Improved oxidation resistance of Mg-9Al-1Zn alloy microalloyed with 60 wt ppm Be attributed to the formation of a more protective (Mg,Be)O surface oxide Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 Qiyang Tan, Ning Mo, Chih-Ling Lin, Bin Jiang, Fusheng Pan, Han Huang, Andrej Atrens, Ming-Xing Zhang
A mechanistic study of SCC in Alloy 600 through high-resolution characterization Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Zhao Shen, Koji Arioka, Sergio Lozano-Perez
High-resolution characterization was used to understand the mechanisms controlling stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in Alloy 600 exposed to simulated PWR primary water conditions. Three potential active crack tips obtained from different types of grain boundaries were studied and compared. The results suggest that the dominant mechanism controlling SCC propagation is intergranular internal oxidation. The applied stress, pre-existent residual strain, the accumulation of defects around the crack tip, the formation of a Fe-Cr-depleted zone, and a porous intergranular oxide are acknowledged as necessary precursors to SCC. Based on the results obtained in this study, a model of SCC propagation is proposed.
Corrosion behavior of friction stir blind riveted Al/CFRP and Mg/CFRP joints exposed to a marine environment Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Shengxi Li, Haris Ali Khan, Lloyd H. Hihara, Hongbo Cong, Jingjing Li
Oxidation behavior of SiBCN-Zr composites at 1500 °C prepared by reactive spark plasma sintering Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-01-06 Yang Miao, Zhihua Yang, Bin Liang, Daxin Li, Quan Li, Dechang Jia, Yibing Cheng, Yu Zhou
The oxidation behavior of SiBCN-Zr composites prepared through incorporating sol-gel processing with spark plasma sintering (SPS) was studied in detail. It is indicated from results that a dense amorphous SiO2 film was formed on the samples superficially in the course of oxidation, which avoided the sample from being further oxidized. The oxidation of ZrB2 would boost the oxygen to be diffused, which aggravates the oxidation. Amorphous SiO2 would fill up the pores and avoid ZrB2 particles from being further oxidized. A preferable anti-oxidation behavior was also manifested by BN(C) arising from the formation of B2O3 phases.
Oxidation Behavior of Stainless Steels 304 and 316 under the Venus Atmospheric Surface Conditions Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-01-05 Gustavo C.C. Costa, Nathan S. Jacobson, Dorothy Lukco, Gary W. Hunter, Leah Nakley, Brandon G. Radoman-Shaw, Ralph P. Harvey
In general support of planetary exploration missions, the chemical and microstructural behavior of stainless steels 304 and 316 was probed after exposure to a gas mixture with temperature, pressure, and composition mimicking the Venus lower atmosphere. Exposures were carried out in the Glenn Extreme Environments Rig (GEER) chamber with the Venusian gas mixture (96.5% CO2, 3.5% N2, 30 ppm H2O, 150 ppm SO2, 28 ppm CO, 15 ppm OCS, 3 ppm H2S, 0.5 ppm HCl and 5 ppb HF) at 9.2 × 106 Pa and 740 K for a duration of 10, 21, and 42 days. Stainless steel 304 and 316 samples were characterized before and after the experiment by gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and cross-section electron microscopy analysis. All samples exposed to the Venusian atmosphere formed double-layered scales in which the outer layer is mainly magnetite (Fe3O4) and the inner layer is mainly spinel (Fe3-xCrxO4). Nickel sulfide and oxide formed at the interface of stainless steel 304. Nickel sulfide also formed in the inner and outer layer of the stainless steel 316 scale. Chromium carbide was only detected by Auger analysis at the interface of the unpolished side of the stainless steel 304 coupon sample. Stainless steel 304 with its smoother surface (780.62 nm total roughness on the polished side and 3.57 μm on the unpolished side) and slightly higher chromium and slightly lower nickel content, exhibited slower kinetics of oxidation (3.1 ± 0.5 × 10−3 mg cm−2 day−1) than stainless steel 316 (0.05 ± 0.07 mg cm−2 day−1) with its rougher surface (4.78 μm total roughness on both sides). The slightly higher molybdenum content in stainless steel 316 was also responsible for increasing its kinetics of oxidation because of the formation of molybdenum sulfide. Our thermodynamic calculations of the phase assemblage containing the Venus gas mixture and the stainless steel samples predicted hematite (Fe2O3(s)) (Cr2O3(s)) and liquid nickel sulfide (NiS(l)) as the thermodynamically stable phases formed at the Venus atmospheric conditions.
Electrophoretic deposition of carbon nanotubes for improved ablation resistance of carbon/carbon composites Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2018-01-03 Shen Qingliang, Li Hejun, Zhao Fengling, Song Qiang, Fu Qiangang
CNTs have been introduced into C/C composites by electrophoretic deposition to improve their ablation performance. Mass ablation of C/C composites decreases by 64% with an optimized CNT content. Mechanical exfoliation is mainly responsible for the mass loss of C/C composites under oxyacetylene ablation as confirmed by SEM observations and static oxidation experiments. By applying CNTs with an optimized content, thermal conductance of the composites increases by 24.5% and the fiber-matrix interfacial strength increases by 74.6%. Local thermal damage is significantly relieved and matrix peeling off by high-velocity gas is inhibited, which lead to the significant decrease of mechanical ablation.
