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  • Mechanotransduction-modulated fibrotic microniches reveal the contribution of angiogenesis in liver fibrosis
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Longwei Liu, Zhifeng You, Hongsheng Yu, Lyu Zhou, Hui Zhao, Xiaojun Yan, Dulei Li, Bingjie Wang, Lu Zhu, Yuzhou Xu, Tie Xia, Yan Shi, Chenyu Huang, Wei Hou, Yanan Du

    Mechanotransduction-modulated fibrotic microniches reveal the contribution of angiogenesis in liver fibrosis Mechanotransduction-modulated fibrotic microniches reveal the contribution of angiogenesis in liver fibrosis, Published online: 13 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5024 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Angiogenesis has been implicated in fibrotic diseases of the liver. Here, the authors developed microniches that mimic angiogenesis during different stages of liver fibrosis, and demonstrate the role of mechanotransduction in fibrogenesis. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-13
  • Ultrathin graphene-based membrane with precise molecular sieving and ultrafast solvent permeation
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Q. Yang, Y. Su, C. Chi, C. T. Cherian, K. Huang, V. G. Kravets, F. C. Wang, J. C. Zhang, A. Pratt, A. N. Grigorenko, F. Guinea, A. K. Geim, R. R. Nair

    Ultrathin graphene-based membrane with precise molecular sieving and ultrafast solvent permeation Ultrathin graphene-based membrane with precise molecular sieving and ultrafast solvent permeation, Published online: 13 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5025 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Highly laminar graphene oxide flakes (10 to 20 μm in diameter) are fabricated. Reducing flake thickness to 10 nm enables water and organic solvent permeation, enabling the flakes to act as a highly effective organic solvent membrane. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-13
  • Beating the thermodynamic limit with photo-activation of n-doping in organic semiconductors
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Xin Lin, Berthold Wegner, Kyung Min Lee, Michael A. Fusella, Fengyu Zhang, Karttikay Moudgil, Barry P. Rand, Stephen Barlow, Seth R. Marder, Norbert Koch, Antoine Kahn

    Beating the thermodynamic limit with photo-activation of n-doping in organic semiconductors Beating the thermodynamic limit with photo-activation of n-doping in organic semiconductors, Published online: 13 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5027 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= The activation of cleavable organometallic dimers upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation allows air-stable n-type doping of organic materials with electron affinity lower than the expected thermodynamic reducing strength of the dimers. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-13
  • Programmed coherent coupling in a synthetic DNA-based excitonic circuit
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Étienne Boulais, Nicolas P. D. Sawaya, Rémi Veneziano, Alessio Andreoni, James L. Banal, Toru Kondo, Sarthak Mandal, Su Lin, Gabriela S. Schlau-Cohen, Neal W. Woodbury, Hao Yan, Alán Aspuru-Guzik, Mark Bathe

    Programmed coherent coupling in a synthetic DNA-based excitonic circuit Programmed coherent coupling in a synthetic DNA-based excitonic circuit, Published online: 13 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5033 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Strongly interacting dye molecule complexes with coherent energy transport can be organized through programmable DNA scaffolds. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-13
  • Mechanotransduction-modulated fibrotic microniches reveal the contribution of angiogenesis in liver fibrosis
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Longwei Liu, Zhifeng You, Hongsheng Yu, Lyu Zhou, Hui Zhao, Xiaojun Yan, Dulei Li, Bingjie Wang, Lu Zhu, Yuzhou Xu, Tie Xia, Yan Shi, Chenyu Huang, Wei Hou, Yanan Du

    Mechanotransduction-modulated fibrotic microniches reveal the contribution of angiogenesis in liver fibrosis Mechanotransduction-modulated fibrotic microniches reveal the contribution of angiogenesis in liver fibrosis, Published online: 13 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5024 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Angiogenesis has been implicated in fibrotic diseases of the liver. Here, the authors developed microniches that mimic angiogenesis during different stages of liver fibrosis, and demonstrate the role of mechanotransduction in fibrogenesis. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-13
  • Ultrathin graphene-based membrane with precise molecular sieving and ultrafast solvent permeation
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Q. Yang, Y. Su, C. Chi, C. T. Cherian, K. Huang, V. G. Kravets, F. C. Wang, J. C. Zhang, A. Pratt, A. N. Grigorenko, F. Guinea, A. K. Geim, R. R. Nair

    Ultrathin graphene-based membrane with precise molecular sieving and ultrafast solvent permeation Ultrathin graphene-based membrane with precise molecular sieving and ultrafast solvent permeation, Published online: 13 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5025 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Highly laminar graphene oxide flakes (10 to 20 μm in diameter) are fabricated. Reducing flake thickness to 10 nm enables water and organic solvent permeation, enabling the flakes to act as a highly effective organic solvent membrane. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-13
  • Beating the thermodynamic limit with photo-activation of n-doping in organic semiconductors
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Xin Lin, Berthold Wegner, Kyung Min Lee, Michael A. Fusella, Fengyu Zhang, Karttikay Moudgil, Barry P. Rand, Stephen Barlow, Seth R. Marder, Norbert Koch, Antoine Kahn

