Review on various strategies for enhancing photocatalytic activity of graphene based nanocomposites for water purification Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-12-09 Pardeep Singh, Pooja Shandilya, Pankaj Raizada, Anita Sudhaik, Abolfazl Rahmani-Sani, Ahmad Hosseini-Bandegharaei
Heterogeneous photocatalysis employing advanced oxidation has received significant attention for water purification and disinfection. Recently, the excellent photocatalytic and antibacterial properties of graphene-based nanomaterials have encouraged the scientists to fabricate better graphene-based nanocomposites with enhanced photoefficiency for degradation of pollutants and disinfection of water resources. This review presents an overview of the various works done on the utilization of graphene-based photocatalytic systems in water purification and, especially, focuses on the strength of graphene-based composite materials in water disinfection. Therefore, after throwing some light on the advanced oxidation processes and basic principles of heterogeneous photocatalysis, the properties of graphene and its derivatives for being employed as photocatalysts and various strategies adopted for improving their photocatalytic activity was discussed thoroughly. Also, the efficiency of graphene-based composites as disinfectants discussed in the preceding section. At the end, a conclusion was drawn to discuss the remaining challenges and prospects for using graphene-based nanocomposites in environmental sciences.
Hydrothermal synthesis of pure and bio modified TiO2: characterization, evaluation of antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria and anticancer activity against KB Oral cancer cell line Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-12-04 P. Maheswari, S. Ponnusamy, S. Harish, M.R. Ganesh, Y. Hayakawa
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were found to be good anticancer and antibacterial agents. In this study, the antibacterial and anticancer activities of pure TiO2, turmeric, ginger and garlic modified TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Uv- visible spectroscopy were used to analyze the samples. Antibacterial activities were performed against five bacterial strains namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruoginosa , Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. The modified TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited enhanced antibacterial activity when compared with pure TiO2 samples and anticancer activities for the samples were performed in KB Oral cancer cell line. The results of the modified TiO2 NPs indicate a greater efficacy on anticancer and antibacterial properties compared to the pure TiO2 NPs.
Treatment of Lead Contaminated Water Using Synthesized Nanoiron Supported with Bentonite/Graphene Oxide Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-12-04 Chuang Yu, JiCheng Shao, WenJing Sun, XiaoNiu Yu
Conventional nano-iron is widely used in heavy metal contaminated groundwater remediation. However, it is easily oxidized when exposed to the air or re-aggregated under water soaking conditions. In this study, a nano-sized iron supported by graphene oxide/bentonite is proposed which is synthesized by liquid-phase reduction method. The TEM test results showed that the support effect of graphene oxide/bentonite well solved shortcomings of conventional nano-iron, since the flaky structure of graphene oxide and layered bentonite could effectively disperse nano-iron particles. The TEM images indicated that nano-iron supported by graphene oxide/bentonite at a weight ratio of 4:1:7.3 (nanoiron: graphene oxide: bentonite) yielded the smallest particle size, and most particle size was less than 30nm. The test results show that addition of graphene oxide could improve the removal of lead ions, especially in acidic environment as compared to bentonite alone supported nano-iron. The optimum dosage of graphene oxide was found to be 6.98% based on the removal rate of lead. It was found that the removal rate of lead by graphene oxide/bentonite supported nano-iron increased with the increase of pH of simulated contaminated groundwater. The temperature was found to affect the removal rate of lead ions as well. The adsorption of lead ions by graphene oxide/bentonite supported nano-iron conformed to quasi-second order reaction kinetic model, and the adsorption isotherm well fit the Langmuir model.
Anti-hygroscopic surface modification of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) coated by surfactants Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-12-04 Baha I. Elzaki, Yue Jun Zhang
Ammonium nitrate surface is extremely hygroscopic, due to high energy on its surface which increases the potential of the molecules to absorb moisture from the surrounding environment. Ammonium nitrate particles were modified using second coating process with myristic acid in the different amount. The hygroscopicity was tested for ammonium nitrate with and without coating. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the surface of coated and uncoated ammonium nitrate. Meanwhile, the method determined mass ratio of coating layer was improved to achieve more accuracy. In addition, focused ion beam technique was used to determine the thickness of coating layer. The results indicated that by using second coating modification method of surfactant adsorption, the anti-hygroscopicity performance of coated samples was significantly improved. The result showed that the decline of the absorption moisture rate was 40.57%, and the mass ratio of the coating layer was 1.42%. These results suggest that the second coating process employed could provide the well fundamental for the further anti-hygroscopic surface modification of ammonium nitrate particles coated by surfactants.
Influence of Binary Lithium Salts on 49% Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) grafted Natural Rubber Based Solid Polymer Electrolytes Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-12-04 R.A.G. Whba, L. TianKhoon, M.S. Su'ait, M.Y.A. Rahman, A. Ahmad
Effect of binary lithium salts (lithium tetrafluoroborate, LiBF4 with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate, LiCF3SO3) and (lithium tetrafluoroborate, LiBF4 with Lithium iodide, LiI) as charge carriers in solid polymer electrolyte based 49% poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber (MG49) for Li-ion battery application has been investigated. The polymer electrolytes were prepared by solution casting technique. The effect of binary lithium salts on chemical interaction, structural, thermal studies, ionic conductivity and ion transference number of MG49 films are analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Infrared analysis indicated the interaction occurred between Li ions and oxygen atoms at the carbonyl group (−C=O) and the ether group (C−O−C) on methyl methacrylate (MMA) segments. XRD studies exhibited a reduction of the MMA peak intensity at 29.5˚ after the addition of different ratios of binary Li salts due to the plasticizing effect of the salts. The larger anion size tends to create bigger free volume in the polymer electrolyte. In addition, this confirms that the degree of crystallinity of the electrolyte films is reduced leading to enhancement of ionic conductivity. DSC results revealed the highest conductivity sample has the lowest Tg implying the ions can flow with more ease throughout the polymer chain. The ratios of LiBF4:LiI presenting the higher overall performance in terms of ionic conductivity comparing to LiBF4:LiCF3SO3 ratios in MG49. The highest room temperature conductivity was obtained at 1.89 × 10–6 S cm-1 for (30:70) LiBF4:LiI percentages ratio. Moreover, tion is observed to increase with the ionic conductivities.
Acylhydrazidate-based porous coordination polymers and reversible I2 adsorption properties Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-07-25 Yan-Ning Wang, Rong-Yan Wang, Qing-Feng Yang, Jie-Hui Yu
By employing the hydrothermal in situ acylation of organic acids with N2H4, three porous acylhydrazidate-based Zn2+/Cd2+ coordination polymers as [M(L1)(H2O)]·1.5H2O (H2L1 = benzimidazole-5,6-dihydrazide; M2+ = Zn2+1, Cd2+2) and [Zn(HL2)(H2O)]·3H2O (H3L2 = 4,5-(di-(3′,4′-phthalhydrazide))) 3 were obtained. X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis reveals that the frameworks of 1–3 can all be simplified into a (3metal node,3ligand node)-connected net. However, since the ligands are different, they show the distinct structures: a C-tube-like structure for the isostructural 1 and 2; a 103 topology for 3. The cif-checking reports indicate that the solvent accessible voids in the structures of 1–3 are 1055 Å3, 1282.4 Å3, and 978 Å3, respectively. It is noteworthy that 3 is the first example of triacylhydrazidate-based coordination polymer. The investigation of the I2-adsorption property for two Zn2+ compounds suggests that both can adsorb reversibly the I2 molecule. The adsorption amount for 3 (100 mg adsorbing 22.0 mg I2) is a bit higher than that for 1 (100 mg accommodating 15.6 mg I2). However, the adsorption speed for 3 is much faster than that for 1. About 5 s, the I2 adsorption for 3 is close to saturation, while for 1, it is about 20 days. This might be related to the number and the distribution for the uncoordinated N/O atoms on the side walls of the channels.
