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  • A fluid state of mind
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Christine-Maria Horejs

    A fluid state of mindA fluid state of mind, Published online: 24 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0055-2A fluid state of mind

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Super scintillators
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Claire Ashworth

    Super scintillatorsSuper scintillators, Published online: 19 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0056-1Super scintillators

    更新日期:2018-09-20
  • Plasmonic polymer nanocomposites
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-09-11
    Isabel Pastoriza-Santos, Calum Kinnear, Jorge Pérez-Juste, Paul Mulvaney, Luis M. Liz-Marzán

    The optical properties of metal nanoparticles, particularly their localized surface plasmon effects, are well established. These plasmonic nanoparticles can respond to their surroundings or even influence the optical processes (for example, absorption, fluorescence and Raman scattering) of molecules located at their surface. As a result, plasmonic nanoparticles have been developed for multiple purposes, ranging from the detection of chemicals and biological molecules to light-harvesting enhancement in solar cells. By dispersing the nanoparticles in polymers and creating a hybrid material, the robustness, responsiveness and flexibility of the system are enhanced while preserving the intrinsic properties of the nanoparticles. In this Review, we discuss the fabrication and applications of plasmonic polymer nanocomposites, focusing on applications in optical data storage, sensing and imaging and photothermal gels for in vivo therapy. Within the nanocomposites, the nanoporosity of the matrix, the overall mechanical stability and the dispersion of the nanoparticles are important parameters for achieving the best performance. In the future, translation of these materials into commercial products rests on the ability to scale up the production of plasmonic polymer nanocomposites with tailored optical features.

    更新日期:2018-09-11
  • Liquid, glass and amorphous solid states of coordination polymers and metal–organic frameworks
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-09-07
    Thomas D. Bennett, Satoshi Horike

    The field of coordination polymers and metal–organic frameworks has to date focused on the crystalline state. More than 60,000 crystalline metal–organic framework structures, formed from highly ordered arrays of metal nodes connected by organic ligands in at least one dimension, have been identified. However, interest in non-crystalline systems is growing, with amorphous solids, glasses and liquids identified as possessing similar metal–ligand bonding motifs to their crystalline cousins. In this Review, we provide an overview of the structural design, properties and potential applications of non-crystalline coordination polymers and metal–organic frameworks. In particular, we highlight recent reports of glasses that result from the melt quenching of the liquid states of these topical classes of materials. Finally, we provide a perspective on the future of the non-crystalline domain of coordination polymers and metal–organic frameworks.

    更新日期:2018-09-09
  • Biomaterials to model and measure epithelial cancers
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-09-06
    Pranjali Beri, Bibiana F. Matte, Laurent Fattet, Daehwan Kim, Jing Yang, Adam J. Engler

    The use of biomaterials has substantially contributed to both our understanding of tumorigenesis and our ability to identify and capture tumour cells in vitro and in vivo. Natural and synthetic biomaterials can be applied as models to recapitulate key features of the tumour microenvironment in vitro, including architectural, mechanical and biological functions. Engineered biomaterials can further mimic the spatial and temporal properties of the surrounding tumour niche to investigate the specific effects of the environment on disease progression, offering an alternative to animal models for the testing of cancer cell behaviour. Biomaterials can also be used to capture and detect cancer cells in vitro and in vivo to monitor tumour progression. In this Review, we discuss the natural and synthetic biomaterials that can be used to recreate specific features of tumour microenvironments. We examine how biomaterials can be applied to capture circulating tumour cells in blood samples for the early detection of metastasis. We highlight biomaterial-based strategies to investigate local regions adjacent to the tumour and survey potential applications of biomaterial-based devices for diagnosis and prognosis, such as the detection of cellular deformability and the non-invasive surveillance of tumour-adjacent stroma.

    更新日期:2018-09-07
  • The circles of light
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-09-05

    The circles of lightThe circles of light, Published online: 05 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0052-5Synchrotron radiation has revolutionized our ability to probe and understand the intrinsic properties of materials. A new generation of synchrotron facilities and techniques is emerging, extending our capabilities in materials characterization.

    更新日期:2018-09-05
  • Visualizing electronic structures of quantum materials by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-29
    Haifeng Yang, Aiji Liang, Cheng Chen, Chaofan Zhang, Niels B. M. Schroeter, Yulin Chen

    Electronic structures are critical characteristics that determine the electrical, magnetic and optical properties of materials. With the capability of directly visualizing band dispersions and Fermi surfaces, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has emerged as a powerful experimental tool to extract the electronic structures of materials and the coupling of these electronic structures to different degrees of freedom in crystal lattices. In the past three decades, advances in instrumentation and light sources have significantly improved the accuracy and efficiency of ARPES experiments. These advances have enabled the application of ARPES in novel material systems to aid our understanding of their physical properties and behaviours. In this Review, we give a brief introduction to the principles of ARPES and outline its applications in different material systems, with a focus on topological quantum materials and transition metal dichalcogenides.

