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  • A flexible 3D nitrogen-doped carbon foam@CNTs hybrid hosting TiO2 nanoparticles as free-standing electrode for ultra-long cycling lithium-ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Wei Yuan, Boya Wang, Hao Wu, Mingwu Xiang, Qiong Wang, Heng Liu, Yun Zhang, Huakun Liu, Shixue Dou
    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Synthesis of Si nanosheets by using Sodium Chloride as template for high-performance lithium-ion battery anode material
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    P.P. Wang, Y.X. Zhang, X.Y. Fan, J.X. Zhong, K. Huang

    Due to the shorter path length and more channels for lithium ion diffusion and insertion, the two-dimensional (2D) Si nanosheets exhibit superior electrochemical performances in the field of electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Recently, various efforts have been focused on how to synthesize 2D Si nanosheets. However, there are many difficulties to achieve the larger area, high purity of 2D Si nanosheets. Herein, we developed a facile and scalable synthesis strategy to fabricate 2D Si nanosheets, utilizing the unique combination of the water-soluble NaCl particles as the sacrificial template and the hydrolyzed tetraethyl orthosilicate as the silica source, and assisting with the magnesium reduction method. Importantly, the obtained Si nanosheets have a larger area up to 10 μm2. Through combining with reduced graphene oxides (rGO), the Si nanosheets@rGO composite electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances. It delivers high reversible capacity about 2500 mAh g−1 at the current density of 0.2 A g−1, as well as an excellent rate capability over 900 mAh g−1 at 2 A g−1 even after 200 cycles.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • 更新日期:2018-01-15
  • The existence of optimal molecular weight for poly(acrylic acid) binders in silicon/graphite composite anode for lithium-ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-13
    Bin Hu, Ilya A. Shkrob, Shuo Zhang, Linghong Zhang, Jingjing Zhang, Yan Li, Chen Liao, Zhengcheng Zhang, Wenquan Lu, Lu Zhang

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) based binders have been widely used for the high capacity silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries. While numerous promising progress has been reported, there is no general guideline for choosing the right PAA binders for optimized cycling performance. In this report, aiming to optimize the cycling performance of the Si/graphite composite anodes (15 wt% Si), we systemically investigated a series of PAA binders by validating their molecular weights (MWs) and correlating them to the cycling performance of the anodes fabricated with such binders. The gel permeation chromatography (GPC) was used to validate the MWs of six PAA binders (PAA1 to PAA6). Those binders then underwent a series of characterizations, including rheology study, half-cell cycling, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It is observed that the MWs of PAA binders not only affected the viscosities of the binder solutions but also impacted the cycling performance, possibly due to the cohesion changes. A range of 24–150 kDa is found to be optimal for minimizing the rate and extent of capacity fade and maintaining the cohesion in the electrode matrix despite the dramatic volumetric changes due to Si alloying.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • 更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Sodium storage mechanisms of bismuth in sodium ion batteries: An operando X-ray diffraction study
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Hui Gao, Wensheng Ma, Wanfeng Yang, Jiawei Wang, Jiazheng Niu, Fakui Luo, Zhangquan Peng, Zhonghua Zhang
    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Modeling and analysis of solvent removal during Li-ion battery electrode drying
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Naresh Susarla, Shabbir Ahmed, Dennis W. Dees

    In this work, we study the design aspects and process dynamics of solvent removal from Lithium-ion battery electrode coatings. For this, we use a continuum level mathematical model to describe the physical phenomenon of cathode drying involving coupled simultaneous heat and mass transfer with phase change. Our results indicate that around 90% of solvent is removed in less than half of the overall drying time. We study the effect of varying temperature and air velocity on the drying process. We show that the overall drying energy can be reduced by at least 50% by using a multi-zone drying process. Also, the peak solvent flux can be reduced by at least 40%. We further present the effect of using an aqueous solvent instead of N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) in electrode drying. Our results indicate that Water dries nearly 4.5 times faster as compared to NMP and requires nearly 10 times less overall drying energy per kg of solvent.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Electrospun-sodiumtetrafluoroborate-polyethylene oxide membranes for solvent-free sodium ion transport in solid state sodium ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    K.M. Freitag, P. Walke, T. Nilges, H. Kirchhain, R.J. Spranger, L. van Wüllen
    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • High capacity and stability of Nb-doped Li3VO4 as an anode material for lithium ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Long Zhao, He Duan, Yanming Zhao, Quan Kuang, Qinghua Fan, Lei Chen, Youzhong Dong
    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Nano-TiO2 decorated carbon coating on the separator to physically and chemically suppress the shuttle effect for lithium-sulfur battery
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-06
    Hongyuan Shao, Weikun Wang, Hao Zhang, Anbang Wang, Xiaonong Chen, Yaqin Huang

    Despite recent progress in designing modified separators for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, detail in optimizing the synergistic effect between chemical and physical immobilization for lithium polysulfides (LiPS) in modified separator hasn't been investigated totally. Here, a nano-TiO2 decorated carbon layer (T-DCL) has been successfully applied to modify separator for the Li-S battery. The results indicate that appropriate weight percentage of nano-TiO2 uniformly distributed in conductive carbon layer is effective to chemically and physically immobilize for LiPS, and promote the electron transfer during discharge/charge process. The performance of the modified Li-S battery with T-DCL separator are significantly enhanced, with a specific capacity of 883 mAh g−1 retained after 180 cycles at 0.1 C and 762 mAh g−1 retained after 200 cycles at 0.5C, which are much higher than that of separators only coated with TiO2 layer or conductive carbon layer. Besides, the separator coated with T-DCL also shows low electrochemical impedance and good lithium anode protection. These results indicate that separator with T-DCL is promising to balance the physical and chemical LiPS trapping effect, and optimize the electrochemical performance for Li-S battery.

