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  • Intracellular speciation of gold nanorods alters the conformational dynamics of genomic DNA
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-10-08
    Diwei Ho, Jessica A. Kretzmann, Marck Norret, Priyanka Toshniwal, Jean-Pierre Veder, Haibo Jiang, Paul Guagliardo, Alaa M. Munshi, Reena Chawla, Cameron W. Evans, Tristan D. Clemons, Michelle Nguyen, Amy L. Kretzmann, Amanda J. Blythe, Martin Saunders, Michael Archer, Melinda Fitzgerald, Jeffrey A. Keelan, Charles S. Bond, Matt R. Kilburn, Laurence H. Hurley, Nicole M. Smith, K. Swaminathan Iyer

    Gold nanorods are one of the most widely explored inorganic materials in nanomedicine for diagnostics, therapeutics and sensing1. It has been shown that gold nanorods are not cytotoxic and localize within cytoplasmic vesicles following endocytosis, with no nuclear localization2,3, but other studies have reported alterations in gene expression profiles in cells following exposure to gold nanorods, via unknown mechanisms4. In this work we describe a pathway that can contribute to this phenomenon. By mapping the intracellular chemical speciation process of gold nanorods, we show that the commonly used Au–thiol conjugation, which is important for maintaining the noble (inert) properties of gold nanostructures, is altered following endocytosis, resulting in the formation of Au(i)–thiolates that localize in the nucleus5. Furthermore, we show that nuclear localization of the gold species perturbs the dynamic microenvironment within the nucleus and triggers alteration of gene expression in human cells. We demonstrate this using quantitative visualization of ubiquitous DNA G-quadruplex structures, which are sensitive to ionic imbalances, as an indicator of the formation of structural alterations in genomic DNA.

    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • A plug-and-play approach for malaria vaccination
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-10-08
    Robert S. Oakes, Christopher M. Jewell

    A plug-and-play approach for malaria vaccinationA plug-and-play approach for malaria vaccination, Published online: 08 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0291-zA simple approach to spontaneously assemble malaria antigens into liposomes generates long-lasting, functional immune responses in mice and rabbits.

    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • A malaria vaccine adjuvant based on recombinant antigen binding to liposomes
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-10-08
    Wei-Chiao Huang, Bingbing Deng, Cuiyan Lin, Kevin A. Carter, Jumin Geng, Aida Razi, Xuedan He, Upendra Chitgupi, Jasmin Federizon, Boyang Sun, Carole A. Long, Joaquin Ortega, Sheetij Dutta, C. Richter King, Kazutoyo Miura, Shwu-Maan Lee, Jonathan F. Lovell

    Pfs25 is a malaria transmission-blocking vaccine antigen candidate, but its apparently limited immunogenicity in humans has hindered clinical development. Here, we show that recombinant, polyhistidine-tagged (his-tagged) Pfs25 can be mixed at the time of immunization with pre-formed liposomes containing cobalt porphyrin–phospholipid, resulting in spontaneous nanoliposome antigen particleization (SNAP). Antigens are stably presented in uniformly orientated display via his-tag insertion in the cobalt porphyrin–phospholipid bilayer, without covalent modification or disruption of antigen conformation. SNAP immunization of mice and rabbits is well tolerated with minimal local reactogenicity, and results in orders-of-magnitude higher functional antibody generation compared with other ‘mix-and-inject’ adjuvants. Serum-stable antigen binding during transit to draining lymph nodes leads to enhanced antigen uptake by phagocytic antigen-presenting cells, with subsequent generation of long-lived, antigen-specific plasma cells. Seamless multiplexing with four additional his-tagged Plasmodium falciparum polypeptides induces strong and balanced antibody production, illustrating the simplicity of developing multistage particulate vaccines with SNAP immunization.

    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • Damage control
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Chiara Pastore

    Damage controlDamage control, Published online: 05 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0287-8Damage control

    更新日期:2018-10-06
  • Interfacing nature’s catalytic machinery with synthetic materials for semi-artificial photosynthesis
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Nikolay Kornienko, Jenny Z. Zhang, Kelsey K. Sakimoto, Peidong Yang, Erwin Reisner

    Semi-artificial photosynthetic systems aim to overcome the limitations of natural and artificial photosynthesis while providing an opportunity to investigate their respective functionality. The progress and studies of these hybrid systems is the focus of this forward-looking perspective. In this Review, we discuss how enzymes have been interfaced with synthetic materials and employed for semi-artificial fuel production. In parallel, we examine how more complex living cellular systems can be recruited for in vivo fuel and chemical production in an approach where inorganic nanostructures are hybridized with photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Side-by-side comparisons reveal strengths and limitations of enzyme- and microorganism-based hybrid systems, and how lessons extracted from studying enzyme hybrids can be applied to investigations of microorganism-hybrid devices. We conclude by putting semi-artificial photosynthesis in the context of its own ambitions and discuss how it can help address the grand challenges facing artificial systems for the efficient generation of solar fuels and chemicals.

    更新日期:2018-10-06
  • Tricks inside a cage
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Alberto Moscatelli

    Tricks inside a cageTricks inside a cage, Published online: 05 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0288-7Tricks inside a cage

    更新日期:2018-10-06
  • Beyond traditional reactivity models
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Wenjie Sun

    Beyond traditional reactivity modelsBeyond traditional reactivity models, Published online: 05 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0286-9Beyond traditional reactivity models

    更新日期:2018-10-06
  • A non-trivial junction
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Benjamin Heinrich

    A non-trivial junctionA non-trivial junction, Published online: 05 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0289-6A non-trivial junction

    更新日期:2018-10-06
  • Semi-artificial photosynthesis
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-10-05

    Combining the strengths of catalytic biomachineries with those of synthetic materials can yield more efficient and durable solar chemical conversion.

    更新日期:2018-10-06
  • Let there be nano
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Chris Toumey

    Let there be nanoLet there be nano, Published online: 05 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0276-ySome scientific disciplines originate from a single event. This is not the case for nanotechnology, says Chris Toumey.