Experimental investigation on the corrosion behavior of G20Mn5QT cast steel and butt weld with Q345D steel Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-29 Q.H. Han, X. Wang, Y. Lu
The corrosion tests of G20Mn5QT cast steel and butt weld with Q345D steel in wt3.5% NaCl solution are conducted. The corrosion morphology of the specimens is observed by SEM. It is mainly corrosion pitting for G20Mn5QT cast steel due to the casting defect and the erosion of chloride ions. The corrosion morphology of weld zone and HAZ tends to be uniform corrosion accompanied with pitting corrosion. Welding defect and erosion of chloride ions cause pitting corrosion for weld zone and HAZ. The largest circular radius of the divided circular pits is defined as the maximum radius of the irregular pit.
Chlorine-induced high temperature corrosion of HVAF-sprayed Ni-based alumina and chromia forming coatings Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Esmaeil Sadeghimeresht, Liam Reddy, Tanvir Hussain, Nicolaie Markocsan, Shrikant Joshi
Chlorine-induced corrosion of HVAF-sprayed Ni21Cr and Ni5Al coatings was investigated in 5 vol.% O2 + 500vppm HCl + N2 with and without KCl at 600 °C up to 168 h. Both coatings were protective in the absence of KCl. With KCl, Ni21Cr degraded through a two-stage mechanism: 1) formation of K2CrO4 followed by diffusion of Cl− through the oxide grain boundaries to yield chlorine and a non-protective oxide, and 2) inward diffusion of chlorine though defects in the non-protective oxide, leading to breakaway oxidation. Cl−/Cl2 could not diffuse through the protective alumina scale formed on Ni5Al, hence the corrosion resistance increased.
Ultra-high temperature oxidation behavior of micro-laminated ZrC/MoSi2 coating on C/C composite Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Jingjun Xu, Tiantian Yang, Yang Yang, Yuhai Qian, Meishuan Li, Xiaohui Yin
Kinetic study and structural evolution of SON68 nuclear waste glass altered from 35 to 125 °C under unsaturated H2O and D2O18 vapour conditions Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Rachid Bouakkaz, Abdesselam Abdelouas, Bernd Grambow
Relation between emissivity evolution during annealing and selective oxidation of TRIP steel Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Shu Hui Ham, Cédric Carteret, Jesus Angulo, Gabriel Fricout
Spectral emissivity measurement (λ = 8–12 μm) of TRIP alloy steel during annealing in HNx atmosphere is carried out. Emissivity variation is contributed by the selective oxidation that takes place along with the surface topography from pre-annealed state. Comparing results from physicochemical characterization (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical surface profiler) on post-annealed samples and examining the global and relative spectral emissivity separately established correlation of roughness to the former and oxide signatures to the peak features in the latter. Intensity of emissivity peaks at 10 μm and 10.5 μm vary with ratio of Mn to Al. Meanwhile, the influence of local texture on emissivity is demonstrated.
Atom probe study of impurity segregation at grain boundaries in chromia scales grown in CO2 gas Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-27 Thuan Dinh Nguyen, Alexandre La Fontaine, Limei Yang, Julie M. Cairney, Jianqiang Zhang, David J. Young
Model alloys Fe-20Cr and Fe-20Cr-0.5Si (wt.%) were exposed to Ar-20CO2 and Ar-20CO2-20H2O gas mixtures at 650 and 818 °C, forming Cr2O3 scales. Impurities segregated to chromia grain boundaries: carbon at sub-monolayer level, iron as spinel in narrow (10–20 nm) bands alongside the boundaries and silicon as dispersed glassy SiO2 nanoparticles. Thermodynamic driving forces for development of these nanostructures and enabling transport processes are identified. The consequences for grain boundary diffusion supporting scale growth and alloy carburisation are discussed.
A Phase field method for modelling anodic dissolution induced stress corrosion crack propagation Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 T-T. Nguyen, J. Bolivar, Y. Shi, J. Réthoré, A. King, M. Fregonese, J. Adrien, J-Y. Buffiere, M-C. Baietto
The phase field method is a powerful tool for studying microstructural evolution in various domains of material sciences, including phase change, initiation and propagation of fracture. In this work, a new formulation is developed based on the phase field method for modeling stress corrosion cracking (SCC) induced by anodic dissolution. This method was applied for modelling SCC of an aluminum alloy (2xxx series) in a saline medium (NaCl), which allows considering the effects of both electrochemical and mechanical processes. The classical phase transition model for material dissolution is coupled with the mechanical problem in a robust manner, providing an efficient tool for studying the competition between electrochemical and mechanical contributions to fracture. A numerical implementation based on finite elements is elaborated. The numerical results are compared to experimental data obtained by in situ microtomography.
A crack-free anti-corrosive coating strategy for magnesium implants under deformation Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-24 Kwang-hee Cheon, Chao Gao, Min-ho Kang, Hyun-do Jung, Tae-Sik Jang, Hyoun-Ee Kim, Yaning Li, Juha Song
Surface patterns can be used as a selective coating platform on metal surfaces, in particular, under various deformation conditions because they induce local strain gradients along with pattern geometry. In this study, hard and flexible coating materials were introduced to regions with small and large deformations, respectively, on patterned magnesium (Mg) surfaces. Despite significant deformation, a polymer-ceramic coating on patterned Mg maintained its protection, as opposed to a ceramic coating on a flat Mg surface. Our proposed approach can be implemented in various Mg-based medical-device platforms by optimizing surface patterns on Mg depending on their loading conditions for clinical use.
Electrochemical Studies of Molten Sulfates in LiCl-KCl-Na2SO4 at 700 °C Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Kuldeep Kumar, Nathan D. Smith, Timothy Lichtenstein, Hojong Kim
The electrochemical reduction behavior of molten Na2SO4 was investigated at 700 °C in LiCl-KCl-Na2SO4 (5–15 mol%) electrolyte under two different gaseous atmospheres of inert argon and oxidizing O2-0.1% SO2. Sulfate ions (SO42–) were directly reduced into sulfur (S) and sulfide (S2–) ions at large negative overpotentials in both gaseous atmospheres. During the transition from inert to oxidizing atmosphere, open circuit potentials of a platinum electrode (vs. Ag/Ag+) were shifted in the positive direction by more than 0.60 V, implying the presence of stronger oxidants which can be coupled with the metal oxidation reactions during the hot corrosion processes.