    更新日期:2018-01-07
  • In-situ preparation and unique electrochemical behavior of pore-embedding CoO/Co3O4 intermixed composite for Li+ rechargeable battery electrodes
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-06
    Jin Kyu Kim, Ji Young Ju, Seul Ki Choi, Sanjith Unithrattil, Sun Sook Lee, Yongku Kang, Yongseon Kim, Won Bin Im, Sungho Choi
    更新日期:2018-01-07
  • Novel flame synthesis of nanostructured α-Fe2O3 electrode as high-performance anode for lithium ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Yang Wang, Justin Roller, Radenka Maric

    Nanostructured electrodes have significant potential for enhancing the kinetics of lithium storage in secondary batteries. A simple and economical manufacturing approach of these electrodes is crucial to the development and application of the next generation lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. In this study, nanostructured α-Fe2O3 electrode is fabricated by a novel one-step flame combustion synthesis method, namely Reactive Spray Deposition Technology (RSDT). This process possesses the merits of simplicity and low cost. The structure and morphology of the electrode are investigated with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical performance of the nanostructured α-Fe2O3 electrodes as the anodes for Li-ion batteries is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in coin-type half-cells. The as-prepared electrodes demonstrate superior cyclic performance at high current rate, which delivers a high reversible capacity of 1239.2 mAh g−1 at 1 C after 500 cycles. In addition, a discharge capacity of 513.3 mAh g−1 can be achieved at 10 C.

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Layered oxides-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as anode electrode for symmetric rechargeable lithium-ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Yuesheng Wang, Zimin Feng, Shi-Ze Yang, Catherine Gagnon, Vincent Gariépy, Dharminder Laul, Wen Zhu, René Veillette, Michel L. Trudeau, Abdelbast Guerfi, Karim Zaghib
    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • New insights into pre-lithiation kinetics of graphite anodes via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Florian Holtstiege, Richard Schmuch, Martin Winter, Gunther Brunklaus, Tobias Placke
    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Probing the heat sources during thermal runaway process by thermal analysis of different battery chemistries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Siqi Zheng, Li Wang, Xuning Feng, Xiangming He

    Safety issue is very important for the lithium ion battery used in electric vehicle or other applications. This paper probes the heat sources in the thermal runaway processes of lithium ion batteries composed of different chemistries using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The adiabatic thermal runaway features for the 4 types of commercial lithium ion batteries are tested using ARC, whereas the reaction characteristics of the component materials, including the cathode, the anode and the separator, inside the 4 types of batteries are measured using DSC. The peaks and valleys of the critical component reactions measured by DSC can match the fluctuations in the temperature rise rate measured by ARC, therefore the relevance between the DSC curves and the ARC curves is utilized to probe the heat source in the thermal runaway process and reveal the thermal runaway mechanisms. The results and analysis indicate that internal short circuit is not the only way to thermal runaway, but can lead to extra electrical heat, which is comparable with the heat released by chemical reactions. The analytical approach of the thermal runaway mechanisms in this paper can guide the safety design of commercial lithium ion batteries.

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Uric acid-derived Fe3C-containing mesoporous Fe/N/C composite with high activity for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Jun Ma, Dejian Xiao, Chang Li Chen, Qiaomei Luo, Yue Yu, Junhao Zhou, Changding Guo, Kai Li, Jie Ma, Lirong Zheng, Xia Zuo

    In this work, a category of Fe3C-containing Fe/N/C mesoporous material has been fabricated by carbonizing the mixture of uric acid, Iron (Ⅲ) chloride anhydrous and carbon support (XC-72) under different pyrolysis temperature. Of all these samples, pyrolysis temperature (800 °C) becomes the most crucial factor in forming Fe3C active sites which synergizes with high content of graphitic N to catalyze oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) is used to exhibit that the space structure around Fe atoms in the catalyst. This kind of catalyst possesses comparable ORR properties with commercial 20% Pt/C (onset potential is 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl in 0.1 M KOH), the average transfer electron number is 3.84 reflecting the 4-electron process. Moreover, superior stability and methanol tolerance deserve to be mentioned.

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Enhanced capacity of chemically bonded phosphorus/carbon composite as an anode material for potassium-ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Xuan Wu, Wei Zhao, Hong Wang, Xiujun Qi, Zheng Xing, Quanchao Zhuang, Zhicheng Ju
    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Electrochemical-mechanical coupled modeling and parameterization of swelling and ionic transport in lithium-ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Daniel Sauerteig, Nina Hanselmann, Arno Arzberger, Holger Reinshagen, Svetlozar Ivanov, Andreas Bund

    The intercalation and aging induced volume changes of lithium-ion battery electrodes lead to significant mechanical pressure or volume changes on cell and module level. As the correlation between electrochemical and mechanical performance of lithium ion batteries at nano and macro scale requires a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach, physical modeling accounting for chemical and mechanical phenomena during operation is very useful for the battery design. Since the introduced fully-coupled physical model requires proper parameterization, this work also focuses on identifying appropriate mathematical representation of compressibility as well as the ionic transport in the porous electrodes and the separator. The ionic transport is characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using symmetric pouch cells comprising LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) cathode, graphite anode and polyethylene separator. The EIS measurements are carried out at various mechanical loads. The observed decrease of the ionic conductivity reveals a significant transport limitation at high pressures. The experimentally obtained data are applied as input to the electrochemical-mechanical model of a prismatic 10 Ah cell. Our computational approach accounts intercalation induced electrode expansion, stress generation caused by mechanical boundaries, compression of the electrodes and the separator, outer expansion of the cell and finally the influence of the ionic transport within the electrolyte.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Electric vehicles batteries thermal management systems employing phase change materials
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Lucia Ianniciello, Pascal Henry Biwolé, Patrick Achard

    Battery thermal management is necessary for electric vehicles (EVs), especially for Li-ion batteries, due to the heat dissipation effects on those batteries. Usually, air or coolant circuits are employed as thermal management systems in Li-ion batteries. However, those systems are expensive in terms of investment and operating costs. Phase change materials (PCMs) may represent an alternative which could be cheaper and easier to operate. In fact, PCMs can be used as passive or semi-passive systems, enabling the global system to sustain near-autonomous operations. This article presents the previous developments introducing PCMs for EVs battery cooling. Different systems are reviewed and solutions are proposed to enhance PCMs efficiency in those systems.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Dual overcharge protection and solid electrolyte interphase-improving action in Li-ion cells containing a bis-annulated dialkoxyarene electrolyte additive
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Jingjing Zhang, Ilya A. Shkrob, Rajeev S. Assary, Shuo Zhang, Bin Hu, Chen Liao, Zhengcheng Zhang, Lu Zhang