Mesoporous cobalt phosphate electrocatalyst prepared using liquid crystal template for methanol oxidation reaction in alkaline solution Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-07-29 Merfat S. Al-Sharif, Prabhakarn Arunachalam, Twaha Abiti, Mabrook S. Amer, Matar Al-Shalwi, Mohamed A. Ghanem
A crystalline mesoporous cobalt phosphate (meso-CoPi) electrocatalyst is prepared using liquid crystal template of non-ionic surfactant of Brij®78. The physicochemical investigations of the electrocatalyst executed by surface area analyzer, XRD, transmission electron microscope submits creation of a mesoporous crystalline nanostructured of meso-CoPi with a surface area of 124 m2 g−1. This is an 10-fold greatness superior than that for bulk-CoPi particles produced without surfactant template. The meso-CoPi electrocatalyst comprises of metallic cobalt layered with a cobalt-oxo/hydroxo-phosphate layer which facilitates the electro-oxidation of methanol at modest overpotential of < 1.2 V vs RHE in alkaline solution. The methanol oxidation activity of the meso-CoPi catalyst shows more than 20-fold current increase at 1.4 VRHE in comparison to bulk-CoPi counterpart which due to the enhancement of the electroactive specific surface area. Liquid crystal template chemical approach provides a reproducible stage to synthesize mesoporous metal phosphates with improved electrocatalytic activities.
Comparative studies of sunlight mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparaticles from Azadirachta indica leaf extract and its antibacterial effect on Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-07-29 Mounil Mankad, Ghanshyam Patil, Dimpy Patel, Parthvi Patel, Armi Patel
Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has attracted worldwide attention as it is cheap and non-toxic. Therefore, in present study sunlight mediated silver nanoparticle was synthesized from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Neem) leaf extract. Various combinations i.e., reducing agent (5, 10, 15 and 20 ml leaf extract), substrate concentration (1 mM AgNO3) and sunlight durations (5, 10, 15 and 20 min) were assessed for their ability to synthesized stabilized AgNPs. Leaf extract provide both reducing and capping agent, while sunlight served as catalyst for the synthesis process. The green synthesized AgNPs were characterized using change in color due to Surface Plasmon Resonance further analyzed by UV–visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering for size, polydispersity index and zeta potential for stability studies and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The smallest size of synthesized AgNPs was 67.94 ± 0.72 nm synthesized using to 20 ml of reducing agent (leaf extract) and 5 min of sunlight exposure. Antibacterial activity of synthesized silver nanoparticle was examined against plant pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and showed a good antimicrobial activity compared to 200 mg/l of streptocycline.
Tuning the morphological structure, light absorption, and photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6 and Bi2WO6-BiOCl through cerium doping Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-07-29 Mirabbos Hojamberdiev, Zukhra C. Kadirova, Ehsan Zahedi, Diego Onna, María Claudia Marchi, Gangqiang Zhu, Nobuhiro Matsushita, Masashi Hasegawa, Sara Aldabe Bilmes, Kiyoshi Okada
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are recognized as new classes of water pollutants that receive considerable attention because of their negative environmental impact on aquatic life and humans. Because microbiological and/or conventional secondary physicochemical treatments cannot completely remove those water pollutants, effective advanced oxidation processes using semiconductor-based photocatalysts are needed to ensure their total elimination in water. Here, we report on the tuning of the morphological structure, light absorption, and photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6 and Bi2WO6-BiOCl through cerium doping. Non-doped and Ce-doped Bi2WO6 and Bi2WO6-BiOCl powders are synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and their adsorption ability and photocatalytic activity are evaluated for the removal of salicylic acid in the dark and under visible light irradiation, respectively. The adsorption affinities and preferential sites of salicylic acid molecules on non-doped and Ce-doped Bi2WO6, BiOCl, and Bi2WO6-BiOCl are computationally predicted using molecular dynamics simulations. When ethylene glycol is replaced by dilute HCl as a solvent in a hydrothermal system, BiOCl is also formed along with Bi2WO6, confirming the successful formation of a Bi2WO6-BiOCl composite. The flower-like hierarchical structures of Bi2WO6 and Bi2WO6-BiOCl can absorb more photon energy due to multiple scattering, charge carriers can easily transfer to the surface/interface, and mesopores can improve the transfer rate of organic molecules, contributing to the overall enhancement in photocatalytic activity. The Bi2WO6-BiOCl samples show higher photocatalytic activity than that of the Bi2WO6 samples for the degradation of salicylic acid due to the formed p–n heterojunction. The optimum concentration of Ce doping is found to be 1 mol% in the Bi2WO6 and Bi2WO6-BiOCl, promoting the effective separation and transfer of photogenerated charge carriers, resulting in high photocatalytic performance, and the sample exhibited good stability.
Preparation of nanoparticulate TiO2 containing nanocrystalline phases of anatase and brookite by electrochemical dissolution of remelted titanium components Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-07-29 D. Ortega-Díaz, D. Fernández, S. Sepúlveda, R.R. Lindeke, J.J. Pérez-Bueno, E. Peláez-Abellán, J. Manríquez
In this investigation, we present an efficient electrochemical methodology to prepare nano-particulate TiO2 having a nano-crystalline composition of 40% Anatase and 60% Brookite, without need for subsequent thermal treatments (which are typically applied to alter the amount of amorphicity). This procedure for oxide synthesis is novel as it involves the galvanostatic dissolution of remelted Titanium Components, thus constituting a promising technological route for re-using Titanium-containing metallic pieces from the secondary metals industry to produce nano-crystalline TiO2 powders as a high value-added primary product. The experimental results presented showed that the faradaic efficiency of the TiO2 electro-synthesis, crystalline purity, and dispersion of the electro-generated TiO2 material was significant, despite the fact that the titanium content of the remelted titanium components was less than 80%.
Quantitative screening of parabens in Ready-to-eat foodstuffs available in the Saudi market using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-08-02 Hadir M. Maher, Nourah Z. Alzoman, Munira Abdulaziz Almeshal, Hawazin Abdullah Alotaibi, Njoud Naif Alotaibi, Hessa Al-Showiman
Parabens are widely used as preservatives in thousands of consumer’s products including, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products, and foodstuffs. Concern in regards to the safety of parabens has been raised where parabens have been classified as “Endocrine disrupting compounds” with potential link to many tumor types. Despite their wide spread, the occurrence of parabens in foodstuffs available in the Saudi market has not been studied until now. In this work, an HPLC-PDA method was developed and validated for the screening of parabens’ residues in different categories of Ready-to-eat foodstuffs collected from the Saudi market. These categories include: cereals, meat, fish, dairy product, bean products, fruits, vegetables, cookies and snacks, beverages, condiments, and others. Chromatographic analysis of the selected parabens (Methyl paraben MeP, ethyl paraben EtP, propyl paraben PrP, butyl paraben BuP, and isobutyl paraben isoBuP) was performed on Symmetry® C-18 Colum (4.6 × 75 mm, 3.5 μm) with methanol/water (57:43, v/v) as the mobile phase and using simply methanol for sample preparation. The proposed method was fully validated with regards to linearity, limits of detection (LOD) and of quantitation (LOQ), accuracy and precision, extraction recovery, and specificity. Matrix-based calibration curves were linear in the range 0.025–500 μg/g (MeP, EtP), 0.05–500 μg/g (PrP), and 0.125–1250 μg/g (IsoBuP, BuP) with LOQ 0.025 μg/g for MeP, EtP, 0.05 μg/g for PrP, 0.125 μg/g for both BuP and isoBuP. The method was successfully applied for quantitative screening of the five parabens in different Ready-to-eat foodstuffs (n = 215) collected from the Saudi market. The total parabens content was determined and was related to the food category and to the packaging material. The highest paraben content was found in cereals and condiments. The type of the packaging material did not have a significant effect on the paraben content among all food categories. Moreover, the estimated daily intake of parabens among the Saudi adults was calculated and it was found to have an average of 2000 μg/kgbw/day.
Functionalized electrospun carbon nanofibers for removal of cationic dye Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-08-04 Badr M. Thamer, Hany El-Hamshary, Salem S. Al-Deyab, Mohamed H. El-Newehy
Electrospun carbon nanofibers (ECNFs) have attracted significant attention in recent years as relatively inexpensive alternative to carbon nanotubes for adsorption organic pollutants. In this study, ECNFs were fabricated from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) using an electrospinning technique, followed by carbonization and oxidation via treatment with a H2SO4/HNO3 mixture. The prepared oxidized electrospun carbon nanofibers (O-ECNFs) were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The O-ECNFs were used as nano-adsorbents for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The adsorption of MB by the O-ECNFs was studied as a function of pH, time, adsorbent dosage, MB concentration, and temperature. ECNF functionalization enhanced the adsorption capacity towards MB dye compared pristine ECNFs. Detailed analysis of the adsorption kinetics showed that the adsorption process followed a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherm was best fit by the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic results showed that MB adsorption onto the O-ECNFs was endothermic and spontaneous.