    更新日期:2018-10-06
  • Publisher Correction: Anisotropic polarization-induced conductance at a ferroelectric–insulator interface
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Yi Zhang, Haidong Lu, Lin Xie, Xingxu Yan, Tula R. Paudel, Jeongwoo Kim, Xiaoxing Cheng, Hui Wang, Colin Heikes, Linze Li, Mingjie Xu, Darrell G. Schlom, Long-Qing Chen, Ruqian Wu, Evgeny Y. Tsymbal, Alexei Gruverman, Xiaoqing Pan

    Publisher Correction: Anisotropic polarization-induced conductance at a ferroelectric–insulator interfacePublisher Correction: Anisotropic polarization-induced conductance at a ferroelectric–insulator interface, Published online: 05 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0295-8Publisher Correction: Anisotropic polarization-induced conductance at a ferroelectric–insulator interface

    更新日期:2018-10-05
  • Author Correction: Non-flammable electrolyte enables Li-metal batteries with aggressive cathode chemistries
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-10-04
    Xiulin Fan, Long Chen, Oleg Borodin, Xiao Ji, Ji Chen, Singyuk Hou, Tao Deng, Jing Zheng, Chongyin Yang, Sz-Chian Liou, Khalil Amine, Kang Xu, Chunsheng Wang

    Author Correction: Non-flammable electrolyte enables Li-metal batteries with aggressive cathode chemistriesAuthor Correction: Non-flammable electrolyte enables Li-metal batteries with aggressive cathode chemistries, Published online: 04 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0293-xAuthor Correction: Non-flammable electrolyte enables Li-metal batteries with aggressive cathode chemistries

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • Bacteria photosensitized by intracellular gold nanoclusters for solar fuel production
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-10-01
    Hao Zhang, Hao Liu, Zhiquan Tian, Dylan Lu, Yi Yu, Stefano Cestellos-Blanco, Kelsey K. Sakimoto, Peidong Yang

    The demand for renewable and sustainable fuel has prompted the rapid development of advanced nanotechnologies to effectively harness solar power. The construction of photosynthetic biohybrid systems (PBSs) aims to link preassembled biosynthetic pathways with inorganic light absorbers. This strategy inherits both the high light-harvesting efficiency of solid-state semiconductors and the superior catalytic performance of whole-cell microorganisms. Here, we introduce an intracellular, biocompatible light absorber, in the form of gold nanoclusters (AuNCs), to circumvent the sluggish kinetics of electron transfer for existing PBSs. Translocation of these AuNCs into non-photosynthetic bacteria enables photosynthesis of acetic acid from CO2. The AuNCs also serve as inhibitors of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to maintain high bacterium viability. With the dual advantages of light absorption and biocompatibility, this new generation of PBS can efficiently harvest sunlight and transfer photogenerated electrons to cellular metabolism, realizing CO2 fixation continuously over several days.

    更新日期:2018-10-02
  • Discrete Hall resistivity contribution from Néel skyrmions in multilayer nanodiscs
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-10-01
    Katharina Zeissler, Simone Finizio, Kowsar Shahbazi, Jamie Massey, Fatma Al Ma’Mari, David M. Bracher, Armin Kleibert, Mark C. Rosamond, Edmund H. Linfield, Thomas A. Moore, Jörg Raabe, Gavin Burnell, Christopher H. Marrows

    Magnetic skyrmions are knot-like quasiparticles. They are candidates for non-volatile data storage in which information is moved between fixed read and write terminals. The read-out operation of skyrmion-based spintronic devices will rely on the electrical detection of a single magnetic skyrmion within a nanostructure. Here we present Pt/Co/Ir nanodiscs that support skyrmions at room temperature. We measured the Hall resistivity and simultaneously imaged the spin texture using magnetic scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. The Hall resistivity is correlated to both the presence and size of the skyrmion. The size-dependent part matches the expected anomalous Hall signal when averaging the magnetization over the entire disc. We observed a resistivity contribution that only depends on the number and sign of skyrmion-like objects present in the disc. Each skyrmion gives rise to 22 ± 2 nΩ cm irrespective of its size. This contribution needs to be considered in all-electrical detection schemes applied to skyrmion-based devices. Not only the area of Néel skyrmions but also their number and sign contribute to their Hall resistivity.

    更新日期:2018-10-02
  • Intracellular gold nanoclusters boost energy conversion
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-10-01
    Zhaowei Chen, Elena A. Rozhkova

    Intracellular gold nanoclusters boost energy conversionIntracellular gold nanoclusters boost energy conversion, Published online: 01 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0280-2Intracellular gold nanoclusters act as photosensitizers, enabling non-photosynthetic bacteria to produce acetic acid from carbon dioxide in a more efficient and durable fashion.

    更新日期:2018-10-02
  • When bright and dark bind together
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-09-28
    Cedric Robert

    When bright and dark bind togetherWhen bright and dark bind together, Published online: 28 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0281-1Magneto-photoluminescence experiments reveal the role of dark excitons in the formation of biexcitons and charged biexcitons in tungsten diselenide monolayers.

    更新日期:2018-09-29
  • Anisotropic polarization-induced conductance at a ferroelectric–insulator interface
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Yi Zhang, Haidong Lu, Lin Xie, Xingxu Yan, Tula R. Paudel, Jeongwoo Kim, Xiaoxing Cheng, Hui Wang, Colin Heikes, Linze Li, Mingjie Xu, Darrell G. Schlom, Long-Qing Chen, Ruqian Wu, Evgeny Y. Tsymbal, Alexei Gruverman, Xiaoqing Pan

    Coupling between different degrees of freedom, that is, charge, spin, orbital and lattice, is responsible for emergent phenomena in complex oxide heterostrutures1,2. One example is the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the polar/non-polar LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO)3,4,5,6,7 interface. This is caused by the polar discontinuity and counteracts the electrostatic potential build-up across the LAO film3. The ferroelectric polarization at a ferroelectric/insulator interface can also give rise to a polar discontinuity8,9,10. Depending on the polarization orientation, either electrons or holes are transferred to the interface, to form either a 2DEG or two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG)11,12,13. While recent first-principles modelling predicts the formation of 2DEGs at the ferroelectric/insulator interfaces9,10,12,13,14, experimental evidence of a ferroelectrically induced interfacial 2DEG remains elusive. Here, we report the emergence of strongly anisotropic polarization-induced conductivity at a ferroelectric/insulator interface, which shows a strong dependence on the polarization orientation. By probing the local conductance and ferroelectric polarization over a cross-section of a BiFeO3–TbScO3 (BFO/TSO) (001) heterostructure, we demonstrate that this interface is conducting along the 109° domain stripes in BFO, whereas it is insulating in the direction perpendicular to these domain stripes. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy and theoretical modelling suggest that the anisotropy of the interfacial conduction is caused by an alternating polarization associated with the ferroelectric domains, producing either electron or hole doping of the BFO/TSO interface.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Energy consumption in chemical fuel-driven self-assembly
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    Giulio Ragazzon, Leonard J. Prins