    更新日期:2018-08-29
  • X-ray tomography for battery research and development
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-28
    Vanessa Wood

    X-ray tomography for battery research and developmentX-ray tomography for battery research and development, Published online: 28 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0053-4X-ray tomography is revolutionizing battery research and development by enabling non-destructive, 3D imaging of the inside of battery cells before, during and after operation.

    更新日期:2018-08-29
  • Discovering dinosaurs with neutrons
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-28
    Joseph J. Bevitt

    Discovering dinosaurs with neutronsDiscovering dinosaurs with neutrons, Published online: 28 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0049-0Combining data from neutron and X-ray techniques can reveal previously unseen details within fossilized remains. Interpretation of vast amounts of data by students speeds up the gathering of information and engages young scientists in the discovery process.

    更新日期:2018-08-29
  • Spatial and temporal exploration of heterogeneous catalysts with synchrotron radiation
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-28
    Florian Meirer, Bert M. Weckhuysen

    Spatial and temporal exploration of heterogeneous catalysts with synchrotron radiationSpatial and temporal exploration of heterogeneous catalysts with synchrotron radiation, Published online: 28 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0044-5The past four decades have seen breathtaking developments in techniques and applications using synchrotron radiation for the characterization of heterogeneous catalysts and catalytic processes. In this Review, we discuss recent advances, focusing on spatial and temporal explorations of the solid catalyst.

    更新日期:2018-08-29
  • Theoretical understanding of photon spectroscopies in correlated materials in and out of equilibrium
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-22
    Yao Wang, Martin Claassen, Chaitanya Das Pemmaraju, Chunjing Jia, Brian Moritz, Thomas P. Devereaux

    Theoretical understanding of photon spectroscopies in correlated materials in and out of equilibriumTheoretical understanding of photon spectroscopies in correlated materials in and out of equilibrium, Published online: 22 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0046-3Photon spectroscopies provide insight into a wide range of materials. In this Review, theoretical and computational efforts to understand, simulate and predict the results of photon spectroscopies are assessed for systems both in and out of equilibrium, with a focus on advances that reveal information about correlated materials.

    更新日期:2018-08-22
  • X-ray free-electron lasers light up materials science
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-16
    Mike Dunne

    X-ray free-electron lasers light up materials scienceX-ray free-electron lasers light up materials science, Published online: 16 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0048-1X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are revolutionizing our ability to measure and understand the behaviour of complex materials. A new generation of XFELs is imminent, offering new approaches to materials characterization.

    更新日期:2018-08-17
  • SESAME is open
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-14
    Rolf Heuer, James Gillies

    SESAME is open SESAME is open, Published online: 14 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0045-4 SESAME is open

    更新日期:2018-08-14
  • Transport and interactions of nanoparticles in the kidneys
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-03
    Bujie Du, Mengxiao Yu, Jie Zheng

    Kidneys are a major organ for blood filtration and waste elimination and thus play a key role in the transport and clearance of nanoparticles in vivo. The interactions of nanoparticles with different kidney compartments can be precisely regulated by modulating their size, shape and surface chemistry. The quantitative understanding of nanoparticle–kidney interactions at the molecular level is important for improving disease targeting, precisely controlling nanoparticle transport and clearance, and minimizing the potential health hazards of nanomedicines. In this Review, we summarize the glomerular filtration of macromolecules and nanoparticles in the kidney and survey kidney imaging techniques for the study of nanoparticle–kidney interactions ex vivo and in vivo. We investigate the different transport mechanisms of nanoparticles in the kidneys and discuss size, charge and shape dependencies in renal clearance. Nanoparticles are then investigated for the preclinical and clinical detection and treatment of diseases such as kidney dysfunction and cancer. Finally, challenges and opportunities for renal-clearable nanoparticles are highlighted.

    更新日期:2018-08-03
  • A bright future for European beamlines
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-01
    Christine-Maria Horejs

    A bright future for European beamlinesA bright future for European beamlines, Published online: 01 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0039-2The new European Spallation Source (ESS) and the MAX IV synchrotron in Sweden form the next European hub for accelerator-based research. Following visits to these centres, and participating in the Big Science Business Forum 2018 (BSBF2018) in Copenhagen, the future of European X-ray and neutron beamlines is explored.

