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  • Direct upstream integration of biogasoline production into current light straight run naphtha petrorefinery processes
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Aron Deneyer, Elise Peeters, Tom Renders, Sander Van den Bosch, Nette Van Oeckel, Thijs Ennaert, Tibor Szarvas, Tamás I. Korányi, Michiel Dusselier, Bert F. Sels

    There is an urgent need to address environmental problems caused by our transportation systems, which include the reduction of associated CO2 emissions. In the short term, renewable drop-in fuels are ideal, as they allow a direct integration into the existing infrastructure. However, preferably they would perform better than current alternatives (for example, bioethanol) and be synthesized in a more efficient way. Here we demonstrate the production of biogasoline with a direct upstream integration into processes in existing petrorefinery facilities that targets the 10% bio-based carbon in accordance with the current European Union directives (for 2020) for biofuels. To achieve this goal, we show the valorization of (hemi)cellulose pulp into light naphtha using a two-phase (H2O:organic) catalytic slurry process. A C5–C6 alkane stream, enriched with bio-derived carbon and compatible with further downstream petrorefinery operations for (bio)gasoline production, is automatically obtained by utilizing fossil light straight run naphtha as the organic phase. The ease of integration pleads for a joint petro/bio effort to gradually produce bio-enriched gasolines, wherein the chemical compounds of the bio-derived fraction are indistinguishable from those in current high-quality gasoline compositions.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Langmuir–Blodgett artificial solid-electrolyte interphases for practical lithium metal batteries
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Mun Sek Kim, Ji-Hyun Ryu, Deepika, Young Rok Lim, In Wook Nah, Kwang-Ryeol Lee, Lynden A. Archer, Won Il Cho

    Practical lithium metal batteries require full and reversible utilization of thin metallic Li anodes. This introduces a fundamental challenge concerning how to create solid-electrolyte interphases (SEIs) that are able to regulate interfacial transport and protect the reactive metal, without adding appreciably to the cell mass. Here, we report on physicochemical characteristics of Langmuir–Blodgett artificial SEIs (LBASEIs) created using phosphate-functionalized reduced graphene oxides. We find that LBASEIs not only meet the challenges of stabilizing the Li anode, but can be facilely assembled in a simple, scalable process. The LBASEI derives its effectiveness primarily from its ability to form a durable coating on Li that regulates electromigration at the anode/electrolyte interface. In a first step towards practical cells in which the anode and cathode capacities are matched, we report that it is possible to achieve stable operations in both coin and pouch cells composed of a thin Li anode with the LBASEI and a high-loading intercalation cathode.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Sex disaggregation alone will not energize equality
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    Sarah Bradshaw

    Sex disaggregation alone will not energize equalitySex disaggregation alone will not energize equality, Published online: 17 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0247-4The need to include gender in energy policy, practice and research is largely accepted. However, when research that merely disaggregates by sex is used to inform energy efficiency initiatives, it often reproduces stereotypical understandings of sex differences, which can harm rather than promote gender equality.

    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Transactive control for connected homes and neighbourhoods
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    Na (Nora) Wang

    Transactive control for connected homes and neighbourhoodsTransactive control for connected homes and neighbourhoods, Published online: 17 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0257-2Smart in-home devices, if integrated with the capability to transact energy with one another and with the electric grid, can offer a disruptive solution to managing energy supply and demand. Such transactive energy networks could turn homes from passive energy consumers into intelligent, active energy storage and service providers for the future grid.

    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Rising water use
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    James Gallagher

    Rising water useRising water use, Published online: 10 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0251-8Rising water use

    更新日期:2018-09-11
  • National context is a key determinant of energy security concerns across Europe
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    Christina Demski, Wouter Poortinga, Lorraine Whitmarsh, Gisela Böhm, Stephen Fisher, Linda Steg, Resul Umit, Pekka Jokinen, Pasi Pohjolainen

    Energy security is an important policy goal for most countries. Here, we show that cross-country differences in concern about energy security across Israel and 22 countries in Europe are explained by energy-specific and general national contextual indicators, over-and-above individual-level factors that reflect population demographics. Specifically, public concerns about import dependency and affordability reflect the specific energy context within countries, such as dependency on energy imports and electricity costs, while higher concerns about the affordability, vulnerability and reliability of energy are associated with higher fossil fuel consumption. More general national context beyond energy also appears to matter; energy security concerns are higher in countries that are doing less well in terms of economic and human well-being. These findings indicate that wider energy, social and economic context influence people’s feelings of vulnerability and sense of security, which may inform the development of effective energy security strategies that assuage public concerns.

    更新日期:2018-09-11
  • Fair pay for green energy
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    Claudia Schwirplies

    Fair pay for green energyFair pay for green energy, Published online: 10 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0254-5The German Energiewende is an ambitious project, but the expansion of renewables needed to achieve its goals is expensive. Now, research shows that consumers would accept higher levies to finance renewables if exemption policies were abolished, forcing industries to pay their fair share.

    更新日期:2018-09-11
  • Breaking the spell
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    Evan G. R. Davies

    Breaking the spellBreaking the spell, Published online: 10 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0242-9Electricity production has traditionally required extensive water use, so growing economies such as China are expected to increase their freshwater withdrawal and consumption to meet growing electricity demand. Research shows, however, that through restructuring the electricity sector and increasing efficiency, China may have broken this coupling.

    更新日期:2018-09-11
  • Smart meters persist
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    Jenn Richler

    Smart meters persistSmart meters persist, Published online: 10 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0252-7Smart meters persist

    更新日期:2018-09-11
  • Decoupling between water use and thermoelectric power generation growth in China
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    Chao Zhang, Lijin Zhong, Jiao Wang

    As energy and water are fundamentally intertwined, understanding the spatial and temporal evolution of thermoelectric water use and water stress is important for both sustainable energy development and water resource management. Here we compile high-resolution time-series (2000–2015) of water withdrawal and consumption inventories for China’s thermoelectric power sector to identify the driving forces behind changing water use patterns, and reveal the spatial distribution of thermoelectric water stress. We show that freshwater withdrawal has been decoupled from thermoelectric power generation growth at the national level due to the increased adoption of air-cooling and seawater-cooling technologies and advanced large generating units as well as water use efficiency improvements in this period. Nevertheless, the construction of large coal-fired power generation hubs has increased water stress in many arid and water-scarce catchments in northwestern regions of China. The westward development of the power industry necessitates water-withdrawal caps and the integration of water risk analysis into energy planning.