Amorphous content on the photocatalytic performance of micrometer-sized tungsten trioxide particles Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-08-07 Asep Bayu Dani Nandiyanto, Rosi Oktiani, Risti Ragadhita, Ajeng Sukmafitri, Rena Zaen
The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between amorphous content and the characteristics of micrometer-sized photocatalyst particles. As a model of photocatalyst, tungsten trioxide (WO3) particles with controllable amorphous contents were used. To comprehend the amorphous content parameter precisely, the experiments were conducted by heating amorphous WO3 powders at a specific temperature without additional chemicals or solvents. Thus, the percentage of amorphous in the WO3 particles was controlled independently in the constant particle outer sizes and morphology. Micrometer-sized catalyst was used to avoid the misleading photocatalytic measurements due to the over-dominancy of other catalytic parameters (such as excessive surface area and quantum confinement effect). The results revealed that in the constant process condition, the photocatalytic properties were strongly dependent on the amorphous content in the catalyst. Decreases in this parameter had a strong influence to the enhancement of the photodecomposition rate of organic material. The tendency for the influence of amorphous content was also confirmed by varying the number of catalysts in the photocatalytic process. The study was also completed with the theoretical consideration for the phenomenon happening during the WO3 crystallization (transformation of amorphous into hexagonal and monoclinic crystal structure) and the photocatalytic process.
Synergistic interface between Co3O4 and MgAl2O4 in CO2 assisted continuous vapour phase oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene monomer Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-08-09 Venkata Rao Madduluri, Peddinti Nagaiah, Challa Prathap, K. Vasikerappa, Ajmeera Nagu, Burri David Raju, Kamaraju Seetha Rama Rao
A Series of Co3O4/MgAl2O4 spinel catalysts were prepared by conventional co-precipitation method with various Co loadings (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25) keeping Mg/Al atomic ratio of 1.0 with over all Co + Mg + Al concentration at 3.0. Catalysts characteristics were throughly obtained by X ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–Vis Diffuse reflectance spectra, Temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), NH3 and CO2 Temperture programmed desorption (TPD), CO2 pulse chemisorption, CHNS elemental analysis, and Surface area techniques. The superior catalytic activity accomplished by the catalyst with Co concentration of 1.0 (Co3O4/MgAl2O4), for an oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene can be ascribed to the presence of more number of active Co species. Co-precipitation method seems to be a excellent method in maintaining better synergistic influence, more number of active solid solution species such as MgCo2O4 or MgxCo(1−x)Al2O4 which were advantageous role for better catalytic efficiency. Suitable number of optimized acidic-basic properties measured by NH3 and CO2-TPD analysis was another property influencing the activity with respect to desired product contribution. Higher, 81.2% ethylbenzene conversion (81.2%) with 98% styrene selectivity was attained on 1.0Co3O4/MgAl2O4 in comparision to Co3O4/MgO, and Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 catalysts. According to the CO2 pulse chemisorption reaction with dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene over 1.0Co3O4/MgAl2O4 resulted to get superior CO yield which was promised to get higher ethylbenzene conversion as well as styrene selectivity.
A completely green approach to the synthesis of dendritic silver nanostructures starting from white grape pomace as a potential nanofactory Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-08-14 Katya Carbone, Mariano Paliotta, Laura Micheli, Claudia Mazzuca, Ilaria Cacciotti, Francesca Nocente, Alessandra Ciampa, Maria Teresa Dell'Abate
A simple, eco-friendly, cost-effective and rapid microwave-assisted method has been developed to synthetize dendritic silver nanostructures, composed of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), using white grape pomace aqueous extract (WGPE) as both reducing and capping agent. With this aim, WGPE and AgNO3 (1 mM) were mixed at different ratio, and microwave irradiated at 700 W, for 40 s. To understand the role of bioactive compounds involved in the green synthesis of AgNPs, preliminary chemical characterization, FT-IR analysis and 1H NMR metabolite profiling of WGPE were carried out. The effects of bioactive extract concentration and stability over time on AgNPs formation were also evaluated. WGPE-mediated silver nanostructures were then characterized by UV–vis, FTIR analyses, and scanning electron microscopy. Interestingly, the formation of dendritic nanostructures, originated from the self-assembly of Ag rounded nanoparticles (average diameter of 33 ± 6 nm), was observed and ascribed to the use of microwave power and the presence of organic components within the used WGPE, inducing an anisotropic crystal growth and promoting a diffusion-limited aggregation mechanism. The bio-dendritic synthetized nanostructures were also evaluated for potential applications in bio-sensing and agricultural fields. Cyclic voltammetry measurements in 0.5 M phosphate + 0.1 M KCl buffer, pH 7.4 showed that green AgNPs possess the electroactive properties typical of AgNPs produced using chemical protocol. The biological activity of synthetized AgNPs was evaluated by in-vitro antifungal activity against F. graminearum. Additionally, a phytotoxicity evaluation of synthetized green nanostructures was carried out on wheat seed germination. Results highlighted the potential of WGPE as green agent for bio-inspired nanomaterial synthesis, and of green Ag nanostructures, which can be used as antifungal agent and in biosensing applications.
Time-biased square wave differential electrolytic potentiometry for determination of ascorbic acid in a complex matrix at multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified silver electrodes Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-08-15 Abdalghaffar Mohammad Osman, Abdullah Mahmud Abulkibash, Muataz Ali Atieh
Carbon nanotubes modified silver electrodes (CNTs/Ag) have been prepared by the catalytic thermal decomposition of ethylene in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. CNTs growth parameters such as ratio of ethylene to hydrogen, temperature and time were optimized, to enhance the electrode functionality for application. The electrode surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transition electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The optimum ethylene to hydrogen (C2H2:H2) ratio, temperature and time were found to be 75:90 sccm, 800 °C, and 20 min respectively. The CNTs/Ag electrodes prepared by this method exhibited well adhesion of the CNTs to the metal surface enabling their use for multiple times. The CNTs/Ag electrodes were successfully applied as indicating system in biased square wave differential electrolytic potentiometry (DEP) for the determination of ascorbic acid in a drug formulation and complex Baobab fruit matrix. CNTs/Ag electrodes showed high performance and durability, and the biased square wave led to enhanced DEP signal and lowered the detection limit for ascorbic acid to less than 25 µM. These promising results open the way for the use of CNTs/Ag electrodes as indicating setup for automated flowing systems like flow injection analysis.
Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Aqueous Fraction of Parkinsonea aculeata L. Growing in Saudi Arabia Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-08-15 Wafaa H.B. Hassan, Sahar Abdelaziz, Hanan M. Al Yousef
Polyphenolic constituents and chromatographic fingerprint of the aqueous fraction obtained from the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Parkinsonea aculeata L. growing in Saudi Arabia were investigated for the first time using UPLC-ESI/MS/MS in negative mode. Forty compounds were tentatively identified including sixteen C-flavone glycosides, twenty-two O-flavone glycosides, and two polymethoxylated flavonoids. Compounds identification was based on the MS/MS fragmentation and literature comparison. The aqueous fraction fingerprint is rich in C- and O-flavone glycosides, like apigenin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (vitexin), vitexin 2″-O-rhamnoside, luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin), luteolin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-rhamnoside and luteolin-7-O-rutinoside. These compounds were identified for the first time in the aqueous fraction of Saudi P. aculeata L. plant. Additionally, the antioxidant and anticancer activities were investigated. The aqueous fraction showed a strong DPPH scavenging activity with IC50 48.3 ± 1.5 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid 14.2 ± 0.5 μg/mL. However, this fraction showed a very weak cytotoxic activity against HepG-2 (Hepatocellular carcinoma) and MCF-7 (Breast carcinoma) with IC50 222 ± 1.8 and 304 ± 9.2 µg/ml respectively compared to cisplatin IC50 3.67 ± 8.1 and 5.71 ± 3.8 µg/ml respectively.
