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  • Insight investigation of miscible SCCO2 Water Alternating Gas (WAG) injection performance in heterogeneous sandstone reservoirs
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-10-17
    Duraid Al-Bayati, Ali Saeedi, Matthew Myers, Cameron White, Quan Xie, Ben Clennell

    In this manuscript, we present the results of a systematic approach to investigate the impact of core scale heterogeneity on the efficiency of miscible CO2 water-alternating-gas (WAG) flooding performance. Both vertical (by layering two axially-cut half plugs with differing permeability) and horizontal (stacking two smaller core samples with differing permeability in series) heterogeneities are explored. In the layered or vertically heterogeneous sample, the permeability ratio (PR) defines the ratio between the permeability values of each half plug. Our special sample construction technique using either a thin impermeable Teflon sheet to prevent flow communication or a thin tissue to promote flow communication has enabled us to investigate the effect of crossflow between half plug on the performance of the WAG flood. For the stacked composite or the horizontally heterogeneous core samples, short cylindrical core segments were used each with a different permeability value. We have also investigated the effect of the EOR injection mode (i.e. secondary vs. tertiary) on our results. For this study, core flooding experiments were performed using n-C10, brine and CO2 at a temperature of 343 K and a pressure of 12.4 MPa.The results obtained for homogeneous, layered and composite samples indicate that CO2 WAG flood performs better in all cases and achieves the highest recovery factor (RF) when conducted under the secondary mode (e.g. homogeneous: 93.4%, layered: 74.0%, and composite: 90.9%) compared with the tertiary mode (e.g. homogeneous: 74.2%, layered: 64.1%, and composite: 71.3%). For the layered samples, it was found that the oil recovery decreases noticeably with an increase in the permeability ratio (PR). For instance, RFs of 93.4%, 90.1%, 78.8%, and 74.0% correspond to PRs of 1, 2.5, 5, and 12.5, respectively. In contrast to our previous findings with continuous CO2 flooding which showed that crossflow enhances recovery in layered samples, for this study using WAG, crossflow was found to negatively affect the RF. Such an outcome may be attributed to the conformance control achieved by WAG flooding which would be more pronounced in the case of non-communication layers (i.e. no cross flow). In other words, the higher oil recovery of WAG flooding in a non-communicating system may be due to the dominance of viscous forces and, to a lesser extent, the vanishing effect of gravity forces that tend to reduce sweep efficiency. The effect of composite heterogeneity on the RF was also investigated with the results showing that the permeability sequence along the length of a composite sample has a noticeable but more subtle impact on RF.

  • Preparation of Pd–Au/TiO2–WO3 to enhance photoreduction of CO2 to CH4 and CO
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-10-16
    Zhen Zhu, Wei-Ru Huang, Chin-Yuan Chen, Ren-Jang Wu

    In this study, Pd–Au/TiO2–WO3 nanoparticles were successfully prepared using a hydrothermal and sol-gel route and applied to the photoreduction of CO2 under UV visible-light irradiation. The synthesized Pd–Au/TiO2–WO3 nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area measurement, ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence analysis. The experimental results showed that Pd–Au/TiO2–WO3 nanoparticles with the appropriate amounts of Pd and Au achieved the highest activity for CO2 photoreduction. Among the synthesized Pd–Au/TiO2-WO3 nanoparticles, the highest production rates of CH4 and CO, 39.1 μmol g−1 h−1 and 271.3 μmol g−1 h−1, respectively, were observed with 0.5 wt%Pd-0.1 wt%Au/TiO2-WO3, manifesting a significant 247-fold enhancement of CO yield over TiO2. Moreover, 0.5 wt%Pd-0.1 wt%Au/TiO2-WO3 exhibited a 43-fold higher CH4 production rate than did TiO2 alone. This might be attributed to the increased specific surface area (72.9 m2 g−1) and the low recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Based on the results, a plausible mechanism for CO2 photoreduction that uses synthesized Pd–Au/TiO2–WO3 is discussed in this paper. This study demonstrated that Pd–Au/TiO2–WO3 is a promising candidate for the development of an efficient photocatalyst for CO2 photoreduction under solar light irradiation.

  • Power-to-X technology using renewable electricity and carbon dioxide from ambient air: SOLETAIR proof-of-concept and improved process concept
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-10-15
    Francisco Vidal Vázquez, Joonas Koponen, Vesa Ruuskanen, Cyril Bajamundi, Antti Kosonen, Pekka Simell, Jero Ahola, Christian Frilund, Jere Elfving, Matti Reinikainen, Niko Heikkinen, Juho Kauppinen, Paolo Piermartini
  • 更新日期:2018-10-15
  • Biological carbon fixation: From natural to synthetic
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-10-13
    Fuyu Gong, Huawei Zhu, Yanping Zhang, Yin Li

    The looming energy crisis and greenhouse effect are two of the greatest problems facing the sustainable development of humanity. Conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) into fuels and chemicals by organisms is a promising way to solve these problems. However, since the natural biological carbon fixation rate cannot meet the industrial demand, more efficient carbon fixation processes are urgently needed. With the rapid development of biotechnology and life sciences, more and more information about the natural carbon fixation processes have been revealed. The unrelenting efforts have been practiced for improving the carbon fixation efficiency by redesigning carbon fixation pathways and even introducing novel energy supply patterns. In this review, we summarized the recent achievements and discussed the future prospects on biological carbon fixation.