    更新日期:2018-08-02
  • Advances in organ-on-a-chip engineering
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-08-01
    Boyang Zhang, Anastasia Korolj, Benjamin Fook Lun Lai, Milica Radisic

    Predicting the effects of drugs before human clinical trials is at the heart of drug screening and discovery processes. The cost of drug discovery is steadily increasing owing to the limited predictability of 2D cell culture and animal models. The convergence of microfabrication and tissue engineering gave rise to organ-on-a-chip technologies, which offer an alternative to conventional preclinical models for drug screening. Organ-on-a-chip devices can replicate key aspects of human physiology crucial for the understanding of drug effects, improving preclinical safety and efficacy testing. In this Review, we discuss how organ-on-a-chip technologies can recreate functions of organs, focusing on tissue barrier properties, parenchymal tissue function and multi-organ interactions, which are three key aspects of human physiology. Specific organ-on-a-chip systems are examined in terms of cell sources, functional hallmarks and available disease models. Finally, we highlight the challenges that need to be overcome for the clinical translation of organ-on-a-chip devices regarding materials, cellular fidelity, multiplexing, sensing, scalability and validation.

    更新日期:2018-08-01
  • Heusler, Weyl and Berry
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-07-31
    Kaustuv Manna, Yan Sun, Lukas Muechler, Jürgen Kübler, Claudia Felser

    Heusler compounds, initially discovered by Fritz Heusler more than a century ago, have grown into a family of more than 1,000 compounds, synthesized from combinations of more than 40 elements. Recently, by incorporating heavy elements that can give rise to strong spin–orbit coupling, non-trivial topological phases of matter, such as topological insulators, have been discovered in Heusler materials. Moreover, interplay between the symmetry, spin–orbit coupling and magnetic structure allows for the realization of a wide variety of topological phases through Berry curvature design. The topological properties of Heusler compounds can be manipulated by various external perturbations, resulting in exotic properties, such as the chiral anomaly and large anomalous, spin and topological Hall effects. In addition, the non-zero Berry curvature that arises as a result of non-collinear order gives rise to a non-zero anomalous Hall effect. Besides this k-space Berry curvature, Heusler compounds with non-collinear magnetic structures also possess real-space topological states in the form of magnetic antiskyrmions, which have not yet been observed in other materials. In this Review, we discuss Heusler compounds from a topological perspective and the connection between the topology and the symmetry properties, spin gapless semiconductors, magnetic compensated ferrimagnets, non-collinear order in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic Heusler compounds, the anomalous Hall effect and, finally, magnetic antiskyrmions. Together with the new topological viewpoint and the high tunability, novel physical properties and phenomena await discovery in Heusler compounds.

    更新日期:2018-08-01
  • Author Correction: Tissue repair and regeneration with endogenous stem cells
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-07-27
    Huimin Xia, Xin Li, Weiwei Gao, Xin Fu, Ronnie H. Fang, Liangfang Zhang, Kang Zhang

    Author Correction: Tissue repair and regeneration with endogenous stem cells Author Correction: Tissue repair and regeneration with endogenous stem cells, Published online: 27 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0041-8 Author Correction: Tissue repair and regeneration with endogenous stem cells

    更新日期:2018-07-27
  • Electronics in the air
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-07-26
    Iulia Georgescu

    Electronics in the airElectronics in the air, Published online: 26 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0042-7Electronics in the air

    更新日期:2018-07-26
  • Purely organic perovskites
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-07-26
    Alison Stoddart

    Purely organic perovskitesPurely organic perovskites, Published online: 26 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0043-6Purely organic perovskites

    更新日期:2018-07-26
  • Illuminating the past: X-ray analysis of our cultural heritage
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-07-26
    Eleanor J. Schofield

    To protect our cultural heritage, it is essential that we understand the material properties of artefacts. Detailed information can be obtained on complex and often highly degraded materials using synchrotron X-ray analysis, aiding our ability to design effective stabilization and remediation strategies.

    更新日期:2018-07-26
  • Nanoplasmonic optical antennas for life sciences and medicine
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-07-19
    Hongbao Xin, Bumseok Namgung, Luke P. Lee

    Surface plasmons — light-induced oscillations of electrons at the surface of nanoplasmonic metallic nanoparticles or nanostructures — can be used in a wide range of applications. Such nanoplasmonic optical antennas can be interfaced with biological systems to answer diverse questions in life sciences and to solve problems in translational medicine. In particular, nanoplasmonics provide insight and solutions for intracellular exploration, gene delivery and regulation, and rapid precision molecular diagnostics. In this Review, we examine the development of nanoplasmonic optical antennas for in vitro and in vivo applications. We evaluate the use of optical nanoplasmonic antennas for the optical detection of mRNA in living cells and for in vivo molecular imaging. We also discuss nanoplasmonic optical antennas for in vivo gene delivery and the optical control of gene circuits. Finally, we highlight the use of nanoplasmonic-based molecular diagnostic systems for ultrafast precision medicine.