    Nature extensively exploits high-energy transient self-assembly structures that are able to perform work through a dissipative process. Often, self-assembly relies on the use of molecules as fuel that is consumed to drive thermodynamically unfavourable reactions away from equilibrium. Implementing this kind of non-equilibrium self-assembly process in synthetic systems is bound to profoundly impact the fields of chemistry, materials science and synthetic biology, leading to innovative dissipative structures able to convert and store chemical energy. Yet, despite increasing efforts, the basic principles underlying chemical fuel-driven dissipative self-assembly are often overlooked, generating confusion around the meaning and definition of scientific terms, which does not favour progress in the field. The scope of this Perspective is to bring closer together current experimental approaches and conceptual frameworks. From our analysis it also emerges that chemically fuelled dissipative processes may have played a crucial role in evolutionary processes.

    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Mechanically controlled quantum interference in graphene break junctions
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    Sabina Caneva, Pascal Gehring, Víctor M. García-Suárez, Amador García-Fuente, Davide Stefani, Ignacio J. Olavarria-Contreras, Jaime Ferrer, Cees Dekker, Herre S. J. van der Zant

    The ability to detect and distinguish quantum interference signatures is important for both fundamental research and for the realization of devices such as electron resonators1, interferometers2 and interference-based spin filters3. Consistent with the principles of subwavelength optics, the wave nature of electrons can give rise to various types of interference effects4, such as Fabry–Pérot resonances5, Fano resonances6 and the Aharonov–Bohm effect7. Quantum interference conductance oscillations8 have, indeed, been predicted for multiwall carbon nanotube shuttles and telescopes, and arise from atomic-scale displacements between the inner and outer tubes9,10. Previous theoretical work on graphene bilayers indicates that these systems may display similar interference features as a function of the relative position of the two sheets11,12. Experimental verification is, however, still lacking. Graphene nanoconstrictions represent an ideal model system to study quantum transport phenomena13,14,15 due to the electronic coherence16 and the transverse confinement of the carriers17. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of bowtie-shaped nanoconstrictions with mechanically controlled break junctions made from a single layer of graphene. Their electrical conductance displays pronounced oscillations at room temperature, with amplitudes that modulate over an order of magnitude as a function of subnanometre displacements. Surprisingly, the oscillations exhibit a period larger than the graphene lattice constant. Charge-transport calculations show that the periodicity originates from a combination of the quantum interference and lattice commensuration effects of two graphene layers that slide across each other. Our results provide direct experimental observation of a Fabry–Pérot-like interference of electron waves that are partially reflected and/or transmitted at the edges of the graphene bilayer overlap region.

    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Fast current-driven domain walls and small skyrmions in a compensated ferrimagnet
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    Lucas Caretta, Maxwell Mann, Felix Büttner, Kohei Ueda, Bastian Pfau, Christian M. Günther, Piet Hessing, Alexandra Churikova, Christopher Klose, Michael Schneider, Dieter Engel, Colin Marcus, David Bono, Kai Bagschik, Stefan Eisebitt, Geoffrey S. D. Beach

    Spintronics is a research field that aims to understand and control spins on the nanoscale and should enable next-generation data storage and manipulation. One technological and scientific key challenge is to stabilize small spin textures and to move them efficiently with high velocities. For a long time, research focused on ferromagnetic materials, but ferromagnets show fundamental limits for speed and size. Here, we circumvent these limits using compensated ferrimagnets. Using ferrimagnetic Pt/Gd44Co56/TaOx films with a sizeable Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction, we realize a current-driven domain wall motion with a speed of 1.3 km s–1 near the angular momentum compensation temperature (TA) and room-temperature-stable skyrmions with minimum diameters close to 10 nm near the magnetic compensation temperature (TM). Both the size and dynamics of the ferrimagnet are in excellent agreement with a simplified effective ferromagnet theory. Our work shows that high-speed, high-density spintronics devices based on current-driven spin textures can be realized using materials in which TA and TM are close together.

    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Electrical half-wave rectification at ferroelectric domain walls
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    Jakob Schaab, Sandra H. Skjærvø, Stephan Krohns, Xiaoyu Dai, Megan E. Holtz, Andrés Cano, Martin Lilienblum, Zewu Yan, Edith Bourret, David A. Muller, Manfred Fiebig, Sverre M. Selbach, Dennis Meier

    Domain walls in ferroelectric semiconductors show promise as multifunctional two-dimensional elements for next-generation nanotechnology. Electric fields, for example, can control the direct-current resistance and reversibly switch between insulating and conductive domain-wall states, enabling elementary electronic devices such as gates and transistors. To facilitate electrical signal processing and transformation at the domain-wall level, however, an expansion into the realm of alternating-current technology is required. Here, we demonstrate diode-like alternating-to-direct current conversion based on neutral ferroelectric domain walls in ErMnO3. By combining scanning probe and dielectric spectroscopy, we show that the rectification occurs at the tip–wall contact for frequencies at which the walls are effectively pinned. Using density functional theory, we attribute the responsible transport behaviour at the neutral walls to an accumulation of oxygen defects. The practical frequency regime and magnitude of the direct current output are controlled by the bulk conductivity, establishing electrode–wall junctions as versatile atomic-scale diodes.

    更新日期:2018-09-11
  • Electrical tuning of elastic wave propagation in nanomechanical lattices at MHz frequencies
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    Jinwoong Cha, Chiara Daraio

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) that operate in the megahertz (MHz) regime allow energy transducibility between different physical domains. For example, they convert optical or electrical signals into mechanical motions and vice versa1. This coupling of different physical quantities leads to frequency-tunable NEMS resonators via electromechanical non-linearities2,3,4. NEMS platforms with single- or low-degrees of freedom have been employed to demonstrate quantum-like effects, such as mode cooling5, mechanically induced transparency5, Rabi oscillation6,7, two-mode squeezing8 and phonon lasing9. Periodic arrays of NEMS resonators with architected unit cells enable fundamental studies of lattice-based solid-state phenomena, such as bandgaps10,11, energy transport10,11,12, non-linear dynamics and localization13,14, and topological properties15, directly transferrable to on-chip devices. Here we describe one-dimensional, non-linear, nanoelectromechanical lattices (NEML) with active control of the frequency band dispersion in the radio-frequency domain (10–30 MHz). The design of our systems is inspired by NEMS-based phonon waveguides10,11 and includes the voltage-induced frequency tuning of the individual resonators2,3,4. Our NEMLs consist of a periodic arrangement of mechanically coupled, free-standing nanomembranes with circular clamped boundaries. This design forms a flexural phononic crystal with a well-defined bandgap, 1.8 MHz wide. The application of a d.c. gate voltage creates voltage-dependent on-site potentials, which can significantly shift the frequency bands of the device. Additionally, a dynamic modulation of the voltage triggers non-linear effects, which induce the formation of a phononic bandgap in the acoustic branch, analogous to Peierls transition in condensed matter16. The gating approach employed here makes the devices more compact than recently proposed systems, whose tunability mostly relies on materials’ compliance17,18 and mechanical non-linearities19,20,21,22.