  • Efficient asymmetric hydrolysis of styrene oxide by Mung bean epoxide hydrolases in a supercritical CO2/buffer biphasic system
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-10-12
    Bin Wang, Qinting He, Li Shu, Fengli Yang, Guobin Liang, Weiqiao Liu
  • Simplistic approach for preliminary screening of potential carbon adsorbents for CO2 separation from biogas
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-10-09
    N. Álvarez-Gutiérrez, M.V. Gil, F. Rubiera, C. Pevida

    The design of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system requires the development of a complex model that can describe the dynamics of adsorption in a fixed-bed, which means a labor intensive and time consuming work, especially when several adsorbents are going to be compared. Therefore, it would be very useful to establish a simple procedure to quickly assess the performance during the early stages of PSA systems design. The aim of this work is to develop a simplistic approach that drives the decision-making process on the adsorbent in a shorter time. A combined experimental and numerical study of CO2/CH4 adsorption is presented. Thus, three commercial activated carbons are compared in their performance to separate CO2 from biogas under PSA conditions by means of equilibrium adsorption data. A straightaway model, developed to approach PSA systems in a very simple way, where the only input is equilibrium of adsorption data, has been adopted. The Adsorption Figure of Merit (AFM), CO2 purity and CO2 recovery were selected as performance indicators and they have pointed out one of the activated carbons, MC27, as the most promising adsorbent candidate to separate CO2/CH4 by means of PSA. A sensitivity analysis of the process performance as a function of the bed dimensions has been addressed using the developed short-cut model.

  • 更新日期:2018-10-08
  • 更新日期:2018-10-08
  • Fe(II) complexes: reservoirs for Lewis acids and carbenes and their utility in the conversion of CO2 to oxazolidinones
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-10-06
    Fei Chen, Min Li, Jingjing Wang, Bin Dai, Ning Liu
  • Supercritical extraction strategies using CO2 and ethanol to obtain cannabinoid compounds from Cannabis hybrid flowers
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Daniel Ribeiro Grijó, Ignacio Alberto Vieitez Osorio, Lúcio Cardozo-Filho
  • Metal N,N-dialkylcarbamates as easily available catalytic precursors for the carbon dioxide/propylene oxide coupling under ambient conditions
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Giulio Bresciani, Fabio Marchetti, Giorgia Rizzi, Alessio Gabbani, Francesco Pineider, Guido Pampaloni
  • Influences of subcritical and supercritical CO2 treatment on the pore structure characteristics of marine and terrestrial shales
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-10-04
    Yi Pan, Dong Hui, Pingya Luo, Yan Zhang, Lu Zhang, Lei Sun

    To better understand and implement the CO2 sequestration project, it is of significance to investigate the interaction of shales with CO2 and its potential effects on the pore morphology. In this study, two marine shale samples and two terrestrial shale samples were prepared and treated with subcritical CO2 (30 ℃℃ and 5 MPa) and supercritical CO2 (80 ℃℃ and 20 MPa) in a geochemical reactor. Various methods, including low-pressure carbon dioxide adsorption (LP-CO2A), low-pressure nitrogen adsorption (LP-N2A), high-pressure mercury intrusion porosimetry (HP-MIP) and fractal theory, were used to gain insights into the changes in the shale pore structure after 14 days of CO2 saturation. According to the results, the phase states of CO2 obviously affected the variations of pore structure parameters during the physical and chemical reactions in shales. Interactions of supercritical CO2 with shales created a more obvious effect on the pore structure compared to those of subcritical CO2, which was attributed to the greater dissolution and expansion effect as well as the extraction mechanism associated with supercritical CO2. After exposing the shale samples to subcritical CO2, the pore size distributions (PSDs) of the treated shale samples were lower than those of the raw samples at all diameter scales, indicating that the number of pores decreased due to the reactions. Furthermore, it was found that after supercritical CO2 treatment, the micropore and mesopore structure parameters of the marine shale samples obviously decreased with an increase in macropore structure parameters, leading to the reduction in fractal dimensions in smaller pores, while the terrestrial shale samples appeared to represent a contrary trend. These findings will provide experimental evidence for further assessment of the mechanisms for CO2 geological sequestration with enhanced shale gas recovery.

  • CO2 capture and separation over N2 and CH4 in nanoporous MFM-300(In, Al, Ga, and In-3N): Insight from GCMC simulations
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-10-04
    Zhonghua Wu, Shuxian Wei, Maohuai Wang, Sainan Zhou, Jiahui Wang, Zhaojie Wang, Wenyue Guo, Xiaoqing Lu
  • CO2 recovery from wine production: Possible implications on the carbon balance at territorial level
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-10-03
    Michela Marchi, Elena Neri, Federico Maria Pulselli, Simone Bastianoni

    The Province of Siena (Tuscany, Italy) is characterized by two features: 1) the carbon neutrality of its territory and 2) the great production of quality wine. The GHG balance of the Province of Siena, realized in time series according to the IPCC guidelines and validated ISO 14064-1 under the REGES Project, testifies the carbon neutrality of the territory (the percentage abatement of gross emissions passed from 72% in 2006 to 106% in 2015). This ambitious goal was achieved in 2011 after the activation of specific environmental policies (concerning energy and waste sectors, forests, transport and education) with local benefits in the short run. This paper presents a systemic investigation of the effects of the application of technologies for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture/storage on the GHG balance of the provincial area; in particular, recovery of biogenic CO2 from alcoholic fermentation of grapes could be seen as a new strategy to consolidate the status of carbon neutrality. The hypothetical installation of recovery plants in Siena wine farms could approximately capture more than 6000 t CO2, corresponding to an improvement of the GHG balance of the territory (i.e. increase of net absorption of almost 8%). CO2 can be captured and stocked in high-pressure containers and reused in production activities, both within and outside the area, avoiding the use of gas obtained in chemical industries by fossil fuel-driven production processes. The economic evaluation confirms good performances obtained by the environmental assessment. These results can inspire policies at the farm level for reducing impacts on GHG emissions from a life cycle thinking viewpoint and at the territorial (or producer consortia) level, in order to decrease impacts by means of dedicated projects, generating positive effects on the local carbon balance and relevant consequences at global scale.