The effect of polyethylene glycols on the interaction and stability of AOT/water/isooctane microemulsions Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-08-16 Dashuang Fan, Zhiguo Hao, Peizhu Zheng, Jihua Zhao, Weiguo Shen
The influence of water-soluble polyethylene glycols PEG200 on the properties of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)-sulfosuccinate (AOT) water-in-isooctane microemulsions has been investigated by conductivity measurement and isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC). The percolation temperatures (Tp), the thermodynamic properties of droplet aggregation and the interaction enthalpy (−ΔHφ) between droplets for AOT/water/PEG200/isooctane with different PEG concentrations and a fixed molar ratio of water to surfactant ω = 22.2 were determined. Based on a two-stage thermodynamic approach of the percolation, we obtained the fusion enthalpy (ΔHf0) of the close contact droplets by a combination of the droplet aggregation enthalpy (ΔHag0) and −ΔHφ. It was found that both (−ΔHφ) and (ΔHf0) varied with the concentration of PEG200 (cPEG) and had the extreme value at cPEG = 25 g L−1. This phenomenon was interpreted by the variation of interface rigidity due to the varied distributions of added PEG200 between the water pool and the surfactant interface.
Improved corrosion resistance of mild steel in acidic solution by hydrazone derivatives: An experimental and computational study Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-08-16 Hassane Lgaz, Ill-Min Chung, Mustafa R. Albayati, Abdelkarim Chaouiki, Rachid Salghi, Shaaban K. Mohamed
Poor corrosion resistance of mild steel (MS) is a serious concern in many industrial applications. Application of corrosion inhibitors is a possible solution to combat steel corrosion. As yet, there is very little research reported focusing on hydrazone derivatives as corrosion inhibitors, here we present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the adsorption of three newly synthesized hydrazones (HDZs), namely, (E)-N′-(4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene)-2-((2,3-dimethylphenyl)amino)benzohydrazide (HDZ-1), (E)-2-((2,3-dimethylphenyl)amino)-N′-(4-methylbenzylidene)benzohydrazide, (HDZ-2) and (E)-N′-benzylidene-2-((2,3-dimethylphenyl)amino)benzohydrazide (HDZ-3) on the MS surface in 1 M HCl. The interaction of HDZs and the metal surface was investigated using electrochemical techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), DFT and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. XPS shows that inhibitor molecules form a stable layer on steel surface through chemical and physical interactions. HDZs adsorption onto the steel surface was found to follow Langmuir model. Furthermore, electrochemical measurement results demonstrated that our developed inhibitors act as of mixed-type (anodic and cathodic), with HDZ-1 showing the highest polarization resistance and lowest corrosion current density. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the surface morphology of the steel samples. The new hydrazones showed significantly improved steel corrosion resistance, which provides opportunities to explore the inhibitive activity of structurally similar compounds.
Ionic liquid assisted growth of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/reduced graphene oxide based electrode: An improved electro-catalytic performance for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides in beverages Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-08-27 Shweta Rana, Ranjeet Kaur, Roshni Jain, Nirmal Prabhakar
An enzyme based nanocomposite host matrix comprising of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate based ionic liquid functionalized reduced graphene oxide (PEDOT/ILRGO) has been designed for the electrochemical detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). Interactions between reduced graphene oxide and ionic liquid have resulted in better loading of the same onto the PEDOT matrix. A detail redox analysis highlights the increased surface area and more number of charge carriers enabling the redox inhibition mechanism more efficient in the designed electrode. The biosensor works on the principle of generation of thiocholine by reaction between acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and substrate acethylthiocholine iodide (ATChI), which undergoes oxidation resulting in redox peaks. Under the optimized conditions, three different OPs chlorpyrifos (CP), malathion (ML) and methyl parathion (MP) were analyzed by varying concentrations with limit of detection calculated to be 0.04 ng ml−1, 0.117 ng ml−1 and 0.108 ng ml−1 respectively, all below 0.2 µg ml−1 concentration which is their maximum residual limit, hence exhibiting good sensitivity. The prepared sensor offers 91.7% of reactivation and good stability for 15–20 days with 95.7% of initial current response retainment, reflecting its excellent potency as an organophosphorus pesticide sensor.
Synthesis and application of a triazine derivative containing boron as flame retardant in epoxy resins Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-08-27 Shanshan Chen, Lianghui Ai, Tie Zhang, Ping Liu, Weishi Liu, Yonghong Pan, Dongfa Liu
A halogen-free, organic boron/nitrogen compound, 2,4,6-tris-(4-boronphenoxy)-(1,3,5)-triazine (TNB), was synthesized. The thermal and flame-retardant properties of epoxy resins (EP) containing TNB were investigated based on TGA, limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning (UL 94) and cone calorimeter tests. The results showed that the residual char of EP increased after TNB was present. The LOI value of EP/20%TNB reached 31.2% and UL 94 V-0 rating was achieved. The peak heat release rate and total heat release of EP/20%TNB reduced to 305.3 kW/m2 and 58.0 MJ/m2, respectively. In addition, the flame-retarding mechanism was investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, laser Raman spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis-infrared spectroscopy. The results show that TNB is an efficient flame retardant, which is effective in the gas and condensed phases simultaneously.
Paper flower-derived porous carbons with high-capacitance by chemical and physical activation for sustainable applications Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-08-27 Pitchaimani Veerakumar, Thandavarayan Maiyalagan, Balasubramaniam Gnana Sundara Raj, Kuppuswamy Guruprasad, Zhongqing Jiang, King-Chuen Lin
Porous carbon nanosheets were prepared by the carbonization of paper flower via chemical and physical activation. The structural properties of the as-prepared carbons were characterized using the techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, N2 sorption isotherms and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), while the related morphological analyses were conducted using scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM). The obtained carbons exhibit a high specific surface area up to 1801 m2 g−1 with a robust porous graphitic carbon layer structure, which provides the merits for potential application in energy storage and dye removal. We carried out potentiostatic and galvanostatic measurements using a three-electrode cell in 1.0 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte and achieved a specific capacitance of 118, 109.5, 101.7, 93.6, and 91.2 F g−1 at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 A g−1, respectively. The stability at 12 A g−1 was tested to reach 10,000 cycles with capacity retention of around 97.4%. We have demonstrated that the paper flower-derived carbons at activation temperature 800 °C (PFC-800) can be used as a promising electrode material in supercapacitor. PFC-800 can also serve as an efficient sunset yellow dye removal, showing the maximum adsorption capacity for sunset yellow (Q0, 273.6 mg g−1).
Preparation, characterization and evaluation of chitosan biguanidine hydrochloride as a novel antiscalant during membrane desalination process Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-08-30 Yasmine A. Maher, Mohamed E.A. Ali, Hend E. Salama, Magdy W. Sabaa
Scale deposition is considered as one of the most critical problems leading to permeate flux decline and deterioration of membrane surface in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants. This study aims to preparation of novel high effective scale inhibitor, chitosan biguanidine hydrochloride (CG), to inhibit the precipitation of calcium sulfate and carbonate onto the membrane surface. The modification of Chitosan by the guanidine group was to enhance its solubility in water, because chitosan as it is dissolves only in moderately acidic solutions. CG was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, 13C NMR and 1H NMR. The inhibition efficiency of our antiscalant was evaluated against CaSO4 and CaCO3 solutions at both static (induction time) and real application tests (cross-flow unit for 6 h). CG showed a good performance as scale inhibitor for CaSO4 and CaCO3 at about 10 and 15 mg·L−1 with flux decline of 2.6 and 5% in feed water, respectively. In addition, the induction time of precipitation of CaSO4 increased from 3 to 15 min with the addition of CG. SEM analysis at different magnifications for Cs and CG proved that CG strongly affects the morphology of the precipitated calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate leading to distortion of crystals.