    更新日期:2018-09-11
  • Minimum information reporting in bio–nano experimental literature
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-09-06
    Matthew Faria, Mattias Björnmalm, Kristofer J. Thurecht, Stephen J. Kent, Robert G. Parton, Maria Kavallaris, Angus P. R. Johnston, J. Justin Gooding, Simon R. Corrie, Ben J. Boyd, Pall Thordarson, Andrew K. Whittaker, Molly M. Stevens, Clive A. Prestidge, Christopher J. H. Porter, Wolfgang J. Parak, Thomas P. Davis, Edmund J. Crampin, Frank Caruso

    Studying the interactions between nanoengineered materials and biological systems plays a vital role in the development of biological applications of nanotechnology and the improvement of our fundamental understanding of the bio–nano interface. A significant barrier to progress in this multidisciplinary area is the variability of published literature with regards to characterizations performed and experimental details reported. Here, we suggest a ‘minimum information standard’ for experimental literature investigating bio–nano interactions. This standard consists of specific components to be reported, divided into three categories: material characterization, biological characterization and details of experimental protocols. Our intention is for these proposed standards to improve reproducibility, increase quantitative comparisons of bio–nano materials, and facilitate meta analyses and in silico modelling.

    更新日期:2018-09-07
  • A single object rotating
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-09-06
    Alberto Moscatelli

    A single object rotatingA single object rotating, Published online: 06 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0265-1A single object rotating

    更新日期:2018-09-07
  • The ten decrees of nanomaterials regulations
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-09-06
    Lauge Peter Westergaard Clausen, Steffen Foss Hansen

    The ten decrees of nanomaterials regulationsThe ten decrees of nanomaterials regulations, Published online: 06 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0256-2The new revisions of the Annexes of the European Union’s chemical legislation with regards to nanomaterials will provide more structure and clarity, but they will also force manufacturers, importers and downstream users to put substantial effort into understanding the details of what should and should not be done.

    更新日期:2018-09-07
  • Seeing through the noise
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-09-06
    Benjamin Heinrich

    Seeing through the noiseSeeing through the noise, Published online: 06 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0263-3Seeing through the noise

    更新日期:2018-09-07
  • Boost microbiota studies
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-09-06
    Wenjie Sun

    Boost microbiota studiesBoost microbiota studies, Published online: 06 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0266-0Boost microbiota studies

    更新日期:2018-09-07
  • Hidden interfaces revealed on an atomistic level
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-09-06
    Gerd Bacher

    Hidden interfaces revealed on an atomistic levelHidden interfaces revealed on an atomistic level, Published online: 06 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0257-1The self-driven formation of a surface passivation layer from inorganic ligands explains unique electrical properties of nanocrystalline solids.

    更新日期:2018-09-07
  • One and the same
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-09-06
    Olga Bubnova

    One and the sameOne and the same, Published online: 06 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0264-2One and the same

    更新日期:2018-09-07
  • Paving the way to single-molecule protein sequencing
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-09-06
    Laura Restrepo-Pérez, Chirlmin Joo, Cees Dekker

    Proteins are major building blocks of life. The protein content of a cell and an organism provides key information for the understanding of biological processes and disease. Despite the importance of protein analysis, only a handful of techniques are available to determine protein sequences, and these methods face limitations, for example, requiring a sizable amount of sample. Single-molecule techniques would revolutionize proteomics research, providing ultimate sensitivity for the detection of low-abundance proteins and the realization of single-cell proteomics. In recent years, novel single-molecule protein sequencing schemes that use fluorescence, tunnelling currents and nanopores have been proposed. Here, we present a review of these approaches, together with the first experimental efforts towards their realization. We discuss their advantages and drawbacks, and present our perspective on the development of single-molecule protein sequencing techniques.

    更新日期:2018-09-07
  • Neutrophil wrap
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-09-03
    Bethan L. Thomas, Mauro Perretti

    Neutrophil wrapNeutrophil wrap, Published online: 03 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0260-6Semisynthetic vesicles coated with neutrophil membranes act as novel weapons to control arthritis.

    更新日期:2018-09-04
  • Neutrophil membrane-coated nanoparticles inhibit synovial inflammation and alleviate joint damage in inflammatory arthritis
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-09-03
    Qiangzhe Zhang, Diana Dehaini, Yue Zhang, Julia Zhou, Xiangyu Chen, Lifen Zhang, Ronnie H. Fang, Weiwei Gao, Liangfang Zhang

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a common chronic inflammatory disorder and a major cause of disability. Despite the progress made with recent clinical use of anti-cytokine biologics, the response rate of rheumatoid arthritis treatment remains unsatisfactory, owing largely to the complexity of cytokine interactions and the multiplicity of cytokine targets. Here, we show a nanoparticle-based broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory strategy for rheumatoid arthritis management. By fusing neutrophil membrane onto polymeric cores, we prepare neutrophil membrane-coated nanoparticles that inherit the antigenic exterior and associated membrane functions of the source cells, which makes them ideal decoys of neutrophil-targeted biological molecules. It is shown that these nanoparticles can neutralize proinflammatory cytokines, suppress synovial inflammation, target deep into the cartilage matrix, and provide strong chondroprotection against joint damage. In a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis and a human transgenic mouse model of arthritis, the neutrophil membrane-coated nanoparticles show significant therapeutic efficacy by ameliorating joint damage and suppressing overall arthritis severity.

