N. McMurray
In-situ Scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) measurements are used to follow the corrosion-driven cathodic delamination kinetics of model coatings comprising graphene nano-platelets (GNP) dispersed in polyvinylbutyral (PVB) adherent to iron and zinc (galvanised steel). To reduce delamination rates by >90% (relative to unpigmented PVB) a GNP volume fraction of 0.056 is required on iron but only 0.028 on zinc. On this basis, together with work function and O2 permeability data it is proposed that the GNP acts principally to slow through-coating oxygen transport on iron; whereas on zinc a galvanic couple forms between zinc and GNP, displacing cathodic oxygen reduction.
CALCIUM PHOSPHATE COATINGS FOR MARBLE CONSERVATION: INFLUENCE OF ETHANOL AND ISOPROPANOL ADDITION TO THE PRECIPITATION MEDIUM ON THE COATING MICROSTRUCTURE AND PERFORMANCE Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Enrico Sassoni, Gabriela Graziani, Elisa Franzoni, George W. Scherer
The effect of adding ethanol and isopropanol to aqueous solutions of diammonium hydrogen phosphate, used to create a passivating layer of calcium phosphates over marble, was investigated. Thanks to its weakening effect on the hydration sphere of ions in solution, ethanol allowed complete coverage of marble surface by a crack-free and pore-free layer of octacalcium phosphate. Even better results were obtained using isopropanol, because it has lower adsorption affinity to calcite than ethanol. Treatments involving alcohols provided good acid protection and also restored cohesion among calcite grains in weathered marble.
On the severe localized corrosion susceptibility of the AA2198-T851 alloy Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 João Victor de Sousa Araujo, Uyime Donatus, Fernanda Martins Queiroz, Maysa Terada, Mariana Xavier Milagre, Maicon Cavalieri de Alencar, Isolda Costa
The time dependent susceptibility of AA2198-T851 Al-Cu-Li alloy to severe localized corrosion in 0.01 mol L−1 NaCl solution has been investigated by immersion and SVET tests. The results reveal that the propagation of severe localized corrosion, in the alloy, is crystallographic and it is associated with the slip bands in the individual grains of the alloy. The slip bands caused uneven precipitation of the active T1 particles. Also, oscillations in SVET current density values associated with deposition and detachment of corrosion products were observed. Furthermore, the intensity of corrosion activities increased over time for open or partially covered pits.
Corrosion Protection Utilizing Ag layer on Cu Coated AZ31 Mg alloy Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Nguyen Van Phuong, Min-Sik Park, Chang Dong Yim, Bong Sun You, Sungmo Moon
This study investigated the corrosion protection by electrodeposited copper layer on AZ31 Mg alloy with and without additional silver layer. The single copper layer electrodeposited on AZ31 from copper pyrophosphate bath exhibited nodular structure and crevices between the nodules which resulted in the rapid initiation of pitting corrosion. Employing an additional electrodeposited silver layer onto the copper deposited AZ31 alloy decreased the number of imperfections and changed structure of electrodeposited copper from nodular to fine particle type resulting in improved corrosion resistance. This study further revealed that triple-layer coating of Cu/Ag/Cu exhibited the most efficient corrosion protection of AZ31 Mg alloy.
Modelling of the Effect of Grain Boundary Diffusion on the Oxidation of Ni-Cr Alloys at High Temperature Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Léa Bataillou, Clara Desgranges, Laure Martinelli, Daniel Monceau
Grain boundaries in oxide scales have a strong effect on oxidation kinetics when they act as diffusion short circuits. This study proposes a quantitative evaluation of the phenomenon by modelling. Various cases of oxide microstructure evolution are treated using both analytical and numerical resolutions. Results showed that the effect of oxide grain growth on the oxidation kinetics can be analysed considering a transitory stage for which the oxidation kinetics is not purely parabolic. Some guidelines for choosing the appropriate post-treatment method for the analysis and extrapolation of experimental oxidation kinetics are given.
