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  • Preying on pollutants
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-12-10
    Claire Ashworth

    Preying on pollutants Preying on pollutants, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0074-z Preying on pollutants

    更新日期:2018-12-11
  • Material approaches to active tissue mechanics
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-12-06
    Wang Xi, Thuan Beng Saw, Delphine Delacour, Chwee Teck Lim, Benoit Ladoux

    Communities of epithelial cells communicate through intercellular interactions, allowing them to coordinate their motility, which plays a key role in homeostasis, morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Each cell in the epithelium is a constitutive energy-consuming agent, which can generate forces and interact with other cells through cell–cell junctions. Forces applied through external stimuli or endogenous cellular events are balanced by the cells within the epithelium, resulting in the adjustment of internal tissue contractile stresses and tissue reorganization. Materials science and microengineering techniques can be combined to create controllable environments to study epithelial movement and mechanics. By modulating the cell–material interface and by applying principles of active matter, key aspects of epithelial dynamics and mechanosensing mechanisms can be investigated. In this Review, we discuss epithelial tissues as active materials with particular rheological properties and active behaviours at different length scales. We highlight 2D and 3D materials for the study of epithelial dynamics and summarize key methods for the probing of epithelial mechanics. Tissue responses to mechanical stimuli are examined from the molecular level to the tissue level, and the effects of the shape, architecture and stiffness of the microenvironment are discussed.

    更新日期:2018-12-07
  • Mimicking black hole event horizons in atomic and solid-state systems
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-11-29
    Marcel Franz, Moshe Rozali

    Holographic quantum matter exhibits an intriguing connection between quantum black holes and more conventional (albeit strongly interacting) quantum many-body systems. This connection is manifested in the study of their thermodynamics, statistical mechanics and many-body quantum chaos. In this Review, we discuss these connections, focusing on the most promising example of holographic quantum systems to date – the family of Sachdev–Ye–Kitaev (SYK) models. The SYK models are simple quantum mechanical models that have the potential to holographically realize quantum black holes. We examine various proposals for the experimental realizations of SYK models, including ultracold gases, graphene flakes, semiconductor quantum wires and 3D topological insulators. These approaches offer the exciting prospect of accessing black hole physics and thus addressing many important questions regarding quantum gravity in the laboratory.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Dimensional tailoring of hybrid perovskites for photovoltaics
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-11-28
    Giulia Grancini, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin

    Hybrid perovskites are currently one of the most active fields of research owing to their enormous potential for photovoltaics. The performance of 3D hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells has increased at an incredible rate, reaching power conversion efficiencies comparable to those of many established technologies. However, the commercial application of 3D hybrid perovskites is inhibited by their poor stability. Relative to 3D hybrid perovskites, low-dimensional — that is, 2D — hybrid perovskites have demonstrated higher moisture stability, offering new approaches to stabilizing perovskite-based photovoltaic devices. Furthermore, 2D hybrid perovskites have versatile structures, enabling the fine-tuning of their optoelectronic properties through compositional engineering. In this Review, we discuss the state of the art in 2D perovskites, providing an overview of structural and materials engineering aspects and optical and photophysical properties. Moreover, we discuss recent developments along with the main limitations of 3D perovskites and assess the advantages of 2D perovskites over their 3D parent structures in terms of stability. Finally, we review recent achievements in combining 3D and 2D perovskites as an approach to simultaneously boost device efficiency and stability, paving the way for mixed-dimensional perovskite solar cells for commercial applications.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Protons make the switch
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-11-28
    Alison Stoddart

    Protons make the switchProtons make the switch, Published online: 28 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0072-1Protons make the switch

    更新日期:2018-11-28
  • Inorganic semiconductor biointerfaces
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-11-22
    Yuanwen Jiang, Bozhi Tian

    Biological systems respond to and communicate through biophysical cues, such as electrical, thermal, mechanical and topographical signals. However, precise tools for introducing localized physical stimuli and/or for sensing biological responses to biophysical signals with high spatiotemporal resolution are limited. Inorganic semiconductors display many relevant electrical and optical properties, and they can be fabricated into a broad spectrum of electronic and photonic devices. Inorganic semiconductor devices enable the formation of functional interfaces with biological material, ranging from proteins to whole organs. In this Review, we discuss fundamental semiconductor physics and operation principles, with a focus on their behaviour in physiological conditions, and highlight the advantages of inorganic semiconductors for the establishment of biointerfaces. We examine semiconductor device design and synthesis and discuss typical signal transduction mechanisms at bioelectronic and biophotonic interfaces for electronic and optoelectronic sensing, optoelectronic and photothermal stimulation and photoluminescent in vivo imaging of cells and tissues. Finally, we evaluate cytotoxicity and highlight possible new material components and biological targets of inorganic semiconductor devices.