    1,4-Dialkoxybenzene additives are commonly used as redox active shuttles in lithium-ion batteries in order to prevent runaway oxidation of electrolyte when overcharge conditions set in. During this action the shuttle molecule goes through a futile cycle, becoming oxidized at the cathode and reduced at the anode. Minimizing parasitic reactions in all states of charge is paramount for sustained protective action. Here we demonstrate that recently developed bis-annulated 9,10-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-1,4:5,8-dimethano-anthracene shuttle molecule (that yields exceptionally stable radical cations) survives over 120 cycles of overcharge abuse with 100% overcharge ratio at C/5 rate. Equally remarkably, in the presence of this additive the cell impedance becomes significantly lower compared to the control cells without the additive; this decrease is observed during the formation, normal cycling, and even under overcharge conditions. This unusual dual action has not been observed in other redox shuttle systems, and it presents considerable practical interest.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Advancement of technology towards developing Na-ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Mohammed Ibrahim Jamesh, A.S. Prakash
    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Na-rich Prussian blue analogues containing Mn, Fe, Co, and Fe for Na-ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Xiaofei Bie, Kei Kubota, Tomooki Hosaka, Kuniko Chihara, Shinichi Komaba

    Electrochemical performance of Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) as positive electrode materials for non-aqueous Na-ion batteries is known to be highly dependent on their synthesis conditions according to the previous researches. Na-rich PBAs, NaxM[Fe(CN)6]·nH2O where M = Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, are prepared via precipitation method under the same condition. The structure, chemical composition, morphology, valence of the transition metals, and electrochemical property of these samples are comparatively researched. The PBA with Mn shows large reversible capacity of 126 mAh g−1 in 2.0–4.2 V at a current density of 30 mA g−1 and the highest working voltage owning to high redox potential of Mn2+/3+ in MnN6 and Fe2+/3+ in FeC6. While, the PBA with Ni exhibits the best cyclability and rate performance though only 66 mAh g−1 is delivered. The significant differences in electrochemical behaviors of the PBAs originate from the various properties depending on different transition metals.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • High capacity hard carbon derived from lotus stem as anode for sodium ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Nan Zhang, Qing Liu, Weilun Chen, Min Wan, Xiaocheng Li, Lili Wang, Lihong Xue, Wuxing Zhang

    Porous hard carbons are synthesized via carbonizing lotus stems with naturally hierarchical structures. The hard carbon carbonized at 1400 °C (LS1400) delivers a total capacity 350 mAh g−1 in the current density of 100 mA g−1 and a plateau capacity of 250 mAh g−1. Even cycled at 100 mA g−1 after 450 cycles, the capacity still retains 94%. Further investigation shows that the sodium storage of LS carbons involves Na+ adsorption in the defect sites, Na+ insertion and Na metal deposition in the closed pores. However, the Na metal deposition in closed pores mainly contribute to the plateau capacity, leading to the excellent sodium storage performance of LS1400 with a large closed pore ratio of 66%. The results show that the intrinsic structure of natural biomass can inspire us to design hard carbon with large closed pore ratio as excellent anode for sodium ion batteries.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Enhanced electrochemical properties of F-doped Li2MnSiO4/C for lithium ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Chao Wang, Youlong Xu, Xiaofei Sun, Baofeng Zhang, Yanjun Chen, Shengnan He

    The Li2MnSiO4 as a novel cathode material for lithium ion batteries, performs high specific capacity, high thermal stability, low cost and etc. However, it suffers from relatively low electronic conductivity and lithium ion diffusion rate. Herein, we successfully introduce fluorine to Li2MnSiO4 (Li2MnSiO4-xFx, x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) to overcome these obstacles. The results show that F doping not only enlarges the lattice parameters but also decreases the particle size, synergistically improving the lithium ion diffusion of Li2MnSiO4. Moreover, F doping increase electronic conductivity of Li2MnSiO4/C by inhibiting the formation of C-O bonds in the carbon layers. Meanwhile, F doping improves the crystallinity and stabilizes the crystal structure of Li2MnSiO4. Finally, the Li2MnSiO3.97F0.03/C with the best electrochemical performances delivers the initial specific discharge capacity of 279 mA h g−1 at 25mA g−1 current density from 1.5 V to 4.8 V. Also, it maintains a higher capacity (201 mA h g−1) than F-free Li2MnSiO4 (145 mA h g−1) after 50 cycles.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • A new binder-free and conductive-additive-free TiO2/WO3-W integrative anode material produced by laser ablation
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Yibo Su, Hongjun Zhang, Peng Liang, Kai Liu, Mingyong Cai, Zeya Huang, Chang-An Wang, Minlin Zhong

    Although transition metal oxides anodes have attracted lots of attention, there are still many problems to be resolved. Complicated fabrication process, high cost and poor electrochemical performances are the most important ones, together hindering transition metal oxides anodes for practical use. Herein, we provide a new approach to fabricate a binder-free and conductive-additive-free TiO2/WO3-W integrative anode material through the nanosecond laser ablation and dip-coating technology, which simplifies the entire anode preparation process with no need for a conventional tape-casting procedure. Using this method, great time cost, machine cost and labor cost related to mixing and tape-casting process can be saved on the basis of good electrochemical performances. The prepared TiO2/WO3-W integrative anode realizes a first Coulombic efficiency of 75.6% and attains to a stable capacity within the first five cycles. It can still maintain a capacity of 600 mAh g−1 in the range of 0.01–3 V vs. Li+/Li at a current rate of 0.2 C after 500 cycles. This work offers a new way to achieve a fast fabrication of the integrative anode for lithium ion battery, which is universal for other transition metals (such as Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Mo, W etc.).