Mechanistic roles of substitutional Fe dopants on catalytic acetylene-sensing process of flame-made SnO2 nanoparticles Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-08-31 Jirasak Sukunta, Anurat Wisitsoraat, Adisorn Tuantranont, Kata Jaruwongrungsee, Sukon Phanichphant, Chaikarn Liewhiran
In this work, flame-spray-made Fe-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were comprehensively investigated for acetylene (C2H2) detection and the roles of Fe dopants on sensing mechanisms were explored. The sensing material properties were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, X-ray absorption/photoemission spectroscopy and UV–visible spectroscopy. The structural characterizations confirmed that the nanoparticles had a tetragonal nanocrystalline SnO2 phase and Fe3+ dopant species formed a solid solution with SnO2 lattice. The sensors were measured towards 0.15–3 vol% C2H2 in dry air at various working temperatures (200–350 °C). Gas-sensing data demonstrated that the optimal Fe doping level of 0.1 wt% led to a substantially enhanced response of 748.7 toward 3 vol% C2H2 with a decent response time of 2.5 s at the optimal working temperature of 300 °C. Furthermore, the optimal SnO2 sensor demonstrated high C2H2 selectivity against C2H5OH, NO2, H2, NH3, CO2, NO, H2S, CH4, C2H4O, C2H4 and N2O. Additional detailed analyses suggested that Fe3+ species played catalytic roles for enhancing C2H2 dissociation and oxidation. Thus, the Fe-doped SnO2 sensors were highly promising for selective and sensitive detections of acetylene in industrial applications.
High pressure study of nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes using Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-08-31 Weiguang Shi, Hao Liu, Zhaohui Dong, Zhongying Mi, Sean R. Shieh, Xueliang Sun, Xiaoyang Liu
In this study, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (CNx-NTs) with a 8.4% nitrogen content were investigated under high pressure using Raman spectroscopy as well as X ray diffraction (XRD) with synchrotron radiation. For comparison purpose, high pressure behaviors of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) without nitrogen were studied as well. Two phase transformations were identified in CNx-NTs, which can be assigned to tube shape change from circular to ellipse-like and then to flatten shape. In strong contrast, no obvious phase transition was found in CNTs. In addition to the tube shape change, a high pressure M-carbon phase was also evidenced by XRD. Both CNTs and CNx-NTs showed axial dependent compressibility under high pressure. Furthermore, this study found the CNx-NTs acted more complexly than carbon in other forms such as single wall CNTs, multiwall CNTs, and graphite, suggesting the doping of nitrogen in addition to the wall thickness affect the properties of CNx-NTs under high pressure. Especially the doping of nitrogen could also help to extend the appearance of M-carbon phase to lower pressure range. Finally, the TEM images also show the retrieved CNx-NTs were partially amorphousized, which was believed due to the high pressure M-carbon phase formed at high pressure.
Biodiesel production evaluating the use and reuse of magnetic nanocatalysts Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 synthesized in pilot-scale Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-08-31 J. Dantas, E. Leal, D.R. Cornejo, R.H.G.A. Kiminami, A.C.F.M. Costa
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4, successfully synthesized by combustion reaction, with special differential in the production, starting from the scale of 10 g/production to a pilot-scale reproducibility of up to 200 g/production, were used and reused as heterogeneous magnetic nanocatalysts in the reactions of biodiesel production. The obtained nanocatalysts were highly efficient in the biodiesel production with soybean oil, such by the methyl as ethyl routes. It was obtained the best activity in the esterification reaction, favoring conversions of up to 99.54 ± 0.16% on the methyl route and up to 99.38 ± 0.18% on the ethyl route. As regards transesterification, the maximum conversion achieved was 14%. Biodiesel was characterized in terms of viscosity, density, acidity and iodine ratios, whose obtained values place the produced biodiesel within the specifications applicable to the quality standards for its commercialization. MNP were characterized by XRD, BET, TEM, AGM and TPD. Besides, the nanocatalyst was recovered with the help of a simple external magnetic field (magnet) and reused in another 3 cycles, without significant loss in the catalytic activity, indicating considerable stability. Therefore, the nanoferrite Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 can be validated as a new environmentally correct catalyst for the heterogeneous catalysis in the field of biodiesel production.
Electrodeposited cobalt hydroxide in expanded carbon graphite electrode obtained from exhausted batteries applied as energy storage device Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-11-29 Cleverson S. Santos, Rafaela D. de Oliveira, Luís F. Marchesi, Christiana A. Pessôa
This paper describes the preparation and characterization of CG/Co(OH)2 electrode obtained by electrodeposition of cobalt hydroxide on expanded carbon graphite electrode (CG) for potential application as energy storage devices. The CG electrodes used in this work were obtained from exhausted batteries. Firstly, the CG electrode was submitted to an anodic polarization at 2 V in H2SO4 solution, in order to increase the active surface area at different times. Thereafter, the electrodeposition of the Co(OH)2 was carried out by applying different reduction potentials over different times in order to optimize the electrodeposition process. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy results confirmed the expansion of the bare CG and the Co(OH)2 electrodeposition. Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to evaluate the electrochemical performance of the modified electrode. It was observed that the parameters of the modification process affect the morphology of the electrodeposited cobalt hydroxide. The best performance was found for the CG/Co(OH)2 modified electrode obtained by CG expanded during 750 s, followed by the electrodeposition conditions of -1.25 V during 250 s, presenting a capacitiy of 3.4 C cm-2 in an applied current density of 1.0 mA cm-2. In addition, this modified electrode also presented a retention capacity of 91% after 1400 cycles.
Development of a SBSE-HPLC method using sol-gel based germania coated twister for the analysis of 4-chloro-1-naphthol in biological and water samples Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-11-27 Shehzada Muhammad Sajid Jillani, Saheed A. Ganiyu, Khalid Alhooshani
In this work, 4-chloro-1-naphthol is extracted from environmental and biological samples using germania-based polydimethylsiloxane hybrid organic-inorganic coated twister, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The coated twisters showed a good preparation reproducibility of 1.7% (n=3) for one batch and 3.5% (n=3) for different batches. The coated stir bars were successfully characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Sample volume, extraction time, stirring rate, desorption solvent, desorption time and ionic strength were optimized for the stir bar sorptive extraction process. Under optimized experimental conditions, the method showed linearity in the range of 0.4-800 ng mL-1 with R2 = 0.9992 and limit of detection (S/N=3) as 0.034 ng mL-1. The chromatographic method showed higher selectivity by having baseline separation between 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol (the expected interference) and 4-chloro-1-naphthol. This germania-based stir bar sorptive extraction-high performance liquid chromatographic method was successfully applied for 4-chloro-1-naphthol in wastewater, pool water, and human urine and showed relative recoveries between 87.4 - 141.3% with acceptable relative standard deviation i.e. 4-11%.
Overview on petroleum emulsions, formation, influence and demulsification treatment techniques Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-11-22 Murtada Mohammed Abdulredha
The most challenging aspect in petroleum industry is high produced water accompanying crude oil extraction. In modern days, environmental attention has become very significant due to large quantity of produced water. Produced water in crude oil extraction consists of a mixture of several compounds, including inorganic, organic and other elements. The elements in produced water have a wide environmental influence and sometimes cause poisonous impact on sounded area. Meanwhile, there are several techniques to treat produced water. However, a major part of produced water is an emulsion and this leads to a major problem associated with crude oil treatment and transport. At the same time, limitations in treatment techniques for produced water have been demanding researchers to investigate on demulsification techniques for several years. Researchers also noted that there are a lot of elements influencing emulsion stability and interfacial film, including asphaltenes, resins, solid particles, water and oil content, PH, etc. However, one of the techniques that has received attention in enhanced oil recovery is a chemical method by using surface active agents (surfactant).