The role of (FeCrSi)2(MoNb)-type Laves phase on the formation of Mn-rich protective oxide scale on ferritic stainless steel Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Harri Ali-Löytty, Markku Hannula, Timo Juuti, Yuran Niu, Alexei A. Zakharov, Mika Valden
Exploring the effects of organic molecules on the degradation of Magnesium under cell culture conditions Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Rui-Qing Hou, Nico Scharnagl, Frank Feyerabend, Regine Willumeit-Römer
Stabilization treatment of cultural heritage artefacts: In situ monitoring of marine iron objects dechlorinated in alkali solution Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 F. Kergourlay, S. Réguer, D. Neff, E. Foy, F.-E. Picca, M. Saheb, S. Hustache, F. Mirambet, P. Dillmann
The preservation of archaeological iron artefacts necessitates stabilization treatments. For this study, such treatments were applied, in aerated and deaerated NaOH solutions, to Roman iron bars excavated from a marine site in order to understand the evolution of corrosion layers composed of ferrous hydroxychloride β-Fe2(OH)3Cl. Their transformation was monitored in situ by micro-diffraction under synchrotron radiation and characterized ex situ using multi-scale complementary analytical tools. The formation of transient phases such as ferrous hydroxide Fe(OH)2 was identified in both media and chlorinated green rust GR(Cl−) occurred in aerated solutions, showing the influence of dissolved oxygen on the transformation processes.
Designing the Corrosion Products of ZnAl15: A new Approach to Smart Corrosion Protection Coatings? Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Kirsten Bobzin, Mehmet Öte, Martin Andreas Knoch
ZnAl coatings are known to provide reliable corrosion protection for low grade structural steels in most environments. Depending on the coating process, different phase compositions can be observed in such coatings. In case of thermal spraying, the high cooling rates were proven to result in the formation of metastable β-ZnAl for the first time in literature. To assess the influence on the corrosion behaviour, β-ZnAl and α-η-ZnAl samples were produced and corroded in a salt spray test. A pronounced influence of the phase composition on the formation of layered double hydroxides was observed.
Determination of the equivalent hydrogen fugacity during electrochemical charging of 3.5NiCrMoV steel Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Jeffrey Venezuela, Clotario Tapia-Bastidas, Qingjun Zhou, Tom Depover, Kim Verbeken, Evan Gray, Qinglong Liu, Qian Liu, Mingxing Zhang, Andrej Atrens
A new thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) apparatus was used to identify the hydrogen trapping peaks, and to measure the hydrogen concentrations in 3.5NiCrMoV steel after hydrogen charging electrochemically, and in gaseous hydrogen. The hydrogen concentration increased with (i) increasingly negative charging potential and (ii) increasing hydrogen gas pressure. The equivalent hydrogen fugacity versus charging overpotential was derived. There was a difference in the diffusible hydrogen traps activated during electrochemical and gas phase charging, attributed to the difference in the hydrogen fugacity. A two-site model for Sieverts’ Law explained the positive Y-intercept, as the density of already filled hydrogen traps.
Characterization of refractory steel oxidation at high temperature Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Nicolas Madern, Judith Monnier, Rita Baddour-Hadjean, Antonin Steckmeyer, Jean-Marc Joubert
The high temperature oxidation behavior of two highly alloyed refractory austenitic steels is studied at 1000 °C under air. Both short-term oxidation kinetics and long-term oxidation products are investigated. Structural, elemental and morphological analyses are coupled to characterize the oxide phases’ formation. Chromia and spinel are the main phases for both samples although they suffer important descaling after 4 weeks oxidation, but alloying elements are responsible for the formation of many other oxides. Microstructures are compared and discussed. New Raman spectra are reported for manganese chromite spinels. Their assignments are provided and discussed at the light of the proposed cationic distribution.
Effect of chloride and sulfate ions on crevice corrosion behavior of low-pressure steam turbine materials Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Li-Bin Niu, Koji Okano, Sakae Izumi, Kunio Shiokawa, Mitsuo Yamashita, Yoshihiro Sakai
Crevice corrosion behavior between homogeneous and dissimilar materials of 13Cr and 3.5NiCrMoV steels was investigated in simulated boiler waters containing chloride ions (Cl−) and sulfate ions (SO42−), using open circuit potential (OCP) measurements in addition to morphology analysis. Pitting occurred inside the crevice not only on 13Cr steel but also on 3.5NiCrMoV steel in the test water containing 100 ppm Cl−, while it was suppressed by the coexistence of 50 ppm SO42− in the water with the 100 ppm Cl−. However, the presence of 50 ppm SO42− in the test waters promoted uniform corrosion on 3.5NiCrMoV steel inside the crevice.