Enhanced corrosion resistance in Fe-based amorphous coatings through eliminating Cr-depleted zones Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 J. Wu, S.D. Zhang, W.H. Sun, Y. Gao, J.Q. Wang
The influence of temperature gradient on the corrosion of materials in molten fluorides Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-05 Yanli Wang, Chaoliu Zeng, Weihua Li
The corrosion of materials is a great challenge for the application of a molten salt nuclear reactor using molten fluoride salts with dissolved fissile material as fuel or using clean molten salts to cool solid nuclear fuel. Temperature gradient is one of the main driving forces. In present investigation, the corrosion of Cr and alloy GH3535 in molten (Li,Na,K)F with the temperature gradients of 600-700 and 650–700 °C is investigated. The experimental results indicate that the difference in the temperature of the melt causes the difference of the corrosion potential, and thus leads to the occurrence of galvanic corrosion. The corrosion of hot-end samples is accelerated, with a higher effectiveness for a higher temperature gradient.
Microstructure and corrosion resistance of micro arc oxidation plus electrostatic powder spraying composite coating on magnesium alloy Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-05 Wei Yang, Dapeng Xu, Jianli Wang, Xiaofei Yao, Jian Chen
Based on the morphological characteristics of the microporous micro arc oxidation (MAO) ceramic coating, a double layer composite coating system was applied on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy by MAO plus electrostatic powder spraying (EPS) technique. The Mg sample coated with MAO plus EPS (MAO + EPS) was compared with Mg sample coated by MAO coating or EPS monolayer. The results indicated that the corrosion resistance of AZ31 Mg alloy was significantly improved by MAO + EPS composite coating with the exellent binding force. Furthermore, the corrosion mechanism of three coated Mg alloy was discussed.
Effects of thiosulphates and sulphite ions on steel corrosion ☆ Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-02 M. Cabrini, S. Lorenzi, T. Pastore
The paper deals with the general corrosion of carbon steel in geothermal plants for conveying and re-injecting condensates. The results of electrochemical and weight loss tests are discussed in function of sulphite and thiosulphate concentrations typical of Italian geothermal power plants. Thiosulphates can inhibit the reactions between oxygen and sulphites and increase the corrosion rate, but they control the acidification resulting from the reactions of sulphites with oxygen. In anaerobic solutions, both species modify mainly the cathodic process. In the absence of oxygen, the corrosion process leads to the formation of mackinawite scales, while iron sulphide forms due to the reduction of thiosulphate and sulphite.
Formation of iron oxide and iron sulfide at high temperature and their effects on corrosion Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-02 Shujun Gao, Bruce Brown, David Young, Marc Singer
Recent high temperature H2S corrosion study reported that a thermodynamically less stable iron oxide layer can also form in addition to iron sulfide. In this work, H2S corrosion experiments were conducted at 120 °C for different exposure times, ranging from 1 to 21 days. The inner layer was identified by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) as Fe3O4 (magnetite); Fe3O4 was always present over time despite it being less stable than iron sulfide. The observed formation sequence of iron sulfide at high temperature was mackinawite → troilite → pyrrhotite → pyrite. The role of the different corrosion product layers in corrosion is discussed.
Designing for the chemical conversion coating with high corrosion resistance and low electrical contact resistance on AZ91D magnesium alloy Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Guoqing Duan, Lixin Yang, Shangju Liao, Chunyan Zhang, Xiaopeng Lu, Yange Yang, Bo Zhang, Yong Wei, Tao Zhang, Baoxing Yu, Xiaochen Zhang, Fuhui Wang
The designing idea for the chemical conversion coating with high corrosion resistance (CR) and low electrical contact resistance (ECR) on AZ91D Mg alloy was presented. The main characteristics of the conversion bath include acidic solution, strong oxidizing agent, proper pH value and cation concentration (determined by thermodynamic calculation). The desired performances are attributed to the unique microstructure of conversion coating, i.e., β phase protruded from the surface and covered by a thinner passive film about 30 nm, contributing to low ECR, meanwhile, a thicker coating of 200–300 nm without cracks was deposited on α-phase, providing a good corrosion resistance.
Atomistic Simulations of Corrosion Related Species in Nano-cracks Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Dimitrios T. Kallikragas, Igor M. Svishchev
Electrochemical measurements and atomistic simulations of Cl−-induced passivity breakdown on a Cu2O film Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Xin Wei, Chaofang Dong, Pan Yi, Aoni Xu, Zhanghua Chen, Xiaogang Li
The mechanism of passivity breakdown on Cu2O films was studied. The thickness and components of the film were estimated by EIS, AES and XPS analyses. The structural relaxations, energies, electronic properties and diffusion coefficients were calculated by first-principles calculations. Both the experimental and calculated results demonstrate that the film thinning is due to the adsorption of Cl− on the surface instead of a penetration process. The inner point defects facilitate the adsorption of Cl−, and the introduction of Cl−, in turn, increases the transport rate of point defects. A theoretical model was proposed, which is also applicable to local breakdown.