Preparation, Characterization and Performance Evaluation of Supported Zeolite on Porous Glass Hollow Fiber for Desalination Application Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-11-24 Siti Nurfatin Nadhirah Mohd Makhtar, Mohamad Zahir Mohd Pauzi, Nizar Mu'ammar Mahpoz, Norfazilah Muhamad, Mukhlis A. Rahman, Khairul Hamimah Abas, Azian Abd Aziz, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Juhana Jaafar
A-type zeolite membranes were synthesized on porous glass hollow fibers that prepared using the in-situ hydrothermal process. The porous glass hollow fibers were prepared using the phase inversion and sintering technique with the addition of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to improve their porosity. The glass hollow fibers were characterized using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), mechanical properties and water permeability. The porosities of pure glass hollow fiber were improved by the addition of YSZ particles, which lead to an increase in the pure water permeability. The water permeability shows that the glass hollow fiber prepared form spinning suspension E, which has 30 wt.% zeolite particles and 20 wt.% YSZ particles, has the highest permeability of 155.65 L m-2 hr-1 bar-1 compared to the previous work, which was only 4.0 L m-2.hr-1.bar-1. This glass hollow fiber was later used as the support for the incorporation of zeolite membrane for the desalination application. The performance of membranes is separating sodium chloride (NaCl) salt solution were tested using two different setups, namely pressure driven reverse osmosis (RO) and sweeping liquid assisted reverse osmosis (SLRO). The solute flux for 5,000 and 10,000 ppm NaCl salt solutions were 24.45 and 17.86 L m-2 hr-1, respectively. Both operations enabled the solute rejection up to 98 %.
Environmentally-friendly Strategy for Separation of α-Lactalbumin from Whey by Aqueous Two Phase Flotation Abstract Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-11-20 Bin Jiang, Lele Wang, Jiaxin Na, Xiaoqing Zhang, Yongqiang Yuan, Chunhong Liu, Zhibiao Feng
Aqueous two-phase flotation (ATPF) consisting of 1000 g/mol polyethylene glycol (PEG 1000) / trisodium citrate was developed for the separation of α-Lactalbumin (α-La) from whey. The flotation efficiency (E) and purification factor (PF) of α-La were evaluated using the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The effects of pH, concentration of trisodium citrate, flow velocity, flotation time and whey loading on the E and PF of α-La were investigated. An efficient separation of α-La from whey was achieved using ATPF with pH of 8.20, 5 mL of 0.50 g/mL PEG 1000 solution, 35 mL of 0.40 g/mL trisodium citrate solution and whey (20%, v/v), 30 mL/min of flow velocity and 42 min of flotation time. Under the optimal conditions, E and PF of α-La could reach 87.54 % and 5.33, respectively. In addition, the kinetic process of the separation of α-La by ATPF of PEG 1000 / trisodium citrate was investigated. The results showed that there were two stages in the separation process. Both stages obeyed the first-order kinetic equation, and the first stage was faster than the second one.
Dye-sensitized solar cell utilizing silver doped reduced graphene oxide films counter electrode: Influence of annealing temperature on its performance Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-11-20 N. Mustaffa, M.Y.A. Rahman, A.A. Umar
This work is concerned with the utilization of silver doped reduced graphene oxide (Ag-rGO) films as counter electrode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The effect of annealing temperature of Ag-rGO on the properties of Ag-rGO and performance parameters of the device has been investigated. The annealing temperature has been varied from 350 oC to 400 oC at 10 oC interval. The DSSC utilizing Ag-rGO annealed at 350 oC demonstrated the highest η of 1.302%, respectively due to the smallest charge transfer resistance at the interface of electrolyte/Ag-rGO counter electrode. The efficiency has been improved by utilizing the Ag-rGO counter electrode that underwent annealing treatment. The performance and electrochemical stability test reveal that the DSSC utilizing free-platinum electrode that is Ag-rGO can last within one week time.
Synthesis of a magnetic-based yolk-shell nano-reactor: a new class of monofunctional catalyst by Cu0-nanoparticles and its application as a highly effective and green catalyst for A3 coupling reaction Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-11-20 Zeinab Elahimehr, Firouzeh Nemati, Ali Elhampour
A novel and yolk/shell nanoreactor catalyst (H-Fe3O4@h-Cu0@m-SiO2) was designed and synthesized with a hollow magnetite core encapsulated in a mesoporous silica shell which Cu0-nanoparticles were decorated in the interior cavity shell in order to enhance the catalytic activity. The morphology, structure and physicochemical properties of the yolk/shell nanoreactor were then fully characterized by using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The N2 absorption-desorption isotherms indicate a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area of 287.36 m2/g and a pore width of 2-50 nm. Applied as a catalyst for three-component A3 coupling reaction of alkynes, aldehydes and amines under the optimized condition. Interestingly, the characterization results indicate that (H-Fe3O4@h-Cu0@m-SiO2) has great catalytic performance, which could be related to unique hollow morphology with an active core contains Cu0-nanoparticles, protective mesoporous shell and hollow void. This aspect of morphology leads to favoring the transfer of the reactants and products. Reusability up to 10 times without any obvious decline in catalytic activity and short reaction time are other advantageous of this green nano-reactor.
Molecular Modeling and Optical Properties of a Novel Fluorinated Chalcone Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-11-17 J.M.F. Custodio, J.J.A. Guimarães-Neto, R. Awad, J.E. Queiroz, G.M.V. Verde, M. Mottin, B.J. Neves, C.H. Andrade, G.L.B. Aquino, C. Valverde, F.A.P. Osório, B. Baseia, H.B. Napolitano
Chalcones exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities, mainly due to α,β-unsaturated ketone, and are precursors of the biosynthesis of flavonoids found in plants. These compounds have been shown to be useful in the biological approach, proven by the broad spectrum of biological activities reported, and also in the technological approach, considering their potential as NLO material. In this context, this work aimed to examine the crystallization and characterization of fluorinated chalcone (E)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(4-isopropylphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (DFC). A comprehensive structural study of DFC was carried out to understand the process of stabilizing the crystalline lattice through X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and molecular modeling studies. Finally, the electrical properties of DFC were calculated by using the supermolecule method (SM). DFC molecules are connected by means of C−H···O and C−H···F intermolecular contacts, forming dimers which play an important role in the stabilization of crystal packing. Molecular modeling studies indicated that this compound could act as an anti-tuberculosis ligand because of its high binding affinity with the M. tuberculosis enoyl-acyl carrier protein, InhA. On the other hand, theoretical calculations were performed to evaluate the NLO properties of DFC and indicated that it showed good potential.
Synthesis of Zn0.8Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites via ultrasound-assisted emulsion liquid phase Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Mujahid Mustaqeem, Tawfik A. Saleh, Aziz ur Rehman, Muhammad Farooq Warsi, Azhar Mehmood, Adnan Sharif, Shahbaz Akther
Nanocomposites consisting of polyvinyl alcohol embedded with nanoparticles of Zn0.80Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 were successfully synthesized by employing a facile two-steps process. The nanoparticles of Zn0.80Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 were synthesized via a micro emulsion procedure and then embedded into a polyvinyl alcohol matrix by an ultrasound-assisted in-situ emulsion. The result showed that the prepared nanoparticles of Zn0.80Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 & ZnFe2O4 diffuse homogeneously in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, maintaining the particle shape and size of the Zn0.80Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscope images revealed that polyvinyl alcohol chains have encircled the Zn0.80Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 & ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles. The interaction between the polyvinyl alcohol and the nanoparticles in the prepared nanocomposites was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy via the shifting of bands revealed from the Fourier-transform infrared spectra. Dielectric studies explained the decreasing trend by varying concentrations of nanoparticles with a constant polymer concentration. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss both revealed a decreasing trend by varying the concentration of the nanoparticles with a constant polymer concentration. This occurred due to the grain boundary effect which becomes dominant at low frequencies. The Transmission electron microscope images result shows that polycrystalline Zn0.80Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 & ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles with an average size of 10-15nm were incorporated with PVA to form nanocomposites.
Smart Nanomaterials in Pharmaceutical Analysis Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-11-14 Deepali Sharma, Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
Smart nanomaterials have appeared as one of the phenomenal materials to the modern world because of their exceptional thermal, electronic, optical and mechanical properties. Unique characteristics of smart materials make them striking candidates for pharmaceutical analysis which basically determines the quality of drug products via analytical chemistry. The present review discusses smart nanomaterials and their detailed applications in pharmaceutical analysis. A systematic approach for commercial-scale utilization of smart nanomaterials in the pharmaceutical analysis in terms of economic challenges, health & safety concern of nanomaterials and life cycle assessment within pharma industry are comprehended. In the end, the challenges and opportunities for the future development of smart nanomaterials for pharmaceutical analysis in regards to sustainability perspectives are described.