    更新日期:2018-09-11
  • Nudges for nudgers
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-09-10

    Nudges for nudgersNudges for nudgers, Published online: 10 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0255-4Behavioural interventions are an important instrument in the energy-policy toolkit. However, researchers and policymakers should consider their own bounded rationality in these efforts.

    更新日期:2018-09-11
  • A passivating contact for silicon solar cells formed during a single firing thermal annealing
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    Andrea Ingenito, Gizem Nogay, Quentin Jeangros, Esteban Rucavado, Christophe Allebé, Santhana Eswara, Nathalie Valle, Tom Wirtz, Jörg Horzel, Takashi Koida, Monica Morales-Masis, Matthieu Despeisse, Franz-Josef Haug, Philipp Löper, Christophe Ballif

    Passivating contacts are indispensable for achieving high conversion efficiency in crystalline-silicon solar cells. Their realization and integration into a convenient process flow have become crucial research objectives. Here, we report an alternative passivating contact that is formed in a single post-deposition annealing step called ‘firing’, an essential step for current solar cell manufacturing. As firing is a fast (<10 s) and high-temperature (>750 °C) anneal, the required microstructural and electrical properties of the passivating contact are stringent. We demonstrate that tuning the carbon content of boron-doped silicon-based thin films inhibits firing-induced layer delamination without preventing a partial crystallization. The latter promotes charge-carrier selectivity, even in the absence of a diffused doped region beyond the oxide, by inducing hole accumulation near the wafer surface. We fabricated proof-of-concept solar cells employing the developed technology, demonstrating an open circuit voltage of 698 mV and an efficiency of 21.9%, and show how it could be a drop-in replacement for today’s rear contacts based on locally opened dielectric passivation stacks.

    更新日期:2018-09-11
  • Advance solar technology by marrying quality assurance with design engineering
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-09-03
    Sarah Kurtz

    Advance solar technology by marrying quality assurance with design engineeringAdvance solar technology by marrying quality assurance with design engineering, Published online: 03 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0241-xThe photovoltaics industry has grown remarkably in recent decades but as it has grown, quality assurance during the manufacturing and installation processes has become increasingly important. There is often a cultural divide between those who develop and those who implement the designs, motivating partnering of these efforts.

    更新日期:2018-09-04
  • Bias-free photoelectrochemical water splitting with photosystem II on a dye-sensitized photoanode wired to hydrogenase
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-09-03
    Katarzyna P. Sokol, William E. Robinson, Julien Warnan, Nikolay Kornienko, Marc M. Nowaczyk, Adrian Ruff, Jenny Z. Zhang, Erwin Reisner

    Natural photosynthesis stores sunlight in chemical energy carriers, but it has not evolved for the efficient synthesis of fuels, such as H2. Semi-artificial photosynthesis combines the strengths of natural photosynthesis with synthetic chemistry and materials science to develop model systems that overcome nature’s limitations, such as low-yielding metabolic pathways and non-complementary light absorption by photosystems I and II. Here, we report a bias-free semi-artificial tandem platform that wires photosystem II to hydrogenase for overall water splitting. This photoelectrochemical cell integrated the red and blue light-absorber photosystem II with a green light-absorbing diketopyrrolopyrrole dye-sensitized TiO2 photoanode, and so enabled complementary panchromatic solar light absorption. Effective electronic communication at the enzyme–material interface was engineered using an osmium-complex-modified redox polymer on a hierarchically structured TiO2. This system provides a design protocol for bias-free semi-artificial Z schemes in vitro and provides an extended toolbox of biotic and abiotic components to re-engineer photosynthetic pathways.

    更新日期:2018-09-04
  • All-in-one visible-light-driven water splitting by combining nanoparticulate and molecular co-catalysts on CdS nanorods
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-09-03
    Christian M. Wolff, Peter D. Frischmann, Marcus Schulze, Bernhard J. Bohn, Robin Wein, Panajotis Livadas, Michael T. Carlson, Frank Jäckel, Jochen Feldmann, Frank Würthner, Jacek K. Stolarczyk

    Full water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen on semiconductor nanocrystals is a challenging task; overpotentials must be overcome for both half-reactions and different catalytic sites are needed to facilitate them. Additionally, efficient charge separation and prevention of back reactions are necessary. Here, we report simultaneous H2 and O2 evolution by CdS nanorods decorated with nanoparticulate reduction and molecular oxidation co-catalysts. The process proceeds entirely without sacrificial agents and relies on the nanorod morphology of CdS to spatially separate the reduction and oxidation sites. Hydrogen is generated on Pt nanoparticles grown at the nanorod tips, while Ru(tpy)(bpy)Cl2-based oxidation catalysts are anchored through dithiocarbamate bonds onto the sides of the nanorod. O2 generation from water was verified by 18O isotope labelling experiments, and time-resolved spectroscopic results confirmed efficient charge separation and ultrafast electron and hole transfer to the reaction sites. The system demonstrates that combining nanoparticulate and molecular catalysts on anisotropic nanocrystals provides an effective pathway for visible-light-driven photocatalytic water splitting.

    更新日期:2018-09-04
  • A 5 × 5 cm2 protonic ceramic fuel cell with a power density of 1.3 W cm–2 at 600 °C
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Hyegsoon An, Hae-Weon Lee, Byung-Kook Kim, Ji-Won Son, Kyung Joong Yoon, Hyoungchul Kim, Dongwook Shin, Ho-Il Ji, Jong-Ho Lee

    In spite of various advantages of protonic ceramic fuel cells over conventional fuel cells, distinct scepticism currently remains about their applicability because of lower-than-predicted performance and difficulty with scale-up. These challenges mainly stem from the refractory nature of proton-conducting ceramic electrolytes and the low chemical stability of these materials during the sintering process. Here, we present the fabrication of a physically thin, structurally dense and chemically homogeneous electrolyte, BaCe0.55Zr0.3Y0.15O3-δ (BCZY3), through a facile anode-assisted densification of the electrolyte on a structurally and compositionally uniform anode support, which resulted in breakthroughs in performance and scalability. A BCZY3-based protonic ceramic fuel cell with a size of 5 × 5 cm2 exhibits an area-specific ohmic resistance of 0.09 Ω cm2 and delivers a power as high as 20.8 W per single cell at 600 °C.