Synthesis, Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Compositionally Graded Ni-YSZ Diffusion Barrier Coatings on Inconel-690 for Applications in High Temperature Environments Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 A.M. Kamalan Kirubaharan, P. Kuppusami, R. Priya, R. Divakar, M. Gupta, Dinesh Pandit, S. Ningshen
Cubic YSZ coating and compositionally graded Ni-YSZ nanocomposite coating have been developed on Inconel-690 using electron beam physical vapor deposition technique to act as a chemical diffusion barrier. The microstructure and chemical composition of the graded coating have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy techniques. Electrochemical corrosion study was carried out in 3 M HNO3 medium and it was found that compositionally graded Ni-YSZ coating heat treated at 1273 K in air showed superior corrosion resistant than as-deposited compositionally graded Ni-YSZ and YSZ coatings on Inconel-690 substrate.
Formation and control of nanoporous Pt ribbons by two-step dealloying for methanol electro-oxidation Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Xiaolong Zhang, Guijing Li, Dong Duan, Haiyang Wang, Zhanbo Sun
Novel ultrafine nanoporous Pt (NP-Pt) ribbons were fabricated by dealloying melt-spun Al85Pt15 and Al85Pt8Ce7 alloys. The addtion of Ce to Al-Pt alloy changed the phase constituents and distribution of the alloy. During alkali-dealloying, CeOx nanorods formed and were distributed in NP-Pt. Sacrificial nanorods were then selectively removed during acid-dealloying, resulting in the formation of hierarchical NP-Pt ribbons with a ligament scale of approximately 3 nm. The specific surface area of the NP-Pt was 3 times greater than that of the Al85Pt15 alloy without Ce. NP-Pt with a high active surface area had remarkable electro-catalytic performance and stability towards methanol oxidation.
Quasi-in-situ STEM-EDS insight into the role of Ag in the corrosion behaviour of Mg-Gd-Zr alloys Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Yu Zhang, Poorwa Gore, Wei Rong, Yujuan Wu, Yuanming Yan, Ruifeng Zhang, Liming Peng, Jian-Feng Nie, Nick Birbilis
The present paper reports a quasi-in-situ STEM-EDS approach for studying the role of Ag in the corrosion behaviour of Mg-Gd-Zr alloys. Following corrosion, the segregation of O at the interface of the α-Mg matrix and the β phase was observed. Furthermore, Ag-rich particles and the re-deposition of Ag were also observed on the nanoscale. Based on quasi-in-situ STEM-EDS observations herein, the partitioning of Ag into the β phase leads to enhanced localised corrosion, whilst the subsequent formation of Ag-rich particles during the corrosion process leads to enhanced rate of corrosion propagation, with accompanying oxy-hydroxide formation observed upon the Mg-Gd-Ag-Zr.
Inhibition of COR-TEN steel Corrosion by “green” extracts of Brassica campestris Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Maria Pia Casaletto, Viviana Figà, Antonella Privitera, Maurizio Bruno, Assunta Napolitano, Sonia Piacente
Corrosion Resistance Mechanism of Palladium Film-Plated Stainless Steel in Boiling H2SO4 Solution Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Junlei Tang, Zhiheng Zhang, Yingying Wang, Pengfei Ju, Yuming Tang, Yu Zuo
A novel design of oxidation protective β-Y2Si2O7 nanowire toughened Y2SiO5/Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 glass ceramic coating for SiC coated carbon/carbon composites Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-26 Lei Zhou, Jianfeng Huang, Liyun Cao, Wei Hao, Wanchen Wu
An electrochemical method for detection and quantification of Laves phase in 12Cr martensitic stainless steel Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Zihao Wang, Jian Xu, Yoichi Takeda, Tetsuo Shoji, Yasuaki Watanabe, Mitsuo Yamashita, Sakae Izumi
An electrochemical method for the detection and quantification of Laves phase in 12Cr martensitic stainless steel is proposed in the present work. Laves phase dissolution peak can be observed at the lower potential range which can be obtained in anodic polarization curves in a specific solution with specific pH values. The amount of Laves phase was calculated by the integration of anodic current with time according to the polarization curve and also independently measured by using scanning electron spectroscopy. A good correlation of these two methods was obtained.