  • 更新日期:2018-10-02
  • Enzymatic CO2 reduction to formate by formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii coupling with direct electrochemical regeneration of NADH
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-10-01
    Razieh Barin, Davoud Biria, Sahar Rashid-Nadimi, Mohammad Ali Asadollahi

    Enzymatic conversion of CO2 to formate was carried out in the cathodic cell of a two-chamber electrochemical apparatus where NAD+ was reduced on the surface of a Copper foam electrode. Formate dehydrogenase (FDH) was used as the biocatalyst in both free form and immobilized on the modified electrospun polystyrene nanofibers (EPSNF). The fabricated EPSNF were modified by a multistage procedure including acid treatment, silanization followed by activation with glutaraldehyde. The effects of regenerated NADH concentration and time of enzymatic reaction on the formate production in the both systems were studied. The results indicated that the EPSNF immobilized FDH had a desirable activity, long-term storage stability (41% after 20 days) and reusability after eight cycles of successive reactions (53% of the initial activity). Moreover, it was revealed that the increase of cofactor concentration at the early times of reaction was favorable to the formate production. However, an inhibitory effect was observed at higher concentrations of NADH, and the optimum values of 0.45 mM and 0.51 mM were obtained for the maximum enzyme activity by the free and immobilized enzymes respectively. The produced formate at the optimum cofactor concentration after 300 min was 0.61 mM and 0.31 mM for the free and immobilized enzyme systems. Finally, it can be concluded that the presented process is a promising approach to the enzymatic conversion of CO2.

  • Molecular simulation aided design of copolymer thickeners for supercritical CO2 as non-aqueous fracturing fluid
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-10-01
    Baojiang Sun, Wenchao Sun, Haige Wang, Ying Li, Haiming Fan, Hao Li, Xiuping Chen
  • Polymer nanoparticles grafted zinc-containing ionic liquids: A highly efficient and recyclable catalyst for cooperative cycloaddition of CO2 with epoxides
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-29
    Pei Mao, Weili Dai, Wanyuan Yang, Shenglian Luo, Ya Zhang, Jie Mao, Xubiao Luo, Jianping Zou
  • Decision tree analysis for efficient CO2 utilization in electrochemical systems
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-29
    M. Erdem Günay, Lemi Türker, N. Alper Tapan

    In this work, a database of 471 experimental data points excerpted from 34 different publications on electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 was formed. Firstly, the database was examined by exploratory data analysis using box and whiskers plots. Then, decision tree analysis was applied to determine the significance of the variables and to reveal the conditions leading to higher faradaic efficiency, production rate and product selectivity. It was found that Cu content smaller than 71% resulted high faradaic efficiencies depending on the amount of Sn, catholyte type, applied potential and pH of electrolyte. In this case, applied potential and Cu content were found to have the highest significance among all the input variables. On the other hand, the most generalizable combination of variables leading to high level of rate occurred when the Cu content being less than 13%, using a membrane other than Selemion AMV, employing a backing layer such as TGP-H-60 and keeping the applied potential between −1.5 and −2.6 V; for which the applied potential and CO2 flow rate were determined as the highest significant variables. Finally, the most generalizable path for the case of selectivity was obtained with Sn content higher than 15% and Cu content less than 52%, which leaded to formic acid production having the highest production rates. It was then concluded that, exploratory data analysis and decision trees can provide useful information to determine the conditions leading to higher CO2− electroreduction performance that may guide the future studies in this area.

  • Porosity at the interface of organic matter and mineral components contribute significantly to gas adsorption on shales
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-27
    Jialin Shi, Guofei Shen, Hongyu Zhao, Nannan Sun, Xuehang Song, Yintong Guo, Wei Wei, Yuhan Sun

    Using CO2 as a shale fracturing fluid was proposed recently as an alternative to H2O fracturing, one of its advantages is enhanced recovery of CH4, which is based on the competitive adsorption of CO2 and CH4 on shales. Therefore, investigations on gas adsorption in shales are of great importance. Recent researches evidenced that organic matter (OM) in shale is the major control on its adsorption behavior, but in some cases, mineral components (MC) may also play a role. Herein, we focus on the alteration of porosity due to the presence of OM-MC interface and their influence on gas adsorption, these cannot be simply attributed to either OM or MC as frequently reported in the previous publications. In this context, OM from a shale sample was purified following reported methodology, while a universal procedure for extraction of MC was established. Further studies on the porosity and adsorption behavior were carried out on OM, MC, and shale, which were then compared with a hypothetic mixture (HM) from OM and MC bearing the same composition of shale. For the first time, we demonstrate experimentally the profound effect of porosity at the OM-MC interface on gas adsorption of shales particularly at temperatures more relevant to reservoir conditions. The current work deepened the understanding on gas adsorption of shale, and thus shed meaningful lights on related areas such as gas-in-place (GIP) estimation, CO2 sequestration in shales, and particularly the utilization of CO2 for enhanced shale gas recovery.

  • CO2 conversion to cyclic carbonates catalyzed by ionic liquids with aprotic heterocyclic anions: DFT calculations and operando FTIR analysis
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Cristian Moya, Víctor Sabater, Gonzalo Yagüe, Marcos Larriba, José Palomar

    Quantum chemical calculations and in situ infrared spectroscopy were applied to analyze the role of CO2 activation by aprotic heterocyclic anion ionic liquids (AHA-ILs) in its reaction with propylene oxide to form propylene carbonate. Two AHA-ILs with remarkably different behavior as CO2 chemical absorbent were considered: triethyl(octyl)-phosphonium indazole, [P2228][Inda], and triethyl(octyl)-phosphonium 2-cyanopyrrol-1-ide [P2228][2-CNPyr]. The structure and energy of reaction intermediates were predicted by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method, observing that CO2 and AHA-IL reaction form an anionic carbamate that promotes a nucleophilic attack on the propylene oxide, causing the ring opening with negligible energy barrier. Later intramolecular cyclization occurs, followed by the AHA-IL regeneration and propylene carbonate production, both requiring appreciable activation energy. The proposed reaction mechanism were experimentally validated by ATR-FTIR measurements, identifying the characteristic signals of reactants, products and intermediate species. Finally, the reaction using the AHA-ILs [P2228][Inda] and [P2228][2-CNPyr] was followed over time using operando ATR-FTIR technique at different operating conditions (temperature and catalyst concentration). A close relationship between the performance of AHA-IL as CO2 chemical absorbent and CO2 conversion catalyst is revealed, opening opportunities for the efficient application of AHA-ILs in intensified process of CO2 capture and utilization.