    更新日期:2018-11-24
  • Bubbly for bacteria
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-11-19
    Christine-Maria Horejs

    Bubbly for bacteriaBubbly for bacteria, Published online: 19 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0068-xBubbly for bacteria

    更新日期:2018-11-20
  • Nanocavities cause a stir
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-11-19
    Claire Ashworth

    Nanocavities cause a stirNanocavities cause a stir, Published online: 19 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0067-yNanocavities cause a stir

    更新日期:2018-11-20
  • Holding the key to healing
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-10-30
    Alison Stoddart

    Holding the key to healing Holding the key to healing, Published online: 30 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0063-2 Holding the key to healing

    更新日期:2018-10-31
  • Top tandem team
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-10-30
    Claire Ashworth

    Top tandem team Top tandem team, Published online: 30 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0064-1 Top tandem team

    更新日期:2018-10-31
  • Acoustic metasurfaces
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-10-17
    Badreddine Assouar, Bin Liang, Ying Wu, Yong Li, Jian-Chun Cheng, Yun Jing

    Acoustic metasurfaces derive their characteristics from the interaction between acoustic waves and specifically designed materials. The field is driven by the desire to control acoustic wave propagation using compact devices and is governed by fundamental and physical principles that provide the design rules and the functionality of a wave. Acoustic metasurfaces have added value and unusual functionalities compared with their predecessor in materials science, namely, acoustic metamaterials. These rationally designed 2D materials of subwavelength thickness provide a new route for sound wave manipulation. In this Review, we delineate the fundamental physics of metasurfaces, describe their different concepts and design strategies, and discuss their functionalities for controllable reflection, transmission and extraordinary absorption. In particular, we outline the main designs of acoustic metasurfaces, including those based on coiling-up space, Helmholtz-resonator-like and membrane-type structures, and discuss their applications, such as beam focusing, asymmetrical transmission and self-bending beams. We conclude with an outlook of the future directions in this emerging field.

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Sense and sustainability
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-10-08
    Christine-Maria Horejs

    Sense and sustainability Sense and sustainability, Published online: 08 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0060-5 Sense and sustainability

    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • Biomaterials for cell transplantation
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Nikolaos Mitrousis, Ana Fokina, Molly S. Shoichet

    Cell transplantation holds immense potential for reversing diseases that are currently incurable and for regenerating tissues. However, poor cell survival, cell aggregation and lack of cell integration into the host tissue constitute major challenges for the clinical translation of cell transplantation approaches. Biomaterials can influence cell behaviour in vitro and in vivo. The mechanical and biochemical properties of biomaterials can be tailored to affect cell survival, differentiation and migration. Therefore, the integration of advanced material design with stem cell biology may hold the key to improving the efficacy of cell transplantation. In this Review, we discuss biomaterial design strategies for their potential to influence the fate of transplanted cells and to manipulate the host microenvironment. We examine how biomaterial properties can be modulated to improve transplanted cell survival, differentiation and cell engraftment and how the host tissue can be manipulated for cell transplantation by inducing plasticity and vascularization. Finally, we emphasize the importance of the host immune cells for tissue repair and cell transplantation and discuss strategies to tune the immune response through modulating the mechanical properties, architecture, chemistry and functionalization of biomaterials.

    更新日期:2018-10-06
  • Graphene-based integrated photonics for next-generation datacom and telecom
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-10-01
    Marco Romagnoli, Vito Sorianello, Michele Midrio, Frank H. L. Koppens, Cedric Huyghebaert, Daniel Neumaier, Paola Galli, Wolfgang Templ, Antonio D’Errico, Andrea C. Ferrari

    Graphene is an ideal material for optoelectronic applications. Its photonic properties give several advantages and complementarities over Si photonics. For example, graphene enables both electro-absorption and electro-refraction modulation with an electro-optical index change exceeding 10−3. It can be used for optical add–drop multiplexing with voltage control, eliminating the current dissipation used for the thermal detuning of microresonators, and for thermoelectric-based ultrafast optical detectors that generate a voltage without transimpedance amplifiers. Here, we present our vision for graphene-based integrated photonics. We review graphene-based transceivers and compare them with existing technologies. Strategies for improving power consumption, manufacturability and wafer-scale integration are addressed. We outline a roadmap of the technological requirements to meet the demands of the datacom and telecom markets. We show that graphene-based integrated photonics could enable ultrahigh spatial bandwidth density, low power consumption for board connectivity and connectivity between data centres, access networks and metropolitan, core, regional and long-haul optical communications.