    Beating the thermodynamic limit with photo-activation of n-doping in organic semiconductors Beating the thermodynamic limit with photo-activation of n-doping in organic semiconductors, Published online: 13 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5027 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= The activation of cleavable organometallic dimers upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation allows air-stable n-type doping of organic materials with electron affinity lower than the expected thermodynamic reducing strength of the dimers. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-13
  • Programmed coherent coupling in a synthetic DNA-based excitonic circuit
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Étienne Boulais, Nicolas P. D. Sawaya, Rémi Veneziano, Alessio Andreoni, James L. Banal, Toru Kondo, Sarthak Mandal, Su Lin, Gabriela S. Schlau-Cohen, Neal W. Woodbury, Hao Yan, Alán Aspuru-Guzik, Mark Bathe

    Programmed coherent coupling in a synthetic DNA-based excitonic circuit Programmed coherent coupling in a synthetic DNA-based excitonic circuit, Published online: 13 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5033 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Strongly interacting dye molecule complexes with coherent energy transport can be organized through programmable DNA scaffolds. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-13
  • Fibronectin-bound α5β1 integrins sense load and signal to reinforce adhesion in less than a second
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Nico Strohmeyer, Mitasha Bharadwaj, Mercedes Costell, Reinhard Fässler, Daniel J. Müller

    Integrin-mediated mechanosensing of the extracellular environment allows cells to control adhesion and signalling. Whether cells sense and respond to force immediately upon ligand-binding is unknown. Here, we report that during adhesion initiation, fibroblasts respond to mechanical load by strengthening integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin (FN) in a biphasic manner. In the first phase, which depends on talin and kindlin as well as on the actin nucleators Arp2/3 and mDia, FN-engaged α5β1 integrins activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and c-Src in less than 0.5 s to steeply strengthen α5β1- and αV-class integrin-mediated adhesion. When the mechanical load exceeds a certain threshold, fibroblasts decrease adhesion and initiate the second phase, which is characterized by less steep adhesion strengthening. This unique, biphasic cellular adhesion response is mediated by α5β1 integrins, which form catch bonds with FN and signal to FN-binding integrins to reinforce cell adhesion much before visible adhesion clusters are formed.

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • Intracellular production of hydrogels and synthetic RNA granules by multivalent molecular interactions
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Hideki Nakamura, Albert A. Lee, Ali Sobhi Afshar, Shigeki Watanabe, Elmer Rho, Shiva Razavi, Allister Suarez, Yu-Chun Lin, Makoto Tanigawa, Brian Huang, Robert DeRose, Diana Bobb, William Hong, Sandra B. Gabelli, John Goutsias, Takanari Inoue

    Some protein components of intracellular non-membrane-bound entities, such as RNA granules, are known to form hydrogels in vitro. The physico-chemical properties and functional role of these intracellular hydrogels are difficult to study, primarily due to technical challenges in probing these materials in situ. Here, we present iPOLYMER, a strategy for a rapid induction of protein-based hydrogels inside living cells that explores the chemically inducible dimerization paradigm. Biochemical and biophysical characterizations aided by computational modelling show that the polymer network formed in the cytosol resembles a physiological hydrogel-like entity that acts as a size-dependent molecular sieve. We functionalize these polymers with RNA-binding motifs that sequester polyadenine-containing nucleotides to synthetically mimic RNA granules. These results show that iPOLYMER can be used to synthetically reconstitute the nucleation of biologically functional entities, including RNA granules in intact cells.

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • Fibronectin-bound α5β1 integrins sense load and signal to reinforce adhesion in less than a second
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Nico Strohmeyer, Mitasha Bharadwaj, Mercedes Costell, Reinhard Fässler, Daniel J. Müller

    Integrin-mediated mechanosensing of the extracellular environment allows cells to control adhesion and signalling. Whether cells sense and respond to force immediately upon ligand-binding is unknown. Here, we report that during adhesion initiation, fibroblasts respond to mechanical load by strengthening integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin (FN) in a biphasic manner. In the first phase, which depends on talin and kindlin as well as on the actin nucleators Arp2/3 and mDia, FN-engaged α5β1 integrins activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and c-Src in less than 0.5 s to steeply strengthen α5β1- and αV-class integrin-mediated adhesion. When the mechanical load exceeds a certain threshold, fibroblasts decrease adhesion and initiate the second phase, which is characterized by less steep adhesion strengthening. This unique, biphasic cellular adhesion response is mediated by α5β1 integrins, which form catch bonds with FN and signal to FN-binding integrins to reinforce cell adhesion much before visible adhesion clusters are formed.

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • Intracellular production of hydrogels and synthetic RNA granules by multivalent molecular interactions
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Hideki Nakamura, Albert A. Lee, Ali Sobhi Afshar, Shigeki Watanabe, Elmer Rho, Shiva Razavi, Allister Suarez, Yu-Chun Lin, Makoto Tanigawa, Brian Huang, Robert DeRose, Diana Bobb, William Hong, Sandra B. Gabelli, John Goutsias, Takanari Inoue

    Intracellular production of hydrogels and synthetic RNA granules by multivalent molecular interactionsIntracellular production of hydrogels and synthetic RNA granules by multivalent molecular interactions, Published online: 06 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5006NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup=An approach to form protein-based hydrogels in living cells that resemble physiological hydrogel-like size-dependent molecular sieves is presented. Synthetic RNA granules mimics are obtained by functionalizing these entities with RNA-binding motifs., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • Supramolecular biomaterials
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2015-12-18
    Matthew J. Webber, Eric A. Appel, E. W. Meijer, Robert Langer

    This Review discusses the properties and applications of supramolecular biomaterials for drug delivery, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and immunology.