  • Experimental investigation on abrasive supercritical CO2 jet perforation
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Haizhu Wang, Gensheng Li, Zhenguo He, Shouceng Tian, Meng Wang, Bing Yang, Qun Lu, Lianze Weng

    abrasive supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) jet perforation is the key procedure in the SC-CO2 fracturing, which will directly affect the exploitation of oil and gas. The properties of the SC-CO2 fluid, such as density, viscosity, diffusivity and so on, change greatly with the variation of temperature and pressure, which directly affect the particle-carrying ability and perforation performance. This paper investigates the influence of key parameters, such as ambient pressure, fluid temperature, jet standoff distance and jet pressure, on the perforation ability of abrasive SC-CO2 jet. The results indicate that the ambient pressure has no significant effect on perforation under the condition of a fixed jet differential pressure. When the confining pressure increases from 5 to 15 MPa, the hole depth and diameter decrease by 5.7% and 18.6% respectively. The hole depth increases slightly with the rising of jet temperature. In addition, with the jet temperature rising per 20℃ within the range from 40 to 100℃ and the standoff distances being 4 to 10 mm, the hole depths increase by 3.8% and 12.0% in average, respectively. Furthermore, the hole depths keep unchanged at first and then decrease rapidly with the increasing standoff distance. However, the hole diameters and effectively impinged areas increase with the standoff distance. The influences of SC-CO2 jet pressure on the perforation performance are similar to that of the conventional jet. Additonally, both effective hole depths and volumes increase linearly in general with the increasing of jet pressure. The hole depths averagely increase by 36.6% when the SC-CO2 jet pressure rising by 5 MPa. Furthermore, the research also shows that perforation performance of pre-mixed jet is better than the post-mixed jet, the volume ratio of the two kinds of perforating holes is 12.02 under these experimental conditions. All the above merits have provided a theoretical foundation and experimental proven for the field application of SC-CO2 jet perforation technology.

  • Ligand-free gold nanoparticles supported on mesoporous carbon as electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-21
    Matteo Miola, Xin-Ming Hu, Riccardo Brandiele, Emil Tveden Bjerglund, Didrik Konow Grønseth, Christian Durante, Steen Uttrup Pedersen, Nina Lock, Troels Skrydstrup, Kim Daasbjerg
  • Methane dry reforming with microwave heating over carbon-based catalyst obtained by agriculture residues pyrolysis
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-21
    Longzhi Li, Jian Chen, Keshuo Yan, Xiaomin Qin, Tai Feng, Jianwei Wang, Fumao Wang, Zhanlong Song

    Contrary to conventional methane dry reforming on metallic catalyst using electric heating, dry reforming catalyzed by biomass-derived char with microwave heating was studied in this work. The results showed bio-char catalytic activity could be affected by raw material for char preparation, since it was greatly connected to the remained metal after char preparation. As a whole, cotton stalk char presented better activity than others. Bio-char with a particle size in 0.25–0.83 mm was suitable for being served as the catalyst. Supporting an appropriate additive on bio-char, particularly for Ni, was effective to improve bio-char catalytic ability. Original bio-char could only maintain its catalytic effect at an acceptable level in 70 min, due to an unavoidable carbon gasification reaction. Nevertheless, carbon gasification meanwhile generated part of CO production and it was a contributor to total syngas production. When applying original bio-char for the reforming reaction, the contribution of char-derived CO production to total syngas production was finally up to 10.2%. Deposited bio-char obtained from methane decomposition could be self-regenerated, when further using for dry reforming. No matter original bio-char or deposited bio-char was adopted, a noticeable decrease of H2/CO ratio passed through the test. For example, the ratio achieved on original bio-char reduced from 0.88 to 0.71. Through carbon balance and direct weight measurement, it was obtained a loss by 8.3% was occurred on original bio-char after the test.

  • Effects of CO2 miscible flooding on oil recovery and the alteration of rock properties in a carbonate reservoir
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-20
    Jinju Han, Sunlee Han, Wonmo Sung, Youngsoo Lee

    This study experimentally investigated the impact of CO2 miscible flooding on oil recovery and alteration of rock properties in two carbonate cores consisting of more than 98% calcite: Edwards white representing a homogenous medium mainly consisted of micropores, and Indiana limestone representing a heterogeneous medium mostly composed of macropores. Several methods were applied to investigate the alteration of rock properties by CO2-water-carbonate minerals interactions: 1) Core flooding to measure overall changes, 2) MICP and X-ray CT to analyze small pores and large pores, respectively, 3) SEM, PCM, and ICP to verify physical and chemical reactions.Oil recovery was higher in Edwards white than in Indiana limestone, since characteristic of Edwards white contributes to sufficient contact time and stable displacement between oil and CO2. From the analysis of the alteration of rock properties in homogenous sample, dissolution facilitates the enlargement of pore sizes. Therefore, fluid flow becomes more favorable. The precipitation is not critical determinant of alteration process, despite the high proportion of small pores. For heterogeneous sample, both dissolution and precipitation significantly affect to alteration of pore structure. Particularly, the precipitation seriously damaged to the main flow channels. These undesirable effects on fluid flow appeared at injection point, which was exposed to fresh CO2 for a long time.This study suggests that pore structure analysis allows a more exact interpretation and judgment of the alteration of pore structure by dissolution and precipitation and can assist in designing injection plans, particularly near the injection area or in complex pore structure.