    更新日期:2018-10-02
  • Peeling off magnetic layers
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-09-27
    Alison Stoddart

    Peeling off magnetic layers Peeling off magnetic layers, Published online: 27 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0059-y Peeling off magnetic layers

    更新日期:2018-09-27
  • A fluid state of mind
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Christine-Maria Horejs

    A fluid state of mind A fluid state of mind, Published online: 24 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0055-2 A fluid state of mind

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Super scintillators
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Claire Ashworth

    Super scintillators Super scintillators, Published online: 19 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0056-1 Super scintillators

    更新日期:2018-09-20
  • Plasmonic polymer nanocomposites
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-09-11
    Isabel Pastoriza-Santos, Calum Kinnear, Jorge Pérez-Juste, Paul Mulvaney, Luis M. Liz-Marzán

    The optical properties of metal nanoparticles, particularly their localized surface plasmon effects, are well established. These plasmonic nanoparticles can respond to their surroundings or even influence the optical processes (for example, absorption, fluorescence and Raman scattering) of molecules located at their surface. As a result, plasmonic nanoparticles have been developed for multiple purposes, ranging from the detection of chemicals and biological molecules to light-harvesting enhancement in solar cells. By dispersing the nanoparticles in polymers and creating a hybrid material, the robustness, responsiveness and flexibility of the system are enhanced while preserving the intrinsic properties of the nanoparticles. In this Review, we discuss the fabrication and applications of plasmonic polymer nanocomposites, focusing on applications in optical data storage, sensing and imaging and photothermal gels for in vivo therapy. Within the nanocomposites, the nanoporosity of the matrix, the overall mechanical stability and the dispersion of the nanoparticles are important parameters for achieving the best performance. In the future, translation of these materials into commercial products rests on the ability to scale up the production of plasmonic polymer nanocomposites with tailored optical features.

    更新日期:2018-09-11
  • Liquid, glass and amorphous solid states of coordination polymers and metal–organic frameworks
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-09-07
    Thomas D. Bennett, Satoshi Horike

    The field of coordination polymers and metal–organic frameworks has to date focused on the crystalline state. More than 60,000 crystalline metal–organic framework structures, formed from highly ordered arrays of metal nodes connected by organic ligands in at least one dimension, have been identified. However, interest in non-crystalline systems is growing, with amorphous solids, glasses and liquids identified as possessing similar metal–ligand bonding motifs to their crystalline cousins. In this Review, we provide an overview of the structural design, properties and potential applications of non-crystalline coordination polymers and metal–organic frameworks. In particular, we highlight recent reports of glasses that result from the melt quenching of the liquid states of these topical classes of materials. Finally, we provide a perspective on the future of the non-crystalline domain of coordination polymers and metal–organic frameworks.

    更新日期:2018-09-09
  • Biomaterials to model and measure epithelial cancers
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-09-06
    Pranjali Beri, Bibiana F. Matte, Laurent Fattet, Daehwan Kim, Jing Yang, Adam J. Engler

    The use of biomaterials has substantially contributed to both our understanding of tumorigenesis and our ability to identify and capture tumour cells in vitro and in vivo. Natural and synthetic biomaterials can be applied as models to recapitulate key features of the tumour microenvironment in vitro, including architectural, mechanical and biological functions. Engineered biomaterials can further mimic the spatial and temporal properties of the surrounding tumour niche to investigate the specific effects of the environment on disease progression, offering an alternative to animal models for the testing of cancer cell behaviour. Biomaterials can also be used to capture and detect cancer cells in vitro and in vivo to monitor tumour progression. In this Review, we discuss the natural and synthetic biomaterials that can be used to recreate specific features of tumour microenvironments. We examine how biomaterials can be applied to capture circulating tumour cells in blood samples for the early detection of metastasis. We highlight biomaterial-based strategies to investigate local regions adjacent to the tumour and survey potential applications of biomaterial-based devices for diagnosis and prognosis, such as the detection of cellular deformability and the non-invasive surveillance of tumour-adjacent stroma.

    更新日期:2018-09-07
  • The circles of light
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-09-05

    The circles of light The circles of light, Published online: 05 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0052-5 Synchrotron radiation has revolutionized our ability to probe and understand the intrinsic properties of materials. A new generation of synchrotron facilities and techniques is emerging, extending our capabilities in materials characterization.

    更新日期:2018-09-05
  • Visualizing electronic structures of quantum materials by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-29
    Haifeng Yang, Aiji Liang, Cheng Chen, Chaofan Zhang, Niels B. M. Schroeter, Yulin Chen

    Electronic structures are critical characteristics that determine the electrical, magnetic and optical properties of materials. With the capability of directly visualizing band dispersions and Fermi surfaces, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has emerged as a powerful experimental tool to extract the electronic structures of materials and the coupling of these electronic structures to different degrees of freedom in crystal lattices. In the past three decades, advances in instrumentation and light sources have significantly improved the accuracy and efficiency of ARPES experiments. These advances have enabled the application of ARPES in novel material systems to aid our understanding of their physical properties and behaviours. In this Review, we give a brief introduction to the principles of ARPES and outline its applications in different material systems, with a focus on topological quantum materials and transition metal dichalcogenides.