    更新日期:2017-11-01
  • Maintenance of neural progenitor cell stemness in 3D hydrogels requires matrix remodelling
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Christopher M. Madl, Bauer L. LeSavage, Ruby E. Dewi, Cong B. Dinh, Ryan S. Stowers, Margarita Khariton, Kyle J. Lampe, Duong Nguyen, Ovijit Chaudhuri, Annika Enejder, Sarah C. Heilshorn

    Neural progenitor cell (NPC) culture within three-dimensional (3D) hydrogels is an attractive strategy for expanding a therapeutically relevant number of stem cells. However, relatively little is known about how 3D material properties such as stiffness and degradability affect the maintenance of NPC stemness in the absence of differentiation factors. Over a physiologically relevant range of stiffness from ~0.5 to 50 kPa, stemness maintenance did not correlate with initial hydrogel stiffness. In contrast, hydrogel degradation was both correlated with, and necessary for, maintenance of NPC stemness. This requirement for degradation was independent of cytoskeletal tension generation and presentation of engineered adhesive ligands, instead relying on matrix remodelling to facilitate cadherin-mediated cell–cell contact and promote β-catenin signalling. In two additional hydrogel systems, permitting NPC-mediated matrix remodelling proved to be a generalizable strategy for stemness maintenance in 3D. Our findings have identified matrix remodelling, in the absence of cytoskeletal tension generation, as a previously unknown strategy to maintain stemness in 3D.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Additively manufactured hierarchical stainless steels with high strength and ductility
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Y. Morris Wang, Thomas Voisin, Joseph T. McKeown, Jianchao Ye, Nicholas P. Calta, Zan Li, Zhi Zeng, Yin Zhang, Wen Chen, Tien Tran Roehling, Ryan T. Ott, Melissa K. Santala, Philip J. Depond, Manyalibo J. Matthews, Alex V. Hamza, Ting Zhu

    Many traditional approaches for strengthening steels typically come at the expense of useful ductility, a dilemma known as strength–ductility trade-off. New metallurgical processing might offer the possibility of overcoming this. Here we report that austenitic 316L stainless steels additively manufactured via a laser powder-bed-fusion technique exhibit a combination of yield strength and tensile ductility that surpasses that of conventional 316L steels. High strength is attributed to solidification-enabled cellular structures, low-angle grain boundaries, and dislocations formed during manufacturing, while high uniform elongation correlates to a steady and progressive work-hardening mechanism regulated by a hierarchically heterogeneous microstructure, with length scales spanning nearly six orders of magnitude. In addition, solute segregation along cellular walls and low-angle grain boundaries can enhance dislocation pinning and promote twinning. This work demonstrates the potential of additive manufacturing to create alloys with unique microstructures and high performance for structural applications.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Maintenance of neural progenitor cell stemness in 3D hydrogels requires matrix remodelling
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Christopher M. Madl, Bauer L. LeSavage, Ruby E. Dewi, Cong B. Dinh, Ryan S. Stowers, Margarita Khariton, Kyle J. Lampe, Duong Nguyen, Ovijit Chaudhuri, Annika Enejder, Sarah C. Heilshorn

    Neural progenitor cell (NPC) culture within three-dimensional (3D) hydrogels is an attractive strategy for expanding a therapeutically relevant number of stem cells. However, relatively little is known about how 3D material properties such as stiffness and degradability affect the maintenance of NPC stemness in the absence of differentiation factors. Over a physiologically relevant range of stiffness from ~0.5 to 50 kPa, stemness maintenance did not correlate with initial hydrogel stiffness. In contrast, hydrogel degradation was both correlated with, and necessary for, maintenance of NPC stemness. This requirement for degradation was independent of cytoskeletal tension generation and presentation of engineered adhesive ligands, instead relying on matrix remodelling to facilitate cadherin-mediated cell–cell contact and promote β-catenin signalling. In two additional hydrogel systems, permitting NPC-mediated matrix remodelling proved to be a generalizable strategy for stemness maintenance in 3D. Our findings have identified matrix remodelling, in the absence of cytoskeletal tension generation, as a previously unknown strategy to maintain stemness in 3D.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Additively manufactured hierarchical stainless steels with high strength and ductility
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Y. Morris Wang, Thomas Voisin, Joseph T. McKeown, Jianchao Ye, Nicholas P. Calta, Zan Li, Zhi Zeng, Yin Zhang, Wen Chen, Tien Tran Roehling, Ryan T. Ott, Melissa K. Santala, Philip J. Depond, Manyalibo J. Matthews, Alex V. Hamza, Ting Zhu

    Additively manufactured hierarchical stainless steels with high strength and ductility Nature Materials, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5021 3D-printed steels with hierarchically heterogeneous microstructures demonstrate high strength and ductility.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Quantum materials discovery from a synthesis perspective
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Nitin Samarth

    Quantum materials discovery from a synthesis perspective Nature Materials, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5010 The exploration of the properties and applications of quantum materials relies on advances in synthesis techniques. The approaches pursued to realize thin films and other materials revealing emergent quantum behaviour are reviewed here.

    更新日期:2017-10-25
  • Topological states of condensed matter
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Jing Wang, Shou-Cheng Zhang

    Topological states of condensed matter Nature Materials, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5012 This Perspective discusses recent progress in the field of topological states in condensed matter; initiated by the quantum Hall effect, it now includes systems like topological insulators, topological superconductors, and Weyl/Dirac semimetals.