  • Enhanced photocatalytic CO2 reduction activity of Z-scheme CdS/BiVO4 nanocomposite with thinner BiVO4 nanosheets
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    Zhi-He Wei, Yan-Fang Wang, Yan-Yang Li, Lin Zhang, Hong-Chang Yao, Zhong-Jun Li
  • The effect of permeability on supercritical CO2 diffusion coefficient and determination of diffusive tortuosity of porous media under reservoir conditions
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-16
    Songyan Li, Chenyu Qiao, Zhaomin Li, Yuting Hui

    A general method for determining the diffusivity coefficient of supercritical CO2 in cores saturated with oil is presented in this paper. Theoretically, a mathematical model including Fick’s diffusion equation and Peng–Robinson Equation of State (PR EOS) is proposed to evaluate the mass transfer of CO2 in the cores with different permeabilities. Experimentally, the pressure-decay method is employed by monitoring the CO2 pressure in the diffusion cell during diffusion experiments. The CO2 diffusion coefficients in the cores with different permeabilities are determined when the discrepancy of the calculated and measured pressure-decay curves has been minimized. The diffusion coefficient of supercritical CO2 increases gradually with rising permeability at the range of 0.1–10 mD, and then it reaches a plateau at the permeability range of 10–300 mD. The impact of the permeability on the CO2 diffusion coefficient is attributed to the pore radius and pore structure of the cores. The Pore radius of the core whose permeability is less than 10 mD is less than 1 μm, and pore walls restrict CO2 mass transfer under such condition, which accounts for the relative low diffusion coefficient. When the permeability exceeds 10 mD, the pore radius is larger than 1 μm, and the influence of the solid boundary is negligible. Moreover, the textural coefficients of cores decrease with the permeability, which shows that the less tortuous pore structure facilitates the mass transfer process. Diffusive tortuosities for the cores with different permeabilities are determined by using the CO2 diffusion coefficients in porous media and bulk phase, which show the same trend with the pore radius distribution.

  • Preparation of silvered polyimide film from silver carbamate complex using CO₂, amine, and alcohol
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-13
    Hyuck-Jin Kwon, Jae-Ryung Cha, Myoung-Seon Gong
  • A ground breaking polymer blend for CO2/N2 separation
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-13
    Saeed Mazinani, Rouzbeh Ramezani, Siavash Darvishmanesh, Gomotsegang F. Molelekwa, Renzo Di Felice, Bart Van der Bruggen

    The commercial polyetherimide sulfone polymer Extem was blended with polyethersulfone (PES) to achieve a new, highly selective membrane for CO2/N2 separation in order to allow for a breakthrough in carbon capture applications. The miscibility and molecular interaction between PES and Extem for blend compositions 80/20, 50/50 and 20/80 w/w were evaluated. Differential Scanning Calorimetry showed that of all the blend compositions, only the 20/80 blend is miscible as a single glass transition temperature was observed, lying between the glass transition temperatures of PES and Extem. FTIR spectra revealed shifts in functional group frequencies of the polymer blends, suggesting inter-molecular interactions between the polymer chains of Extem and PES. XRD patterns of the 20/80 blend showed a much lower characteristic peak intensity compared to other blend compositions, which indicates strong inter-molecular interactions. The density of the polymer blends was lower than that of the pure polymers, which is related to a decrease in fractional free volume. The separation performance of membranes synthesized with these blends was investigated for a gas mixture containing 15% vol. CO2. Blend membranes were limited by the tradeoff between permeability and selectivity, except for the 20/80 blend, which interstingly had a permeability and selectivity more than threefold that of other membranes, as the values hovered around the Robeson’s upper bound. The miscibility of Extem/PES therefore resulted in a new polymer material, which is a potential candidate for carbon capture applications.

  • CO2 reduction using non-thermal plasma generated with photovoltaic energy in a fluidized reactor
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-13
    J.O. Pou, C. Colominas, R. Gonzalez-Olmos
  • Characterization of Mg components in reactive MgO – Portland cement blends during hydration and carbonation
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-11
    Runxiao Zhang, Nabil Bassim, Daman K. Panesar

    A carbonated binder system containing reactive MgO (r-MgO) and Portland cement (PC) has the potential to provide sufficient mechanical properties and reduce carbon the footprint. However, the understanding of the chemistry of hydration and carbonation of the r-MgO-PC system remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to characterize the Mg components that form blends of r-MgO and PC during hydration and carbonation. Paste specimens of r-MgO and PC with r-MgO replacement levels from 10% to 90% were cast, carbonated and examined. Experimental observations reveal that: (1) nesquehonite only occurs in the carbonated r-MgO-PC paste with r-MgO replacement ≥ 60%; (2) an amorphous phase of hydrated Mg carbonate was identified in the carbonated paste with 50% r-MgO replacement; and (3) hydrotalcite and magnesium silicate hydrate are major hydration products of r-MgO during the hydration of the paste containing 30% and 40% r-MgO, which are expected to be the precursors of amorphous hydrated Mg carbonate.

  • Techno-economic and exergetic assessment of an oxy-fuel power plant fueled by syngas produced by chemical looping CO2 and H2O dissociation
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-08
    Azharuddin Farooqui, Archishman Bose, Domenico Ferrero, Jordi Llorca, Massimo Santarelli

    Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) is presently the most efficient fossil fuel power plant but with no carbon capture. The efficiency penalty resulting from the integration of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is, however, a major challenge. The present study proposes an oxyfuel NGCC integrated with Chemical looping (CL) syngas production (OXY-CC-CL), for power generation with CCS. The chemical looping CO2/H2O dissociation would produce syngas (CO and H2 with methane reduction step in redox cycle) from recycled exhaust gas for additional power generation within the power plant. This integration of CL unit with the existing conventional oxy fuel power plant would be expected to decrease the efficiency penalty. Therefore, the thermodynamic (both energetic and exergetic), economic and environmental performance of the integrated chemical looping unit oxyfuel NGCC power plant with carbon capture were assessed. A 500 MW scale plant was modelled and compared with a conventional NGCC and oxyfuel NGCC plant with carbon capture (OXY-CC). The net efficiency penalty of the proposed OXY-CC-CL unit was 4.2% compared to an efficiency penalty of 11.8% of the OXY-CC unit with a 100% carbon capture. The energetic efficiency obtained hence was 50.7%, together with an exergetic efficiency of 47.1%. Heat integration via pinch analysis revealed the possibility to increase the system energetic efficiency up to 61%. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify relative impacts of system operational parameters. The specific capital cost of the proposed OXY-CC-CL was obtained as 2455 $/kW, with a corresponding LCOE of 128 $/MWh without carbon credits.