    更新日期:2018-07-20
  • A golden ticket to the brain
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-07-12
    Christine-Maria Horejs

    A golden ticket to the brain A golden ticket to the brain, Published online: 12 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0035-6 A golden ticket to the brain

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Size effects on the fracture of microscale and nanoscale materials
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-07-04
    Alessandro Taloni, Michele Vodret, Giulio Costantini, Stefano Zapperi

    Micro- and nanoscale materials have remarkable mechanical properties, such as enhanced strength and toughness, but they usually display sample-to-sample fluctuations and size effects. These variations are a nuisance for engineering applications and an intriguing problem for science. Our understanding of size effects in small-scale materials has progressed in the past few years thanks to experimental measurements of carbon-based nanomaterials, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, and of crystalline and amorphous micro- and nanopillars and micro- and nanowires. At the same time, increased computational power has allowed atomistic simulations to reach experimentally relevant sample sizes. From a theoretical point of view, the standard analysis and interpretation of experimental and computational data rely on traditional extreme value theories developed decades ago for macroscopic samples, with recent work extending some of the limiting assumptions of these theories to the micro- and nanoscale. In this Review, we discuss experimental and computational studies of size effects on the fracture in micro- and nanoscale materials, point out the advantages and limitations of existing theories and, finally, provide a pedagogical guide to the analysis of fracture data from micro- and nanoscale samples.

    更新日期:2018-07-05
  • An unexpected twist
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-06-28
    Zoe Budrikis

    An unexpected twist An unexpected twist, Published online: 28 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0032-9 An unexpected twist

    更新日期:2018-06-30
  • Point defect engineering in thin-film solar cells
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-06-22
    Ji Sang Park, Sunghyun Kim, Zijuan Xie, Aron Walsh

    Control of defect processes in photovoltaic materials is essential for realizing high-efficiency solar cells and related optoelectronic devices. Native defects and extrinsic dopants tune the Fermi level and enable semiconducting p–n junctions; however, fundamental limits to doping exist in many compounds. Optical transitions from defect states can enhance photocurrent generation through sub-bandgap absorption; however, these defect states are also often responsible for carrier trapping and non-radiative recombination events that limit the voltage in operating solar cells. Many classes of materials, including metal oxides, chalcogenides and halides, are being examined for next-generation solar energy applications, and each technology faces distinct challenges that could benefit from point defect engineering. Here, we review the evolution in the understanding of point defect behaviour from Si-based photovoltaics to thin-film CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 technologies, through to the latest generation of halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) and kesterite (Cu2ZnSnS4) devices. We focus on the chemical bonding that underpins the defect chemistry and the atomistic processes associated with the photophysics of charge-carrier generation, trapping and recombination in solar cells. Finally, we outline general principles to enable defect control in complex semiconducting materials.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • A gut instinct
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-06-21
    Christine-Maria Horejs

    A gut instinct A gut instinct, Published online: 21 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0031-x A gut instinct

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Solar cells take the strain
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-06-21
    Claire Ashworth

    Solar cells take the strain Solar cells take the strain, Published online: 21 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0030-y Solar cells take the strain

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Tissue repair and regeneration with endogenous stem cells
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Huimin Xia, Xin Li, Weiwei Gao, Xin Fu, Ronnie H. Fang, Liangfang Zhang, Kang Zhang

    In contrast to non-mammalian vertebrates, mammals and humans have limited innate capacity for the self-regeneration of tissues and organs owing to differences in genetics, development, immune systems and tissue complexity. Endogenous stem cells are tissue-specific adult stem cells with the capacity to self-renew and differentiate into specific cell types. Therefore, endogenous stem cells are being explored for the regeneration of tissues in situ and in vivo. Stem cells reside in specific niches in the body, and stem cell activation depends on progressive changes in the niche. Niches are specific and instructive microenvironments that can be recreated using biomaterial-based scaffolds. Such scaffolds can be fabricated into a variety of shapes and formulations, and they can be functionalized with biochemical and biophysical cues to guide stem cell fate and migration. In this Review, we discuss important differences in the self-regeneration abilities of non-mammalian vertebrates and mammals, including humans, and investigate adult stem cell populations and their niches involved in tissue repair and regeneration. We highlight natural and synthetic biomaterials and their potential for improving applications of endogenous stem cells and examine the role of interspecies chimaeras in regenerative medicine.

    更新日期:2018-06-20
  • Publisher Correction: Probing dynamics in quantum materials with femtosecond X-rays
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Michele Buzzi, Michael Först, Roman Mankowsky, Andrea Cavalleri

    Publisher Correction: Probing dynamics in quantum materials with femtosecond X-rays Publisher Correction: Probing dynamics in quantum materials with femtosecond X-rays, Published online: 12 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0028-5 Publisher Correction: Probing dynamics in quantum materials with femtosecond X-rays

    更新日期:2018-06-12
  • Probing dynamics in quantum materials with femtosecond X-rays
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-06-01
    Michele Buzzi, Michael Först, Roman Mankowsky, Andrea Cavalleri

    Optical pulses are routinely used to drive dynamic changes in the properties of solids. In quantum materials, many new phenomena have been discovered, including ultrafast transitions between electronic phases, switching of ferroic orders and non-equilibrium emergent behaviours, such as photoinduced superconductivity. Understanding the underlying non-equilibrium physics requires detailed measurements of multiple microscopic degrees of freedom at ultrafast time resolution. Femtosecond X-rays are key to this endeavour, as they can probe the dynamics of structural, electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom. Here, we review a series of representative experimental studies in which ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers have been used, opening up new horizons for materials research.