    更新日期:2017-10-25
  • Imaging quantum materials
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Kathryn Ann Moler

    Imaging quantum materials Nature Materials, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5018 Specialized imaging methods are now available to measure the quantum properties of materials with high sensitivity and resolution. These techniques are key to the design, synthesis and understanding of materials with exotic functionalities.

    更新日期:2017-10-25
  • Material witness: Get a grip
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Philip Ball

    Material witness: Get a grip Nature Materials, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5022

    更新日期:2017-10-25
  • Stranger things
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-25

    Stranger things Nature Materials, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5026 From a combined effort by theorists, materials scientists and spectroscopists, topology has moved from a purely mathematical idea to the realization of unique properties in several condensed matter systems.

    更新日期:2017-10-25
  • Organoids: Modelling polycystic kidney disease
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Paola Romagnani

    Organoids: Modelling polycystic kidney disease Nature Materials, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5013 Cysts were generated from organoids in vitro and the removal of adherent cues was shown to play a key role in polycystic kidney disease progression. These cysts resembled those of diseased tissue phenotypically and were capable of remodelling their microenvironment.

    更新日期:2017-10-25
  • Nanocrystalline metals: Roughness in flatland
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Jakob Schiøtz, Karsten W. Jacobsen

    Nanocrystalline metals: Roughness in flatland Nature Materials, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5015 Energy-favoured grain rotation in nanocrystalline metals is shown to cause surface roughness at the atomic scale, providing fundamental insight for grain boundary engineering in materials design.

    更新日期:2017-10-25
  • Towards properties on demand in quantum materials
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    D. N. Basov, R. D. Averitt, D. Hsieh

    Towards properties on demand in quantum materials Nature Materials, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5017 The key to exploiting quantum materials for applications is the control of their properties. This Review discusses strategies to externally modify their properties on demand.

    更新日期:2017-10-25
  • Quantum materials discovery from a synthesis perspective
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Nitin Samarth

    Quantum materials discovery from a synthesis perspective Nature Materials, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5010 The exploration of the properties and applications of quantum materials relies on advances in synthesis techniques. The approaches pursued to realize thin films and other materials revealing emergent quantum behaviour are reviewed here.

    更新日期:2017-10-25
  • Topological states of condensed matter
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Jing Wang, Shou-Cheng Zhang

    Topological states of condensed matter Nature Materials, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5012 This Perspective discusses recent progress in the field of topological states in condensed matter; initiated by the quantum Hall effect, it now includes systems like topological insulators, topological superconductors, and Weyl/Dirac semimetals.

    更新日期:2017-10-25
  • Imaging quantum materials
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Kathryn Ann Moler

    Imaging quantum materials Nature Materials, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5018 Specialized imaging methods are now available to measure the quantum properties of materials with high sensitivity and resolution. These techniques are key to the design, synthesis and understanding of materials with exotic functionalities.

    更新日期:2017-10-25
  • Material witness: Get a grip
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Philip Ball

    Material witness: Get a grip Nature Materials, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5022

    更新日期:2017-10-25
  • Stranger things
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-25

    Stranger things Nature Materials, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5026 From a combined effort by theorists, materials scientists and spectroscopists, topology has moved from a purely mathematical idea to the realization of unique properties in several condensed matter systems.

    更新日期:2017-10-25
  • Organoids: Modelling polycystic kidney disease
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Paola Romagnani

    Organoids: Modelling polycystic kidney disease Nature Materials, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5013 Cysts were generated from organoids in vitro and the removal of adherent cues was shown to play a key role in polycystic kidney disease progression. These cysts resembled those of diseased tissue phenotypically and were capable of remodelling their microenvironment.

    更新日期:2017-10-25
  • Nanocrystalline metals: Roughness in flatland
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Jakob Schiøtz, Karsten W. Jacobsen

    Nanocrystalline metals: Roughness in flatland Nature Materials, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5015 Energy-favoured grain rotation in nanocrystalline metals is shown to cause surface roughness at the atomic scale, providing fundamental insight for grain boundary engineering in materials design.

    更新日期:2017-10-25
  • Towards properties on demand in quantum materials
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    D. N. Basov, R. D. Averitt, D. Hsieh

    Towards properties on demand in quantum materials Nature Materials, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5017 The key to exploiting quantum materials for applications is the control of their properties. This Review discusses strategies to externally modify their properties on demand.

    更新日期:2017-10-25
  • Sequential bottom-up assembly of mechanically stabilized synthetic cells by microfluidics
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 
    Marian Weiss, Johannes Patrick Frohnmayer, Lucia Theresa Benk, Barbara Haller, Jan-Willi Janiesch, Thomas Heitkamp, Michael Börsch, Rafael B. Lira, Rumiana Dimova, Reinhard Lipowsky, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Jean-Christophe Baret, Tanja Vidakovic-Koch, Kai Sundmacher, Ilia Platzman, Joachim P. Spatz

    Compartments for the spatially and temporally controlled assembly of biological processes are essential towards cellular life. Synthetic mimics of cellular compartments based on lipid-based protocells lack the mechanical and chemical stability to allow their manipulation into a complex and fully functional synthetic cell. Here, we present a high-throughput microfluidic method to generate stable, defined sized liposomes termed ‘droplet-stabilized giant unilamellar vesicles (dsGUVs)’. The enhanced stability of dsGUVs enables the sequential loading of these compartments with biomolecules, namely purified transmembrane and cytoskeleton proteins by microfluidic pico-injection technology. This constitutes an experimental demonstration of a successful bottom-up assembly of a compartment with contents that would not self-assemble to full functionality when simply mixed together. Following assembly, the stabilizing oil phase and droplet shells are removed to release functional self-supporting protocells to an aqueous phase, enabling them to interact with physiologically relevant matrices.