    更新日期:2018-09-04
  • Author Correction: Plasmonic meta-electrodes allow intracellular recordings at network level on high-density CMOS-multi-electrode arrays
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-28
    Michele Dipalo, Giovanni Melle, Laura Lovato, Andrea Jacassi, Francesca Santoro, Valeria Caprettini, Andrea Schirato, Alessandro Alabastri, Denis Garoli, Giulia Bruno, Francesco Tantussi, Francesco De Angelis

    Author Correction: Plasmonic meta-electrodes allow intracellular recordings at network level on high-density CMOS-multi-electrode arraysAuthor Correction: Plasmonic meta-electrodes allow intracellular recordings at network level on high-density CMOS-multi-electrode arrays, Published online: 28 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0261-5Author Correction: Plasmonic meta-electrodes allow intracellular recordings at network level on high-density CMOS-multi-electrode arrays

    更新日期:2018-08-29
  • Nano-imaging of intersubband transitions in van der Waals quantum wells
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Peter Schmidt, Fabien Vialla, Simone Latini, Mathieu Massicotte, Klaas-Jan Tielrooij, Stefan Mastel, Gabriele Navickaite, Mark Danovich, David A. Ruiz-Tijerina, Celal Yelgel, Vladimir Fal’ko, Kristian S. Thygesen, Rainer Hillenbrand, Frank H. L. Koppens

    The science and applications of electronics and optoelectronics have been driven for decades by progress in the growth of semiconducting heterostructures. Many applications in the infrared and terahertz frequency range exploit transitions between quantized states in semiconductor quantum wells (intersubband transitions). However, current quantum well devices are limited in functionality and versatility by diffusive interfaces and the requirement of lattice-matched growth conditions. Here, we introduce the concept of intersubband transitions in van der Waals quantum wells and report their first experimental observation. Van der Waals quantum wells are naturally formed by two-dimensional materials and hold unexplored potential to overcome the aforementioned limitations—they form atomically sharp interfaces and can easily be combined into heterostructures without lattice-matching restrictions. We employ near-field local probing to spectrally resolve intersubband transitions with a nanometre-scale spatial resolution and electrostatically control the absorption. This work enables the exploitation of intersubband transitions with unmatched design freedom and individual electronic and optical control suitable for photodetectors, light-emitting diodes and lasers.

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Nucleic acid hybridization on an electrically reconfigurable network of gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles enables microRNA detection in blood
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Roya Tavallaie, Joshua McCarroll, Marion Le Grand, Nicholas Ariotti, Wolfgang Schuhmann, Eric Bakker, Richard David Tilley, David Brynn Hibbert, Maria Kavallaris, John Justin Gooding

    There is intense interest in quantifying the levels of microRNA because of its importance as a blood-borne biomarker. The challenge has been to develop methods that can monitor microRNA expression both over broad concentration ranges and in ultralow amounts directly in a patient’s blood. Here, we show that, through electric-field-induced reconfiguration of a network of gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles modified by probe DNA (DNA–Au@MNPs), it is possible to create a highly sensitive sensor for direct analysis of nucleic acids in samples as complex as whole blood. The sensor is the first to be able to detect concentrations of microRNA from 10 aM to 1 nM in unprocessed blood samples. It can distinguish small variations in microRNA concentrations in blood samples of mice with growing tumours. The ultrasensitive and direct detection of microRNA using an electrically reconfigurable DNA–Au@MNPs network makes the reported device a promising tool for cancer diagnostics.

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • An integrated self-healable electronic skin system fabricated via dynamic reconstruction of a nanostructured conducting network
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-20
    Donghee Son, Jiheong Kang, Orestis Vardoulis, Yeongin Kim, Naoji Matsuhisa, Jin Young Oh, John WF To, Jaewan Mun, Toru Katsumata, Yuxin Liu, Allister F. McGuire, Marta Krason, Francisco Molina-Lopez, Jooyeun Ham, Ulrike Kraft, Yeongjun Lee, Youngjun Yun, Jeffrey B.-H. Tok, Zhenan Bao

    Electronic skin devices capable of monitoring physiological signals and displaying feedback information through closed-loop communication between the user and electronics are being considered for next-generation wearables and the ‘Internet of Things’. Such devices need to be ultrathin to achieve seamless and conformal contact with the human body, to accommodate strains from repeated movement and to be comfortable to wear. Recently, self-healing chemistry has driven important advances in deformable and reconfigurable electronics, particularly with self-healable electrodes as the key enabler. Unlike polymer substrates with self-healable dynamic nature, the disrupted conducting network is unable to recover its stretchability after damage. Here, we report the observation of self-reconstruction of conducting nanostructures when in contact with a dynamically crosslinked polymer network. This, combined with the self-bonding property of self-healing polymer, allowed subsequent heterogeneous multi-component device integration of interconnects, sensors and light-emitting devices into a single multi-functional system. This first autonomous self-healable and stretchable multi-component electronic skin paves the way for future robust electronics.

    更新日期:2018-08-20
  • Directional lasing in resonant semiconductor nanoantenna arrays
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-20
    Son Tung Ha, Yuan Hsing Fu, Naresh Kumar Emani, Zhenying Pan, Reuben M. Bakker, Ramón Paniagua-Domínguez, Arseniy I. Kuznetsov

    High-index dielectric and semiconductor nanoparticles supporting strong electric and magnetic resonances have drawn significant attention in recent years. However, until now, there have been no experimental reports of lasing action from such nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate directional lasing, with a low threshold and high quality factor, in active dielectric nanoantenna arrays achieved through a leaky resonance excited in coupled gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanopillars. The leaky resonance is formed by partially breaking a bound state in the continuum generated by the collective, vertical electric dipole resonances excited in the nanopillars for subdiffractive arrays. We control the directionality of the emitted light while maintaining a high quality factor (Q = 2,750). The lasing directivity and wavelength can be tuned via the nanoantenna array geometry and by modifying the gain spectrum of GaAs with temperature. The obtained results provide guidelines for achieving surface-emitting laser devices based on active dielectric nanoantennas that are compact and highly transparent.

    更新日期:2018-08-20
  • Tunable thermal transport and reversible thermal conductivity switching in topologically networked bio-inspired materials
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-13
    John A. Tomko, Abdon Pena-Francesch, Huihun Jung, Madhusudan Tyagi, Benjamin D. Allen, Melik C. Demirel, Patrick E. Hopkins

    The dynamic control of thermal transport properties in solids must contend with the fact that phonons are inherently broadband. Thus, efforts to create reversible thermal conductivity switches have resulted in only modest on/off ratios, since only a relatively narrow portion of the phononic spectrum is impacted. Here, we report on the ability to modulate the thermal conductivity of topologically networked materials by nearly a factor of four following hydration, through manipulation of the displacement amplitude of atomic vibrations. By varying the network topology, or crosslinked structure, of squid ring teeth-based bio-polymers through tandem-repetition of DNA sequences, we show that this thermal switching ratio can be directly programmed. This on/off ratio in thermal conductivity switching is over a factor of three larger than the current state-of-the-art thermal switch, offering the possibility of engineering thermally conductive biological materials with dynamic responsivity to heat.

