c-Jun/AP-1 overexpression reprograms ERα signaling related to tamoxifen response in ERα-positive breast cancer Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Huan He, Indranil Sinha, Rongrong Fan, Lars-Arne Haldosen, Feifei Yan, Chunyan Zhao, Karin Dahlman-Wright
A critical mechanism that has been proposed for transcription regulation by estrogen receptor α (ER) is the tethering of ER to DNA via other transcription factors, such as AP-1. However, genome-wide assessment of the overlap in chromatin binding repertoires of these two transcription factors has not been reported. Here, we show that the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun interacts with ER and that c-Jun chromatin binding shows extensive overlap with ER binding at the global level. Further, we show that c-Jun overexpression reprograms ER chromatin binding and modulates ER-mediated gene regulation. Our data are consistent with a mechanism where estrogen/ER-dependent crosstalk with AP-1 at the transcriptional level is mediated through the tethering of ER to DNA bound AP-1. Additionally, in our system c-Jun overexpression causes reduced sensitivity to tamoxifen in ER+ breast cancer cells. Integrated cistrome, transcriptome, and clinical data reveal TGFBI as a candidate gene which may confer tamoxifen resistance by ER and AP-1 crosstalk. Further, we show that TGFBI expression is elevated in breast cancer compared to normal breast. Together, our data provide a novel genome-wide footprint of ER and AP-1 crosstalk and suggest AP-1 and TGFBI signaling as potential therapeutic targets in AP-1-overexpressing ER-positive breast tumors.
The HDAC inhibitor SAHA regulates CBX2 stability via a SUMO-triggered ubiquitin-mediated pathway in leukemia Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Antonella Di Costanzo, Nunzio Del Gaudio, Lidio Conte, Carmela Dell’Aversana, Michiel Vermeulen, Hugues de Thé, Antimo Migliaccio, Angela Nebbioso, Lucia Altucci
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins regulate transcription, playing a key role in stemness and differentiation. Deregulation of PcG members is known to be involved in cancer pathogenesis. Emerging evidence suggests that CBX2, a member of the PcG protein family, is overexpressed in several human tumors, correlating with lower overall survival. Unraveling the mechanisms regulating CBX2 expression may thus provide a promising new target for anticancer strategies. Here we show that the HDAC inhibitor SAHA regulates CBX2 stability via a SUMO-triggered ubiquitin-mediated pathway in leukemia. We identify CBX4 and RNF4 as the E3 SUMO and E3 ubiquitin ligase, respectively, and describe the specific molecular mechanism regulating CBX2 protein stability. Finally, we show that CBX2-depleted leukemic cells display impaired proliferation, underscoring its critical role in regulating leukemia cell tumorogenicity. Our results show that SAHA affects CBX2 stability, revealing a potential SAHA-mediated anti-leukemic activity though SUMO2/3 pathway.
Alternative transcription of a shorter, non-anti-angiogenic thrombospondin-2 variant in cancer-associated blood vessels Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Filip Roudnicky, Sun Young Yoon, Susanna Poghosyan, Simon Schwager, Cedric Poyet, Giorgia Vella, Samia B. Bachmann, Sinem Karaman, Jay W. Shin, Vivianne I. Otto, Michael Detmar
Thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) is an anti-angiogenic matricellular protein that inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis. Tumor-associated blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) were isolated from human invasive bladder cancers and from matched normal bladder tissue by immuno-laser capture microdissection. Exon expression profiling analyses revealed a particularly high expression of a short TSP2 transcript containing only the last 9 (3′) exons of the full-length TSP2 transcript. Using 5′ and 3′ RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) and Sanger sequencing, we confirmed the existence of the shorter transcript of TSP2 (sTSP2) and determined its sequence which completely lacked the anti-angiogenic thrombospondin type 1 repeats domain. The largest open reading frame predicted within the transcript comprises 209 amino acids and matches almost completely the C-terminal lectin domain of full-length TSP2. We produced recombinant sTSP2 and found that unlike the full-length TSP2, sTSP2 did not inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor-A-induced proliferation of cultured human BECs, but in contrast when combined with TSP2 blocked the inhibitory effects of TSP2 on BEC proliferation. In vivo studies with stably transfected A431 squamous cell carcinoma cells revealed that full-length TSP2, but not sTSP2, inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis. This study reveals that the transcriptional program of tumor stromal cells can change to transcribe a new version of an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor that has lost its anti-angiogenic activity.