    更新日期:2017-10-16
  • Topological defects govern crack front motion and facet formation on broken surfaces
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 
    Itamar Kolvin, Gil Cohen, Jay Fineberg

    Topological defects govern crack front motion and facet formation on broken surfaces Nature Materials, Published online: 16 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5008 In brittle soft materials, topological defects determine fracture propagation and faceted patterning.

    更新日期:2017-10-16
  • Liquid metal–organic frameworks
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 
    Romain Gaillac, Pluton Pullumbi, Kevin A. Beyer, Karena W. Chapman, David A. Keen, Thomas D. Bennett, François-Xavier Coudert

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are a family of chemically diverse materials, with applications in a wide range of fields, covering engineering, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. Until recently, research has focused almost entirely on crystalline structures, yet now a clear trend is emerging, shifting the emphasis onto disordered states, including ‘defective by design’ crystals, as well as amorphous phases such as glasses and gels. Here we introduce a strongly associated MOF liquid, obtained by melting a zeolitic imidazolate framework. We combine in situ variable temperature X-ray, ex situ neutron pair distribution function experiments, and first-principles molecular dynamics simulations to study the melting phenomenon and the nature of the liquid obtained. We demonstrate from structural, dynamical, and thermodynamical information that the chemical configuration, coordinative bonding, and porosity of the parent crystalline framework survive upon formation of the MOF liquid.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Circulating tumour DNA methylation markers for diagnosis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 
    Rui-hua Xu, Wei Wei, Michal Krawczyk, Wenqiu Wang, Huiyan Luo, Ken Flagg, Shaohua Yi, William Shi, Qingli Quan, Kang Li, Lianghong Zheng, Heng Zhang, Bennett A. Caughey, Qi Zhao, Jiayi Hou, Runze Zhang, Yanxin Xu, Huimin Cai, Gen Li, Rui Hou, Zheng Zhong, Danni Lin, Xin Fu, Jie Zhu, Yaou Duan, Meixing Yu, Binwu Ying, Wengeng Zhang, Juan Wang, Edward Zhang, Charlotte Zhang, Oulan Li, Rongping Guo, Hannah Carter, Jian-kang Zhu, Xiaoke Hao, Kang Zhang

    An effective blood-based method for the diagnosis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not yet been developed. Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) carrying cancer-specific genetic and epigenetic aberrations may enable a noninvasive ‘liquid biopsy’ for diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. Here, we identified an HCC-specific methylation marker panel by comparing HCC tissue and normal blood leukocytes and showed that methylation profiles of HCC tumour DNA and matched plasma ctDNA are highly correlated. Using cfDNA samples from a large cohort of 1,098 HCC patients and 835 normal controls, we constructed a diagnostic prediction model that showed high diagnostic specificity and sensitivity (P < 0.001) and was highly correlated with tumour burden, treatment response, and stage. Additionally, we constructed a prognostic prediction model that effectively predicted prognosis and survival (P < 0.001). Together, these findings demonstrate in a large clinical cohort the utility of ctDNA methylation markers in the diagnosis, surveillance, and prognosis of HCC.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Liquid porous materials: Unveiling liquid MOFs
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 
    Satoshi Horike, Susumu Kitagawa

    Liquid porous materials: Unveiling liquid MOFs Nature Materials, Published online: 9 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat4999 Diffraction and simulation studies reveal the presence of significant porosity in both the glass and liquid phases of a metal–organic framework.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Continuous-wave infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission at ultralow threshold by colloidal HgTe quantum dots
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 
    Pieter Geiregat, Arjan J. Houtepen, Laxmi Kishore Sagar, Ivan Infante, Felipe Zapata, Valeriia Grigel, Guy Allan, Christophe Delerue, Dries Van Thourhout, Zeger Hens

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) raise more and more interest as solution-processable and tunable optical gain materials. However, especially for infrared active QDs, optical gain remains inefficient. Since stimulated emission involves multifold degenerate band-edge states, population inversion can be attained only at high pump power and must compete with efficient multi-exciton recombination. Here, we show that mercury telluride (HgTe) QDs exhibit size-tunable stimulated emission throughout the near-infrared telecom window at thresholds unmatched by any QD studied before. We attribute this unique behaviour to surface-localized states in the bandgap that turn HgTe QDs into 4-level systems. The resulting long-lived population inversion induces amplified spontaneous emission under continuous-wave optical pumping at power levels compatible with solar irradiation and direct current electrical pumping. These results introduce an alternative approach for low-threshold QD-based gain media based on intentional trap states that paves the way for solution-processed infrared QD lasers and amplifiers.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Mechanical confinement regulates cartilage matrix formation by chondrocytes
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 
    Hong-pyo Lee, Luo Gu, David J. Mooney, Marc E. Levenston, Ovijit Chaudhuri