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Tuning the electrolyte network structure to invoke quasi-solid state sulfur conversion and suppress lithium dendrite formation in Li–S batteries
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-08-13
    Quan Pang, Abhinandan Shyamsunder, Badri Narayanan, Chun Yuen Kwok, Larry A. Curtiss, Linda F. Nazar

    The lithium–sulfur battery is promising as an alternative to conventional lithium-ion technology due to the high energy density of both sulfur and lithium metal electrodes. An extended lifetime has been demonstrated, but two notable challenges still exist to realize its full potential: to overcome the undesired high electrolyte/sulfur ratio required for the catholyte-type mechanism that governs most cell configurations, and to inhibit Li dendrite growth and its parasitic reaction with the electrolyte that results in cell degradation. Here, we demonstrate that by tuning the electrolyte structure, the challenges at both electrodes can be tackled simultaneously. Specifically, the sulfur speciation pathway transforms from a dissolution–precipitation route to a quasi-solid state conversion in the presence of a lowered solvent activity and an extended electrolyte network, curtailing the need for high electrolyte volumes. Ab initio calculations reveal the nature of the network structure. With such an optimized structure, the electrolyte allows dendrite-free Li plating and shows a 20-fold reduction in parasitic reactions with Li, which avoids electrolyte consumption and greatly extends the life time of a low electrolyte/sulfur (5 µl mg–1) sulfur cell.

    更新日期:2018-08-14
  • Publisher Correction: High irradiance performance of metal halide perovskites for concentrator photovoltaics
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-08-13
    Zhiping Wang, Qianqian Lin, Bernard Wenger, M. Greyson Christoforo, Yen-Hung Lin, Matthew T. Klug, Michael B. Johnston, Laura M. Herz, Henry J. Snaith

    Publisher Correction: High irradiance performance of metal halide perovskites for concentrator photovoltaicsPublisher Correction: High irradiance performance of metal halide perovskites for concentrator photovoltaics, Published online: 13 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0238-5Publisher Correction: High irradiance performance of metal halide perovskites for concentrator photovoltaics

    更新日期:2018-08-13
  • Community minded
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-08-08

    Community minded Community minded, Published online: 08 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0231-z Increased local energy generation may offer a route to meet climate targets while empowering community groups, but care is still needed to support those vulnerable to energy system change.

    更新日期:2018-08-08
  • Feel the nudge
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-08-08
    Nicky Dean

    Feel the nudge Feel the nudge, Published online: 08 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0228-7 Feel the nudge

    更新日期:2018-08-08
  • Healthy privilege
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-08-08
    Fouad Khan

    Healthy privilege Healthy privilege, Published online: 08 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0226-9 Healthy privilege

    更新日期:2018-08-08
  • Fast charge in cold climates
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-08-08
    Changjun Zhang

    Fast charge in cold climates Fast charge in cold climates, Published online: 08 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0225-x Fast charge in cold climates

    更新日期:2018-08-08
  • Easing tandem up-scaling
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-08-08
    Giulia Tregnago

    Easing tandem up-scaling Easing tandem up-scaling, Published online: 08 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0227-8 Easing tandem up-scaling

    更新日期:2018-08-08
  • High irradiance performance of metal halide perovskites for concentrator photovoltaics
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-08-06
    Zhiping Wang, Qianqian Lin, Bernard Wenger, M. Greyson Christoforo, Yen-Hung Lin, Matthew T. Klug, Michael B. Johnston, Laura M. Herz, Henry J. Snaith

    Traditionally, III–V multi-junction cells have been used in concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) applications, which deliver extremely high efficiencies but have failed to compete with ‘flat-plate’ silicon technologies owing to cost. Here, we assess the feasibility of using metal halide perovskites for CPVs, and we evaluate their device performance and stability under concentrated light. Under simulated sunlight, we achieve a peak efficiency of 23.6% under 14 Suns (that is, 14 times the standard solar irradiance), as compared to 21.1% under 1 Sun, and measure 1.26 V open-circuit voltage under 53 Suns, for a material with a bandgap of 1.63 eV. Importantly, our encapsulated devices maintain over 90% of their original efficiency after 150 h aging under 10 Suns at maximum power point. Our work reveals the potential of perovskite CPVs, and may lead to new PV deployment strategies combining perovskites with low-concentration factor and lower-accuracy solar tracking systems.

    更新日期:2018-08-06
  • Promoting growth in renewables
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-08-06
    Nikolay Anguelov

    Promoting growth in renewables Promoting growth in renewables, Published online: 06 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0223-z Renewable portfolio standards in the United States are widely recognized as a significant state-level instrument to catalyse growth in renewables. Comprehensive analysis now shows that the effectiveness of these standards depends on their stringency, with more demanding standards leading to higher renewable penetration.

    更新日期:2018-08-06
  • Turning cooler
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-08-06
    Guosheng Li

    Turning cooler Turning cooler, Published online: 06 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0224-y Harsh operating conditions, such as high temperatures, hinder the grid-scale application of liquid metal batteries (LMBs). Now, their operating temperature is shown to be substantially lowered thanks to a lithium-ion-conducting solid-state electrolyte.

    更新日期:2018-08-06
  • Oxygen release and oxygen redox
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-30
    Wanli Yang

    Oxygen release and oxygen redoxOxygen release and oxygen redox, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0222-0Voltage fade has been a major barrier to the commercialization of a series of high-energy-density battery electrodes for more than a decade. It is now re-examined with advanced characterization techniques, which find its origin is correlated to oxygen activities.