    更新日期:2018-06-01
  • Extracellular matrix-based materials for regenerative medicine
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-29
    George S. Hussey, Jenna L. Dziki, Stephen F. Badylak

    In tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, a biomaterial provides mechanical support and biochemical signals to encourage cell attachment and modulate cell behaviour. Nature’s template for a biomaterial is the extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM contains intrinsic biochemical and mechanical cues that regulate cell phenotype and function in development, in homeostasis and in response to injury. The use of ECM-based materials in biomedical research has advanced from coating cell culture plates with purified ECM components to the design of ECM-mimicking biomaterials and the engineering of decellularized tissues aimed at recapitulating the dynamics, composition and structure of the ECM. In this Review, we highlight important matrix properties and functions in the context of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, consider techniques such as proteomics for the investigation of matrix structure and composition and discuss different engineering strategies for the design of matrix-mimicking biomaterials. Tissue, whole organ and cell culture decellularization approaches are examined for their potential to preserve the tissue-specific biochemical composition and ultrastructure of the ECM and for the development of biomaterials that promote the formation of functional tissues in clinical applications. Finally, we investigate challenges and opportunities of ECM biomaterials for the design of organotypic models to study disease progression, for the ex vivo creation of engineered tissue and for the clinical translation of functional tissue reconstruction strategies in vivo.

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • The soft touch of robots
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-25

    The soft touch of robots The soft touch of robots, Published online: 25 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0017-8 Materials and technologies used to make soft robots that can safely interact with humans are avidly explored. A wealth of applications are in reach for soft robots but a number of challenges remain.

    更新日期:2018-05-25
  • Head over heels
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-25
    Christine-Maria Horejs

    Head over heels Head over heels, Published online: 25 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0025-8 Head over heels

    更新日期:2018-05-25
  • Biomedical applications of soft robotics
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-23
    Matteo Cianchetti, Cecilia Laschi, Arianna Menciassi, Paolo Dario

    Soft robotics enables the design of soft machines and devices at different scales. The compliance and mechanical properties of soft robots make them especially interesting for medical applications. Depending on the level of interaction with humans, different levels of biocompatibility and biomimicry are required for soft materials used in robots. In this Review, we investigate soft robots for biomedical applications, including soft tools for surgery, diagnosis and drug delivery, wearable and assistive devices, prostheses, artificial organs and tissue-mimicking active simulators for training and biomechanical studies. We highlight challenges regarding durability and reliability, and examine traditional and novel soft and active materials as well as different actuation strategies. Finally, we discuss future approaches and applications in the field.

    更新日期:2018-05-23
  • Hiding in reflections
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-15
    Maria Longobardi

    Hiding in reflections Hiding in reflections, Published online: 15 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0021-z Hiding in reflections

    更新日期:2018-05-16
  • Hydrogel ionotronics
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-14
    Canhui Yang, Zhigang Suo

    An ionotronic device functions by a hybrid circuit of mobile ions and mobile electrons. Hydrogels are stretchable, transparent, ionic conductors that can transmit electrical signals of high frequency over long distance, enabling ionotronic devices such as artificial muscles, skins and axons. Moreover, ionotronic luminescent devices, ionotronic liquid crystal devices, touchpads, triboelectric generators, artificial eels and gel–elastomer–oil devices can be designed based on hydrogels. In this Review, we discuss first-generation hydrogel ionotronic devices and the challenges associated with the mechanical properties and the chemistry of the materials. We examine how strong and stretchable adhesion between hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer networks can be achieved, how water can be retained in hydrogels and how to design hydrogels that resist fatigue under cyclic loads. Finally, we highlight applications of hydrogel ionotronic devices and discuss the future of the field.

    更新日期:2018-05-15
  • Bioinspired microrobots
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
    Stefano Palagi, Peer Fischer

    Bioinspired microrobots Bioinspired microrobots, Published online: 10 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0016-9 Microrobots are envisioned to revolutionize microsurgery and targeted drug delivery. Their design, operation, locomotion and interaction with the environment are inspired by microorganisms. This Review highlights soft, responsive and active materials for the development of (semi-)autonomous microrobots.