    Cartilage tissue equivalents formed from hydrogels containing chondrocytes could provide a solution for replacing damaged cartilage. Previous approaches have often utilized elastic hydrogels. However, elastic stresses may restrict cartilage matrix formation and alter the chondrocyte phenotype. Here we investigated the use of viscoelastic hydrogels, in which stresses are relaxed over time and which exhibit creep, for three-dimensional (3D) culture of chondrocytes. We found that faster relaxation promoted a striking increase in the volume of interconnected cartilage matrix formed by chondrocytes. In slower relaxing gels, restriction of cell volume expansion by elastic stresses led to increased secretion of IL-1β, which in turn drove strong up-regulation of genes associated with cartilage degradation and cell death. As no cell-adhesion ligands are presented by the hydrogels, these results reveal cell sensing of cell volume confinement as an adhesion-independent mechanism of mechanotransduction in 3D culture, and highlight stress relaxation as a key design parameter for cartilage tissue engineering.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Organoid cystogenesis reveals a critical role of microenvironment in human polycystic kidney disease
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 
    Nelly M. Cruz, Xuewen Song, Stefan M. Czerniecki, Ramila E. Gulieva, Angela J. Churchill, Yong Kyun Kim, Kosuke Winston, Linh M. Tran, Marco A. Diaz, Hongxia Fu, Laura S. Finn, York Pei, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Benjamin S. Freedman

    Organoid cystogenesis reveals a critical role of microenvironment in human polycystic kidney disease Nature Materials, Published online: 2 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat4994 Tissue mimics are of great interest in understanding diseases. Here, organoids were developed that resemble polycystic kidney disease cysts and it was demonstrated how material environment and adhesion can affect cystogenesis and disease progression.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Exciton Hall effect in monolayer MoS2
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 
    Masaru Onga, Yijin Zhang, Toshiya Ideue, Yoshihiro Iwasa

    Exciton Hall effect in monolayer MoS2 Nature Materials, Published online: 2 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat4996 Polarization-dependent photoluminescent mapping reveals that excitons—composite particles made of electron–hole pairs bound by the Coulomb force—exhibit the Hall effect, which originates from the large exciton Berry curvature.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Material Witness: Pumping muscles
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 
    Philip Ball

    Material Witness: Pumping muscles Nature Materials, Published online: 26 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5001

    更新日期:2017-09-26
  • Useless versus useful knowledge
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 

    Useless versus useful knowledge Nature Materials, Published online: 26 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5003 The idea that science proceeds from 'pure' curiosity to applications is too simplistic — and always has been.

    更新日期:2017-09-26
  • Spin thermal effects: A new member of the Hall family
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 
    Joseph P. Heremans

    Spin thermal effects: A new member of the Hall family Nature Materials, Published online: 26 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat5002 The spin Nernst effect — a spin accumulation in a ferromagnet in the direction normal to an applied thermal gradient and external magnetic field — has been experimentally demonstrated.

    更新日期:2017-09-26
  • Realizing the classical XY Hamiltonian in polariton simulators
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-09-25
    Natalia G. Berloff, Matteo Silva, Kirill Kalinin, Alexis Askitopoulos, Julian D. Töpfer, Pasquale Cilibrizzi, Wolfgang Langbein, Pavlos G. Lagoudakis

    The vast majority of real-life optimization problems with a large number of degrees of freedom are intractable by classical computers, since their complexity grows exponentially fast with the number of variables. Many of these problems can be mapped into classical spin models, such as the Ising, the XY or the Heisenberg models, so that optimization problems are reduced to finding the global minimum of spin models. Here, we propose and investigate the potential of polariton graphs as an efficient analogue simulator for finding the global minimum of the XY model. By imprinting polariton condensate lattices of bespoke geometries we show that we can engineer various coupling strengths between the lattice sites and read out the result of the global minimization through the relative phases. Besides solving optimization problems, polariton graphs can simulate a large variety of systems undergoing the U(1) symmetry-breaking transition. We realize various magnetic phases, such as ferromagnetic, anti-ferromagnetic, and frustrated spin configurations on a linear chain, the unit cells of square and triangular lattices, a disordered graph, and demonstrate the potential for size scalability on an extended square lattice of 45 coherently coupled polariton condensates. Our results provide a route to study unconventional superfluids, spin liquids, Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless phase transition, and classical magnetism, among the many systems that are described by the XY Hamiltonian.

    更新日期:2017-09-25
  • Evidence for magnetic Weyl fermions in a correlated metal
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-09-25
    K. Kuroda, T. Tomita, M.-T. Suzuki, C. Bareille, A. A. Nugroho, P. Goswami, M. Ochi, M. Ikhlas, M. Nakayama, S. Akebi, R. Noguchi, R. Ishii, N. Inami, K. Ono, H. Kumigashira, A. Varykhalov, T. Muro, T. Koretsune, R. Arita, S. Shin, Takeshi Kondo, S. Nakatsuji

    Evidence for magnetic Weyl fermions in a correlated metal Nature Materials, Published online: 25 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat4987 Experimental evidence for the realization of magnetic Weyl fermions in the strongly correlated metal Mn3Sn is reported.