    更新日期:2018-07-31
  • Visualization and suppression of interfacial recombination for high-efficiency large-area pin perovskite solar cells
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-30
    Martin Stolterfoht, Christian M. Wolff, José A. Márquez, Shanshan Zhang, Charles J. Hages, Daniel Rothhardt, Steve Albrecht, Paul L. Burn, Paul Meredith, Thomas Unold, Dieter Neher

    The performance of perovskite solar cells is predominantly limited by non-radiative recombination, either through trap-assisted recombination in the absorber layer or via minority carrier recombination at the perovskite/transport layer interfaces. Here, we use transient and absolute photoluminescence imaging to visualize all non-radiative recombination pathways in planar pin-type perovskite solar cells with undoped organic charge transport layers. We find significant quasi-Fermi-level splitting losses (135 meV) in the perovskite bulk, whereas interfacial recombination results in an additional free energy loss of 80 meV at each individual interface, which limits the open-circuit voltage (VOC) of the complete cell to ~1.12 V. Inserting ultrathin interlayers between the perovskite and transport layers leads to a substantial reduction of these interfacial losses at both the p and n contacts. Using this knowledge and approach, we demonstrate reproducible dopant-free 1 cm2 perovskite solar cells surpassing 20% efficiency (19.83% certified) with stabilized power output, a high VOC (1.17 V) and record fill factor (>81%).

    更新日期:2018-07-31
  • Techno-economic viability of silicon-based tandem photovoltaic modules in the United States
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-30
    Zhengshan J. Yu, Joe V. Carpenter, Zachary C. Holman

    Tandem photovoltaic modules with silicon bottom cells offer a promising route to exceed the single-junction photovoltaic efficiency limit and further lower the levelized cost of solar electricity. However, it is unclear whether continued improvements in efficiency will render tandem modules cost-competitive with their two constituent sub-cells, and with silicon technology in particular. Here, we construct a simple and versatile techno-economic model that, for a given balance-of-systems scenario, calculates the tandem module efficiency and cost from assumed sub-cell module efficiencies and costs. To understand which input conditions are likely to be representative of the future photovoltaic market, we calculate learning rates for both module and area-related balance-of-system costs, and find that the slower learning rate of the latter means that high-efficiency tandems will become increasingly attractive. Further, in the residential market in 2020, the model indicates that top-cell modules could cost up to US$100 m–2—over twice that of the projected silicon module cost—and the associated tandem module would be cost-competitive if its energy yield, degradation rate, service life and financing terms are similar to those of silicon.

    更新日期:2018-07-31
  • Multicomponent electrocatalyst with ultralow Pt loading and high hydrogen evolution activity
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-30
    Jitendra N. Tiwari, Siraj Sultan, Chang Woo Myung, Taeseung Yoon, Nannan Li, Miran Ha, Ahmad M. Harzandi, Hyo Ju Park, Dong Yeon Kim, S. Selva Chandrasekaran, Wang Geun Lee, Varun Vij, Hoju Kang, Tae Joo Shin, Hyeon Suk Shin, Geunsik Lee, Zonghoon Lee, Kwang S. Kim

    Platinum is the most effective electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction in acidic solutions, but its high cost limits its wide application. Therefore, it is desirable to design catalysts that only require minimal amounts of Pt to function, but that are still highly active. Here we report hydrogen production in acidic water using a multicomponent catalyst with an ultralow Pt loading (1.4 μg per electrode area (cm2)) supported on melamine-derived graphitic tubes (GTs) that encapsulate a FeCo alloy and have Cu deposited on the inside tube walls. With a 1/80th Pt loading of a commercial 20% Pt/C catalyst, in 0.5 M H2SO4 the catalyst achieves a current density of 10 mA cm−2 at an overpotential of 18 mV, and shows a turnover frequency of 7.22 s−1 (96 times higher than that of the Pt/C catalyst) and long-term durability (10,000 cycles). We propose that a synergistic effect between the Pt clusters and single Pt atoms embedded in the GTs enhances the catalytic activity.

    更新日期:2018-07-31
  • A tortoise approach for US nuclear research and development
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-30
    Michael J. Ford, Daniel P. Schrag

    A tortoise approach for US nuclear research and developmentA tortoise approach for US nuclear research and development, Published online: 30 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0221-1In Aesop’s fable, a swift hare races with a deliberate tortoise. In the end, the tortoise wins by taking a slow and steady approach. We argue that, given the economic constraints on US deployment of nuclear power, a ‘tortoise strategy’ is more prudent for US government nuclear R&D efforts.

    更新日期:2018-07-31
  • Evolution of redox couples in Li- and Mn-rich cathode materials and mitigation of voltage fade by reducing oxygen release
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-30
    Enyuan Hu, Xiqian Yu, Ruoqian Lin, Xuanxuan Bi, Jun Lu, Seongmin Bak, Kyung-Wan Nam, Huolin L. Xin, Cherno Jaye, Daniel A. Fischer, Kahlil Amine, Xiao-Qing Yang

    Voltage fade is a major problem in battery applications for high-energy lithium- and manganese-rich (LMR) layered materials. As a result of the complexity of the LMR structure, the voltage fade mechanism is not well understood. Here we conduct both in situ and ex situ studies on a typical LMR material (Li1.2Ni0.15Co0.1Mn0.55O2) during charge–discharge cycling, using multi-length-scale X-ray spectroscopic and three-dimensional electron microscopic imaging techniques. Through probing from the surface to the bulk, and from individual to whole ensembles of particles, we show that the average valence state of each type of transition metal cation is continuously reduced, which is attributed to oxygen release from the LMR material. Such reductions activate the lower-voltage Mn3+/Mn4+ and Co2+/Co3+ redox couples in addition to the original redox couples including Ni2+/Ni3+, Ni3+/Ni4+ and O2−/O−, directly leading to the voltage fade. We also show that the oxygen release causes microstructural defects such as the formation of large pores within particles, which also contributes to the voltage fade. Surface coating and modification methods are suggested to be effective in suppressing the voltage fade through reducing the oxygen release.