Bandgap engineering of TiO2 nanoparticles through MeV Cu ions irradiation Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-11-14 Ishaq Ahmad, Muhammad Usman, Ting-kai Zhao, Sara Qayum, Iram Mahmood, Arshad Mahmood, Abdoulaye Diallo, Camillus Obayi, Fabian Ifeanyichukwu Ezema, Maaza Malik
The effect of 5 MeV Cu++ ions irradiation on structural and optical properties of Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) is investigated. For this purpose, TiO2-NPs are irradiated with different Cu++ ions fluences, ranging from 1×1015 to 1×1016 ions/cm2 at room temperature. XRD results confirm the Ti3O7 phase appear at the dose of 5x1015 ions/cm2and peak intensity of Ti3O7 phase gradually increases with an increase of Cu++ ions irradiation dose. At the dose of 1×1016 ions/cm2 TiO2 Anatase phase were transformed to Rutile phase. Same observations are confirmed from Raman spectroscopy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveals that morphology converted into wavy shape and crystal structure detrioted with increase Cu ion irradiation dose to form vacancy loops and interstitial loops. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that TiO2-NPs have been fused to form a cluster of nanoparticles at high Cu ion beam dose, while bandgap of TiO2-NPs reduces from 3.19 eV to 2.96 eV as a function of Cu++ irradiation fluence. These phase transformations and crystal damage are the responsible for optical bandgap reduction. The mechanism for the currently observed phase transformation of TiO2 and coalescence of TiO2-NPs are discussed in term of thermal spikes model.
Biochemical Activities and Electronic Spectra of Different Cobalt Phenanthroline Complexes Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Mohammed A. Al-Omair
A series of octahedral phenanthroline cobalt chlorides, aqua and carbonates complexes have been prepared, characterized, and their antibacterial activity was studied in detail in terms of zone inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations. Their antioxidant activities were studied by measuring DPPH, SOD and ABTS radical scavenging activity. It was found that cobalt phenanthroline carbonate complex possessed highest antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, degradation effect on DNA and showed moderate cytotoxicity against Hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG-2), Mammary gland (MCF-7) and Colorectal carcinoma (HCT-116) cells. The complexes were studied with UV spectroscopy to observe the solvents effect on the electronic spectra. Equation that relates peak position λmax to solvent parameters are solved by computerized analysis using multiple regression techniques, and the correlation and regression coefficients were evaluated. The independent solvent parameters used are H-bonding ability, refractive index and dielectric constant. The FTIR spectrum was interpreted according to the actual structure.
Facile and green preparation of bioactive and UV protective silk materials using the extract from red radish (Raphanus sativus L.) through adsorption technique Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-11-13 Yuyang Zhou, Zhi-Yi Yang, Ren-Cheng Tang
Recently, there is a growing trend towards the fabrication of bioactive materials by using natural extracts, which can achieve diverse functionalities and environmental benefits simultaneously. This study presents a facile approach towards the preparation of bioactive and UV protective silk materials using the extract from red radish (an edible root vegetable). The adsorption mechanism of red radish extract on silk was studied. The results showed that red radish extract displayed higher exhaustion rate at lower pH. The equilibrium adsorption study indicated that the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were suitable to describe the adsorption behavior of red radish extract on silk, revealing that the ion−ion interactions, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces play major roles in the adsorption process. The silk treated with red radish extract over 5% owf, exhibited excellent antioxidant activity, high antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and very good UV protective property. The functionalities of the treated silk showed a gradual decline in the continuous washing process due to the release of red radish extract during washing. In general, the results demonstrate that the red radish treated silk materials have a promising future for the preparation of healthy and hygiene-related textiles.
Corrosion performance of mild steel and galvanized iron in clay soil environment Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-11-13 Karthick Subbiah, Muralidharan Srinivasan, Velu Saraswathy
Clay is a naturally occurring material, and it has been utilized for many industrial processes. In this study, two types of clay namely white clay (WC) and black clay (BC) was used for this investigation. The corrosion performance of the clay samples was carried out using mild steel and galvanized pipes under a buried condition in the field and laboratory exposure studies were carried in the clay extracts. Generally mild steel (MS) and galvanized iron (G.I) are being used as an encasing material for earthing applications. In some places, the soil was enriched with acidic clay, and it causes corrosion of the MS and G.I and it needs periodic replacement of pipes. In this context, a detailed study has been carried out to evaluate the relative corrosion performance of the MS and G.I exposed to the clay environment. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of MS and G.I in clay medium were carried out by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The corrosion product formation was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction and Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Spectrum analysis. The surface morphology of MS and G.I after the exposure was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies. The results proved that G.I in clay soil was severely affected by corrosion. The reason may be attributed to the insufficient thickness of the zinc coating and the presence of microbes which enhanced the G.I corrosion.
Square wave voltammetric determination of anticancer drug Flutamide using carbon paste electrode modified by CuO/GO/PANI nanocomposite Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-11-13 Moslem Afzali, Ali Mostafavi, Tayebeh Shamspur
The electrochemical behavior of flutamide was investigated using a carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified by CuO nanoparticles/graphene oxide/polyaniline (CuO/GO/PANI) nanocomposite. Square wave and differential pulse voltammetry were studied in different concentrations of flutamide. Square wave voltammetry which is a rapid and sensitive method for reversible systems was used to determine flutamide. Based on the studies carried out by the present method, the electrode has an excellent electrochemical activity to the flutamide oxidation. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the sensor showed excellent linearity from 0.05.0 to 200.0 nM with a detection limit of 14.0 pM; the best values obtained already for flutamide. The modified electrode was applied for the determination of flutamide in human urine and pharmaceutical samples with satisfy results.
Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber Electrodes via Chemical Vapor Deposition for Simultaneous Determination of Ascorbic Acid, Dopamine and Uric Acid Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-11-13 Yankun Zhao, Zhen Yang, Wenxin Fan, Yunchao Wang, Guangzhen Li, Hailin Cong, Hua Yuan
A promising and low-cost electrochemical sensor was carried out with carbon nanotube modified carbon-fiber electrodes via vapor deposition method, which improved the sensitivity and reduced the detection limit of dopamine. In virtue of various techniques, such as SEM and Raman spectroscopy, the morphological, structural and crystalline properties of composites were analyzed. Moreover, simultaneous determination of dopamine, ascorbic acid and uric acid was explored at the modified carbon fiber electrode. The presence of carbon nanotubes on the surface of carbon fiber can effectively increase the surface area and electron transfer velocity of the interaction between neurotransmitter and electrode. The good linear responses of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid were obtained in the range of 25.6∼2000.3 μM, 5.0∼120.6 μM and 20.0∼800.0 μM with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 10.0 μM, 0.03 μM and 0.6 μM, respectively. Finally, this sensor was applied to the determination of dopamine in some real sample.
Phytochemical composition of Ecballium elaterium extracts with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity: Comparison among leaves, flowers and fruits extracts Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-11-13 Lynda Bourebaba, Bienvenida Gilbert-López, Naima Oukil, Fatiha Bedjou
Ecballium elaterium (squirting cucumber) is a Mediterranean plant used in folk medicine. Especially fruits and fruits juice are administered for several therapeutic uses, although they can be toxic at high doses. In the present work, a phytochemical characterization of different parts of the plant, namely fruits, flowers and leaves, was made. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole analyzer (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). Only one cucurbitacin, Cuc D, was found in the three extracts, and an additional one, Cuc P, was tentatively identified for the first time in fruits extract. Additionally, several flavonoids such as rutin, narcissin and kaempferol were tentatively identified in the plant. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and inhibition of human erythrocyte hemolysis mediated by AAPH. Results revealed that flowers extract was the most active one, with an EC50 of 46.01 µg/ml for DPPH and TEAC values of 489.11 and 160.97 µmol Trolox/g extract for ABTS and FRAP respectively; despite the protective effect of all extracts in AAPH assay was relatively moderated. In case of anti-inflammatory activity, all extracts were active by inhibiting heat induced protein denaturation in a non-dose dependent manner, showed protection against hypotonic hemolysis and reduction of mice hind paw edema, 3 h after carrageenan injection; as for previous tests, flowers extract exhibited the highest percentage of inhibition (82.93%) of hind paw edema at a dose of 200 mg / kg. Therefore, E. Elaterium flowers extract showed potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects similar to those exerted by the fruits.