    更新日期:2017-09-25
  • Fast domain wall motion in the vicinity of the angular momentum compensation temperature of ferrimagnets
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-09-25
    Kab-Jin Kim, Se Kwon Kim, Yuushou Hirata, Se-Hyeok Oh, Takayuki Tono, Duck-Ho Kim, Takaya Okuno, Woo Seung Ham, Sanghoon Kim, Gyoungchoon Go, Yaroslav Tserkovnyak, Arata Tsukamoto, Takahiro Moriyama, Kyung-Jin Lee, Teruo Ono

    Fast domain wall motion in the vicinity of the angular momentum compensation temperature of ferrimagnets Nature Materials, Published online: 25 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat4990 Fast field-driven antiferromagnetic spin dynamics is realized in ferrimagnetic Gd23Fe67.4Co9.6 thin films at the angular momentum compensation point. In particular, at this point, the field-driven domain wall mobility is found to be enhanced.

    更新日期:2017-09-25
  • Resolving ultrafast exciton migration in organic solids at the nanoscale
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    Samuel B. Penwell, Lucas D. S. Ginsberg, Rodrigo Noriega, Naomi S. Ginsberg

    Effectiveness of molecular-based light harvesting relies on transport of excitons to charge-transfer sites. Measuring exciton migration, however, has been challenging because of the mismatch between nanoscale migration lengths and the diffraction limit. Instead of using bulk substrate quenching methods, here we define quenching boundaries all-optically with sub-diffraction resolution, thus characterizing spatiotemporal exciton migration on its native nanometre and picosecond scales. By transforming stimulated emission depletion microscopy into a time-resolved ultrafast approach, we measure a 16-nm migration length in poly(2,5-di(hexyloxy)cyanoterephthalylidene) conjugated polymer films. Combined with Monte Carlo exciton hopping simulations, we show that migration in these films is essentially diffusive because intrinsic chromophore energetic disorder is comparable to chromophore inhomogeneous broadening. Our approach will enable previously unattainable correlation of local material structure to exciton migration character, applicable not only to photovoltaic or display-destined organic semiconductors but also to explaining the quintessential exciton migration exhibited in photosynthesis.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Self-replication: Nanostructure evolution
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    Friedrich C. Simmel

    Self-replication: Nanostructure evolution Nature Materials, Published online: 18 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat4995 DNA origami nanostructures were utilized to replicate a seed pattern that resulted in the growth of populations of nanostructures. Exponential growth could be controlled by environmental conditions depending on the preferential requirements of each population.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Imaging and tuning polarity at SrTiO3 domain walls
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    Yiftach Frenkel, Noam Haham, Yishai Shperber, Christopher Bell, Yanwu Xie, Zhuoyu Chen, Yasuyuki Hikita, Harold Y. Hwang, Ekhard K. H. Salje, Beena Kalisky

    Electrostatic fields tune the ground state of interfaces between complex oxide materials. Electronic properties, such as conductivity and superconductivity, can be tuned and then used to create and control circuit elements and gate-defined devices. Here we show that naturally occurring twin boundaries, with properties that are different from their surrounding bulk, can tune the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface 2DEG at the nanoscale. In particular, SrTiO3 domain boundaries have the unusual distinction of remaining highly mobile down to low temperatures, and were recently suggested to be polar. Here we apply localized pressure to an individual SrTiO3 twin boundary and detect a change in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface current distribution. Our data directly confirm the existence of polarity at the twin boundaries, and demonstrate that they can serve as effective tunable gates. As the location of SrTiO3 domain walls can be controlled using external field stimuli, our findings suggest a novel approach to manipulate SrTiO3-based devices on the nanoscale.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Partial breaking of the Coulombic ordering of ionic liquids confined in carbon nanopores
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    Ryusuke Futamura, Taku Iiyama, Yuma Takasaki, Yury Gogotsi, Mark J. Biggs, Mathieu Salanne, Julie Ségalini, Patrice Simon, Katsumi Kaneko

    Ionic liquids are composed of equal quantities of positive and negative ions. In the bulk, electrical neutrality occurs in these liquids due to Coulombic ordering, in which ion shells of alternating charge form around a central ion. Their structure under confinement is far less well understood. This hinders the widespread application of ionic liquids in technological applications. Here we use scattering experiments to resolve the structure of a widely used ionic liquid (EMI–TFSI) when it is confined inside nanoporous carbons. We show that Coulombic ordering reduces when the pores can accommodate only a single layer of ions. Instead, equally charged ion pairs are formed due to the induction of an electric potential of opposite sign in the carbon pore walls. This non-Coulombic ordering is further enhanced in the presence of an applied external electric potential. This finding opens the door for the design of better materials for electrochemical applications.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Reversible magnesium and aluminium ions insertion in cation-deficient anatase TiO2
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    Toshinari Koketsu, Jiwei Ma, Benjamin J. Morgan, Monique Body, Christophe Legein, Walid Dachraoui, Mattia Giannini, Arnaud Demortière, Mathieu Salanne, François Dardoize, Henri Groult, Olaf J. Borkiewicz, Karena W. Chapman, Peter Strasser, Damien Dambournet

    In contrast to monovalent lithium or sodium ions, the reversible insertion of multivalent ions such as Mg2+ and Al3+ into electrode materials remains an elusive goal. Here, we demonstrate a new strategy to achieve reversible Mg2+ and Al3+ insertion in anatase TiO2, achieved through aliovalent doping, to introduce a large number of titanium vacancies that act as intercalation sites. We present a broad range of experimental and theoretical characterizations that show a preferential insertion of multivalent ions into titanium vacancies, allowing a much greater capacity to be obtained compared to pure TiO2. This result highlights the possibility to use the chemistry of defects to unlock the electrochemical activity of known materials, providing a new strategy for the chemical design of materials for practical multivalent batteries.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Exponential growth and selection in self-replicating materials from DNA origami rafts
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    Xiaojin He, Ruojie Sha, Rebecca Zhuo, Yongli Mi, Paul M. Chaikin, Nadrian C. Seeman