Decomposition of persistent luminescent microparticles in corrosive phosphate glass melt Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 N. Ojha, H. Nguyen, T. Laihinen, T. Salminen, M. Lastusaari, L. Petit
Laser Welding Introduced Segregation and its Influence on the Corrosion Behaviour of Al-Cu-Li Alloy Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Xinxin Zhang, Bing Liu, Xiaorong Zhou, Junjie Wang, Teruo Hashimoto, Chen Luo, Zhihua Sun, Zhihui Tang, Feng Lu
In the present study, the microstructure and corrosion behaviour of laser beam welded 2A97 alloy are investigated. Welding process results in segregation of alloying elements within the fusion zone and, consequently, formation of T1 (Al2CuLi), TB (Al7Cu4Li) and R (Al5CuLi3) phase interdendritic intermetallics. The distribution of the interdendritic intermetallics is non-uniform across the weld. In NaCl solution, corrosion initiates at interdendritic intermetallic with selective dissolution of Al and Li, resulting in a copper-rich remnant, which subsequently acts as effective cathode supporting the dissolution of alloy matrix. The equiaxed dendrite zone at the centre of the weld is most susceptible to corrosion.
Experimental and Thermodynamic Investigations on the Chlorine-induced Corrosion of HVOF Thermal Sprayed NiAl Coatings and 304 Stainless Steels at 700 °C Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Mingwen Bai, Liam Reddy, Tanvir Hussain
Corrosion of X80 pipeline steel under sulfate-reducing bacterium biofilms in simulated CO2-saturated oilfield produced water with carbon source starvation Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Hongwei Liu, Tingyue Gu, Guoan Zhang, Hongfang Liu, Y. Frank Cheng
Corrosion of X80 pipeline steel under sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) biofilms, which formed in a culture medium at different times, in a simulated CO2-saturated oilfield produced water was investigated. Both planktonic and sessile SRB cells survived after 21 days of immersion in the water under carbon source starvation. The biofilms pre-cultured with a longer time increased the corrosion rate of the steel. At 37 °C, it took about 4 days for SRB to grow and then participate in the steel corrosion. The SRB also facilitated localized corrosion. The SRB biofilm, once deactivated, would no longer affect the steel corrosion.
Fabrication of heterostructured β-Bi2O3-TiO2 nanotube array composite film for photoelectrochemical cathodic protection applications Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Zi-Chao Guan, Hai-Peng Wang, Xia Wang, Juan Hu, Rong-Gui Du
A new approach to electropolishing of pure Ti foil in acidic solution at room temperature for the formation of ordered and long TiO2 nanotube arrays Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Vajihe Asgari, Mohammad Noormohammadi, Abdolali Ramazani, Mohammad Almasi Kashi
We have developed an effective approach for the EP process of Ti foil at RT in acidic solution. The idea is to use two different temperatures (3 °C and RT) for both sides of foil to optimize the current density. While keeping the electrolyte at RT, the lower temperature is used for the backside cooling of foil. The Ti surface roughness decreases by approximately 91% after optimizing the EP conditions. Our results show that the growth rate of TNTs is enhanced up to 37% and a significant improvement in the arrangement is observed over a larger area, compared to unpolished foil.
Early stages of scale formation during oxidation of γ/γ′ strengthened single crystal ternary Co-base superalloy at 900 °C Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Martin Weiser, Yolita M. Eggeler, Erdmann Spiecker, Sannakaisa Virtanen
Effect of Mo addition on corrosion of Zn coatings electrodeposited on steel Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Honorata Kazimierczak, Jerzy Morgiel, Zbigniew Swiatek, Jesús Manuel Vega, Eva García-Lecina
ZnMo coatings with Mo content from 0.5 to 6 wt. % were electrodeposited on steel from citrate electrolytes. Electrochemical studies of their corrosion behaviour performed in a 5 wt. % NaCl showed that the low Mo content (∼0.5–1.5 wt. %) enhances corrosion protection significantly, whilst higher contents barely improve the corrosion properties in comparison to pure zinc coatings. Microstructural and phase characterisation indicate that the formation of a continuous and compact thin oxide film on the surface of the ZnMo (0.5-1.5 wt. %) coatings is the key factor affecting the high corrosion resistance of such coatings.