Synthesis of tetra- metal oxide system based pH sensor via branched cathodic Electrodeposition on Different Substrates Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-11-09 Hisham.R. Sadig, Li Cheng, Teng fei Xiang
In this paper pH sensors based on tetra-metal oxide system (TMOF) film was synthesized by branched cathodic electrodeposition technique. Four different metal oxides mainly IrO2, RuO2, SnO2, and TiO2 used to form a film, which coated on various substrates such as titanium, steel, tin, and copper. The fabricated pH sensors underwent characterization and evaluation sensing performance. Characterizations results have indicated that titanium and steel substrates outperform alternative metal substrates Tin and copper. Nernstian performance of Steel and Titanium substrate with pH sensitivity ∼59 mV/pH remain the same, as well as tin and copper which are behaved as super-Nernstian with sensitivity ∼65mV/pH. Fast response time ranged from 1-3 seconds were obtained. Perfect selectivity obtained using Na+, K+, Li+ and Mg2+ ions vs. primary one H+.
CO2-releasing blowing agents from modified polyethylenimines slightly consume isocyanate groups while foaming polyurethanes Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-10-27 Yuanzhu Long, Jianing An, Xingyi Xie
Carbon dioxide adducts from polypropylene glycol (PPG)-grafted polyethylenimines (PEIs) are promising alternatives to the traditional, climate-changing blowing agents for polyurethanes (PUs). Their commercialization is hindered by the fact that they can restore their original polyamine structure when releasing CO2 to blow PUs and that the extent to which the restored amine groups react with the isocyanate (NCO) groups in the foaming mixture is still not clear. The extent of this reaction was quantitatively investigated by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The increase in the PPG side chain length or in the grafting rate reduced the reaction extent of the restored amines due to increased steric hindrance. The increase in the PEI backbone molecular weight decreased the macromolecular mobility, which somewhat inhibited a full contact between the restored amine groups and the NCO groups and thus caused a decrease in the reaction extent as well. Overall, the reaction extents of the blowing agent amine groups, ranging from 0.4% to 1.5%, were too low to change the foaming process chemically. In conclusion, these CO2-releasing blowing agents can be technically regarded as physical blowing agents.
Mechanical Properties of Carbon Black/Poly (ε-caprolactone)-Based Tissue Scaffolds Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-10-27 Nuha Al Habis, Ahmed El Moumen, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Khalid Lafdi
Carbon black (CB) spherical particles were added to poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymer to produce strong synthetic tissue scaffolds for biomedical applications. The objective of this paper is to study the mechanical behavior of CB/PCL-based nanocomposites using experimental tests, multi-scale numerical approaches, and analytical models. The mechanical properties of CB/PCL scaffolds were characterized using thermal mechanical analysis and results show a significant increase of the elastic modulus with increasing nanofiller concentration up to 7 wt%. Conversely, finite element computations were performed using a simulated microstructure, and a numerical model based on the representative volume element (RVE) was generated. Thereafter, Young's moduli were computed using a 3D numerical homogenization technique. The approach takes into consideration CB particles’ diameters, as well as their random distribution and agglomerations into PCL. Experimental results were compared with data obtained using numerical approaches and analytical models. Consistency in the results was observed, especially in the case of lower CB fractions.
Graphene nanoplatelet-based sensor for the detection of dopamine and N-acetyl-p-aminophenol in urine Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-10-27 Francis D. Krampa, Yaw Aniweh, Prosper Kanyong, Gordon A. Awandare
Utilization of CO2 and N2 for selective synthesis of styrene from ethylbenzene over high surface area γ-Al2O3 supported molybdenum nitride catalysts Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-10-27 Venkata Ramesh Babu Gurram, Murali Kondeboina, Siva Sankar Enumula, Naveen Gajula, David Raju Burri, Seetha Rama Rao Kamaraju
Promotion of seed germination and seedling growth of Zea mays by magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles synthesized by the filtrate from Aspergillus niger Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-10-10 Surbhi Shinde, Priti Paralikar, Avinash P. Ingle, Mahendra Rai
Novel Rh(Pd)-Cu(Ni) supported catalysts for oxy-steam reforming of methanol Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-10-10 Pawel Mierczynski, Magdalena Mosinska, Waldemar Maniukiewicz, Krasimir Vasilev, Malgorzata I. Szynkowska
Visible light assisted photodegradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol using Ag2CO3 loaded phosphorus and sulphur co-doped graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets in simulated wastewater Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-10-10 Pankaj Raizada, Anita Sudhaik, Pardeep Singh, Pooja Shandilya, Pankaj Thakur, Hanbo Jung
Nowadays, hybrid photocatalysts are gaining importance due to their improved photocatalytic activity. In the present work, Ag2CO3 was integrated phosphorous and sulfur co-doped g-C3N4 (PSGCN) photocatalyst (Ag2CO3/PSGCN) to minimize the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pair. The co-doping resulted in band gap lowering in GCN leading to more visible light activity. Successful formation of well dispersed Ag2CO3/PSGCN suspension in water was established by zeta potential and Tyndall effect experiments. Phosphorous and sulfur co-doping in g-C3N4 resulted lowering of optical band gap that enhanced its photodegradation ability under visible light. The reduction in photogenerated electron-hole pair recombination was confirmed by photoluminescence and electrochemical impedance analysis. The photodegradation of 2, 4, dinitrophenol (DNP) followed pseudo first order kinetics and enhanced photocatalytic activity was due to semiconductor heterojunction for effective separation of electron–hole pair. Holes and hydroxyl radicals were two main oxidative species responsible for photodegradation of DNP into non-toxic products. COD, HPLC and LC-MS investigations were used to investigate the degradation fragment during DNP mineralization. Ag2CO3/PSGCN nanocomposite revealed high stability and recycle efficiency substantial for ten catalytic cycles.
Synthesis, anti-tuberculosis activity and QSAR study of 2,4-diarylquinolines and analogous polycyclic derivatives Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Gisela C. Muscia, Juan P. Carnevale, Ayelen Luczywo, María Victoria Peláez, Ailen Rodríguez ÓToole, Graciela Y. Buldain, Juan J. Casal, Silvia E. Asís
Inexpensive FIA method to determine trace levels of Imazapyr by UV-detection enhanced with electrochemical polarization Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-10-09 L. León, C. Mozo-Mulero, F.J. Martín-Infante, J.J. Maraver, J. Carbajo, J.D. Mozo
Validated spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of oxytetracycline associated with diclofenac sodium or with piroxicam in veterinary pharmaceutical dosage form Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-10-09 Rúbia A. Sversut, James C. Vieira, Aline M. Rosa, Marcos S. do Amaral, Nájla M. Kassab, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Phyto – monoterpene Linalool as precursor to synthesis epoxides and hydroperoxides as anti carcinogenic agents via thermal and photo chemical oxidation reactions Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-10-09 Eman M. Elgendy, Manal Y. Semeih
UV induced synthesis of starch capped CdSe quantum dots: Functionalization with thiourea and application in sensing heavy metals ions in aqueous solution Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-09-28 Avinash Singh, Apurav Guleria, Suman Neogy, M.C. Rath
Thiophene substituted phenothiazine polymers: Design, synthesis and characterization Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-09-25 Ruhiye Nilay Tezel, İsmet Kaya
Micelles-based self-healing coating for improved protection of metal Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-09-24 Ye Ying, Zequn Liu, Juanjuan Fan, Nan Wei, Xiaoyu Guo, Yiping Wu, Ying Wen, Haifeng Yang
Catalytic, antioxidant and anticancer activities of gold nanoparticles synthesized by kaempferol glucoside from Lotus leguminosae Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-09-19 Mohamed Habib Oueslati, Lotfi Ben Tahar, Abdel Halim Harrath
Electrochemical reduced graphene oxide-poly(eriochrome black T)/gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid Arab. J. Chem. (IF 2.969) Pub Date : 2018-09-20 Nusiba Mohammed Modawe Alshik Edris, Jaafar Abdullah, Sazlinda Kamaruzaman, Mohd Izham Saiman, Yusran Sulaiman
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