    更新日期:2018-07-31
  • Barriers and opportunities in bio-based production of hydrocarbons
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-30
    Yongjin J. Zhou, Eduard J. Kerkhoven, Jens Nielsen

    Global climate change caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) has caused concerns regarding the continued reliance on fossil fuels as our primary energy source. Hydrocarbons produced from biomass using microbial fermentation processes can serve as high-quality liquid transportation fuels and may contribute to a reduction in GHG emissions. Here, we discuss the barriers and opportunities for bio-based production of hydrocarbons to be used as diesel and jet fuels and review recent advances in engineering microbes for production of these chemicals. There are two main challenges associated with establishing bio-based hydrocarbon production from cheap feedstocks; lowering the cost of developing efficient and robust microbial cell factories and establishing more efficient routes for biomass hydrolysis to sugars for fermentation. We discuss how to develop novel systems and synthetic biology tools that can enable faster and cheaper construction of microbial cell factories and thereby address the first challenge, as well as recent advances in biomass processing that will likely lead to overcoming the second challenge in the near future.

    更新日期:2018-07-31
  • Performance and resilience of hydrokinetic turbine arrays under large migrating fluvial bedforms
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-30
    Mirko Musa, Craig Hill, Fotis Sotiropoulos, Michele Guala

    The deployment of in-stream flow-energy converters in rivers is an opportunity to expand the renewable energy portfolio and limit carbon emissions. Device performance and lifetime, environmental conservation, and the safety of fluvial communities against flood events, however, present unresolved challenges. In particular, we need to understand how multiple submerged hydrokinetic turbines interact with the sediment bed and whether existing technologies can be deployed in morphodynamically active natural rivers. Here, we present a scaled demonstration of a hydrokinetic turbine power plant deployed in a quasi-field-scale channel with sediment transport and migrating bedforms. We measure high-frequency sediment flux, the spatiotemporally resolved bathymetry and the turbine model performance. We find that with opportune siting, kinetic energy can be extracted efficiently without compromising the geomorphic equilibrium of the river and the structural safety of the turbine foundation, even in the presence of large migrating dunes, thus paving the way for harnessing sustainable and renewable energy in rivers.

    更新日期:2018-07-31
  • Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells with over 10% power conversion efficiency enabled by heterojunction heat treatment
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-23
    Chang Yan, Jialiang Huang, Kaiwen Sun, Steve Johnston, Yuanfang Zhang, Heng Sun, Aobo Pu, Mingrui He, Fangyang Liu, Katja Eder, Limei Yang, Julie M. Cairney, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, Ziv Hameiri, John A. Stride, Shiyou Chen, Martin A. Green, Xiaojing Hao

    Sulfide kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 provides an attractive low-cost, environmentally benign and stable photovoltaic material, yet the record power conversion efficiency for such solar cells has been stagnant at around 9% for years. Severe non-radiative recombination within the heterojunction region is a major cause limiting voltage output and overall performance. Here we report a certified 11% efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell with a high 730 mV open-circuit voltage using heat treatment to reduce heterojunction recombination. This heat treatment facilitates elemental inter-diffusion, directly inducing Cd atoms to occupy Zn or Cu lattice sites, and promotes Na accumulation accompanied by local Cu deficiency within the heterojunction region. Consequently, new phases are formed near the hetero-interface and more favourable conduction band alignment is obtained, contributing to reduced non-radiative recombination. Using this approach, we also demonstrate a certified centimetre-scale (1.11 cm2) 10% efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 photovoltaic device; the first kesterite cell (including selenium-containing) of standard centimetre-size to exceed 10%.

    更新日期:2018-07-24
  • Empirical evaluation of the stringency and design of renewable portfolio standards
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-23
    Sanya Carley, Lincoln L. Davies, David B. Spence, Nikolaos Zirogiannis

    In two decades of experience with state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs), the United States has observed immense growth in renewable energy markets, initially in wind energy and more recently in solar power. During this time, RPSs have experienced considerable policy reinvention and increased diversity. Here, we explain how changes in RPS policy design features relate to different market outcomes. We develop a score for measuring RPS stringency and show that a one-point increase in RPS stringency leads to increases of 0.2%, 1% and 0.3% in renewable energy, solar generation and renewable energy capacity, respectively. Other important design features include resource eligibility, planning processes, cost recovery and geographical restrictions. These findings are then reaffirmed through 42 semi-structured phone interviews with experts in the field of RPS implementation from government agencies, including public utility commissions and state energy offices, electric utilities and various renewable energy firms and associations.

    更新日期:2018-07-24
  • Interaction of consumer preferences and climate policies in the global transition to low-carbon vehicles
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-16
    David L. McCollum, Charlie Wilson, Michela Bevione, Samuel Carrara, Oreane Y. Edelenbosch, Johannes Emmerling, Céline Guivarch, Panagiotis Karkatsoulis, Ilkka Keppo, Volker Krey, Zhenhong Lin, Eoin Ó Broin, Leonidas Paroussos, Hazel Pettifor, Kalai Ramea, Keywan Riahi, Fuminori Sano, Baltazar Solano Rodriguez, Detlef P. van Vuuren

    Burgeoning demands for mobility and private vehicle ownership undermine global efforts to reduce energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. Advanced vehicles powered by low-carbon sources of electricity or hydrogen offer an alternative to conventional fossil-fuelled technologies. Yet, despite ambitious pledges and investments by governments and automakers, it is by no means clear that these vehicles will ultimately reach mass-market consumers. Here, we develop state-of-the-art representations of consumer preferences in multiple global energy-economy models, specifically focusing on the non-financial preferences of individuals. We employ these enhanced model formulations to analyse the potential for a low-carbon vehicle revolution up to 2050. Our analysis shows that a diverse set of measures targeting vehicle buyers is necessary to drive widespread adoption of clean technologies. Carbon pricing alone is insufficient to bring low-carbon vehicles to the mass market, though it may have a supporting role in ensuring a decarbonized energy supply.