    更新日期:2018-08-13
  • Gold nanoparticle biodissolution by a freshwater macrophyte and its associated microbiome
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-13
    Astrid Avellan, Marie Simonin, Eric McGivney, Nathan Bossa, Eleanor Spielman-Sun, Jennifer D. Rocca, Emily S. Bernhardt, Nicholas K. Geitner, Jason M. Unrine, Mark R. Wiesner, Gregory V. Lowry

    Predicting nanoparticle fate in aquatic environments requires mimicking of ecosystem complexity to observe the geochemical processes affecting their behaviour. Here, 12 nm Au nanoparticles were added weekly to large-scale freshwater wetland mesocosms. After six months, ~70% of Au was associated with the macrophyte Egeria densa, where, despite the thermodynamic stability of Au0 in water, the pristine Au0 nanoparticles were fully oxidized and complexed to cyanide, hydroxyls or thiol ligands. Extracted biofilms growing on E. densa leaves were shown to dissolve Au nanoparticles within days. The Au biodissolution rate was highest for the biofilm with the lowest prevalence of metal-resistant taxa but the highest ability to release cyanide, known to promote Au0 oxidation and complexation. Macrophytes and the associated microbiome thus form a biologically active system that can be a major sink for nanoparticle accumulation and transformations. Nanoparticle biotransformation in these compartments should not be ignored, even for nanoparticles commonly considered to be stable in the environment.

    更新日期:2018-08-13
  • Interlayer valley excitons in heterobilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-13
    Pasqual Rivera, Hongyi Yu, Kyle L. Seyler, Nathan P. Wilson, Wang Yao, Xiaodong Xu

    Stacking different two-dimensional crystals into van der Waals heterostructures provides an exciting approach to designing quantum materials that can harness and extend the already fascinating properties of the constituents. Heterobilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides are particularly attractive for low-dimensional semiconductor optics because they host interlayer excitons—with electrons and holes localized in different layers—which inherit valley-contrasting physics from the monolayers and thereby possess various novel and appealing properties compared to other solid-state nanostructures. This Review presents the contemporary experimental and theoretical understanding of these interlayer excitons. We discuss their unique optical properties arising from the underlying valley physics, the strong many-body interactions and electrical control resulting from the electric dipole moment, and the unique effects of a moiré superlattice on the interlayer exciton potential landscape and optical properties.

    更新日期:2018-08-13
  • Plasmonic meta-electrodes allow intracellular recordings at network level on high-density CMOS-multi-electrode arrays
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-13
    Michele Dipalo, Giovanni Melle, Laura Lovato, Andrea Jacassi, Francesca Santoro, Valeria Caprettini, Andrea Schirato, Alessandro Alabastri, Denis Garoli, Giulia Bruno, Francesco Tantussi, Francesco De Angelis

    The ability to monitor electrogenic cells accurately plays a pivotal role in neuroscience, cardiology and cell biology. Despite pioneering research and long-lasting efforts, the existing methods for intracellular recording of action potentials on the large network scale suffer limitations that prevent their widespread use. Here, we introduce the concept of a meta-electrode, a planar porous electrode that mimics the optical and biological behaviour of three-dimensional plasmonic antennas but also preserves the ability to work as an electrode. Its synergistic combination with plasmonic optoacoustic poration allows commercial complementary metal–oxide semiconductor multi-electrode arrays to record intracellular action potentials in large cellular networks. We apply this approach to measure signals from human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac cells, rodent primary cardiomyocytes and immortalized cell types and demonstrate the possibility of non-invasively testing a variety of relevant drugs. Due to its robustness and easiness of use, we expect the method will be rapidly adopted by the scientific community and by pharmaceutical companies.

    更新日期:2018-08-13
  • Highly conductive, stretchable and biocompatible Ag–Au core–sheath nanowire composite for wearable and implantable bioelectronics
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-13
    Suji Choi, Sang Ihn Han, Dongjun Jung, Hye Jin Hwang, Chaehong Lim, Soochan Bae, Ok Kyu Park, Cory M. Tschabrunn, Mincheol Lee, Sun Youn Bae, Ji Woong Yu, Ji Ho Ryu, Sang-Woo Lee, Kyungpyo Park, Peter M. Kang, Won Bo Lee, Reza Nezafat, Taeghwan Hyeon, Dae-Hyeong Kim

    Wearable and implantable devices require conductive, stretchable and biocompatible materials. However, obtaining composites that simultaneously fulfil these requirements is challenging due to a trade-off between conductivity and stretchability. Here, we report on Ag–Au nanocomposites composed of ultralong gold-coated silver nanowires in an elastomeric block-copolymer matrix. Owing to the high aspect ratio and percolation network of the Ag–Au nanowires, the nanocomposites exhibit an optimized conductivity of 41,850 S cm−1 (maximum of 72,600 S cm−1). Phase separation in the Ag–Au nanocomposite during the solvent-drying process generates a microstructure that yields an optimized stretchability of 266% (maximum of 840%). The thick gold sheath deposited on the silver nanowire surface prevents oxidation and silver ion leaching, making the composite biocompatible and highly conductive. Using the nanocomposite, we successfully fabricate wearable and implantable soft bioelectronic devices that can be conformally integrated with human skin and swine heart for continuous electrophysiological recording, and electrical and thermal stimulation.

    更新日期:2018-08-13
  • Scalable breakthrough
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-13
    Ramya Parameswaran, Bozhi Tian

    Scalable breakthroughScalable breakthrough, Published online: 13 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0248-2Meta-electrodes, lasing and optoacoustic poration achieve network-wide intracellular recording.