Electrochemical behavior of Inconel 718 fabricated by laser solid forming on different sections Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Pengfei Guo, Xin Lin, Jiaqiang Li, Yufeng Zhang, Menghua Song, Weidong Huang
Characterization of a New Efflorescence Salt on Calcareous Historic Objects stored in Wood Cabinets: Ca2(CH3COO)(HCOO)(NO3)2·4H2O Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Sebastian Bette, Gerhard Eggert, Andrea Fischer, Jörg Stelzner, Robert E. Dinnebier
Experimental and boundary element method study on the effect of stress on the polarization curve of cast aluminum alloy in sodium chloride solution Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Osamu Kuwazuru, Kazuhiro Ode, Makoto Yamada, Alain J. Kassab, Eduardo Divo
Study of the inhibition ability of benzotriazole on the Zn-Mg coated steel corrosion in chloride electrolyte Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 J. Rodriguez, M. Mouanga, A. Roobroeck, D. Cossement, A. Mirisola, M.-G. Olivier
The corrosion inhibition of Zn-Mg coated steel by benzotriazole was investigated in sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical and analytical measurements combined with surface analyses indicate that benzotriazole inhibits the corrosion reactions by forming a complex between Zn2+ and the anionic form of benzotriazole BTA− present near the surface where pH increases due to Mg dissolution. The complex reinforces the corrosion product layer composed of zincite ZnO which precipitates on the surface. If a benzotriazole/chloride ions ratio of 1/100 is respected and if the presence of the inhibitor is always maintained in the chloride medium, a sustainable barrier layer is assured.
Oxidation behavior of the B-modified silicide coating on Nb-Si based alloy at intermediate temperatures Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Wei Shao, Chungen Zhou
Effects of environmental factors on stress corrosion cracking of cold-drawn high-carbon steel wires Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-18 Saisai Wu, Honghao Chen, Hamed Lamei Ramandi, Paul C. Hagan, Alan Crosky, Serkan Saydam
Premature failure of cable bolts due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a phenomenon that has reported to occur in underground environments. This paper presents an experimental study to determine the impacts of environmental factors on SCC in high-carbon steel cable bolts used in ground support system. The service life of the wire strands was measured under a range of accelerated SCC conditions using three- and four-point loading jigs. Fractographic analyses of the fracture surfaces of the failed wires displayed typical features indicating that hydrogen embrittlement was involved in SCC in these tests. It was shown that the presence of hydrogen sulphide is more critical than its concentration in SCC. The pH and level of applied stress were determined to have a direct impact on the occurrence of SCC. The deflection angle of the crack path was observed to be an inverse polynomial function of the applied stress level in the wire. This demonstrated the significance of the stress level on the fracture mechanism of cable bolts. Furthermore, the use of a protective galvanised coating on cable bolts was found to be a promising countermeasure against SCC. The results of this study provide detailed insight into the environmental factors involved in SCC of high-carbon steel wires and can be further used for setting guidelines for assessment of environments which cause susceptibility to SCC.
Synergistic effect of B and Y on the isothermal oxidation behavior of TiAl-Nb-Cr-V alloy Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-16 X. Gong, R.R. Chen, H.Z. Fang, H.S. Ding, J.J. Guo, Y.Q. Su, H.Z. Fu
Isothermal oxidation was conducted at 900 °C to investigate the synergistic effect of B and Y on the oxidation behavior of Ti44Al6Nb1Cr2 V alloy. The results indicated that Ti44Al6Nb1Cr2V0.15Y0.1 B possessed superior oxidation resistance. B and Y refined the crystalline particles size and reduced the oxygen activity. As a results, the formation of TiO2 and vanadium oxides was suppressed. The reduction of dissolved oxygen in the alloy promoted the selective oxidation of Al. Meanwhile, oxide pegs were formed at the interface of oxide scale and Ti44Al6Nb1Cr2V0.15Y0.1 B alloy. Therefore, the spalling resistance of the oxide scale was enhanced by adding B and Y.
Correlation of microstructure and stress corrosion cracking initiation behaviour of the fusion boundary region in a SA508 Cl. 3-Alloy 52M dissimilar weld joint in primary pressurized water reactor environment Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-15 Lijin Dong, Qunjia Peng, He Xue, En-Hou Han, Wei Ke, Lei Wang
Correlation of microstructure and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) initiation behaviour of the fusion boundary (FB) region in a SA508 Cl. 3-Alloy 52M weld joint in primary pressurized water reactor environment was investigated. Cr-depletion at the grain boundary and strength mismatch in the FB region are the two causes for SCC initiation in the FB region. The partially mixed zone between the dilution zone (DZ) of Alloy 52M and SA508 Cl. 3 has a retardation effect on SCC initiation. This is attributed to the decrease of strength mismatch and the alleviation of strain concentration adjacent to the grain boundary in DZ.
Influence of Tempering Treatment on Microstructure and Pitting Corrosion of 13 wt.% Cr Martensitic Stainless Steel Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-14 B. Sunil Kumar, B. Vishwanadh, Vivekanand Kain
Tempering of 13 wt.% Cr martensitic stainless steel resulted in nano-sized M3C carbides at 300 °C, nano-sized Cr-rich M23C6 carbides at 550 °C and sub-micron sized Cr-rich M23C6 carbides at 700 °C. Austenitization resulted in lath martensite with undissolved M23C6 carbides. Pitting resistance for tempered condition was lower than the austenitized condition with least resistance at 550 °C. The observation was attributed to the presence of a Fe-rich surface film and massive carbide precipitation with a Cr depletion zone of 7–9 nm at carbide interface for 550 °C tempered condition as opposed to a Cr-enriched passive film for the austenitized condition.
Effect of Small Concentrations of Gallium and Lead on Anodic Activation of Aluminium in Chloride Solution Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Esma Senel, Kemal Nisancioglu
The present objective is to investigate the combined effect of alloyed Pb and Ga on surface segregation by heat treatment and ensuing anodic activation of aluminium in chloride solution. Model alloys containing Pb and Ga, which were heat treated in the range 300–600 °C, were characterised electrochemically in 5% NaCl solution. Annealing at 600 °C resulted in significant segregation of Pb causing limited activation, while Ga remained in solid solution. The presence 50 ppm Ga had only a small contribution to activation, while 1000 ppm Ga contributed significantly by becoming enriched at areas around Pb segregations and spreading radially by dealloying.