    更新日期:2018-08-29
  • X-ray tomography for battery research and development
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-28
    Vanessa Wood

    X-ray tomography for battery research and development X-ray tomography for battery research and development, Published online: 28 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0053-4 X-ray tomography is revolutionizing battery research and development by enabling non-destructive, 3D imaging of the inside of battery cells before, during and after operation.

    更新日期:2018-08-29
  • Discovering dinosaurs with neutrons
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-28
    Joseph J. Bevitt

    Discovering dinosaurs with neutrons Discovering dinosaurs with neutrons, Published online: 28 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0049-0 Combining data from neutron and X-ray techniques can reveal previously unseen details within fossilized remains. Interpretation of vast amounts of data by students speeds up the gathering of information and engages young scientists in the discovery process.

    更新日期:2018-08-29
  • Spatial and temporal exploration of heterogeneous catalysts with synchrotron radiation
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-28
    Florian Meirer, Bert M. Weckhuysen

    Spatial and temporal exploration of heterogeneous catalysts with synchrotron radiation Spatial and temporal exploration of heterogeneous catalysts with synchrotron radiation, Published online: 28 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0044-5 The past four decades have seen breathtaking developments in techniques and applications using synchrotron radiation for the characterization of heterogeneous catalysts and catalytic processes. In this Review, we discuss recent advances, focusing on spatial and temporal explorations of the solid catalyst.

    更新日期:2018-08-29
  • Theoretical understanding of photon spectroscopies in correlated materials in and out of equilibrium
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-22
    Yao Wang, Martin Claassen, Chaitanya Das Pemmaraju, Chunjing Jia, Brian Moritz, Thomas P. Devereaux

    Theoretical understanding of photon spectroscopies in correlated materials in and out of equilibrium Theoretical understanding of photon spectroscopies in correlated materials in and out of equilibrium, Published online: 22 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0046-3 Photon spectroscopies provide insight into a wide range of materials. In this Review, theoretical and computational efforts to understand, simulate and predict the results of photon spectroscopies are assessed for systems both in and out of equilibrium, with a focus on advances that reveal information about correlated materials.

    更新日期:2018-08-22
  • X-ray free-electron lasers light up materials science
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-16
    Mike Dunne

    X-ray free-electron lasers light up materials science X-ray free-electron lasers light up materials science, Published online: 16 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0048-1 X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are revolutionizing our ability to measure and understand the behaviour of complex materials. A new generation of XFELs is imminent, offering new approaches to materials characterization.

    更新日期:2018-08-17
  • SESAME is open
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-14
    Rolf Heuer, James Gillies

    SESAME is open SESAME is open, Published online: 14 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0045-4 SESAME is open

    更新日期:2018-08-14
  • Transport and interactions of nanoparticles in the kidneys
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-03
    Bujie Du, Mengxiao Yu, Jie Zheng

    Kidneys are a major organ for blood filtration and waste elimination and thus play a key role in the transport and clearance of nanoparticles in vivo. The interactions of nanoparticles with different kidney compartments can be precisely regulated by modulating their size, shape and surface chemistry. The quantitative understanding of nanoparticle–kidney interactions at the molecular level is important for improving disease targeting, precisely controlling nanoparticle transport and clearance, and minimizing the potential health hazards of nanomedicines. In this Review, we summarize the glomerular filtration of macromolecules and nanoparticles in the kidney and survey kidney imaging techniques for the study of nanoparticle–kidney interactions ex vivo and in vivo. We investigate the different transport mechanisms of nanoparticles in the kidneys and discuss size, charge and shape dependencies in renal clearance. Nanoparticles are then investigated for the preclinical and clinical detection and treatment of diseases such as kidney dysfunction and cancer. Finally, challenges and opportunities for renal-clearable nanoparticles are highlighted.

    更新日期:2018-08-03
  • A bright future for European beamlines
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-01
    Christine-Maria Horejs

    A bright future for European beamlines A bright future for European beamlines, Published online: 01 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0039-2 The new European Spallation Source (ESS) and the MAX IV synchrotron in Sweden form the next European hub for accelerator-based research. Following visits to these centres, and participating in the Big Science Business Forum 2018 (BSBF2018) in Copenhagen, the future of European X-ray and neutron beamlines is explored.

    更新日期:2018-08-02
  • Advances in organ-on-a-chip engineering
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-01
    Boyang Zhang, Anastasia Korolj, Benjamin Fook Lun Lai, Milica Radisic

    Predicting the effects of drugs before human clinical trials is at the heart of drug screening and discovery processes. The cost of drug discovery is steadily increasing owing to the limited predictability of 2D cell culture and animal models. The convergence of microfabrication and tissue engineering gave rise to organ-on-a-chip technologies, which offer an alternative to conventional preclinical models for drug screening. Organ-on-a-chip devices can replicate key aspects of human physiology crucial for the understanding of drug effects, improving preclinical safety and efficacy testing. In this Review, we discuss how organ-on-a-chip technologies can recreate functions of organs, focusing on tissue barrier properties, parenchymal tissue function and multi-organ interactions, which are three key aspects of human physiology. Specific organ-on-a-chip systems are examined in terms of cell sources, functional hallmarks and available disease models. Finally, we highlight the challenges that need to be overcome for the clinical translation of organ-on-a-chip devices regarding materials, cellular fidelity, multiplexing, sensing, scalability and validation.