    更新日期:2018-05-10
  • Design, fabrication and control of origami robots
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-09
    Daniela Rus, Michael T. Tolley

    Origami robots are created using folding processes, which provide a simple approach to fabricating a wide range of robot morphologies. Inspired by biological systems, engineers have started to explore origami folding in combination with smart material actuators to enable intrinsic actuation as a means to decouple design from fabrication complexity. The built-in crease structure of origami bodies has the potential to yield compliance and exhibit many soft body properties. Conventional fabrication of robots is generally a bottom-up assembly process with multiple low-level steps for creating subsystems that include manual operations and often multiple iterations. By contrast, natural systems achieve elegant designs and complex functionalities using top-down parallel transformation approaches such as folding. Folding in nature creates a wide spectrum of complex morpho-functional structures such as proteins and intestines and enables the development of structures such as flowers, leaves and insect wings. Inspired by nature, engineers have started to explore folding powered by embedded smart material actuators to create origami robots. The design and fabrication of origami robots exploits top-down, parallel transformation approaches to achieve elegant designs and complex functionalities. In this Review, we first introduce the concept of origami robotics and then highlight advances in design principles, fabrication methods, actuation, smart materials and control algorithms. Applications of origami robots for a variety of devices are investigated, and future directions of the field are discussed, examining both challenges and opportunities.

    更新日期:2018-05-09
  • 3D printing of soft robotic systems
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-04
    T. J. Wallin, J. Pikul, R. F. Shepherd

    Soft robots are capable of mimicking the complex motion of animals. Soft robotic systems are defined by their compliance, which allows for continuous and often responsive localized deformation. These features make soft robots especially interesting for integration with human tissues, for example, the implementation of biomedical devices, and for robotic performance in harsh or uncertain environments, for example, exploration in confined spaces or locomotion on uneven terrain. Advances in soft materials and additive manufacturing technologies have enabled the design of soft robots with sophisticated capabilities, such as jumping, complex 3D movements, gripping and releasing. In this Review, we examine the essential soft material properties for different elements of soft robots, highlighting the most relevant polymer systems. Advantages and limitations of different additive manufacturing processes, including 3D printing, fused deposition modelling, direct ink writing, selective laser sintering, inkjet printing and stereolithography, are discussed, and the different techniques are investigated for their application in soft robotic fabrication. Finally, we explore integrated robotic systems and give an outlook for the future of the field and remaining challenges.

    更新日期:2018-05-05
  • Soft robot design methodology for ‘push-button’ manufacturing
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-04
    Jamie Paik

    Soft robot design methodology for ‘push-button’ manufacturing Soft robot design methodology for ‘push-button’ manufacturing, Published online: 04 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0014-y ‘Push-button’ or fully automated manufacturing would enable the production of robots with zero intervention from human hands. Realizing this utopia requires a fundamental shift from a sequential (design–materials–manufacturing) to a concurrent design methodology.

    更新日期:2018-05-05
  • Publisher Correction: Biofabrication strategies for 3D in vitro models and regenerative medicine
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-03
    Lorenzo Moroni, Jason A. Burdick, Christopher Highley, Sang Jin Lee, Yuya Morimoto, Shoji Takeuchi, James J. Yoo

    Publisher Correction: Biofabrication strategies for 3D in vitro models and regenerative medicine Publisher Correction: Biofabrication strategies for 3D in vitro models and regenerative medicine, Published online: 03 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0020-0 Publisher Correction: Biofabrication strategies for 3D in vitro models and regenerative medicine

    更新日期:2018-05-04
  • Publisher Correction: Eternal blood vessels
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-02
    Jordan Hindson

    Publisher Correction: Eternal blood vessels Publisher Correction: Eternal blood vessels, Published online: 02 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0019-6 Publisher Correction: Eternal blood vessels

    更新日期:2018-05-03
  • Human-in-the-loop development of soft wearable robots
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-02
    Conor Walsh

    Human-in-the-loop development of soft wearable robots Human-in-the-loop development of soft wearable robots, Published online: 02 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0011-1 The field of soft wearable robotics offers the opportunity to wear robots like clothes to assist the movement of specific body parts or to endow the body with functionalities. Collaborative efforts of materials, apparel and robotics science have already led to the development of wearable technologies for physical therapy. Optimizing the human–robot system by human-in-the-loop approaches will pave the way for personalized soft wearable robots for a variety of applications.

    更新日期:2018-05-02
  • Majorana zero modes in superconductor–semiconductor heterostructures
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-05-01
    R. M. Lutchyn, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, L. P. Kouwenhoven, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus, Y. Oreg

    Realizing topological superconductivity and Majorana zero modes in the laboratory is a major goal in condensed-matter physics. In this Review, we survey the current status of this rapidly developing field, focusing on proposals for the realization of topological superconductivity in semiconductor–superconductor heterostructures. We examine materials science progress in growing InAs and InSb semiconductor nanowires and characterizing these systems. We then discuss the observation of robust signatures of Majorana zero modes in recent experiments, paying particular attention to zero-bias tunnelling conduction measurements and Coulomb blockade experiments. We also outline several next-generation experiments probing exotic properties of Majorana zero modes, including fusion rules and non-Abelian exchange statistics. Finally, we discuss prospects for implementing Majorana-based topological quantum computation.