    更新日期:2018-08-13
  • Adieu to photobleaching
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-06
    Alberto Moscatelli

    Adieu to photobleaching Adieu to photobleaching, Published online: 06 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0239-3 Adieu to photobleaching

    更新日期:2018-08-06
  • Are assumptions of consumer views impeding nano-based water treatment technologies?
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-06
    Andrew D. Maynard, Justin Kidd

    Are assumptions of consumer views impeding nano-based water treatment technologies? Are assumptions of consumer views impeding nano-based water treatment technologies?, Published online: 06 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0230-z Initial studies indicate that consumer concerns about nanomaterial use in point-of-use water systems may be overestimated by manufacturers. Nevertheless, manufacturers should continue to focus on building consumer confidence in the safety of their products.

    更新日期:2018-08-06
  • Lifetime-engineered NIR-II nanoparticles unlock multiplexed in vivo imaging
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-06
    Yong Fan, Peiyuan Wang, Yiqing Lu, Rui Wang, Lei Zhou, Xianlin Zheng, Xiaomin Li, James A. Piper, Fan Zhang

    Deep tissue imaging in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) window holds great promise for physiological studies and biomedical applications1,2,3,4,5,6. However, inhomogeneous signal attenuation in biological matter7,8 hampers the application of multiple-wavelength NIR-II probes to multiplexed imaging. Here, we present lanthanide-doped NIR-II nanoparticles with engineered luminescence lifetimes for in vivo quantitative imaging using time-domain multiplexing. To achieve this, we have devised a systematic approach based on controlled energy relay that creates a tunable lifetime range spanning three orders of magnitude with a single emission band. We consistently resolve selected lifetimes from the NIR-II nanoparticle probes at depths of up to 8 mm in biological tissues, where the signal-to-noise ratio derived from intensity measurements drops below 1.5. We demonstrate that robust lifetime coding is independent of tissue penetration depth, and we apply in vivo multiplexing to identify tumour subtypes in living mice. Our results correlate well with standard ex vivo immunohistochemistry assays, suggesting that luminescence lifetime imaging could be used as a minimally invasive approach for disease diagnosis.

    更新日期:2018-08-06
  • The role of nanotechnology in industrial water treatment
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-06
    David Jassby, Tzahi Y. Cath, Herve Buisson

    High-quality water is essential for most industrial processes, and many of these processes generate large volumes of contaminated wastewater. Nanotechnology has the potential to make industrial water treatment more efficient and less expensive, though promising technologies must be demonstrated at higher scales to make a real impact.

    更新日期:2018-08-06
  • Thermal release
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-06
    Olga Bubnova

    Thermal release Thermal release, Published online: 06 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0241-9 Thermal release

    更新日期:2018-08-06
  • Time to multiplex
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-06
    Jean-Claude G. Bünzli

    Time to multiplex Time to multiplex, Published online: 06 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0249-1 Quantitative near-infrared bioimaging gets a boost from time-domain multiplexing.

    更新日期:2018-08-06
  • Three qubits in one
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-06
    Benjamin Heinrich

    Three qubits in one Three qubits in one, Published online: 06 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0240-x Three qubits in one

    更新日期:2018-08-06
  • Moving ions confined between graphene sheets
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-08-06
    Yury Gogotsi

    Moving ions confined between graphene sheets Moving ions confined between graphene sheets, Published online: 06 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0237-5 Permeation experiments and simulations show that the ion diffusion rate in confinement can be reversibly modulated and significantly enhanced with a potential of less than 0.5 V.

    更新日期:2018-08-06
  • Publisher Correction: Controllable conductive readout in self-assembled, topologically confined ferroelectric domain walls
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-07-31
    Ji Ma, Jing Ma, Qinghua Zhang, Renci Peng, Jing Wang, Chen Liu, Meng Wang, Ning Li, Mingfeng Chen, Xiaoxing Cheng, Peng Gao, Lin Gu, Long-Qing Chen, Pu Yu, Jinxing Zhang, Ce-Wen Nan

    Publisher Correction: Controllable conductive readout in self-assembled, topologically confined ferroelectric domain walls Publisher Correction: Controllable conductive readout in self-assembled, topologically confined ferroelectric domain walls, Published online: 31 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0247-3 Publisher Correction: Controllable conductive readout in self-assembled, topologically confined ferroelectric domain walls

    更新日期:2018-08-01
  • Ensemble multicolour FRET model enables barcoding at extreme FRET levels
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-07-30
    Milad Dagher, Michael Kleinman, Andy Ng, David Juncker

    Quantitative models of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)—pioneered by Förster—define our understanding of FRET and underpin its widespread use. However, multicolour FRET (mFRET), which arises between multiple, stochastically distributed fluorophores, lacks a mechanistic model and remains intractable. mFRET notably arises in fluorescently barcoded microparticles, resulting in a complex, non-orthogonal fluorescence response that impedes their encoding and decoding. Here, we introduce an ensemble mFRET (emFRET) model, and apply it to guide barcoding into regimes with extreme FRET. We further introduce a facile, proportional multicolour labelling method using oligonucleotides as homogeneous linkers. A total of 580 barcodes were rapidly designed and validated using four dyes—with FRET efficiencies reaching 76%—and used for multiplexed immunoassays with cytometric readout and fully automated decoding. The emFRET model helps to expand the barcoding capacity of barcoded microparticles using common organic dyes and will benefit other applications subject to stochastic mFRET.

    更新日期:2018-07-31
  • Enhanced water splitting under modal strong coupling conditions
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-07-30
    Xu Shi, Kosei Ueno, Tomoya Oshikiri, Quan Sun, Keiji Sasaki, Hiroaki Misawa

    Strong coupling between plasmons and optical modes, such as waveguide or resonator modes, gives rise to a splitting in the plasmon absorption band. As a result, two new hybrid modes are formed that exhibit near-field enhancement effects. These hybrid modes have been exploited to improve light absorption in a number of systems. Here we show that this modal strong coupling between a Fabry–Pérot nanocavity mode and a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) facilitates water splitting reactions. We use a gold nanoparticle (Au-NP)/TiO2/Au-film structure as a photoanode. This structure exhibits modal strong coupling between the Fabry–Pérot nanocavity modes of the TiO2 thin film/Au film and LSPR of the Au NPs. Electronic excitation of the Au NPs is promoted by the optical hybrid modes across a broad range of wavelengths, followed by a hot electron transfer to TiO2. A key feature of our structure is that the Au NPs are partially inlaid in the TiO2 layer, which results in an enhancement of the coupling strength and water-oxidation efficiency. We observe an 11-fold increase in the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency with respect to a photoanode structure with no Au film. Also, the internal quantum efficiency is enhanced 1.5 times under a strong coupling over that under uncoupled conditions.