    更新日期:2018-08-01
  • Heusler, Weyl and Berry
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-07-31
    Kaustuv Manna, Yan Sun, Lukas Muechler, Jürgen Kübler, Claudia Felser

    Heusler compounds, initially discovered by Fritz Heusler more than a century ago, have grown into a family of more than 1,000 compounds, synthesized from combinations of more than 40 elements. Recently, by incorporating heavy elements that can give rise to strong spin–orbit coupling, non-trivial topological phases of matter, such as topological insulators, have been discovered in Heusler materials. Moreover, interplay between the symmetry, spin–orbit coupling and magnetic structure allows for the realization of a wide variety of topological phases through Berry curvature design. The topological properties of Heusler compounds can be manipulated by various external perturbations, resulting in exotic properties, such as the chiral anomaly and large anomalous, spin and topological Hall effects. In addition, the non-zero Berry curvature that arises as a result of non-collinear order gives rise to a non-zero anomalous Hall effect. Besides this k-space Berry curvature, Heusler compounds with non-collinear magnetic structures also possess real-space topological states in the form of magnetic antiskyrmions, which have not yet been observed in other materials. In this Review, we discuss Heusler compounds from a topological perspective and the connection between the topology and the symmetry properties, spin gapless semiconductors, magnetic compensated ferrimagnets, non-collinear order in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic Heusler compounds, the anomalous Hall effect and, finally, magnetic antiskyrmions. Together with the new topological viewpoint and the high tunability, novel physical properties and phenomena await discovery in Heusler compounds.

    更新日期:2018-08-01
  • Author Correction: Tissue repair and regeneration with endogenous stem cells
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-07-27
    Huimin Xia, Xin Li, Weiwei Gao, Xin Fu, Ronnie H. Fang, Liangfang Zhang, Kang Zhang

    Author Correction: Tissue repair and regeneration with endogenous stem cells Author Correction: Tissue repair and regeneration with endogenous stem cells, Published online: 27 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0041-8 Author Correction: Tissue repair and regeneration with endogenous stem cells

    更新日期:2018-07-27
  • Electronics in the air
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-07-26
    Iulia Georgescu

    Electronics in the air Electronics in the air, Published online: 26 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0042-7 Electronics in the air

    更新日期:2018-07-26
  • Purely organic perovskites
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-07-26
    Alison Stoddart

    Purely organic perovskites Purely organic perovskites, Published online: 26 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0043-6 Purely organic perovskites

    更新日期:2018-07-26
  • Illuminating the past: X-ray analysis of our cultural heritage
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-07-26
    Eleanor J. Schofield

    To protect our cultural heritage, it is essential that we understand the material properties of artefacts. Detailed information can be obtained on complex and often highly degraded materials using synchrotron X-ray analysis, aiding our ability to design effective stabilization and remediation strategies.

    更新日期:2018-07-26
  • Nanoplasmonic optical antennas for life sciences and medicine
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-07-19
    Hongbao Xin, Bumseok Namgung, Luke P. Lee

    Surface plasmons — light-induced oscillations of electrons at the surface of nanoplasmonic metallic nanoparticles or nanostructures — can be used in a wide range of applications. Such nanoplasmonic optical antennas can be interfaced with biological systems to answer diverse questions in life sciences and to solve problems in translational medicine. In particular, nanoplasmonics provide insight and solutions for intracellular exploration, gene delivery and regulation, and rapid precision molecular diagnostics. In this Review, we examine the development of nanoplasmonic optical antennas for in vitro and in vivo applications. We evaluate the use of optical nanoplasmonic antennas for the optical detection of mRNA in living cells and for in vivo molecular imaging. We also discuss nanoplasmonic optical antennas for in vivo gene delivery and the optical control of gene circuits. Finally, we highlight the use of nanoplasmonic-based molecular diagnostic systems for ultrafast precision medicine.