    更新日期:2018-07-18
  • Nucleation of dislocations and their dynamics in layered oxide cathode materials during battery charging
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-16
    A. Singer, M. Zhang, S. Hy, D. Cela, C. Fang, T. A. Wynn, B. Qiu, Y. Xia, Z. Liu, A. Ulvestad, N. Hua, J. Wingert, H. Liu, M. Sprung, A. V. Zozulya, E. Maxey, R. Harder, Y. S. Meng, O. G. Shpyrko

    Lithium-rich layered oxides (LRLO) are among the leading candidates for the next-generation cathode material for energy storage, delivering 50% excess capacity over commercially used compounds. Despite excellent prospects, voltage fade has prevented effective use of the excess capacity, and a major challenge has been a lack of understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the voltage fade. Here, using operando three-dimensional Bragg coherent diffractive imaging, we directly observe the nucleation of a mobile dislocation network in LRLO nanoparticles. The dislocations form more readily in LRLO as compared with a classical layered oxide, suggesting a link between the defects and voltage fade. We show microscopically how the formation of partial dislocations contributes to the voltage fade. The insights allow us to design and demonstrate an effective method to recover the original high-voltage functionality. Our findings reveal that the voltage fade in LRLO is reversible and call for new paradigms for improved design of oxygen-redox active materials.

    更新日期:2018-07-18
  • Suppression of atomic vacancies via incorporation of isovalent small ions to increase the stability of halide perovskite solar cells in ambient air
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-16
    Makhsud I. Saidaminov, Junghwan Kim, Ankit Jain, Rafael Quintero-Bermudez, Hairen Tan, Guankui Long, Furui Tan, Andrew Johnston, Yicheng Zhao, Oleksandr Voznyy, Edward H. Sargent

    The degradation of perovskite solar cells in the presence of trace water and oxygen poses a challenge for their commercial impact given the appreciable permeability of cost-effective encapsulants. Point defects were recently shown to be a major source of decomposition due to their high affinity for water and oxygen molecules. Here, we report that, in single-cation/halide perovskites, local lattice strain facilitates the formation of vacancies and that cation/halide mixing suppresses their formation via strain relaxation. We then show that judiciously selected dopants can maximize the formation energy of defects responsible for degradation. Cd-containing cells show an order of magnitude enhanced unencapsulated stability compared to state-of-art mixed perovskite solar cells, for both shelf storage and maximum power point operation in ambient air at a relative humidity of 50%. We conclude by testing the generalizability of the defect engineering concept, demonstrating both vacancy-formation suppressors (such as Zn) and promoters (such as Hg).

    更新日期:2018-07-18
  • More stable when relaxed
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-16
    Aaron T. Fafarman

    More stable when relaxed More stable when relaxed, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0217-x Perovskite solar cells are noted for their high performance and ease of synthesis, but are still plagued by concerns over their stability. Researchers are now demonstrating why higher performance and increased stability go hand-in-hand — and how to continue improving both.

    更新日期:2018-07-18
  • Machine-learning design
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-10
    Changjun Zhang

    Machine-learning design Machine-learning design, Published online: 10 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0210-4 Machine-learning design

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Knowledge is not power
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-10
    Jenn Richler

    Knowledge is not power Knowledge is not power, Published online: 10 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0213-1 Knowledge is not power

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Talking across scales
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-10
    Fouad Khan

    Talking across scales Talking across scales, Published online: 10 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0211-3 Talking across scales

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • NET gains
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-10

    NET gains NET gains, Published online: 10 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0216-y Negative emissions technologies face numerous challenges, from techno-economic hurdles to public acceptance concerns, but progress in research, collaboration and regulation provide indications that they may yet form part of future energy systems.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Printing organic photovoltaics
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-10
    Giulia Tregnago

    Printing organic photovoltaics Printing organic photovoltaics, Published online: 10 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0212-2 Printing organic photovoltaics

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Opportunities and challenges for tandem solar cells using metal halide perovskite semiconductors
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-09
    Tomas Leijtens, Kevin A. Bush, Rohit Prasanna, Michael D. McGehee

    Metal halide perovskite semiconductors possess excellent optoelectronic properties, allowing them to reach high solar cell performances. They have tunable bandgaps and can be rapidly and cheaply deposited from low-cost precursors, making them ideal candidate materials for tandem solar cells, either by using perovskites as the wide-bandgap top cell paired with low-bandgap silicon or copper indium diselenide bottom cells or by using both wide- and small-bandgap perovskite semiconductors to make all-perovskite tandem solar cells. This Review highlights the unique potential of perovskite tandem solar cells to reach solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies far above those of single-junction solar cells at low costs. We discuss the recent developments in perovskite-based tandem fabrication, and detail directions for future research to take this technology beyond the proof-of-concept stage.

    更新日期:2018-07-10
  • Solar powered healthcare in developing countries
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-09
    Hem H. Dholakia

    Solar powered healthcare in developing countries Solar powered healthcare in developing countries, Published online: 09 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0205-1 The lack of electrification in parts of the world leaves many healthcare facilities with inadequate power provision for even basic services. Pilot projects show that solar power can overcome this but, to expand further, more careful trials measuring health outcomes and better integration of energy and health policy are required.

    更新日期:2018-07-10
  • A fluorene-terminated hole-transporting material for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-09
    Nam Joong Jeon, Hyejin Na, Eui Hyuk Jung, Tae-Youl Yang, Yong Guk Lee, Geunjin Kim, Hee-Won Shin, Sang Il Seok, Jaemin Lee, Jangwon Seo

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) require both high efficiency and good long-term stability if they are to be commercialized. It is crucial to finely optimize the energy level matching between the perovskites and hole-transporting materials to achieve better performance. Here, we synthesize a fluorene-terminated hole-transporting material with a fine-tuned energy level and a high glass transition temperature to ensure highly efficient and thermally stable PSCs. We use this material to fabricate photovoltaic devices with 23.2% efficiency (under reverse scanning) with a steady-state efficiency of 22.85% for small-area (~0.094 cm2) cells and 21.7% efficiency (under reverse scanning) for large-area (~1 cm2) cells. We also achieve certified efficiencies of 22.6% (small-area cells, ~0.094 cm2) and 20.9% (large-area, ~1 cm2). The resultant device shows better thermal stability than the device with spiro-OMeTAD, maintaining almost 95% of its initial performance for more than 500 h after thermal annealing at 60 °C.