The path to metastatic mouse models of colorectal cancer Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Gabriele Romano, Sharmeen Chagani, Lawrence N. Kwong
The study and comprehension of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer biology strongly rely on mouse modeling. An ideal mouse model should have molecular, histopathological, and etiological characteristics as close as possible to those of the corresponding human tumors. Among solid tumors, colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the malignancies that best suits reproduction in an animal model: it evolves through a progressive set of molecular events and is generally associated with a precise histopathology and a neat cataloging of stages and grades. The development of refined CRC mouse models over several decades has seen them recently evolve toward sophisticated systems that ever more closely approximate the human pathology, with different models addressing different human CRC subtypes. In particular, a metastatic CRC model has been seen as a “holy grail” in this field, and we describe in this review the path taken to achieve metastatic models and discuss the path forward.
Beyond molecular tumor heterogeneity: protein synthesis takes control Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Santiago Ramon y Cajal, Josep Castellvi, Stefan Hümmer, Vicente Peg, Jerry Pelletier, Nahum Sonenberg
One of the daunting challenges facing modern medicine lies in the understanding and treatment of tumor heterogeneity. Most tumors show intra-tumor heterogeneity at both genomic and proteomic levels, with marked impacts on the responses of therapeutic targets. Therapeutic target-related gene expression pathways are affected by hypoxia and cellular stress. However, the finding that targets such as eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E (and its phosphorylated form, p-eIF4E) are generally homogenously expressed throughout tumors, regardless of the presence of hypoxia or other cellular stress conditions, opens the exciting possibility that malignancies could be treated with therapies that combine targeting of eIF4E phosphorylation with immune checkpoint inhibitors or chemotherapy.
The E3 ubiquitin ligase Triad1 influences development of Mll-Ell-induced acute myeloid leukemia Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-20 Hao Wang, Ling Bei, Chirag A. Shah, Weiqi Huang, Leonidas C. Platanias, Elizabeth A. Eklund
Chromosomal translocations involving the MLL1 gene characterize a poor prognosis subset of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), referred to as 11q23-AML. Transcription of the HOXA9 and HOXA10 genes is enhanced in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in these leukemias. We previously found the ARIH2 gene was repressed by HoxA9 in myeloid progenitors, but activated by HoxA10 during granulopoiesis. ARIH2 encodes the Triad1 protein, an anti-proliferative E3 ubiquitin ligase. In the current study, we investigate the role of Triad1 in leukemogenesis induced by an MLL1 fusion protein (Mll-Ell). We found Mll-Ell increased expression of HoxA9, HoxA10, and Triad1 because HoxA9 represses only one of two ARIH2 cis elements that are activated by HoxA10. Although Triad1 antagonized the generally pro-proliferative effects of the Mll-Ell oncoprotein, we found blocking HoxA9 and HoxA10 phosphorylation shifted the balance to ARIH2 repression in Mll-Ell+ cells. We investigated the significance of these in vitro results in a murine bone marrow transplant model. We found Triad1 knockdown significantly shortened the latency to development of AML in mice transplanted with Mll-Ell-transduced bone marrow. And, Triad1 expression fell during the prolonged AML latency period in mice transplanted with bone marrow expressing Mll-Ell alone. Our studies identify Triad1 as a leukemia suppressor in 11q23-AML. This suggests defining relevant Triad1 substrates may indicate novel therapeutic targets in this disease.