    更新日期:2018-05-01
  • Material platforms for spin-based photonic quantum technologies
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-04-30
    Mete Atatüre, Dirk Englund, Nick Vamivakas, Sang-Yun Lee, Joerg Wrachtrup

    A central goal in quantum optics and quantum information science is the development of quantum networks to generate entanglement between distributed quantum memories. Experimental progress relies on the quality and efficiency of the light–matter quantum interface connecting the quantum states of photons to internal states of quantum emitters. Quantum emitters in solids, which have properties resembling those of atoms and ions, offer an opportunity for realizing light–matter quantum interfaces in scalable and compact hardware. These quantum emitters require a material platform that enables stable spin and optical properties, as well as a robust manufacturing of quantum photonic circuits. Because no emitter system is yet perfect and different applications may require different properties, several light–matter quantum interfaces are being developed in various platforms. This Review highlights the progress in three leading material platforms: diamond, silicon carbide and atomically thin semiconductors.

    更新日期:2018-04-30
  • Making the switch
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-04-26
    Zoe Budrikis

    Making the switch Making the switch, Published online: 26 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0010-2 Making the switch

    更新日期:2018-04-27
  • Eternal blood vessels
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-04-26
    Jordan Hindson

    Eternal blood vessels Eternal blood vessels, Published online: 26 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0015-x Eternal blood vessels

    更新日期:2018-04-27
  • Accelerating the discovery of materials for clean energy in the era of smart automation
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-04-26
    Daniel P. Tabor, Loïc M. Roch, Semion K. Saikin, Christoph Kreisbeck, Dennis Sheberla, Joseph H. Montoya, Shyam Dwaraknath, Muratahan Aykol, Carlos Ortiz, Hermann Tribukait, Carlos Amador-Bedolla, Christoph J. Brabec, Benji Maruyama, Kristin A. Persson, Alán Aspuru-Guzik

    The discovery and development of novel materials in the field of energy are essential to accelerate the transition to a low-carbon economy. Bringing recent technological innovations in automation, robotics and computer science together with current approaches in chemistry, materials synthesis and characterization will act as a catalyst for revolutionizing traditional research and development in both industry and academia. This Perspective provides a vision for an integrated artificial intelligence approach towards autonomous materials discovery, which, in our opinion, will emerge within the next 5 to 10 years. The approach we discuss requires the integration of the following tools, which have already seen substantial development to date: high-throughput virtual screening, automated synthesis planning, automated laboratories and machine learning algorithms. In addition to reducing the time to deployment of new materials by an order of magnitude, this integrated approach is expected to lower the cost associated with the initial discovery. Thus, the price of the final products (for example, solar panels, batteries and electric vehicles) will also decrease. This in turn will enable industries and governments to meet more ambitious targets in terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions at a faster pace.

    更新日期:2018-04-27
  • Biofabrication strategies for 3D in vitro models and regenerative medicine
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-04-26
    Lorenzo Moroni, Jason A. Burdick, Christopher Highley, Sang Jin Lee, Yuya Morimoto, Shoji Takeuchi, James J. Yoo

    Organs are complex systems composed of different cells, proteins and signalling molecules that are arranged in a highly ordered structure to orchestrate a myriad of functions in our body. Biofabrication strategies can be applied to engineer 3D tissue models in vitro by mimicking the structure and function of native tissue through the precise deposition and assembly of materials and cells. This approach allows the spatiotemporal control over cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix communication and thus the recreation of tissue-like structures. In this Review, we examine biofabrication strategies for the construction of functional tissue replacements and organ models, focusing on the development of biomaterials, such as supramolecular and photosensitive materials, that can be processed using biofabrication techniques. We highlight bioprinted and bioassembled tissue models and survey biofabrication techniques for their potential to recreate complex tissue properties, such as shape, vasculature and specific functionalities. Finally, we discuss challenges, such as scalability and the foreign body response, and opportunities in the field and provide an outlook to the future of biofabrication in regenerative medicine.

    更新日期:2018-04-26
  • Interrogating the interphase
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    Claire Ashworth

    Interrogating the interphase Interrogating the interphase, Published online: 24 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0013-z Interrogating the interphase

    更新日期:2018-04-24
  • Welcome to the holodeck
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    Christine-Maria Horejs

    Welcome to the holodeck Welcome to the holodeck, Published online: 24 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0007-x Welcome to the holodeck

    更新日期:2018-04-24
  • Assemble, extrude and reform
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    Alison Stoddart

    Assemble, extrude and reform Assemble, extrude and reform, Published online: 24 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0012-0 Assemble, extrude and reform

    更新日期:2018-04-24
  • Antagonistic actuation and stiffness control in soft inflatable robots
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-04-20
    Kaspar Althoefer

    Antagonistic actuation and stiffness control in soft inflatable robots Antagonistic actuation and stiffness control in soft inflatable robots, Published online: 20 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0004-0 Soft robots promise solutions for a wide range of applications that cannot be achieved with traditional, rigid-component robots. A key challenge is the creation of robotic structures that can vary their stiffness at will, for example, by using antagonistic actuators, to optimize their interaction with the environment and be able to exert high forces.