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Preventing structural degradation from Na3V2(PO4)3 to V2(PO4)3: F-doped Na3V2(PO4)3/C cathode composite with stable lifetime for sodium ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Yanjun Chen, Youlong Xu, Xiaofei Sun, Baofeng Zhang, Shengnan He, Long Li, Chao Wang

    A prospective NASICON-type F-doped Na3V2(PO4)2.93F0.07/C (F-0.07-NVP/C) composite is synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. F-doping can restrain the structural degradation from Na3V2(PO4)3 to V2(PO4)3 and enhance the structural stability. Meanwhile, it can decrease the particle size to diminish the pathway of Na+ diffusion, which can increase ionic conductivity efficiently. The kinetic behavior is significantly improved and it is beneficial to reinforcing the electrochemical performance of F-doping composites. Compared with Undoped-NVP/C sample, F-0.07-NVP/C composite delivers a 113 mAh g−1 discharge capacity at 10 mA g−1, which is very close to the theoretical capacity (117 mAh g−1). As for cycle performance, a reversible capacity of 97.8 mAh g−1 can be obtained and it retains 86% capacity after 1000 cycles at 200 mA g−1. F-0.07-NVP/C composite presents the highest DNa+ (2.62 × 10−15 cm2s−1), two orders of magnitude higher than the undoped sample (4.8 × 10−17 cm2s−1). This outstanding electrochemical performance is ascribed to the synergetic effect from improved kinetic behavior and enhanced structural stability due to F-doping. Hence, the F-doped composite would be a promising cathode material in SIB for energy storage and conversion.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Competing forces in liquid metal electrodes and batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Rakan F. Ashour, Douglas H. Kelley, Alejandro Salas, Marco Starace, Norbert Weber, Tom Weier

    Liquid metal batteries are proposed for low-cost grid scale energy storage. During their operation, solid intermetallic phases often form in the cathode and are known to limit the capacity of the cell. Fluid flow in the liquid electrodes can enhance mass transfer and reduce the formation of localized intermetallics, and fluid flow can be promoted by careful choice of the locations and topology of a battery's electrical connections. In this context we study four phenomena that drive flow: Rayleigh-Bénard convection, internally heated convection, electro-vortex flow, and swirl flow, in both experiment and simulation. In experiments, we use ultrasound Doppler velocimetry (UDV) to measure the flow in a eutectic PbBi electrode at 160 °C and subject to all four phenomena. In numerical simulations, we isolate the phenomena and simulate each separately using OpenFOAM. Comparing simulated velocities to experiments via a UDV beam model, we find that all four phenomena can enhance mass transfer in LMBs. We explain the flow direction, describe how the phenomena interact, and propose dimensionless numbers for estimating their mutual relevance. A brief discussion of electrical connections summarizes the engineering implications of our work.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • New battery model considering thermal transport and partial charge stationary effects in photovoltaic off-grid applications
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Iván Sanz-Gorrachategui, Carlos Bernal, Estanis Oyarbide, Erik Garayalde, Iosu Aizpuru, Jose María Canales, Antonio Bono-Nuez

    The optimization of the battery pack in an off-grid Photovoltaic application must consider the minimum sizing that assures the availability of the system under the worst environmental conditions. Thus, it is necessary to predict the evolution of the state of charge of the battery under incomplete daily charging and discharging processes and fluctuating temperatures over day-night cycles. Much of previous development work has been carried out in order to model the short term evolution of battery variables. Many works focus on the on-line parameter estimation of available charge, using standard or advanced estimators, but they are not focused on the development of a model with predictive capabilities. Moreover, normally stable environmental conditions and standard charge-discharge patterns are considered. As the actual cycle-patterns differ from the manufacturer's tests, batteries fail to perform as expected. This paper proposes a novel methodology to model these issues, with predictive capabilities to estimate the remaining charge in a battery after several solar cycles. A new non-linear state space model is proposed as a basis, and the methodology to feed and train the model is introduced. The new methodology is validated using experimental data, providing only 5% of error at higher temperatures than the nominal one.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Crosslinked anion exchange membranes prepared from poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO) for non-aqueous redox flow batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Yun Li, Jeroen Sniekers, João C. Malaquias, Cedric Van Goethem, Koen Binnemans, Jan Fransaer, Ivo F.J. Vankelecom
    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Elimination of active species crossover in a room temperature, neutral pH, aqueous flow battery using a ceramic NaSICON membrane
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Eric Allcorn, Ganesan Nagasubramanian, Harry D. Pratt III, Erik Spoerke, David Ingersoll
    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • A multi-electron redox mediator for redox-targeting lithium-sulfur flow batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Guochun Li, Liuqing Yang, Xi Jiang, Tianran Zhang, Haibin Lin, Qiaofeng Yao, Jim Yang Lee

    The lithium-sulfur flow battery (LSFB) is a new addition to the rechargeable lithium flow batteries (LFBs) where sulfur or a sulfur compound is used as the cathode material against the lithium anode. We report here our evaluation of an organic sulfide - dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), as 1) a catholyte of a LFB and 2) a multi-electron redox mediator for discharging and charging a solid sulfur cathode without any conductive additives. The latter configuration is also known as the redox-targeting lithium-sulfur flow battery (RTLSFB). The LFB provides an initial discharge capacity of 131.5 mAh g−1DMTS (1.66 A h L−1), which decreases to 59 mAh g−1DMTS (0.75 A h L−1) after 40 cycles. The RTLSFB delivers a significantly higher application performance - initial discharge capacity of 1225.3 mAh g−1sulfur (3.83 A h L−1), for which 1030.9 mAh g−1sulfur (3.23 A h L−1) is still available after 40 cycles. The significant increase in the discharge and charge duration of the LFB after sulfur addition indicates that DMTS is better used as a redox mediator in a RTLSFB than as a catholyte in a LFB.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • 更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Analysis of cerium-composite polymer-electrolyte membranes during and after accelerated oxidative-stability test
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Dongwon Shin, Myungseong Han, Yong-Gun Shul, Hyejin Lee, Byungchan Bae