    更新日期:2018-07-20
  • A golden ticket to the brain
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-07-12
    Christine-Maria Horejs

    A golden ticket to the brain A golden ticket to the brain, Published online: 12 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0035-6 A golden ticket to the brain

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Size effects on the fracture of microscale and nanoscale materials
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-07-04
    Alessandro Taloni, Michele Vodret, Giulio Costantini, Stefano Zapperi

    Micro- and nanoscale materials have remarkable mechanical properties, such as enhanced strength and toughness, but they usually display sample-to-sample fluctuations and size effects. These variations are a nuisance for engineering applications and an intriguing problem for science. Our understanding of size effects in small-scale materials has progressed in the past few years thanks to experimental measurements of carbon-based nanomaterials, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, and of crystalline and amorphous micro- and nanopillars and micro- and nanowires. At the same time, increased computational power has allowed atomistic simulations to reach experimentally relevant sample sizes. From a theoretical point of view, the standard analysis and interpretation of experimental and computational data rely on traditional extreme value theories developed decades ago for macroscopic samples, with recent work extending some of the limiting assumptions of these theories to the micro- and nanoscale. In this Review, we discuss experimental and computational studies of size effects on the fracture in micro- and nanoscale materials, point out the advantages and limitations of existing theories and, finally, provide a pedagogical guide to the analysis of fracture data from micro- and nanoscale samples.

    更新日期:2018-07-05
  • An unexpected twist
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-06-28
    Zoe Budrikis

    An unexpected twist An unexpected twist, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0032-9 An unexpected twist

    更新日期:2018-06-30
  • Point defect engineering in thin-film solar cells
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-06-22
    Ji Sang Park, Sunghyun Kim, Zijuan Xie, Aron Walsh

    Control of defect processes in photovoltaic materials is essential for realizing high-efficiency solar cells and related optoelectronic devices. Native defects and extrinsic dopants tune the Fermi level and enable semiconducting p–n junctions; however, fundamental limits to doping exist in many compounds. Optical transitions from defect states can enhance photocurrent generation through sub-bandgap absorption; however, these defect states are also often responsible for carrier trapping and non-radiative recombination events that limit the voltage in operating solar cells. Many classes of materials, including metal oxides, chalcogenides and halides, are being examined for next-generation solar energy applications, and each technology faces distinct challenges that could benefit from point defect engineering. Here, we review the evolution in the understanding of point defect behaviour from Si-based photovoltaics to thin-film CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 technologies, through to the latest generation of halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) and kesterite (Cu2ZnSnS4) devices. We focus on the chemical bonding that underpins the defect chemistry and the atomistic processes associated with the photophysics of charge-carrier generation, trapping and recombination in solar cells. Finally, we outline general principles to enable defect control in complex semiconducting materials.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • A gut instinct
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-06-21
    Christine-Maria Horejs

    A gut instinct A gut instinct, Published online: 21 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0031-x A gut instinct

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Solar cells take the strain
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-06-21
    Claire Ashworth

    Solar cells take the strain Solar cells take the strain, Published online: 21 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0030-y Solar cells take the strain

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Tissue repair and regeneration with endogenous stem cells
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Huimin Xia, Xin Li, Weiwei Gao, Xin Fu, Ronnie H. Fang, Liangfang Zhang, Kang Zhang

    In contrast to non-mammalian vertebrates, mammals and humans have limited innate capacity for the self-regeneration of tissues and organs owing to differences in genetics, development, immune systems and tissue complexity. Endogenous stem cells are tissue-specific adult stem cells with the capacity to self-renew and differentiate into specific cell types. Therefore, endogenous stem cells are being explored for the regeneration of tissues in situ and in vivo. Stem cells reside in specific niches in the body, and stem cell activation depends on progressive changes in the niche. Niches are specific and instructive microenvironments that can be recreated using biomaterial-based scaffolds. Such scaffolds can be fabricated into a variety of shapes and formulations, and they can be functionalized with biochemical and biophysical cues to guide stem cell fate and migration. In this Review, we discuss important differences in the self-regeneration abilities of non-mammalian vertebrates and mammals, including humans, and investigate adult stem cell populations and their niches involved in tissue repair and regeneration. We highlight natural and synthetic biomaterials and their potential for improving applications of endogenous stem cells and examine the role of interspecies chimaeras in regenerative medicine.

    更新日期:2018-06-20
  • Publisher Correction: Probing dynamics in quantum materials with femtosecond X-rays
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Michele Buzzi, Michael Först, Roman Mankowsky, Andrea Cavalleri

    Publisher Correction: Probing dynamics in quantum materials with femtosecond X-rays Publisher Correction: Probing dynamics in quantum materials with femtosecond X-rays, Published online: 12 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0028-5 Publisher Correction: Probing dynamics in quantum materials with femtosecond X-rays

    更新日期:2018-06-12
  • Probing dynamics in quantum materials with femtosecond X-rays
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-06-01
    Michele Buzzi, Michael Först, Roman Mankowsky, Andrea Cavalleri

    Optical pulses are routinely used to drive dynamic changes in the properties of solids. In quantum materials, many new phenomena have been discovered, including ultrafast transitions between electronic phases, switching of ferroic orders and non-equilibrium emergent behaviours, such as photoinduced superconductivity. Understanding the underlying non-equilibrium physics requires detailed measurements of multiple microscopic degrees of freedom at ultrafast time resolution. Femtosecond X-rays are key to this endeavour, as they can probe the dynamics of structural, electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom. Here, we review a series of representative experimental studies in which ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers have been used, opening up new horizons for materials research.