Corrosion of antibacterial Cu-bearing 316L stainless steels in the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-12 Hongwei Liu, Dake Xu, Ke Yang, Hongfang Liu, Y. Frank Cheng
Corrosion of two types of antibacterial Cu-bearing 316L stainless steel was investigated in a medium containing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) by various surface characterization and electrochemical measurements. The addition of Cu does not improve the resistance of 316L stainless steel to microbiologically influenced corrosion. The anticorrosion performance of 316L-Cu-A is better than 316L-Cu-B, which is believed to be associated with the addition of elements La and Ce, rather than Cu, in the steel. The Cu ions react with sulfides produced by SRB to produce copper sulfide on the steel surface, increasing corrosion of the Cu-bearing stainless steels.
High temperature treatment of Cr3C2@SiC-NFA composites in water vapor environment Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-12 Kaustubh Bawane, Kaijie Ning, Kathy Lu
Effect of CrF3 on the corrosion behaviour of Hastelloy-N and 316L stainless steel alloys in FLiNaK molten salt Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-12 Huiqin Yin, Jie Qiu, Huajian Liu, Wenguan Liu, Yang Wang, Zejie Fei, Sufang Zhao, Xuehui An, Jinhui Cheng, Tao Chen, Peng Zhang, Guojun Yu, Leidong Xie
The effect of CrF3 on the corrosion behaviour of Hastelloy-N and 316L austenitic stainless steel alloys in FLiNaK at 700 °C was investigated using synchrotron radiation and other characterisation techniques. The results showed that CrF3 considerably accelerated the corrosion of both tested alloys by promoting the dissolution of Cr, Fe, and Mn from alloy matrices into molten salt. The 316L stainless steel alloys mainly exhibited intergranular corrosion, whereas the Hastelloy-N alloys tended to exhibit intergranular and pitting corrosion. After corrosion, the lattice parameter of both alloys decreased and Cr1.07Fe18.93 was formed on the surface of the 316L stainless steel alloys.
Characterization of oxide scales formed on alloy 82 in nominal PWR primary water at 340 °C and in hydrogenated steam at 400 °C Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-12 C. Duhamel, M. Sennour, F. Georgi, C. Guerre, E. Chaumun, J. Crépin, E. Héripré, I. de Curières
Alloy 82, used as weld metal in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), was exposed to hydrogenated steam at 400 °C and to simulated primary water at 340 °C. A comparative study of the oxide layer formed on the alloy surface in both environments was performed to confirm that steam conditions were representative of accelerated primary water conditions. For this purpose, the oxidation products were investigated at a nanometer scale using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometry (XPS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Results obtained in both conditions are compared and the influences of heat treatment, test duration and surface preparation are studied.
Corrosion Behaviour of 2A97-T6 Al-Cu-Li alloy: the Influence of Non-uniform Precipitation Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-11 Xinxin Zhang, Xiaorong Zhou, Teruo Hashimoto, Bing Liu, Chen Luo, Zhihua Sun, Zhihui Tang, Feng Lu, Yanlong Ma
In the present study, the influence of precipitate distribution on the corrosion behaviour of 2A97-T6 Al-Cu-Li alloy in 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution is investigated. It is found that localized plastic strain introduced to the alloy during sheet fabrication leads to the formation of dense T1 (Al2CuLi) phase precipitate bands and precipitate-free bands within selected grains during aging. Preferential dissolution of T1 phase in the dense precipitate bands results in intragranular corrosion in the alloy, in the form of corrosion bands. Further, the dissolution of the alloy matrix propagates in the form of crystallographic corrosion pit.
Effect of repetitious non-isothermal heat treatment on corrosion behavior of Al-Zn-Mg alloy Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-08 Shuai Li, Honggang Dong, Peng Li, Su Chen
Type 7N01 alloy has been widely applied in rail vehicles, but corrosion behavior and mechanical properties of this alloy after heat treatment or heat straightening becomes a limitation for its application. This paper reveals the effect of different numbers of heat treatments on corrosion behavior and mechanical properties of 7N01 alloy. With increasing the number of heat treatments, the corrosion susceptibility of 7N01 alloy increased. The evolution of corrosion behavior and mechanical properties of heat-treated samples was caused by modification of matrix precipitates and diffusion of Zn atom from matrix to grain boundaries.
On the AA2198-T851 alloy microstructure and its correlation with localized corrosion behaviour Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-08 Uyime Donatus, Maysa Terada, Carlos Ramirez Ospina, Fernanda Martins Queiroz, Aline Fatima Santos Bugarin, Isolda Costa
The corrosion behaviour of AA2198-T851 alloy has been investigated using a combination of immersion tests and different microscopy techniques. Results showed that severe localized corrosion initiated within 1 h of corrosion immersion test in 0.01 mol L−1 NaCl solution. The corrosion mechanism in this alloy is intragranular and it propagates crystallographically. The propagation occurs through grain orientation dependent bands and it can be likened to the movement of dislocation through slip planes. Corrosion rings around stable pits result from pH variations. Secondary pits form around primary pits within corrosion rings and are preceded by hydrogen evolution.