    更新日期:2018-07-31
  • Construction of integrated gene logic-chip
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-07-23
    Takeya Masubuchi, Masayuki Endo, Ryo Iizuka, Ayaka Iguchi, Dong Hyun Yoon, Tetsushi Sekiguchi, Hao Qi, Ryosuke Iinuma, Yuya Miyazono, Shuichi Shoji, Takashi Funatsu, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Yoshie Harada, Takuya Ueda, Hisashi Tadakuma

    In synthetic biology, the control of gene expression requires a multistep processing of biological signals. The key steps are sensing the environment, computing information and outputting products1. To achieve such functions, the laborious, combinational networking of enzymes and substrate-genes is required, and to resolve problems, sophisticated design automation tools have been introduced2. However, the complexity of genetic circuits remains low because it is difficult to completely avoid crosstalk between the circuits. Here, we have made an orthogonal self-contained device by integrating an actuator and sensors onto a DNA origami-based nanochip that contains an enzyme, T7 RNA polymerase (RNAP) and multiple target-gene substrates. This gene nanochip orthogonally transcribes its own genes, and the nano-layout ability of DNA origami allows us to rationally design gene expression levels by controlling the intermolecular distances between the enzyme and the target genes. We further integrated reprogrammable logic gates so that the nanochip responds to water-in-oil droplets and computes their small RNA (miRNA) profiles, which demonstrates that the nanochip can function as a gene logic-chip. Our approach to component integration on a nanochip may provide a basis for large-scale, integrated genetic circuits.

    更新日期:2018-07-24
  • Superconducting gatemon qubit based on a proximitized two-dimensional electron gas
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-07-23
    Lucas Casparis, Malcolm R. Connolly, Morten Kjaergaard, Natalie J. Pearson, Anders Kringhøj, Thorvald W. Larsen, Ferdinand Kuemmeth, Tiantian Wang, Candice Thomas, Sergei Gronin, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Michael J. Manfra, Charles M. Marcus, Karl D. Petersson

    The coherent tunnelling of Cooper pairs across Josephson junctions (JJs) generates a nonlinear inductance that is used extensively in quantum information processors based on superconducting circuits, from setting qubit transition frequencies1 and interqubit coupling strengths2 to the gain of parametric amplifiers3 for quantum-limited readout. The inductance is either set by tailoring the metal oxide dimensions of single JJs, or magnetically tuned by parallelizing multiple JJs in superconducting quantum interference devices with local current-biased flux lines. JJs based on superconductor–semiconductor hybrids represent a tantalizing all-electric alternative. The gatemon is a recently developed transmon variant that employs locally gated nanowire superconductor–semiconductor JJs for qubit control4,5. Here we go beyond proof-of-concept and demonstrate that semiconducting channels etched from a wafer-scale two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) are a suitable platform for building a scalable gatemon-based quantum computer. We show that 2DEG gatemons meet the requirements6 by performing voltage-controlled single qubit rotations and two-qubit swap operations. We measure qubit coherence times up to ~2 μs, limited by dielectric loss in the 2DEG substrate.

    更新日期:2018-07-24
  • Colloidal nanoelectronic state machines based on 2D materials for aerosolizable electronics
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-07-23
    Volodymyr B. Koman, Pingwei Liu, Daichi Kozawa, Albert Tianxiang Liu, Anton L. Cottrill, Youngwoo Son, Jose A. Lebron, Michael S. Strano

    A previously unexplored property of two-dimensional electronic materials is their ability to graft electronic functionality onto colloidal particles to access local hydrodynamics in fluids to impart mobility and enter spaces inaccessible to larger electronic systems. Here, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of fully autonomous state machines built onto SU-8 particles powered by a two-dimensional material-based photodiode. The on-board circuit connects a chemiresistor circuit element and a memristor element, enabling the detection and storage of information after aerosolization, hydrodynamic propulsion to targets over 0.6 m away, and large-area surface sensing of triethylamine, ammonia and aerosolized soot in inaccessible locations. An incorporated retroreflector design allows for facile position location using laser-scanning optical detection. Such state machines may find widespread application as probes in confined environments, such as the human digestive tract, oil and gas conduits, chemical and biosynthetic reactors, and autonomous environmental sensors.

    更新日期:2018-07-24
  • Soft micro-sensotransmitters emerging
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-07-23
    Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh

    Soft micro-sensotransmitters emergingSoft micro-sensotransmitters emerging, Published online: 23 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0198-8Two-dimensional materials allow the realization of soft smart dusts.

    更新日期:2018-07-24
  • Gatemons get serious
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-07-23
    Steven J. Weber

    Gatemons get seriousGatemons get serious, Published online: 23 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0218-8The top-down fabrication of voltage-controlled superconducting qubits brings upscaling into reach.

    更新日期:2018-07-24
  • Generation, transport and detection of valley-locked spin photocurrent in WSe2–graphene–Bi2Se3 heterostructures
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 37.49) Pub Date : 2018-07-23
    Soonyoung Cha, Minji Noh, Jehyun Kim, Jangyup Son, Hyemin Bae, Doeon Lee, Hoil Kim, Jekwan Lee, Ho-Seung Shin, Sangwan Sim, Seunghoon Yang, Sooun Lee, Wooyoung Shim, Chul-Ho Lee, Moon-Ho Jo, Jun Sung Kim, Dohun Kim, Hyunyong Choi

    Quantum optoelectronic devices capable of isolating a target degree of freedom (DoF) from other DoFs have allowed for new applications in modern information technology. Many works on solid-state spintronics have focused on methods to disentangle the spin DoF from the charge DoF1, yet many related issues remain unresolved. Although the recent advent of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) has enabled the use of valley pseudospin as an alternative DoF2,3, it is nontrivial to separate the spin DoF from the valley DoF since the time-reversal valley DoF is intrinsically locked with the spin DoF4. Here, we demonstrate lateral TMD–graphene–topological insulator hetero-devices with the possibility of such a DoF-selective measurement. We generate the valley-locked spin DoF via a circular photogalvanic effect in an electric-double-layer WSe2 transistor. The valley-locked spin photocarriers then diffuse in a submicrometre-long graphene layer, and the spin DoF is measured separately in the topological insulator via non-local electrical detection using the characteristic spin–momentum locking. Operating at room temperature, our integrated devices exhibit a non-local spin polarization degree of higher than 0.5, providing the potential for coupled opto-spin–valleytronic applications that independently exploit the valley and spin DoFs.

    更新日期:2018-07-24
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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