    更新日期:2018-06-01
  • Extracellular matrix-based materials for regenerative medicine
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-29
    George S. Hussey, Jenna L. Dziki, Stephen F. Badylak

    In tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, a biomaterial provides mechanical support and biochemical signals to encourage cell attachment and modulate cell behaviour. Nature’s template for a biomaterial is the extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM contains intrinsic biochemical and mechanical cues that regulate cell phenotype and function in development, in homeostasis and in response to injury. The use of ECM-based materials in biomedical research has advanced from coating cell culture plates with purified ECM components to the design of ECM-mimicking biomaterials and the engineering of decellularized tissues aimed at recapitulating the dynamics, composition and structure of the ECM. In this Review, we highlight important matrix properties and functions in the context of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, consider techniques such as proteomics for the investigation of matrix structure and composition and discuss different engineering strategies for the design of matrix-mimicking biomaterials. Tissue, whole organ and cell culture decellularization approaches are examined for their potential to preserve the tissue-specific biochemical composition and ultrastructure of the ECM and for the development of biomaterials that promote the formation of functional tissues in clinical applications. Finally, we investigate challenges and opportunities of ECM biomaterials for the design of organotypic models to study disease progression, for the ex vivo creation of engineered tissue and for the clinical translation of functional tissue reconstruction strategies in vivo.

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • The soft touch of robots
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-25

    The soft touch of robots The soft touch of robots, Published online: 25 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0017-8 Materials and technologies used to make soft robots that can safely interact with humans are avidly explored. A wealth of applications are in reach for soft robots but a number of challenges remain.

    更新日期:2018-05-25
  • Head over heels
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-25
    Christine-Maria Horejs

    Head over heels Head over heels, Published online: 25 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0025-8 Head over heels

    更新日期:2018-05-25
  • Biomedical applications of soft robotics
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-23
    Matteo Cianchetti, Cecilia Laschi, Arianna Menciassi, Paolo Dario

    Soft robotics enables the design of soft machines and devices at different scales. The compliance and mechanical properties of soft robots make them especially interesting for medical applications. Depending on the level of interaction with humans, different levels of biocompatibility and biomimicry are required for soft materials used in robots. In this Review, we investigate soft robots for biomedical applications, including soft tools for surgery, diagnosis and drug delivery, wearable and assistive devices, prostheses, artificial organs and tissue-mimicking active simulators for training and biomechanical studies. We highlight challenges regarding durability and reliability, and examine traditional and novel soft and active materials as well as different actuation strategies. Finally, we discuss future approaches and applications in the field.

    更新日期:2018-05-23
  • Hiding in reflections
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-15
    Maria Longobardi

    Hiding in reflections Hiding in reflections, Published online: 15 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0021-z Hiding in reflections

    更新日期:2018-05-16
  • Hydrogel ionotronics
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-14
    Canhui Yang, Zhigang Suo

    An ionotronic device functions by a hybrid circuit of mobile ions and mobile electrons. Hydrogels are stretchable, transparent, ionic conductors that can transmit electrical signals of high frequency over long distance, enabling ionotronic devices such as artificial muscles, skins and axons. Moreover, ionotronic luminescent devices, ionotronic liquid crystal devices, touchpads, triboelectric generators, artificial eels and gel–elastomer–oil devices can be designed based on hydrogels. In this Review, we discuss first-generation hydrogel ionotronic devices and the challenges associated with the mechanical properties and the chemistry of the materials. We examine how strong and stretchable adhesion between hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer networks can be achieved, how water can be retained in hydrogels and how to design hydrogels that resist fatigue under cyclic loads. Finally, we highlight applications of hydrogel ionotronic devices and discuss the future of the field.

    更新日期:2018-05-15
  • Bioinspired microrobots
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
    Stefano Palagi, Peer Fischer

    Bioinspired microrobots Bioinspired microrobots, Published online: 10 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0016-9 Microrobots are envisioned to revolutionize microsurgery and targeted drug delivery. Their design, operation, locomotion and interaction with the environment are inspired by microorganisms. This Review highlights soft, responsive and active materials for the development of (semi-)autonomous microrobots.