Behaviour of pre-stressed T91 and ODS steels exposed to liquid lead-bismuth eutectic Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-08 Anna Hojna, Hynek Hadraba, Fosca Di Gabriele, Roman Husak
Structural materials compatibility in conditions relevant to plant operation is of primary importance to safety. The work describes the behaviour of T91 and ferritic ODS steels, 14%Cr and 19%Cr under such conditions. Three-point-bend specimens were pre-stressed up to yield strength, then exposed to flowing lead-bismuth eutectic in a loop at 350° C for 500 and 1000 h, in non-flowing one for 2000 h. The oxygen content was measured to be in the order of 10−5 wt.%. Post-test examination by means of microhardness and SEM with EDS demonstrated the formation of thin oxides without crack initiation, which is discussed. Because it was not observed either direct contact between the steels and LBE or local high plastic deformation, no LME occurred.
Interfacial morphology and corrosion-wear behavior of cast Fe-3.5 wt.% B steel in liquid zinc Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-08 Yong Wang, Jiandong Xing, Hanguang Fu, Yangzhen Liu, Kaihong Zheng, Shengqiang Ma, Yongxin Jian
The corrosion-wear behavior of Fe-3.5 wt.%B steel in liquid zinc was investigated via the block-against-ring technique. Owing to the protective ability of the Fe2B phase, this steel exhibited better corrosion-wear resistance than a 316L stainless steel. SEM, XRD, and EDS of the corrosion-wear interface indicated that the corrosion-wear process of Fe-3.5 wt.%B steel consists of the following steps: corrosion of the matrix, fragmentation and removal of FeZn13, and failure of the Fe2B. The intensified mechanical effect of wear resulted in significant deterioration (via fracture and removal of FeZn13, and spallation Fe2B) of corrosion-wear interface, which exacerbated corrosion, and facilitated the corrosion-wear process.
Air and Chlorine Gas Corrosion of Different Silicon Carbides Analyzed by Nano-Fourier-Transform Infrared Nano-FTIR Spectroscopy Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-07 Christian Vogel, Peter Hermann, Bernd Kästner, Burkart Adamczyk, Arne Hoehl, Gerhard Ulm, Christian Adam
The present study shows the potential of high-resolution imaging and nano-Fourier-transform infrared (nano-FTIR) spectroscopy for corrosion science. The protective oxidation layers of different chlorine-gas treated silicon carbides (SiCs) were characterized with these techniques. A nitrified SiC showed the highest resistant strength against chlorine corrosion at 1000 °C compared to the other SiCs. Nano-FTIR spectroscopy with a lateral resolution below 40 nm detected differences in the crystallinity of the bulk-SiC and in the transitional region to the protective layer. Furthermore, high-resolution imaging provides deep insight in the interfacial layer between bulk-SiC and the protective oxidation layer on sub-micrometer scale.
Influence of dissolved hydrogen on the early stage corrosion behavior of zirconium alloys in simulated light water reactor coolant conditions Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-02 Taeho Kim, Kyoung Joon Choi, Seung Chang Yoo, Yunju Lee, Ji Hyun Kim
The dissolved hydrogen concentration in the water phase represents a key factor for corrosion characteristic of zirconium alloy. A zirconium alloy was oxidized for 100 d at two different concentrations, 2.49 and 4.15 mg/kg. In situ Raman peaks of the specific oxide phases changed, indicating the occurrence of phase transformation. Moreover, the result of transmission electron microscopy was compared with in situ analysis of the oxide structure formed on the zirconium alloy. The phase stability of the oxide could be influenced by the dissolved hydrogen, and it the phase transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic is influenced by dissolved hydrogen.
Effect of sulfur compounds on formation of protective scales in naphthenic acid corrosion in non-turbulent flow Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-01 Peng Jin, Winston Robbins, Gheorghe Bota
Naphthenic acids corrosion is generally considered to leave no corrosion product on steel surface. However, our prior research demonstrates that a protective oxide scale is formed in corrosion with model acids under stagnant conditions. In present study, the corrosion by model acids and a reactive sulfur compound has been investigated alone and in combination in a flow through system. None of the model acids alone forms an oxide scale. However, mixtures of the acid and sulfur compound form a protective scale consisting of an oxygen-containing layer underneath a sulfide layer. A mechanistic model of corrosion and scale formation is proposed.
Copper transport and sulphide sequestration during copper corrosion in anaerobic aqueous sulphide solutions Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-01 J. Chen, Z. Qin, T. Martino, M. Guo, D.W. Shoesmith
The corrosion of copper in aqueous solutions containing ≥5 × 10−4 mol/L sulphide and the ensuing accumulation of corrosion product deposits (as chalcocite Cu2S) occurs non-uniformly indicating the occurrence of microgalvanic coupling between net anodic and net cathodic surface locations. A series of novel electrochemical experiments were designed to confirm the occurrence of this process and a series of analytical procedures used to identify the chemical nature of the transported Cu species. Transport was found to occur as copper sulphide complexes and clusters. It was also demonstrated that all the available sulphide was sequestered as deposited Cu2S.
Load-dependent tribocorrosion behaviour of nickel-aluminium bronze in artificial seawater Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-12-01 Beibei Zhang, Jianzhang Wang, Fengyuan Yan
Dependence of the tribocorrosion behaviour of nickel-aluminium bronze (NAB) on load in artificial seawater was investigated. Results from electrochemical measurements revealed that, decreases in the corrosion potential and polarisation resistance were induced by increased load, implying an increased susceptibility to corrosion. Quantitative calculations indicated that the synergy of wear and corrosion was crucial, particularly for the corrosion-accelerated wear component, which combined with pure mechanical wear were the predominant cause of degradation of NAB. Moreover, selective α-phase corrosion behaviour was observed, with the boundaries of intermetallic κIII and κIV precipitates corroded preferentially.