    Exponential growth and selection in self-replicating materials from DNA origami rafts Nature Materials, Published online: 18 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat4986 Self-replication and exponential growth are essential in nature. Here, the authors design a system of DNA origami rafts that exponentially replicate and demonstrate sensitivity to environmental changes.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Electrotunable nanoplasmonic liquid mirror
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Yunuen Montelongo, Debabrata Sikdar, Ye Ma, Alastair J. S. McIntosh, Leonora Velleman, Anthony R. Kucernak, Joshua B. Edel, Alexei A. Kornyshev

    Recently, there has been a drive to design and develop fully tunable metamaterials for applications ranging from new classes of sensors to superlenses among others. Although advances have been made, tuning and modulating the optical properties in real time remains a challenge. We report on the first realization of a reversible electrotunable liquid mirror based on voltage-controlled self-assembly/disassembly of 16 nm plasmonic nanoparticles at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions. We show that optical properties such as reflectivity and spectral position of the absorption band can be varied in situ within ±0.5 V. This observed effect is in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations corresponding to the change in average interparticle spacing. This electrochemical fully tunable nanoplasmonic platform can be switched from a highly reflective ‘mirror’ to a transmissive ‘window’ and back again. This study opens a route towards realization of such platforms in future micro/nanoscale electrochemical cells, enabling the creation of tunable plasmonic metamaterials.

    更新日期:2017-09-12
  • Observation of the spin Nernst effect
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    S. Meyer, Y.-T. Chen, S. Wimmer, M. Althammer, T. Wimmer, R. Schlitz, S. Geprägs, H. Huebl, D. Ködderitzsch, H. Ebert, G. E. W. Bauer, R. Gross, S. T. B. Goennenwein

    Observation of the spin Nernst effect Nature Materials, Published online: 11 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat4964 The observation of the spin Nernst effect in platinum thin film is reported. This and the spin Hall effects are found to be of similar magnitude.

    更新日期:2017-09-12
  • A map of high-mobility molecular semiconductors
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    S. Fratini, S. Ciuchi, D. Mayou, G. Trambly de Laissardière, A. Troisi

    The charge mobility of molecular semiconductors is limited by the large fluctuation of intermolecular transfer integrals, often referred to as off-diagonal dynamic disorder, which causes transient localization of the carriers’ eigenstates. Using a recently developed theoretical framework, we show here that the electronic structure of the molecular crystals determines its sensitivity to intermolecular fluctuations. We build a map of the transient localization lengths of high-mobility molecular semiconductors to identify what patterns of nearest-neighbour transfer integrals in the two-dimensional (2D) high-mobility plane protect the semiconductor from the effect of dynamic disorder and yield larger mobility. Such a map helps rationalizing the transport properties of the whole family of molecular semiconductors and is also used to demonstrate why common textbook approaches fail in describing this important class of materials. These results can be used to rapidly screen many compounds and design new ones with optimal transport characteristics.

    更新日期:2017-09-12
  • Long-lived force patterns and deformation waves at repulsive epithelial boundaries
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Pilar Rodríguez-Franco, Agustí Brugués, Ariadna Marín-Llauradó, Vito Conte, Guiomar Solanas, Eduard Batlle, Jeffrey J. Fredberg, Pere Roca-Cusachs, Raimon Sunyer, Xavier Trepat

    For an organism to develop and maintain homeostasis, cell types with distinct functions must often be separated by physical boundaries. The formation and maintenance of such boundaries are commonly attributed to mechanisms restricted to the cells lining the boundary. Here we show that, besides these local subcellular mechanisms, the formation and maintenance of tissue boundaries involves long-lived, long-ranged mechanical events. Following contact between two epithelial monolayers expressing, respectively, EphB2 and its ligand ephrinB1, both monolayers exhibit oscillatory patterns of traction forces and intercellular stresses that tend to pull cell–matrix adhesions away from the boundary. With time, monolayers jam, accompanied by the emergence of deformation waves that propagate away from the boundary. This phenomenon is not specific to EphB2/ephrinB1 repulsion but is also present during the formation of boundaries with an inert interface and during fusion of homotypic epithelial layers. Our findings thus unveil a global physical mechanism that sustains tissue separation independently of the biochemical and mechanical features of the local tissue boundary.

    更新日期:2017-09-12
  • Cell mechanics: When tissues collide
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Ulrich S. Schwarz, Falko Ziebert

    Cell mechanics: When tissues collide Nature Materials, Published online: 11 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat4988 Quantitative analysis of colliding cell monolayers reveals surprising wave phenomena involving contractility, jamming and activation of epithelial cells.

    更新日期:2017-09-12
  • Organic semiconductors: A map to find winners
    Nat. Mater. (IF 39.737) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Jenny Nelson

    Organic semiconductors: A map to find winners Nature Materials, Published online: 11 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nmat4992 High-mobility molecular crystals can be identified by considering only the sign and relative magnitude of the electronic coupling between neighbouring molecules. A map helps to explain experimental mobilities and to design promising materials.

    更新日期:2017-09-12
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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