    The oxidative stability of membranes constructed from a composite of pristine sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) and cerium was investigated by conducting an accelerated oxidative-stability test at the open-circuit voltage (OCV). The membranes were analyzed in situ through OCV and impedance measurements, cyclic voltammetry, and linear-sweep voltammetry to monitor the electrochemical properties during the stability test. Although the high-frequency resistance of a composite membrane was slightly higher than that of a pristine membrane because of the exchange of protons from the sulfonic acid with cerium ions, the composite membrane maintained its potential for much longer than the pristine membrane. The effect of the cerium ions as radical scavengers was confirmed by analyzing the drain water and chemical structure after operation. These post-operation analyses confirmed that cerium ions improved the oxidative stability of the hydrocarbon-based polymer during fuel-cell operation. It is clear that the cerium-based radical scavengers prevented chemical degradation of the polymer membrane as well as the electrode in terms of hydrogen cross-over, polymer-chain scission, and the electrochemical surface area, while they rarely diffused outward from the membrane.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • High-temperature electrolysis of CO2–enriched mixtures by using fuel-electrode supported La0.6Sr0.4CoO3/YSZ/Ni-YSZ solid oxide cells
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Si-Won Kim, Yonggyun Bae, Kyung Joong Yoon, Jong-Ho Lee, Jong-Heun Lee, Jongsup Hong
    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Morphologically well-defined Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 embedded Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ nanofiber with an enhanced triple phase boundary as cathode for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Chanho Kim, Hyunjung Park, Inyoung Jang, Sungmin Kim, Kijung Kim, Heesung Yoon, Ungyu Paik

    Controlling triple phase boundary (TPB), an intersection of the ionic conductor, electronic conductor and gas phase as a major reaction site, is a key to improve cell performances for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells. We report a synthesis of morphologically well-defined Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 (GDC) embedded Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) nanofibers and their electrochemical performances as a cathode. Electrospun fibers prepared with a polymeric solution that contains crystalline Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ particles in ∼200 nm size and Gd(NO3)3/Ce(NO3)3 precursors in an optimized weight ratio of 3 to 2 result in one dimensional structure without severe agglomeration and morphological collapse even after a high calcination at 1000 °C. As-prepared nanofibers have fast electron pathways along the axial direction of fibers, a higher surface area of 7.5 m2 g−1, and more oxygen reaction sites at TPBs than those of GDC/BSCF composite particles and core-shell nanofibers. As a result, the Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 embedded Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ nanofiber cell shows excellent performances of the maximum power density of 0.65 W cm−2 at 550 °C and 1.02 W cm−2 at 600 °C, respectively.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Poisoning of Ni-Based anode for proton conducting SOFC by H2S, CO2, and H2O as fuel contaminants
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Shichen Sun, Osama Awadallah, Zhe Cheng

    It is well known that conventional solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based on oxide ion conducting electrolyte (e.g., yttria-stabilized zirconia, YSZ) and nickel (Ni) - ceramic cermet anodes are susceptible to poisoning by trace amount of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) while not significantly impacted by the presence of carbon dioxide (CO2) and moisture (H2O) in the fuel stream unless under extreme operating conditions. In comparison, the impacts of H2S, CO2, and H2O on proton-conducting SOFCs remain largely unexplored. This study aims at revealing the poisoning behaviors caused by H2S, CO2, and H2O for proton-conducting SOFCs. Anode-supported proton-conducting SOFCs with BaZe0.1Ce0.7Y0.1Yb0.1O3 (BZCYYb) electrolyte and Ni-BZCYYb anode and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF) cathode as well as Ni-BZCYYb/BZCYYb/Ni-BZCYYb anode symmetrical cells were subjected to low ppm-level H2S or low percentage-level CO2 or H2O in the hydrogen fuel, and the responses in cell electrochemical behaviors were recorded. The results suggest that, contrary to conventional SOFCs that show sulfur poisoning and CO2 and H2O tolerance, such proton-conducting SOFCs with Ni-BZCYYb cermet anode seem to be poisoned by all three types of "contaminants". Beyond that, the implications of the experimental observations on understanding the fundamental mechanism of anode hydrogen electrochemical oxidation reaction in proton conducting SOFCs are also discussed.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Nb and Pd co-doped La0.57Sr0.38Co0.19Fe0.665Nb0.095Pd0.05O3-δ as a stable, high performance electrode for barrier-layer-free Y2O3-ZrO2 electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Kongfa Chen, Shuai He, Na Li, Yi Cheng, Na Ai, Minle Chen, William D.A. Rickard, Teng Zhang, San Ping Jiang

    La0.6Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) is the most intensively investigated high performance cathode for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs), but strontium segregation and migration at the electrode/electrolyte interface is a critical issue limiting the electrocatalytic activity and stability of LSCF based cathodes. Herein, we report a Nb and Pd co-doped LSCF (La0.57Sr0.38Co0.19Fe0.665Nb0.095Pd0.05O3-δ, LSCFNPd) perovskite as stable and active cathode on a barrier-layer-free anode-supported yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte cell using direct assembly method without pre-sintering at high temperatures. The cell exhibits a peak power density of 1.3 W cm−2 at 750 °C and excellent stability with no degradation during polarization at 500 mA cm−2 and 750 °C for 175 h. Microscopic and spectroscopic analysis show that the electrochemical polarization promotes the formation of electrode/electrolyte interface in operando and exsolution of Pd/PdO nanoparticles. The Nb doping in the B-site of LSCF significantly reduces the Sr surface segregation, enhancing the stability of the cathode, while the exsoluted Pd/PdO nanoparticles increases the electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. The present study opens up a new route for the development of cobaltite-based perovskite cathodes with high activity and stability for barrier-layer-free YSZ electrolyte based IT-SOFCs.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • The origin of current blocking in interfacial conduction in Sr-doped lanthanum gallates
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Hee Jung Park