    更新日期:2018-04-23
  • Miniature soft robots — road to the clinic
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-04-19
    Metin Sitti

    Miniature soft robots — road to the clinic Miniature soft robots — road to the clinic, Published online: 19 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41578-018-0001-3 Soft small robots offer the opportunity to non-invasively access human tissue to perform medical operations and deliver drugs; however, challenges in materials design, biocompatibility and function control remain to be overcome for soft robots to reach the clinic.

    更新日期:2018-04-19
  • All-organic thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials for organic light-emitting diodes
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-04-10
    Yuchao Liu, Chensen Li, Zhongjie Ren, Shouke Yan, Martin R. Bryce

    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters, which produce light by harvesting both singlet and triplet excitons without noble metals, are emerging as next-generation organic electroluminescent materials. In the past few years, there have been rapid advances in molecular design criteria, our understanding of the photophysics underlying TADF and the applications of TADF materials as emitters in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This topic is set to remain at the forefront of research in optoelectronic organic materials for the foreseeable future. In this Review, we focus on state-of-the-art materials design and understanding of the photophysical processes, which are being leveraged to optimize the performance of OLED devices. Notably, we also appraise dendritic and polymeric TADF emitters — macromolecular materials that offer the potential advantages of low cost, solution processable and large-area OLED fabrication.

    更新日期:2018-04-10
  • Alkali metal batteries: Preventing failure
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Alison Stoddart

    Alkali metal batteries: Preventing failure Alkali metal batteries: Preventing failure, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/natrevmats.2018.21 Alkali metal batteries: Preventing failure

    更新日期:2018-04-05
  • Nanofibrils in nature and materials engineering
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Shengjie Ling, David L. Kaplan, Markus J. Buehler

    Nanofibrillar materials, such as cellulose, chitin and silk, are highly ordered architectures, formed through the self-assembly of repetitive building blocks into higher-order structures, which are stabilized by non-covalent interactions. This hierarchical building principle endows many biological materials with remarkable mechanical strength, anisotropy, flexibility and optical properties, such as structural colour. These features make nanofibrillar biopolymers interesting candidates for the development of strong, sustainable and biocompatible materials for environmental, energy, optical and biomedical applications. However, recreating their architecture is challenging from an engineering perspective. Rational design approaches, applying a combination of theoretical and experimental protocols, have enabled the design of biopolymer-based materials through mimicking nature's multiscale assembly approach. In this Review, we summarize hierarchical design strategies of cellulose, silk and chitin, focusing on nanoconfinement, fibrillar orientation and alignment in 2D and 3D structures. These multiscale architectures are discussed in the context of mechanical and optical properties, and different fabrication strategies for the manufacturing of biopolymer nanofibril-based materials are investigated. We highlight the contribution of rational material design strategies to the development of mechanically anisotropic and responsive materials and examine the future of the material-by-design paradigm.

    更新日期:2018-04-05
  • Scalable fabrication of perovskite solar cells
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-03-27
    Zhen Li, Talysa R. Klein, Dong Hoe Kim, Mengjin Yang, Joseph J. Berry, Maikel F. A. M. van Hest, Kai Zhu

    Perovskite materials use earth-abundant elements, have low formation energies for deposition and are compatible with roll-to-roll and other high-volume manufacturing techniques. These features make perovskite solar cells (PSCs) suitable for terawatt-scale energy production with low production costs and low capital expenditure. Demonstrations of performance comparable to that of other thin-film photovoltaics (PVs) and improvements in laboratory-scale cell stability have recently made scale up of this PV technology an intense area of research focus. Here, we review recent progress and challenges in scaling up PSCs and related efforts to enable the terawatt-scale manufacturing and deployment of this PV technology. We discuss common device and module architectures, scalable deposition methods and progress in the scalable deposition of perovskite and charge-transport layers. We also provide an overview of device and module stability, module-level characterization techniques and techno-economic analyses of perovskite PV modules.

    更新日期:2018-03-27
  • 2D Materials: The thick and the thin
    Nat. Rev. Mater. (IF 51.941) Pub Date : 2018-03-20
    Claire Ashworth

    2D Materials: The thick and the thin 2D Materials: The thick and the thin, Published online: 20 March 2018; doi:10.1038/natrevmats.2018.19 2D Materials: The thick and the thin

    更新日期:2018-03-20
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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