Elevated mitochondrial SLC25A29 in cancer modulates metabolic status by increasing mitochondria-derived nitric oxide Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-20 Huiyuan Zhang, Qinyi Wang, Junzhong Gu, Le Yin, Shenghui Liang, Lida Wu, Hao Xu, Chao Zhao, Yuchun Gu
Warburg effect has been recognized as a hallmark of cancer cells for many years, but its modulation mechanism remains a great focus. Our current study found a member of solute carrier family 25 (SLC25A29), the main arginine transporter on mitochondria, significantly elevated in various cancer cells. Knockout of SLC25A29 by CRISPR/Cas9 inhibited proliferation and migration of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. SLC25A29-knockout cells also showed an altered metabolic status with enhanced mitochondrial respiration and reduced glycolysis. All of above impacts could be reversed after rescuing SLC25A29 expression in SLC25A29-knockout cells. Arginine is transported into mitochondria partly for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Deletion of SLC25A29 resulted in severe decrease of NO production, indicating that the mitochondria is a significant source of NO. SLC25A29-knockout cells dramatically altered the variation of metabolic processes, whereas addition of arginine failed to reverse the effect, highlighting the necessity of transporting arginine into mitochondria by SLC25A29. In conclusion, aberrant elevated SLC25A29 in cancer functioned to transport more arginine into mitochondria, improved mitochondria-derived NO levels, thus modulated metabolic status to facilitate increased cancer progression.
Novel synthetic bisindolylmaleimide alkaloids inhibit STAT3 activation by binding to the SH2 domain and suppress breast xenograft tumor growth Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-19 Xia Li, Hongguang Ma, Lin Li, Yifan Chen, Xiao Sun, Zizheng Dong, Jing-Yuan Liu, Weiming Zhu, Jian-Ting Zhang
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in malignant tumors and plays important roles in multiple aspects of cancer aggressiveness. Thus, targeting STAT3 promises to be an attractive strategy for the treatment of advanced metastatic tumors. Bisindolylmaleimide alkaloid (BMA) has been shown to have anti-cancer activities and was thought to suppress tumor cell growth by inhibiting protein kinase C. In this study, we show that a newly synthesized BMA analog, BMA097, is effective in suppressing tumor cell and xenograft growth and in inducing spontaneous apoptosis. We also provide evidence that BMA097 binds directly to the SH2 domain of STAT3 and inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation and activation, leading to reduced expression of STAT3 downstream target genes. Structure activity relationship analysis revealed that the hydroxymethyl group in the 2,5-dihydropyrrole-2,5-dione prohibits STAT3 inhibitory activity of BMA analogs. Altogether, we conclude that the synthetic BMA analogs may be developed as anti-cancer drugs by targeting and binding to the SH2 domain of STAT3 and inhibiting the STAT3 signaling pathway.
Heterogeneity and mutation in KRAS and associated oncogenes: evaluating the potential for the evolution of resistance to targeting of KRAS G12C Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-16 Vincent L. Cannataro, Stephen G. Gaffney, Carly Stender, Zi-Ming Zhao, Mark Philips, Andrew E. Greenstein, Jeffrey P. Townsend
Activating mutations in RAS genes are associated with approximately 20% of all human cancers. New targeted therapies show preclinical promise in inhibiting the KRAS G12C variant. However, concerns exist regarding the effectiveness of such therapies in vivo given the possibilities of existing intratumor heterogeneity or de novo mutation leading to treatment resistance. We performed deep sequencing of 27 KRAS G12-positive lung tumors to determine the prevalence of other oncogenic mutations within KRAS or within commonly mutated downstream genes that could confer resistance at the time of treatment. We also passaged patient-derived xenografts to assess the potential for novel KRAS mutation to arise during subsequent tumor evolution. Furthermore, we estimate the de novo mutation rate in KRAS position 12 and in genes downstream of KRAS. Finally, we present an approach for estimation of the selection intensity for these point mutations that explains their high prevalence in tumors. We find no evidence of heterogeneity that may compromise KRAS G12C targeted therapy within sequenced lung tumors or passaged xenografts. We find that mutations that confer resistance are even less likely to occur downstream of KRAS than to occur within KRAS. Our approach predicts that BRAF V600E would provide the highest fitness advantage for de novo-resistant subclones. Overall, our findings suggest that resistance to targeted therapy of KRAS G12C-positive tumors is unlikely to be present at the time of treatment and, among the de novo mutations likely to confer resistance, mutations in BRAF, a gene with targeted inhibitors presently available, result in subclones with the highest fitness advantage.