    The grain boundary transport of lanthanum gallate has been studied with various doping concentrations, and the origins of blocking on the grain boundary are compared. La1-xSrxGaO3 samples (x = 0.005, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1) have been prepared and their bulk (grain) and grain boundary resistances been experimentally measured as a function of temperature (T: 200–550 °C) and oxygen partial pressure (Po2) using ac-impedance measurements. In addition, Hebb-Wagner polarization measurements have been conducted to investigate the electrical conductivity of minor charge carriers in the lanthanum gallates. The grain boundary resistance in the low-doped materials (x = 0.005 and 0.01) increases with increasing Po2 while in the highly-doped materials (x = 0.05, 0.1) it hardly depended on Po2. At lower concentrations conduction is mixed and at higher concentrations is found to be predominantly ionic conductivity. The space charge model successfully describes the mixed conduction at the grain boundary at low-doping, but does not explain the predominant ionic conductivity at high-doping. The origin of blocking at high-doping is explained by the crystallographic asymmetry of the grain boundary with respect to the bulk and/or Sr-segregation.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • One-dimensional CuIn alloy nanowires as a robust and efficient electrocatalyst for selective CO2-to-CO conversion
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Youn Jeong Jang, Jaehyuk Lee, Ju Hun Kim, Byeong Jun Lee, Jae Sung Lee
    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Hierarchical NiCo-LDH@NiOOH core-shell heterostructure on carbon fiber cloth as battery-like electrode for supercapacitor
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Haoyan Liang, Jinghuang Lin, Henan Jia, Shulin Chen, Junlei Qi, Jian Cao, Tiesong Lin, Weidong Fei, Jicai Feng
    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • A review of safety-focused mechanical modeling of commercial lithium-ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Juner Zhu, Tomasz Wierzbicki, Wei Li
    更新日期:2017-12-23
  • Ether modified poly(ether ether ketone) nonwoven membrane with excellent wettability and stability as a lithium ion battery separator
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Zhen Li, Wenqiang Wang, Yu Han, Lei Zhang, Shuangshou Li, Bin Tang, Shengming Xu, Zhenghe Xu

    In this study, poly(ether ether ketone) is first chloromethylated to improve the solubility and is later used for nonwoven membrane fabrication by electrospinning. Finally, the chloromethyl group was converted to the ethyl ether group and dibenzyl ether group in a hot alkaline solution. The abundant polar groups endow the membrane with excellent wettability, reducing the contact angle to 0°. The polymer matrix is crosslinked by dibenzyl ether group, endowing the membrane with excellent stability (insolubility in many solvents, and ultra-low swelling in the electrolyte at 80 °C) and good anti-shrinkage property (0% at 180 °C). The electrospinning-fabricated membrane remains stable until 4.812 V (vs. Li+/Li), meeting the requirement for use in lithium ion batteries. The interwoven structure of the nonwoven membrane effectively gives rise to the high electrolyte uptake of 215.8%. The ionic conductivity of the electrolyte-swelled electrospinning-fabricated membrane is 51% higher than that of the electrolyte-swelled Celgard membrane. As a result, the lithium ion battery with this nonwoven membrane exhibits an enhanced rate performance (up to 42.5% higher than the lithium ion battery with a PP separator) and satisfactory cycling performance.

    更新日期:2017-12-23
  • Effect of operating temperature on local structure during first discharge of 0.4Li2MnO3-0.6LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 electrodes
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Yasushi Idemoto, Takuya Hiranuma, Naoya Ishida, Naoto Kitamura

    The present study investigated the temperature dependence of the local structure of 0.4Li2MnO3-0.6LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 electrodes during the first discharge cycle, using neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. It was found that at 60 °C, a capacity of more than 280 mAh/g could be achieved at a voltage of 2.5–4.8 V vs. Li/Li+, which was larger than the capacity at room temperature. To clarify the reason for this, an analysis was carried out based on the pair distribution function for electrodes following their first charge and discharge cycles. The results indicated a unique distortion of Ni-O6 octahedra at higher temperature. In addition, an analysis using X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy indicated a change in valence during charging and discharging based on a shift in the position of peaks associated with Mn, Ni, and Co. At 60 °C, the shift was particularly large for the Ni peak. Thus, the operating temperature can have a large effect on the behavior of especially Ni, which can influence the battery characteristics.

    更新日期:2017-12-23
  • Mesostructured niobium-doped titanium oxide-carbon (Nb-TiO2-C) composite as an anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Keebum Hwang, Hiesang Sohn, Songhun Yoon

    Mesostructured niobium (Nb)-doped TiO2-carbon (Nb-TiO2-C) composites are synthesized by a hydrothermal process for application as anode materials in Li-ion batteries. The composites have a hierarchical porous structure with the Nb-TiO2 nanoparticles homogenously distributed throughout the porous carbon matrix. The Nb content is controlled (0–10 wt%) to investigate its effect on the physico-chemical properties and electrochemical performance of the composite. While the crystalline/surface structure varied with the addition of Nb (d-spacing of TiO2: 0.34–0.36 nm), the morphology of the composite remained unaffected. The electrochemical performance (cycle stability and rate capability) of the Nb-TiO2-C composite anode with 1 wt% Nb doping improved significantly. First, a full cut-off potential (0–2.5 V vs. Li/Li+) of Nb-doped composite anode (1 wt%) provides a higher energy utilization than that of the un-doped TiO2-C anode. Second, Nb-TiO2-C composite anode (1 wt%) exhibits an excellent long-term cycle stability (100% capacity retention, 297 mAh/g at 0.5 C after 100 cycles and 221 mAh/g at 2 C after 500 cycles) and improved rate-capability (192 mAh/g at 5 C), respectively (1 C: 150 mA/g). The superior electrochemical performance of Nb-TiO2-C (1 wt%) could be attributed to the synergistic effect of improved electronic conductivity induced by optimal Nb doping (1 wt%) and lithium-ion penetration (high diffusion kinetics) through unique pore structures.