Investigation on hot corrosion behaviour of Aluminum Rare Earth coating in mixed sulphate at 1050 °C Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Hongyu Wang, Han Wang, Qian Zhao, Peng Kan, Baowen Xu
Microstructure evolution of FeNiCr alloy induced by stress-oxidation coupling using high temperature nanoindentation Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Yan Li, Xufei Fang, Siyuan Zhang, Xue Feng
The microstructure evolution of a FeNiCr alloy oxidized at 600 °C by simultaneously applying stress via high temperature nanoindentation is reported. Analysis using transmission electron microscopy shows that a sharp crack was induced beneath the indentation area under the stress-oxidation coupling condition. Nanotwins beneath the indentation area were also observed, which acted as a barrier that ceased the crack propagation beneath the indenter by altering the path of the crack. Results reveal a transformation from inter-granular crack propagation along the oxide grain boundaries to intra-granular crack propagation through the nanotwin structure with a zig-zag pattern.
Sol–gel grown MgO-ZnO-tricalcium-phosphate nanobioceramics: evaluation of mechanical and degradation attributes Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Zahra Ashur Said Mahraz, M.R. Sahar, S.K. Ghoshal, Amir Putra Md Saad, Ardiyansyah Syahrom
Nanobioceramics with enhanced mechanical and degradable properties are demanding for bone tissue engineering purposes. We report the influence of partial replacement of ZnO by tricalcium phosphate (TCP) on the improved structure, degradation and mechanical properties of sol-gel grown MgO-ZnO-TCP nanobioceramics. Sample containing 40 mol% of TCP revealed homogenous distribution of fine agglomerates composed of ellipsoidal plates-like particles of average diameter ≈25.42 nm and length ≈80.93 nm. Immersion test is performed to determine the degradation characteristics of the as-prepared samples. Sample containing 40 mol% of TCP presented the lowest degradation rate and delayed loss of the compressive strength. It is established that the proposed MgO-ZnO-TCP nanobioceramic composition with good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance are prospective for biodegradable implants.
Investigation on Early Formation and Evolution of Oxide Scales on Ferritic–Martensitic Steels in Supercritical Water Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Yanhui Li, Shuzhong Wang, Panpan Sun, Jiaoqiao Yang, Xingying Tang, Donghai Xu, Yang Guo, Jie Yang, Digby D. Macdonald
Effect of in-situ grown SiC nanowire and dense SiC on oxidation resistance of Carbon fiber/SiC nanowire/SiC matrix composite in high temperature atmospheric environment Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Jyoti Prakash, P.S. Sarkar, Jitendra Bahadur, Kinshuk Dasgupta
SiC nanowire and dense SiC, grown in-situ in a carbon fiber perform play crucial role in determining oxidation resistance of composite. The composite shows three regimes of oxidation, first two being weight loss (Temperature: 763–933 K and 933–1073 K) and the third (1073 < T < 1423 K) being weight gain. First weight loss fraction corresponds to oxidation of free carbon in SiC matrix and follows half order reaction mechanism. Second weight loss fraction corresponds to oxidation of carbon fibers and is governed by 3-D diffusion mechanism. The weight gain in third regime is due to the formation of silica layer.
Corrosion behavior of an equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy compared with 304 stainless steel in sulfuric acid solution Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Hong Luo, Zhiming Li, Andrea M. Mingers, Dierk Raabe
The beneficial galvanic effect of the constituent phases in 2205 duplex stainless steel on the passive films formed in a 3.5% NaCl solution Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Xuequn Cheng, Yi Wang, Chaofang Dong, Xiaogang Li
Effect of ion irradiation of the metal matrix on the oxidation rate of Zircaloy-4 Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Marc Tupin, Romain Verlet, Kimberly Colas, Michael Jublot, Gérard Baldacchino, Krzysztof Wolski
The oxidation kinetics acceleration observed in Zircaloy-4 cladding in Pressurized Water Reactor could be partially due to metal irradiation damage occuring in-pile. To check this assumption, several ion irradiation tests of the Zircaloy-4 metal matrix were performed to reproduce the evolution of the metallurgical state in reactor. This study showed that the amorphization process of the intermetallic precipitates (SPPs) does not change significantly the oxidation rate of Zircaloy-4. Implantation of iron in the matrix to simulate iron dissolution from the SPPs has no real impact on the corrosion kinetics. However proton irradiations at 350 °C producing dislocation loops resulted in a significant increase in the oxidation rate.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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