  • Gas antisolvent fractionation based optical resolution of ibuprofen with enantiopure phenylglycinol
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-08
    L. Lőrincz, Á. Tóth, L. Kondor, O. Kéri, J. Madarász, E. Varga, E. Székely

    Optical resolution is still the dominant route to obtaining enantiopure active ingredients. The traditional methods require large organic solvent quantities and long processing times. Antisolvent fractionation with supercritical carbon dioxide offers intensified processing by drastically reducing the time requirement of the diastereomeric salt precipitation. A novel optical resolution of ibuprofen was developed and optimized with phenylglycinol as a resolving agent and gas antisolvent fractionation as the separation method. Above the critical values of certain operational parameters (carbon dioxide to methanol ratio, apparent diastereomeric salt concentration, equilibration time, the relative volume of the extracting fluid) the selectivity was roughly constant, the optical resolution is robust. The scalemic mixtures were purified by repeated resolution and enantiomeric purities above 99% were reached in three consecutive steps.

  • Fully coupled wellbore-reservoir simulation of supercritical CO2 injection from fossil fuel power plant for heat mining from geothermal reservoirs
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-08
    Chunjian Pan, Carlos E. Romero, Edward K. Levy, Xingchao Wang, Carlos Rubio-Maya, Lehua Pan

    The concept of injecting supercritical CO2 (sCO2) into a geothermal reservoir was computationally investigated to assess its performance in terms of the benefit of using CO2 captured from fossil power plants for geothermal heat mining. A coupled wellbore-reservoir system was simulated considering the flow of pure sCO2 in an injection well, the interaction of sCO2 and water in a permeable reservoir, and the flow of the two-phase mixture of sCO2 and water in a production well. Results of simulations indicate that this CO2 application is capable of providing a good source of renewable energy. It was found that for a reservoir with a 0.08 km3 volume, about 8–9 MWth could be extracted in a steady state fashion for a 30-year lifetime operation. This is approximately equivalent to 100 MWth/km3. A sensitivity analysis provided information on the impact of certain parameters on the performance of the integrated system. The injection flowrate, the distance between the production and injection wellbores and the penetrating depth of the production wellbore into the reservoir have a first order impact on the pressure management of the reservoir. Additionally, CO2 injection temperature has a large effect on the thermosiphon characteristics of the system.

  • Warm plasma activation of CO2 in a rotating gliding arc discharge reactor
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-05
    Hao Zhang, Li Li, Xiaodong Li, Weizong Wang, Jianhua Yan, Xin Tu
  • 更新日期:2018-09-05
  • Enhanced activity of MgFeO ferrites for two-step thermochemical CO2 splitting
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-01
    Jincheng Huang, Yu Fu, Shenggang Li, Wenbo Kong, Jun Zhang, Yuhan Sun
  • Influence of injection strategies on local capillary trapping during geological carbon sequestration in saline aquifers
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-30
    Bo Ren, Hoonyoung Jeong

    Local capillary trapping (LCT) of CO2 is caused by the intrinsic heterogeneity of storage aquifers. It is computationally intensive to model LCT using conventional reservoir flow simulators. This work proposes a fast proxy method. We decouple the LCT modeling into two parts: permeability-based flow simulation using a connectivity analysis, and identification of local capillary traps (capillary entry pressure-based) using a geologic criterion. The connectivity analysis is employed to rapidly approximate CO2 plume evolution through estimating the arrival time of CO2. This analysis uses the geostatistical realization of permeability fields as input. The geologic criteria algorithm is used to estimate the potential local capillary traps from a given capillary entry pressure field. This field, through the Leverett j-function, is correlated to the permeability field used in the connectivity analysis. We then quantify the total volume of local capillary traps identified within the capillary entry pressure field that can be filled during CO2 migration. We conduct several simulations in the reservoirs with different levels of heterogeneity under various injection scenarios. We demonstrate the reservoir heterogeneity affects the optimal injection rate in maximizing LCT during CO2 injection. This work enhances our understanding of the effects of injections strategies on LCT.

  • Enhanced accessibility of carbon in pyrolysis of brown coal using carbon dioxide
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-30
    Dongho Choi, Hana Kim, Sang Soo Lee, In-Hyun Nam, Jechan Lee, Ki-Hyun Kim, Eilhann E. Kwon
  • Carbon dioxide biofixation by free air CO2 enriched (FACE) bacterium for biodiesel production
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-30
    Neha Maheshwari, Madan Kumar, Indu Shekhar Thakur, Shaili Srivastava
  • CO2 conversion to CH4 using Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) and anaerobic granular sludge: Optimum batch conditions and microbial pathways
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-29
    Ioannis Vyrides, Maria Andronikou, Anthi Kyprianou, Anja Modic, Andria Filippeti, Christos Yiakoumis, Charis G. Samanides
  • Effect of barium doping on carbonation behavior of γ-C2S
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-25
    Yuandong Mu, Zhichao Liu, Fazhou Wang, Xiao Huang

    The gamma polymorph of dicalcium silicate (γ-C2S) is a potential low-carbon binder owing to its relatively high reactivity with carbon dioxide. This study invstigates the effect of barium (Ba) as a typical impurity on the carbonation characteristics of γ-C2S. Results on the calcined γ-C2S powders indicate that Ba doping has little effect on the crystal form of γ-C2S, but substantially alters its morphology that is characterized by the increasing presence of wrinkles on the surface. Heat evolution during carbonation of the compacted γ-C2S mortar mixtures shows the suppression of maximum temperature and the delay in reaching the peak in the very early age. This may be associated with the hindering of calcium dissociation as a result of the barium presence. The measured degree of carbonation and compressive strength development of the mortar samples are lower in the early stage but exceed the control in the later stage with a higher barium hydroxide (BH) doping amount. This can be attributed to the reduced thickness of moisture film coating the γ-C2S particles. This retards the initial carbonation reaction, which may be beneficial for the penetration of CO2 into the sample interior, thus promoting the universal degree of carbonation in the long term. Analysis on the carbonation products reveals aragonite is the preferable metastable calcium carbonate at a low BH doping amount while vaterite is exclusively found as the metastable phase at a high BH amount.