    更新日期:2017-12-23
  • Power generation in microbial fuel cells using platinum group metal-free cathode catalyst: Effect of the catalyst loading on performance and costs
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Carlo Santoro, Mounika Kodali, Sergio Herrera, Alexey Serov, Ioannis Ieropoulos, Plamen Atanassov
    更新日期:2017-12-23
  • Effects of propylene, methyl methacrylate and isopropanol poisoning on spatial performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Tatyana V. Reshetenko, Jean St-Pierre

    This paper studies the effects of propylene, methyl methacrylate (MMA) and isopropanol (IPA) in air on the spatial performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The introduction of 100 ppm C3H6 into the oxidant stream resulted in a performance decrease of 130 mV at 1.0 A cm−2, whereas 20 ppm MMA caused a voltage loss of 80 mV. A moderate performance decline of 60 mV was detected in the presence of 5.3⋅103 ppm IPA in air. Spatial electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data showed an increase in charge and mass transfer resistances under exposure to C3H6 and MMA, although IPA did not affect the impedance. The observed PEMFC performances, local current redistributions and EIS data can be explained by the adsorption of contaminants on the Pt surface, their subsequent transformations, and their impacts on the electrochemical surface area and oxygen reduction mechanism. It was assumed that the studied contaminants were oxidized mainly to CO2 via electrochemical and chemical pathways under the operating conditions and at the cathode potential. Self-recovery of PEMFC performance was observed for each contaminant after halting its introduction into the air. Possible contaminant oxidation/reduction mechanisms and their correlations with spatial performance and EIS are presented and discussed.

    更新日期:2017-12-23
  • Promoting the ambient-condition stability of Zr-doped barium cerate: Toward robust solid oxide fuel cells and hydrogen separation in syngas
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Ying Yang, Yimin Zeng, Babak S. Amirkhiz, Jing-Li Luo, Ning Yan

    Increasing the stability of perovskite proton conductor against atmospheric CO2 and moisture attack at ambient conditions might be equally important as that at the elevated service temperatures. It can ease the transportation and storage of materials, potentially reducing the maintenance cost of the integral devices. In this work, we initially examined the surface degradation behaviors of various Zr-doped barium cerates (BaCe0.7Zr0.1Y0.1Me0.1O3) using XRD, SEM, STEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Though that the typical lanthanide (Y, Yb and Gd) and In incorporated Zr-doped cerates well resisted CO2-induced carbonation in air at elevated temperatures, they were unfortunately vulnerable at ambient conditions, suffering slow decompositions at the surface. Conversely, Sn doped samples (BCZYSn) were robust at both conditions yet showed high protonic conductivity. Thanks to that, the anode supported solid oxide fuel cells equipped with BCZYSn electrolyte delivered a maximum power density of 387 mW cm−2 at 600 °C in simulated coal-derived syngas. In the hydrogen permeation test using BCZYSn based membrane, the H2 flux reached 0.11 mL cm−2 min−1 at 850 °C when syngas was the feedstock. Both devices demonstrated excellent stability in the presence of CO2 in the syngas.

    更新日期:2017-12-23
  • Reversible operation of microtubular solid oxide cells using La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ-Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ oxygen electrodes
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    M.J. López-Robledo, M.A. Laguna-Bercero, A. Larrea, V.M. Orera

    Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) based microtubular solid oxide fuel cells (mT-SOFCs) using La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) and Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ (GDC) as the oxygen electrode, along with a porous GDC electrolyte-electrode barrier layer, were fabricated and characterized in both fuel cell (SOFC) and electrolysis (SOEC) operation modes. The cells were anode-supported, the NiO-YSZ microtubular supports being made by Powder Extrusion Moulding (PEM). The cells showed power densities of 695 mW cm−2 at 800 °C and 0.7 V in SOFC mode, and of 845 mA cm−2 at 800 °C and 1.3 V in SOEC mode. AC impedance experiments performed under different potential loads demonstrated the reversibility of the cells. These results showed that these cells, prepared with a method suitable for using on an industrial scale, are highly reproducible and reliable, as well as very competitive as reversible SOFC-SOEC devices operating at intermediate temperatures.

    更新日期:2017-12-23
  • Aqueous based asymmetrical-bipolar electrochemical capacitor with a 2.4 V operating voltage
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Haoran Wu, Keryn Lian

    A novel asymmetrical-bipolar electrochemical capacitor system leveraging the contributions of a Zn-CNT asymmetrical electrode and a KOH-H2SO4 dual-pH electrolyte was developed. The positive and negative electrodes operated in electrolytes with different pH, exploiting the maximum potential of both electrodes, which led to a cell voltage of 2.4 V. The potential tracking of both electrodes revealed that the Zn negative electrode could maintain a potential at −1.2 V, while the CNT positive electrode can be charged to +1.2 V without significant irreversible reactions. A bipolar ion exchange membrane has effectively separated the acid and alkaline from neutralization, which resulted in stable performance of the device with capacitance retention of 94% and coulombic efficiency of 99% over 10,000 cycles. This asymmetrical-bipolar design overcomes the thermodynamic limit of water decomposition, opening a new avenue towards high energy and high power density aqueous-based ECs.

    更新日期:2017-12-23
  • Energy extraction and water treatment in one system: The idea of using a desalination battery in a cooling tower
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Barak Shapira, Izaak Cohen, Tirupathi Rao Penki, Eran Avraham, Doron Aurbach
    更新日期:2017-12-23
  • In-situ synthesis of hydrogen peroxide in a novel Zn-CNTs-O2 system
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Xiao-bo Gong, Zhao Yang, Lin Peng, An-lan Zhou, Yan-lan Liu, Yong Liu
    更新日期:2017-12-23
  • Economical recycling process for spent lithium-ion batteries and macro- and micro-scale mechanistic study
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Li Li, Yifan Bian, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Qing Xue, Ersha Fan, Feng Wu, Renjie Chen

    An economical effective method is developed for recycling spent LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathodes, where more than 98% Li, Co, Ni and Mn can be leached out with different organic acids, and resynthesized to LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2. The leaching mechanism is investigated at macro- and micro-scales. The particles undergo a loosening-breaking-shrinking change for two acids, while the FTIR and UV-vis spectra indicate different coordination reactions. The performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 resynthesized from the leachate of the acetic acid leaching (NCM-Ac) and maleic acid leaching (NCM-Ma) are compared. The first discharge capacity of NCM-Ma and NCM-Ac at 0.2C are 151.6 and 115.0 mA h g−1, respectively. The much better performance of NCM-Ma than NCM-Ac results from the different coordination of the two acids in the sol-gel process, where the maleic acid can esterify to establish a stable network to chelate metal ions, while the weak chelation of acetic acid leads to the formation of impurities. The economics analysis including the cost of leaching acid and energy consumption shows that the price of organic acids and reducing agents, short leaching time, low temperature and high-valued products are the effective way to increase recycling and environmental benefits, which shows advantages in terms of resources cost and added value.