Grain Boundary Selective Oxidation and Intergranular Stress Corrosion Crack Growth of High-Purity Nickel Binary Alloys in High-Temperature Hydrogenated Water Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-11-26 S.M. Bruemmer, M.J. Olszta, M.B. Toloczko, D.K. Schreiber
The effects of alloying elements in Ni-5at%X binary alloys on intergranular (IG) corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) have been assessed in 300–360 °C hydrogenated water at the Ni/NiO stability line. Alloys with Cr or Al additions exhibited grain boundary oxidation and IGSCC, while localized degradation was not observed for pure Ni, Ni-Cu or Ni-Fe alloys. Environment-enhanced crack growth was determined by comparing the response in water and N2 gas. Results demonstrate that selective grain boundary oxidation of Cr and Al promoted IGSCC of these Ni alloys in hydrogenated water.
Effect of cyclic oxidation on the tensile behavior of a Fe-Cr-Si coated Nb-base alloy Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-11-23 Mahesh K. Kumawat, Md. Zafir Alam, Dipak K. Das
The room temperature tensile properties of Fe-Cr-Si coated C103 alloy are evaluated after cyclic oxidation at 1100–1300 °C for 30–180 min. The strength increased marginally (by 10–20 MPa) after oxidation at 1100 °C, whereas the ductility decreased by ∼50%. Oxidation at 1300 °C for 180 min caused a greater increase in strength (by 10–15%) and deterioration in ductility to 9%. Localized embrittlement of the substrate sub-surface regions in the vicinity of cracks formed in the coating, HfO2 precipitation at grain boundaries, and intergranular cleavage caused lowering of ductility during cyclic oxidation. Nevertheless, the coating prevented catastrophic oxidation and is indispensable for hypersonic applications.
Processable poly(2-butylaniline)/hexagonal boron nitride nanohybrids for synergetic anticorrosive reinforcement of epoxy coating Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-11-22 Mingjun Cui, Siming Ren, Songlv Qin, Qunji Xue, Haichao Zhao, Liping Wang
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), a structural analogue of graphene, is a better alternative for anticorrosive coatings because of its electrical insulation properties. In this work, few-layer h-BN nanosheets are obtained by the exfoliation of stacked h-BN powders with poly(2-butyl aniline) (PBA) and incorporated into epoxy coatings for protecting metallic substrate against corrosion. Results show that as prepared composite coatings exhibit high impedance modulus and low water absorption, suggesting their superior performance of corrosion protection owing to the “labyrinth effect” of h-BN and passivation effect of PBA on the metal substrates.
Corrosion resistance of the ZnCr2O4 spinel in NaF-KF-AlF3 bath Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-11-22 Zhiyuan Li, Zhongqi Shi, Zhejian Zhang, Rongdi Liu, Ying Liu, Jing Li, Guanjun Qiao
ZnCr2O4 was evaluated as a new sidewall material in the electrolysis of NaF19.69-KF25.84-(AlF3)54.47 bath at 800 °C by both static and dynamic corrosion tests. The results showed that the composition and microstructure of ZnCr2O4 were stable after the tests, and the ZnCr2O4 possessed excellent corrosion resistance with the corrosion rate <0.028 cm/a, which was significantly lower than that of a common inert material NiFe2O4 (1.2 cm/a). The outstanding corrosion resistance of ZnCr2O4 can not only owe to the low electronegativity of Zn and Cr elements in the spinel structure, but also because of its thermodynamically stability under the chemical corrosion and reduction environments.
Stress corrosion cracking initiation and short crack growth behaviour in Alloy 182 weld metal under simulated boiling water reactor hydrogen water chemistry conditions Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-11-21 Juxing Bai, Stefan Ritter, Hans-Peter Seifert, Sannakaisa Virtanen
The effect of dissolved hydrogen on the stress corrosion cracking initiation and short crack growth behaviour of Alloy 182 weld metal was evaluated in 274 °C hydrogenated high-purity water using accelerated crack initiation and growth tests with sharply notched fracture mechanics specimens and in-situ crack initiation and growth monitoring. A maximum in initiation susceptibility and crack growth rates was observed at the Ni/NiO phase transition line. Grain boundary misorientations and mismatch in Schmid factor were measured by electron backscattered diffraction along intergranular stress corrosion cracks and at crack initiation sites. Low-angle boundaries seem to be particularly resistant to cracking.
Enhanced high-temperature oxidation resistance of a zirconium alloy cladding by high-temperature preformed oxide on the cladding Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-11-16 Cheol Min Lee, Dong-Seong Sohn
Using a zirconium alloy, pre-oxidation was conducted at 1200 °C in a steam environment, and the pre-oxidised specimens were oxidised at 1012, 1100, and 1200 °C. The preformed oxide enhanced the oxidation resistance significantly during the subsequent oxidation at 1012 and 1100 °C. In addition, the preformed oxide enhanced the breakaway oxidation resistance greatly at 1012 °C. The microstructures of the preformed oxide were analysed using TEM and EPMA. The oxidation resistance enhancement may be related to the large columnar grain width of the preformed oxide and Zr-Sn type precipitates formed at the grain boundaries.
Photocatalytically driven dissolution of macroscopic nickel surfaces Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-11-15 Richard J. Wilbraham, Colin Boxall, Robin J. Taylor
Photocatalytically generated H2O2-driven nickel dissolution has been studied as a novel, secondary waste minimal decontamination process for nuclear process steels. Nickel corrosion experiments in dilute H2SO4 show that at deliberately added [H2O2] ≤ 1 mM, nickel dissolution occurs via formation and dissolution of NiOH groups; at [H2O2] ≥ 10 mM (pseudo-)passivation by NiO prevents this. Furthermore, Nickel also dissolves slowly in mild acid, dissolution that is significantly accelerated in the presence of photogenerated peroxide – suggesting that photocatalytically generated H2O2 could be used to selectively increase dissolution of Ni, and potentially steel, surfaces that normally dissolve only slowly in mild acid.