    更新日期:2018-07-10
  • Protecting data privacy is key to a smart energy future
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Carissa Véliz, Philipp Grunewald

    Protecting data privacy is key to a smart energy futureProtecting data privacy is key to a smart energy future, Published online: 02 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0203-3The ability to collect fine-grained energy data from smart meters has benefits for utilities and consumers. However, a proactive approach to data privacy is necessary to maximize the potential of these data to support low-carbon energy systems and innovative business models.

    更新日期:2018-07-02
  • Author Correction: Energy investment needs for fulfilling the Paris Agreement and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    David L. McCollum, Wenji Zhou, Christoph Bertram, Harmen-Sytze de Boer, Valentina Bosetti, Sebastian Busch, Jacques Després, Laurent Drouet, Johannes Emmerling, Marianne Fay, Oliver Fricko, Shinichiro Fujimori, Matthew Gidden, Mathijs Harmsen, Daniel Huppmann, Gokul Iyer, Volker Krey, Elmar Kriegler, Claire Nicolas, Shonali Pachauri, Simon Parkinson, Miguel Poblete-Cazenave, Peter Rafaj, Narasimha Rao, Julie Rozenberg, Andreas Schmitz, Wolfgang Schoepp, Detlef van Vuuren, Keywan Riahi

    Author Correction: Energy investment needs for fulfilling the Paris Agreement and achieving the Sustainable Development GoalsAuthor Correction: Energy investment needs for fulfilling the Paris Agreement and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, Published online: 02 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0215-zAuthor Correction: Energy investment needs for fulfilling the Paris Agreement and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals

    更新日期:2018-07-02
  • Stable cycling of high-voltage lithium metal batteries in ether electrolytes
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Shuhong Jiao, Xiaodi Ren, Ruiguo Cao, Mark H. Engelhard, Yuzi Liu, Dehong Hu, Donghai Mei, Jianming Zheng, Wengao Zhao, Qiuyan Li, Ning Liu, Brian D. Adams, Cheng Ma, Jun Liu, Ji-Guang Zhang, Wu Xu

    The key to enabling long-term cycling stability of high-voltage lithium (Li) metal batteries is the development of functional electrolytes that are stable against both Li anodes and high-voltage (above 4 V versus Li/Li+) cathodes. Due to their limited oxidative stability ( <4 V), ethers have so far been excluded from being used in high-voltage batteries, in spite of their superior reductive stability against Li metal compared to conventional carbonate electrolytes. Here, we design a concentrated dual-salt/ether electrolyte that induces the formation of stable interfacial layers on both a high-voltage LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathode and the Li metal anode, thus realizing a capacity retention of >90% over 300 cycles and ~80% over 500 cycles with a charge cut-off voltage of 4.3 V. This study offers a promising approach to enable ether-based electrolytes for high-voltage Li metal battery applications.

    更新日期:2018-07-02
  • Material insights and challenges for non-fullerene organic solar cells based on small molecular acceptors
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Jianquan Zhang, Huei Shuan Tan, Xugang Guo, Antonio Facchetti, He Yan

    The field of non-fullerene organic solar cells has experienced rapid development during the past few years, mainly driven by the development of novel non-fullerene acceptors and matching donor semiconductors. However, organic solar cell material development has progressed via a trial-and-error approach with limited understanding of the materials’ structure–property relationships and the underlying device physics of non-fullerene devices. In addition, the availability of hundreds of donor and acceptor semiconductors creates an extremely large pool of possible donor–acceptor combinations, which poses a daunting challenge for rational material screening and matching. This Review describes several important conceptual aspects of the emerging non-fullerene devices by highlighting key contributions that provided fundamental insights regarding rational material design, donor–acceptor pair matching, blend morphology control and the reduced voltage losses in non-fullerene organic solar cells. We also discuss the key challenges that need to be addressed to develop more-efficient non-fullerene organic solar cells.

    更新日期:2018-07-02
  • Rethink fuel poverty as a complex problem
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Keith J. Baker, Ronald Mould, Scott Restrick

    Rethink fuel poverty as a complex problemRethink fuel poverty as a complex problem, Published online: 02 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0204-2Fuel poverty is a highly-complex social problem that is currently defined in technical and economic terms that prioritize energy performance measures as solutions. Yet considering the wider societal aspects of the condition demonstrates how adopting dynamic risk-based metrics can drive tailored and holistic folk-first outcomes.

    更新日期:2018-07-02
  • Non-flammable electrolytes with high salt-to-solvent ratios for Li-ion and Li-metal batteries
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Ziqi Zeng, Vijayakumar Murugesan, Kee Sung Han, Xiaoyu Jiang, Yuliang Cao, Lifen Xiao, Xinping Ai, Hanxi Yang, Ji-Guang Zhang, Maria L. Sushko, Jun Liu

    Non-flammable electrolytes could intrinsically eliminate fire hazards and improve battery safety, but their compatibility with electrode materials, especially graphite anodes, remains an obstacle owing to the strong catalytic activity of the anode surfaces. Here, we report an approach that improves the stability of non-flammable phosphate electrolytes by adjusting the molar ratio of Li salt to solvent. At a high Li salt-to-solvent molar ratio (~1:2), the phosphate solvent molecules are mostly coordinated with the Li+ cations, and the undesired reactivity of the solvent molecules toward the graphite anode can be effectively suppressed. High cycling Coulombic efficiency (99.7%), good cycle life and safe operation of commercial 18650 Li-ion cells with these electrolytes are demonstrated. In addition, these non-flammable electrolytes show reduced reactivity toward Li-metal electrodes. Non-dendritic Li-metal plating and stripping in Li–Cu half-cells are demonstrated with high Coulombic efficiency (>99%) and good stability.

    更新日期:2018-07-02
  • Charge separation via asymmetric illumination in photocatalytic Cu2O particles
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Ruotian Chen, Shan Pang, Hongyu An, Jian Zhu, Sheng Ye, Yuying Gao, Fengtao Fan, Can Li

    Solar-driven photocatalytic reactions provide a potential route to sustainable fuels. These processes rely on the effective separation of photogenerated charges, and therefore understanding and exploring the driving force for charge separation is key to improving the photocatalytic performance. Here, using surface photovoltage microscopy, we demonstrate that the photogenerated charges can be separated effectively in a high-symmetry Cu2O photocatalyst particle by asymmetric light irradiation. The holes and electrons are transferred to the illuminated and shadow regions, respectively, of a single photocatalytic particle. Quantitative results show that the intrinsic difference between electron and hole mobilities enables a diffusion-controlled charge separation process, which is stronger than that caused by conventional built-in electric fields (40 mV versus 10 mV). Based on the findings, we assemble spatially separated redox co-catalysts on a single photocatalytic particle and, in doing so, enhance the performance for a model photocatalytic reaction by 300%. These findings highlight the driving force caused by charge mobility differences and the use of asymmetric light illumination for charge separation in photocatalysis.