    更新日期:2017-12-23
  • Investigating the error sources of the online state of charge estimation methods for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Yuejiu Zheng, Minggao Ouyang, Xuebing Han, Languang Lu, Jianqiu Li

    Sate of charge (SOC) estimation is generally acknowledged as one of the most important functions in battery management system for lithium-ion batteries in new energy vehicles. Though every effort is made for various online SOC estimation methods to reliably increase the estimation accuracy as much as possible within the limited on-chip resources, little literature discusses the error sources for those SOC estimation methods. This paper firstly reviews the commonly studied SOC estimation methods from a conventional classification. A novel perspective focusing on the error analysis of the SOC estimation methods is proposed. SOC estimation methods are analyzed from the views of the measured values, models, algorithms and state parameters. Subsequently, the error flow charts are proposed to analyze the error sources from the signal measurement to the models and algorithms for the widely used online SOC estimation methods in new energy vehicles. Finally, with the consideration of the working conditions, choosing more reliable and applicable SOC estimation methods is discussed, and the future development of the promising online SOC estimation methods is suggested.

    更新日期:2017-12-23
  • Improving cycle stability of SnS anode for sodium-ion batteries by limiting Sn agglomeration
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Wenhui Wang, Liang Shi, Danni Lan, Quan Li

    Flower-like SnS nanostructures are obtained by a simple solvothermal method for anode applications in Na-ion batteries. We show experimental evidence of progressive Sn agglomeration and crystalline Na2S enrichment at the end of de-sodiation process of the SnS electrode, both of which contribute to the capacity decay of the electrode upon repeated cycles. By replacing the commonly adopted acetylene black conductive additive with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), the cycle stability of the SnS electrode is largely improved, which correlates well with the observed suppression of both Sn agglomeration and Na2S enrichment at the end of de-sodiation cycle. A full cell is assembled with the SnS/MWCNT anode and the P2-Na2/3Ni1/3Mn1/2Ti1/6O2 cathode. An initial energy density of 262 Wh/kg (normalized to the total mass of cathode and anode) is demonstrated for the full cell, which retains 71% of the first discharge capacity after 40 cycles.

    更新日期:2017-12-23
  • 更新日期:2017-12-23
  • Four-electron transfer tandem tetracyanoquinodimethane for cathode-active material in lithium secondary battery
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Naoya Kurimoto, Ryo Omoda, Tomonobu Mizumo, Seitaro Ito, Yuichi Aihara, Takahito Itoh
    更新日期:2017-12-23
  • A simple approach for making a viable, safe, and high-performances lithium-sulfur battery
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Lorenzo Carbone, Thomas Coneglian, Mallory Gobet, Stephen Munoz, Matthew Devany, Steve Greenbaum, Jusef Hassoun
    更新日期:2017-12-23
  • An ion-conductive Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3-based composite protective layer for lithium metal anode in lithium-sulfur batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Changzhi Sun, Xiao Huang, Jun Jin, Yang Lu, Qing Wang, Jianhua Yang, Zhaoyin Wen

    Lithium (Li) metal plays an indispensable role in Li-S batteries, but its fast degradation seriously impedes the practical application of Li-S batteries. Here, an ion-conductive LAGP-based composite protective layer (CPL) consisting of lithium aluminum germanium phosphate (Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is prepared on Li metal anode via a facile casting method. In the presence of LAGP, the negative effect of CPL on the diffusion of Li+ is minimized. Hence, it can not only effectively resist corrosive action of lithium polysulfides (LiPSs) on Li metal anode, but also reduce interfacial polarization and restrain dendritic Li growth. The protected Li anode exhibits exceptional cycling stability and low voltage polarization (∼30 mV at 0.5 mA cm−2) for 300 h. The electrochemical performance of Li-S batteries with protected Li anode is also greatly enhanced. The discharge specific capacity of 832.1 mAh g−1 and an average coulombic efficiency of 92% are obtained for up to 100 cycles at 0.5 C in LiNO3-free electrolyte. Additionally, the rate capability of Li-S batteries is significantly improved, delivering a reversible capacity of 565 mAh g−1 at 4 C. Our results also indicate this protection strategy can be extended to the Li-S pouch cells.

    更新日期:2017-12-23
  • Crystalline maricite NaFePO4 as a positive electrode material for sodium secondary batteries operating at intermediate temperature
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Jinkwang Hwang, Kazuhiko Matsumoto, Yuki Orikasa, Misaki Katayama, Yasuhiro Inada, Toshiyuki Nohira, Rika Hagiwara

    Maricite NaFePO4 (m-NaFePO4) was investigated as a positive electrode material for intermediate-temperature operation of sodium secondary batteries using ionic liquid electrolytes. Powdered m-NaFePO4 was prepared by a conventional solid-state method at 873 K and subsequently fabricated in two different conditions; one is ball-milled in acetone and the other is re-calcined at 873 K after the ball-milling. Electrochemical properties of the electrodes prepared with the as-synthesized m-NaFePO4, the ball-milled m-NaFePO4, and the re-calcined m-NaFePO4 were investigated in Na[FSA]-[C2C1im][FSA] (C2C1im+ = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium, FSA− = bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide) ionic liquid electrolytes at 298 K and 363 K to assess the effects of temperature and particle size on their electrochemical properties. A reversible charge-discharge capacity of 107 mAh g−1 was achieved with a coulombic efficiency >98% from the 2nd cycle using the ball-milled m-NaFePO4 electrode at a C–rate of 0.1 C and 363 K. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy using m-NaFePO4/m-NaFePO4 symmetric cells indicated that inactive m-NaFePO4 becomes an active material through ball-milling treatment and elevation of operating temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis of crystalline m-NaFePO4 confirmed the lattice contraction and expansion upon charging and discharging, respectively. These results indicate that the desodiation-sodiation process in m-NaFePO4 is reversible in the intermediate-temperature range.

    更新日期:2017-12-23
  • 更新日期:2017-12-23
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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