Study of dynamic degradation behaviour of porous magnesium under physiological environment of human cancellous bone Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-11-14 Amir Putra Md Saad, Ardiyansyah Syahrom
This study analyse the effect of integrating of physiological environment of human cancellous bone as shown by different level of cyclic compressive on the degradation behaviour of porous magnesium under dynamic immersion for bone scaffold applications. The porous magnesium (30%, 41% and 55% of porosity) were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) with flowrate 0.0025 ml/min while having dynamic loading (1000 με, 2000 με and 3500 με) for 24, 48 and 72 h. The influenced integrating both boundaries have increased the relative weight loss and degradation rate as high as 61.56% and 93.67%, respectively as compared to dynamic immersion test only.
Desulfurized flue gas corrosion coupled with deposits in a heating boiler Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-11-14 Peiyuan Pan, Heng Chen, Zhiyuan Liang, Qinxin Zhao
In-plant corrosion tests of five steels were conducted in a heating boiler in China to study the desulfurized flue gas corrosion coupled with deposits after the FGD (flue gas desulfurization) unit. The surface temperature of the steel was the key factor in the deposition and corrosion process. As the surface temperature increased, the corrosion of the steels was first exacerbated due to the increase in the Cl− concentration in the deposits and then mitigated due to the lack of the electrolyte. The stainless steels in this work showed much better performance than did the low alloy steel.
The effect of work-hardening and thermal annealing on the early stages of the uranium-hydrogen corrosion reaction Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-11-14 A. Banos, C.P. Jones, T.B. Scott
The characteristics of hydride formation on metallic U at the early stages were investigated for three differently treated samples. The first sample reacted in its as-received state, the second was thermally annealed and the third sample underwent cold work-hardening prior to reaction with deuterium. From the analysis, the vacuum heat-treated sample was found to be more resilient to hydriding at the nucleation and growth stage, exhibiting a reduced number of nucleation points when compared to the as-cast uranium. The work-hardened sample was observed to be more susceptible to H2 corrosion, displaying very dissimilar hydriding behaviour when compared to the other.
Effect of anodic potential on the electrochemical response of passive layers formed on the surface of coarse- and fine-grained pure nickel in borate buffer solutions Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-11-13 Arash Fattah-alhosseini, Majid Naseri, Seyed Omid Gashti, Saeed Vafaeian, Mohsen K. Keshavarz
In the present work, the role of cold deformation and anodic potential on the electrochemical response of pure nickel in borate buffer solutions were investigated. The application of cold deformation gave rise to a more localized microstructure that contained a greater number of fine grains. In order to investigation of the electrochemical response of specimens, potentiodynamic polarization (PDP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and Mott–Schottky (M–S) analysis were performed. As a result, with increasing of applied potential, the polarization resistance and passive film thickness decreased. Also, density of electron acceptor at passive layer decreased by increasing of applied potential.
Effects of metal cations on mild steel corrosion in 10 mM Cl− aqueous solution Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-11-13 Md. Saiful Islam, Kyohei Otani, Masatoshi Sakairi
The influences of metal cations on the corrosion of mild steel in 10 mM Cl− aqueous solutions were investigated by electrochemical techniques and immersion tests. Immersion tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that Zn2+ has a significant effect on corrosion inhibition. Surface morphological inspection also showed the smooth surface of specimen immersed in Zn2+ containing solution. Analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that Zn2+ was incorporated in the oxide films by making a strong bond. It is supposed that Zn2+ forms a very effective shielding film which can inhibit the electrochemical reactions, and consequently lowers the corrosion rate.
The golden alloy Cu-5Zn-5Al-1Sn: A multi-analytical surface characterization Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-11-13 Tingru Chang, Inger Odnevall Wallinder, Ying Jin, Christofer Leygraf
The golden alloy Cu-5Zn-5Al-1Sn has found many applications because of its appearance and resistance to tarnishing. The microstructure and multi-component surface oxide of Cu-5Zn-5Al-1Sn have been investigated through a multi-analytical approach. Compared to commercial Cu metal, Cu-5Zn-5Al-1Sn has significantly smaller grains and higher fraction of coherent twin boundaries. The 5–10 nm thick oxide formed after diamond polishing has four identified sub-oxides all contributing to the overall corrosion resistance. Cu2O is mainly located in the outer part, followed by ZnO, SnO2 and Al2O3 closer to the alloy substrate. The latter three possess barrier properties, while Cu2O exhibits a more complex structure.
Comparison of hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of three cathodic protected subsea pipeline steels from a point of view of hydrogen permeation Corros. Sci. (IF 5.245) Pub Date : 2017-11-12 Timing Zhang, Weimin Zhao, Tingting Li, Yujiao Zhao, Qiushi Deng, Yong Wang, Wenchun Jiang
Revealing the hydrogen permeation behavior in steel is the foundation to analyze hydrogen induced fracture. Herein, slow strain rate tension tests were used to investigate the susceptibility of X70, X80 and X100 steel to hydrogen embrittlement induced by cathodic polarization, and the subsurface hydrogen concentration (C0) of three steels was accurately determined by two kinds of hydrogen permeation tests. Results showed that the HE index range of ductile-to-brittle transition should be determined by fracture analysis. The C0 increased in turn from X70, X80 to X100 at any given applied potential, that’s why X100 presented the highest hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility.
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