  • Supercritical CO2 extraction of an immunosuppressant produced by solid-state fermentation
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-25
    Ilknur Alpak, Ruhan Askin Uzel, Sayit Sargin, Ozlem Yesil-Celiktas
  • Parametric, cyclic aging and characterization studies for CO2 capture from flue gas and catalytic conversion to synthetic natural gas using a dual functional material (DFM)
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-25
    Shuoxun Wang, Robert J. Farrauto, Sam Karp, Ji Ho Jeon, Erik T. Schrunk

    Solid sorbents have attracted extensive research attention for enhanced adsorption of effluent CO2. A Dual Functional Material (DFM), composed of a CO2 adsorbent (“Na2O” derived from hydrogenated Na2CO3) in combination with Ru both supported on the same Al2O3, overcome limitations of traditional sorbent technology. It captures CO2 from a simulated flue gas and catalytically converts it to synthetic natural gas (CH4) in the same reactor and temperature utilizing H2 generated from renewable sources. The methane produced is recycled to the plant inlet for repeated combustion maintaining a closed carbon loop. The process is envisioned to operate with parallel reactors, containing DFM, where one captures CO2 and the other methanates and vis versa for continuous operation. We report parametric, cyclic aging and characterization studies in a simulated natural gas power plant flue gas using 10 g of 5 mm × 5 mm tablet DFM. This material shows stable CO2 capture and conversion to CH4 performance for over 50 adsorption and conversion aging cycles (equivalent to 80 h of operation) with no loss in BET surface area, CO2 capture capacity nor Ru dispersion.

  • Effect of catalyst layer on electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide using different morphologies of copper
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-24
    Karan Malik, Nardev Kumar Bajaj, Anil Verma

    Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (ERC) is one of the promising technologies for the renewable energy storage challenge and mitigation of the CO2 levels. Till now Cu has been found the best electrocatalyst for ERC but still the potential of Cu is not fully explored. This paper illustrates the effect of electrocatalyst layer formed by four different morphologies of cupper (nanorods, octahedral, spherical, and dendrite) with similar crystallite phases. Pre and post-ERC analysis of the catalyst in different environment shows that same crystal facet is formed at the end of ERC, indicating that the crystal rearrangement occurred during ERC is independent of the environment and does not promote any particular reaction. Nanorods form intercalated layers with an extended surface giving maximum faradaic efficiency of 26% at a lower cell voltage of −2.75 V. Dendrites forms porous layers, which are filled by the gas formed during ERC and thus decreases the active surface. However, the entrapped intermediates provide sufficient residence time and conditions for C2H4 and C2H6 formation. Spherical nanoparticles and octahedral nanoparticles formed a smooth, and thin layer with minimum faradaic efficiency towards ERC.

  • Three-component reaction of amines, epoxides, and carbon dioxide: A straightforward route to organic carbamates
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-23
    Akram Hosseinian, Sheida Ahmadi, Robab Mohammadi, Aazam Monfared, Zahra Rahmani

    The efficient utilization of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a C1-building block in organic synthesis has attracted considerable attention in view of sustainable chemistry and green chemistry concepts. Recently, three-component reaction of amines, epoxides, and carbon dioxide has emerged as a powerful strategy for the synthesis of biologically important organic carbamates. In this review, we try to provide a comprehensive and updated overview of recent developments in this interesting research arena with special emphasis on the mechanistic aspects of the reactions. The review is divided into two major sections. The first section focuses exclusively on synthesis of acyclic carbonates, while the second covers construction of cyclic carbamates.

  • CO2 sequestration by indirect mineral carbonation of industrial waste red gypsum
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-23
    Omeid Rahmani

    In this research, the characterization of red gypsum (RG) and its reaction progress during the indirect mineral carbonation process were studied. X-ray diffraction results showed that the calcium sulfate and hematite are the dominant components in the RG samples. Three main phases of calcium in the RG were recognized: Ca (OH)2, Ca-S-O, and Ca-Fe-O. Element analysis by ICP-OES also revealed that the RG consists of three major constitutions: CaO (32.2%), SO3 (31.6%), and Fe2O3 (28.99%). To understand the reaction progress of RG in the carbonation process, the reaction model code PHREEQC-2.18 was found to be a very useful tool since it allows the exposure of all dissolved species of RG and presents its mineral phases at each time step. Furthermore, the mineral carbonation of RG delivered the reaction progress changes with Ca phases and, therefore, dissolved calcium (hydr)oxide starts to control the pH and the CO2 uptake. In short, the findings of this study could be useful in resolving problem of greenhouse gases with less environmental issues.

  • Zein/diclofenac sodium coprecipitation at micrometric and nanometric range by supercritical antisolvent processing
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-23
    Paola Franco, Ernesto Reverchon, Iolanda De Marco

    In this work, the supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process is proposed to coprecipitate zein with diclofenac sodium (a model drug). In the first part of this paper, the proper conditions, in terms of pressure, temperature and concentration, for the attainment of zein microparticles, were detected. At 90 bar, 40 °C and 50 mg/mL, microparticles with a mean diameter of 4.19 μm were obtained. The coprecipitation with diclofenac sodium at different polymer/drug ratio and concentration in the liquid solution was successfully performed and, with the support of the drug release analyses, the coprecipitation mechanisms (both in the case of microparticles and nanoparticles formation) were postulated.