    更新日期:2018-07-02
  • An intermediate temperature garnet-type solid electrolyte-based molten lithium battery for grid energy storage
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Yang Jin, Kai Liu, Jialiang Lang, Denys Zhuo, Zeya Huang, Chang-an Wang, Hui Wu, Yi Cui

    Batteries are an attractive grid energy storage technology, but a reliable battery system with the functionalities required for a grid such as high power capability, high safety and low cost remains elusive. Here, we report a solid electrolyte-based molten lithium battery constructed with a molten lithium anode, a molten Sn–Pb or Bi–Pb alloy cathode and a garnet-type Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 (LLZTO) solid electrolyte tube. We show that the assembled Li||LLZTO||Sn–Pb and Li||LLZTO||Bi–Pb cells can stably cycle at an intermediate temperature of 240 °C for about one month at current densities of 50 mA cm−2 and 100 mA cm−2 respectively, with almost no capacity decay and an average Coulombic efficiency of 99.98%. Furthermore, the cells demonstrate high power capability with current densities up to 300 mA cm−2 (90 mW cm−2) for Li||LLZTO||Sn–Pb and 500 mA cm−2 (175 mW cm−2) for Li||LLZTO||Bi–Pb. Our design offers prospects for grid energy storage with intermediate temperature operations, high safety margin and low capital and maintenance costs.

    更新日期:2018-07-02
  • Author Correction: III–V-on-silicon solar cells reaching 33% photoconversion efficiency in two-terminal configuration
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-06-25
    Romain Cariou, Jan Benick, Frank Feldmann, Oliver Höhn, Hubert Hauser, Paul Beutel, Nasser Razek, Markus Wimplinger, Benedikt Bläsi, David Lackner, Martin Hermle, Gerald Siefer, Stefan W. Glunz, Andreas W. Bett, Frank Dimroth

    Author Correction: III–V-on-silicon solar cells reaching 33% photoconversion efficiency in two-terminal configurationAuthor Correction: III–V-on-silicon solar cells reaching 33% photoconversion efficiency in two-terminal configuration, Published online: 25 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0208-yAuthor Correction: III–V-on-silicon solar cells reaching 33% photoconversion efficiency in two-terminal configuration

    更新日期:2018-06-27
  • Tailoring grain boundary structures and chemistry of Ni-rich layered cathodes for enhanced cycle stability of lithium-ion batteries
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-06-25
    Pengfei Yan, Jianming Zheng, Jian Liu, Biqiong Wang, Xiaopeng Cheng, Yuefei Zhang, Xueliang Sun, Chongmin Wang, Ji-Guang Zhang

    A critical challenge for the commercialization of layer-structured nickel-rich lithium transition metal oxide cathodes for battery applications is their capacity and voltage fading, which originate from the disintegration and lattice phase transition of the cathode particles. The general approach of cathode particle surface modification could partially alleviate the degradation associated with surface processes, but it still fails to resolve this critical barrier. Here, we report that infusing the grain boundaries of cathode secondary particles with a solid electrolyte dramatically enhances the capacity retention and voltage stability of the cathode. We find that the solid electrolyte infused in the boundaries not only acts as a fast channel for lithium-ion transport, it also, more importantly, prevents penetration of the liquid electrolyte into the boundaries, and consequently eliminates the detrimental factors, which include cathode–liquid electrolyte interfacial reactions, intergranular cracking and layered-to-spinel phase transformation. This grain-boundary engineering approach provides design ideas for advanced cathodes for batteries.

    更新日期:2018-06-27
  • Surfactants for smoother films
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-06-18
    Liyuan Han

    Surfactants for smoother films Surfactants for smoother films, Published online: 18 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0193-1 The efficiency of perovskite solar modules is limited by the difficulty in fabricating uniform and high-quality perovskite films. Now, a modified doctor blade method with a surfactant-controlled drying process has been shown to enable high-speed deposition of large-area and uniform perovskite films.

    更新日期:2018-06-18
  • Energy investment needs for fulfilling the Paris Agreement and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.859) Pub Date : 2018-06-18
    David L. McCollum, Wenji Zhou, Christoph Bertram, Harmen-Sytze de Boer, Valentina Bosetti, Sebastian Busch, Jacques Després, Laurent Drouet, Johannes Emmerling, Marianne Fay, Oliver Fricko, Shinichiro Fujimori, Matthew Gidden, Mathijs Harmsen, Daniel Huppmann, Gokul Iyer, Volker Krey, Elmar Kriegler, Claire Nicolas, Shonali Pachauri, Simon Parkinson, Miguel Poblete-Cazenave, Peter Rafaj, Narasimha Rao, Julie Rozenberg, Andreas Schmitz, Wolfgang Schoepp, Detlef van Vuuren, Keywan Riahi

    Low-carbon investments are necessary for driving the energy system transformation that is called for by both the Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals. Improving understanding of the scale and nature of these investments under diverging technology and policy futures is therefore of great importance to decision makers. Here, using six global modelling frameworks, we show that the pronounced reallocation of the investment portfolio required to transform the energy system will not be initiated by the current suite of countries’ Nationally Determined Contributions. Charting a course toward ‘well below 2 °C’ instead sees low-carbon investments overtaking fossil investments globally by around 2025 or before and growing thereafter. Pursuing the 1.5 °C target demands a marked upscaling in low-carbon capital beyond that of a 2 °C-consistent future. Actions consistent with an energy transformation would increase the costs of achieving the goals of energy access and food security, but reduce the costs of achieving air-quality goals.

    更新日期:2018-06-18
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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