    更新日期:2018-05-10
  • Design, fabrication and control of origami robots
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-09
    Daniela Rus, Michael T. Tolley

    Origami robots are created using folding processes, which provide a simple approach to fabricating a wide range of robot morphologies. Inspired by biological systems, engineers have started to explore origami folding in combination with smart material actuators to enable intrinsic actuation as a means to decouple design from fabrication complexity. The built-in crease structure of origami bodies has the potential to yield compliance and exhibit many soft body properties. Conventional fabrication of robots is generally a bottom-up assembly process with multiple low-level steps for creating subsystems that include manual operations and often multiple iterations. By contrast, natural systems achieve elegant designs and complex functionalities using top-down parallel transformation approaches such as folding. Folding in nature creates a wide spectrum of complex morpho-functional structures such as proteins and intestines and enables the development of structures such as flowers, leaves and insect wings. Inspired by nature, engineers have started to explore folding powered by embedded smart material actuators to create origami robots. The design and fabrication of origami robots exploits top-down, parallel transformation approaches to achieve elegant designs and complex functionalities. In this Review, we first introduce the concept of origami robotics and then highlight advances in design principles, fabrication methods, actuation, smart materials and control algorithms. Applications of origami robots for a variety of devices are investigated, and future directions of the field are discussed, examining both challenges and opportunities.

    更新日期:2018-05-09
  • 3D printing of soft robotic systems
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-04
    T. J. Wallin, J. Pikul, R. F. Shepherd

    Soft robots are capable of mimicking the complex motion of animals. Soft robotic systems are defined by their compliance, which allows for continuous and often responsive localized deformation. These features make soft robots especially interesting for integration with human tissues, for example, the implementation of biomedical devices, and for robotic performance in harsh or uncertain environments, for example, exploration in confined spaces or locomotion on uneven terrain. Advances in soft materials and additive manufacturing technologies have enabled the design of soft robots with sophisticated capabilities, such as jumping, complex 3D movements, gripping and releasing. In this Review, we examine the essential soft material properties for different elements of soft robots, highlighting the most relevant polymer systems. Advantages and limitations of different additive manufacturing processes, including 3D printing, fused deposition modelling, direct ink writing, selective laser sintering, inkjet printing and stereolithography, are discussed, and the different techniques are investigated for their application in soft robotic fabrication. Finally, we explore integrated robotic systems and give an outlook for the future of the field and remaining challenges.

    更新日期:2018-05-05
  • Soft robot design methodology for ‘push-button’ manufacturing
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-04
    Jamie Paik

    Soft robot design methodology for ‘push-button’ manufacturingSoft robot design methodology for ‘push-button’ manufacturing, Published online: 04 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0014-y‘Push-button’ or fully automated manufacturing would enable the production of robots with zero intervention from human hands. Realizing this utopia requires a fundamental shift from a sequential (design–materials–manufacturing) to a concurrent design methodology.

    更新日期:2018-05-05
  • Publisher Correction: Biofabrication strategies for 3D in vitro models and regenerative medicine
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-03
    Lorenzo Moroni, Jason A. Burdick, Christopher Highley, Sang Jin Lee, Yuya Morimoto, Shoji Takeuchi, James J. Yoo

    Publisher Correction: Biofabrication strategies for 3D in vitro models and regenerative medicinePublisher Correction: Biofabrication strategies for 3D in vitro models and regenerative medicine, Published online: 03 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0020-0Publisher Correction: Biofabrication strategies for 3D in vitro models and regenerative medicine

    更新日期:2018-05-04
  • Publisher Correction: Eternal blood vessels
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-02
    Jordan Hindson

    Publisher Correction: Eternal blood vesselsPublisher Correction: Eternal blood vessels, Published online: 02 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0019-6Publisher Correction: Eternal blood vessels

    更新日期:2018-05-03
  • Human-in-the-loop development of soft wearable robots
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-02
    Conor Walsh

    Human-in-the-loop development of soft wearable robotsHuman-in-the-loop development of soft wearable robots, Published online: 02 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0011-1The field of soft wearable robotics offers the opportunity to wear robots like clothes to assist the movement of specific body parts or to endow the body with functionalities. Collaborative efforts of materials, apparel and robotics science have already led to the development of wearable technologies for physical therapy. Optimizing the human–robot system by human-in-the-loop approaches will pave the way for personalized soft wearable robots for a variety of applications.

    更新日期:2018-05-02
  • Majorana zero modes in superconductor–semiconductor heterostructures
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-01
    R. M. Lutchyn, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, L. P. Kouwenhoven, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus, Y. Oreg

    Realizing topological superconductivity and Majorana zero modes in the laboratory is a major goal in condensed-matter physics. In this Review, we survey the current status of this rapidly developing field, focusing on proposals for the realization of topological superconductivity in semiconductor–superconductor heterostructures. We examine materials science progress in growing InAs and InSb semiconductor nanowires and characterizing these systems. We then discuss the observation of robust signatures of Majorana zero modes in recent experiments, paying particular attention to zero-bias tunnelling conduction measurements and Coulomb blockade experiments. We also outline several next-generation experiments probing exotic properties of Majorana zero modes, including fusion rules and non-Abelian exchange statistics. Finally, we discuss prospects for implementing Majorana-based topological quantum computation.

    更新日期:2018-05-01
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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