  • State of art and perspectives about the production of methanol, dimethyl ether and syngas by carbon dioxide hydrogenation
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-21
    Grazia Leonzio

    The conversion of carbon dioxide into feedstock for the chemical and process industry is the most efficient way to rapidly introduce renewable energy in this value chain. Carbon capture and utilization systems are getting the attention from researchers in the last years, also due to the introduction of carbon tax in many States. Through the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide methane, hydrocarbons, ethanol, formic acid, methanol, dimethyl ether and syngas can be produced. However, methanol dimethyl ether and syngas have the lower value of lost hydrogen during the reaction, equal to 0.33, 0.25 and 0, respectively. Then, these compounds are analyzed in this review. Carbon dioxide is an industrial waste, while hydrogen is generally obtained by the electrolysis of water using surplus renewable energies. Processes and reactors reported in literature regarding the production of methanol, dimethyl ether and syngas by hydrogenation of carbon dioxide are analyzed. For the capture of carbon dioxide adsorption, absorption, membranes, cryogenic systems can be developed. An important role will have ionic liquids, under study by many researchers. Future research efforts should focus on dry reforming processes, innovative carbon dioxide capture techniques and hydrogen availability at reduced cost, and wider dissemination of these scientific and technical concepts to enlarge social acceptance.

  • One-pot Synthesis of new azo-linked 4H-benzo[d][1,3]oxazine-2,4-diones from carbon dioxide using CuO@RHA/MCM-41 nanocomposite in green media
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-20
    Mohammad Nikpassand, Leila Zare Fekri, Afshin Pourahmad

    A series of azo-linked 4H-benzo[d][1,3]oxazine-2,4-diones were synthesized in excellent yields and short reaction time by one-pot reaction between various synthetized azo-linked carboxylic acids and carbon dioxide in the presence of CuO@RHA/MCM-41 nanocomposite as a novel catalyst at room temperature. This nanocomposite consists of CuO nanoparticles and MCM-41 matrix obtained from rice husk ash (RHA). The present methodology offers several advantages such as mild conditions, excellent yields, simple procedure and reduced environmental consequences. The catalyst was recovered and reused. The structures of the synthesized 4H-benzo[d][1,3]oxazine-2,4-dione compounds were confirmed by 1H, 13C NMR and FTIR spectral data and elemental analyses.

  • 更新日期:2018-08-20
  • Design of Ni-ZrO2@SiO2 catalyst with ultra-high sintering and coking resistance for dry reforming of methane to prepare syngas
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-17
    Wenming Liu, Le Li, Xianhua Zhang, Zheng Wang, Xiang Wang, Honggen Peng
  • Surface wettability of supercritical CO2 - ionic liquid processed aromatic polyamides
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-16
    Xiandong Jing, Yitong Han, Laijiu Zheng, Huanda Zheng
  • Synthesis of 5- to 8-membered cyclic carbonates from diols and CO2: A one-step, atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature procedure
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-15
    Thomas M. McGuire, Eva M. López-Vidal, Georgina L. Gregory, Antoine Buchard
  • Direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from CO2 and methanol over trifluoroacetic acid modulated UiO-66
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-11
    Keng Xuan, Yanfeng Pu, Feng Li, Aixue Li, Jing Luo, Lei Li, Feng Wang, Ning Zhao, Fukui Xiao
  • The removal and capture of CO2 from biogas by vacuum pressure swing process using silica gel
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-11
    Yuanhui Shen, Wenrong Shi, Donghui Zhang, Ping Na, Bo Fu

    In this study, silica gel was employed as adsorbent in a vacuum pressure swing adsorption process for the removal and capture of CO2 from biogas. Adsorption isotherms of CH4 and CO2 on silica gel were measured experimentally, meanwhile a series of breakthrough experiments were also performed on a fixed bed packed with silica gel. In order to design experiments of VPSA process more reasonable, Central Composite Design Methodology was employed to implement the design of experiments, while Response Surface Methodology was used to analyze experimental results. Experimental results showed that the biogas simulated by 55% CH4 balanced with CO2 could be concentrated to an enriched CH4 stream with CH4 purity higher than 98%, after most of the CO2 had been depleted from feed gas by VPSA process. Moreover, dynamic and transient behaviors, such as temperature profiles and concentration profiles in adsorption bed, were revealed by numerical modeling. A good consistency between experimental data and simulation results was observed. Furthermore, an industrial scale dual pressure swing adsorption unit was designed and evaluated by numerical simulation to achieve the goal of CH4 enrichment and CO2 capture simultaneously. Simulation results indicated that the simulated biogas could be separated to an enriched CH4 stream at 98.01% CH4 purity and 97.31% CH4 recovery, as well as a concentrated CO2 stream at 96.74% CO2 purity and 97.58% CO2 recovery.

  • Yttrium promoted Ni-based double-layered hydroxides for dry methane reforming
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-11
    Katarzyna Świrk, Maria Elena Gálvez, Monika Motak, Teresa Grzybek, Magnus Rønning, Patrick Da Costa
  • 更新日期:2018-08-10
  • Promising catalytic synthesis pathways towards higher alcohols as suitable transport fuels based on H2 and CO2
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-08-08
    Steffen Schemme, Janos Lucian Breuer, Remzi Can Samsun, Ralf Peters, Detlef Stolten

    To address the pressing challenges of energy security and global warming, the coupling of the energy generation and transport sectors using Power-to-Fuel (PtF) technologies is an attractive strategy. PtF means the synthesis of transport fuels based on CO2 from industrial exhaust gases and H2 produced from renewable electricity via electrolysis. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the synthesis possibilities and potentials of H2 and CO2-based methanol and higher alcohols (C1–C8; from methanol up to octanol) as alternative transport fuels by adapting established and novel alcohol synthesis pathways to the PtF concept and assessing their technical maturity using the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) method. A literature review reveals that among the alcohols, methanol, ethanol, 1-/2-/iso-butanol and 1-octanol have the highest relevance for fuel blending. With the aim to give a first impression, we roughly estimated and discussed the production costs depending on the H2 costs. We estimated the TRL of promising synthesis pathways towards alcohols at 8 for methanol and at 4 for ethanol, 1-butanol and iso-octanol. For 1-octanol, no suitable synthetic pathway is currently known.

Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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