Tumor cell-intrinsic Tim-3 promotes liver cancer via NF-κB/IL-6/STAT3 axis Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-16 Hualin Zhang, Yang Song, Huimin Yang, Zhiyan Liu, Lifen Gao, Xiaohong Liang, Chunhong Ma
T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (Tim-3), mediating immune exhaustion in tumor microenvironment, has become a promising target for tumor therapy. However, the exact mechanisms for tumor cell-intrinsic Tim-3 in tumor development and its potential contribution in Tim-3-targeted therapy strategy have not been elucidated yet. In this study, we showed that human liver cancer tissues contained high ratio of Tim-3-expressing hepatocytes, and cytokines rich in tumor microenvironment and HBV involved in Tim-3 upregulation in malignant hepatocytes. We demonstrated that hepatocyte-specific Tim-3 overexpression enhances tumor cell growth, whereas Tim-3 inhibition on malignant hepatocytes by anti-Tim-3 antibodies or RNAi suppresses tumor growth both in vitro and in Tim-3 knockout mice. Mechanistically, the hepatocyte-Tim-3 receptor activates NF-κB phosphorylation, which in turn stimulates IL-6 secretion and STAT3 phosphorylation. Our results identify tumor cell-intrinsic functions of Tim-3 in tumorigenesis and suggest that blocking Tim-3 in tumor cells might contribute to the clinical efficacy of anti-Tim-3 antibody treatment in the future tumor therapy.
Snail regulates BMP and TGFβ pathways to control the differentiation status of glioma-initiating cells Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-16 Laia Caja, Kalliopi Tzavlaki, Mahsa S. Dadras, E-Jean Tan, Gad Hatem, Naga P. Maturi, Anita Morén, Lotta Wik, Yukihide Watanabe, Katia Savary, Masood Kamali-Moghaddan, Lene Uhrbom, Carl-Henrik Heldin, Aristidis Moustakas
Glioblastoma multiforme is a brain malignancy characterized by high heterogeneity, invasiveness, and resistance to current therapies, attributes related to the occurrence of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) promotes self-renewal and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) induces differentiation of GSCs. BMP7 induces the transcription factor Snail to promote astrocytic differentiation in GSCs and suppress tumor growth in vivo. We demonstrate that Snail represses stemness in GSCs. Snail interacts with SMAD signaling mediators, generates a positive feedback loop of BMP signaling and transcriptionally represses the TGFB1 gene, decreasing TGFβ1 signaling activity. Exogenous TGFβ1 counteracts Snail function in vitro, and in vivo promotes proliferation and re-expression of Nestin, confirming the importance of TGFB1 gene repression by Snail. In conclusion, novel insight highlights mechanisms whereby Snail differentially regulates the activity of the opposing BMP and TGFβ pathways, thus promoting an astrocytic fate switch and repressing stemness in GSCs.
The deubiquitinase USP9X promotes tumor cell survival and confers chemoresistance through YAP1 stabilization Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-16 Lei Li, Tongzheng Liu, Yunhui Li, Chenming Wu, Kuntian Luo, Yujiao Yin, Yuping Chen, Somaira Nowsheen, Jinhuan Wu, Zhenkun Lou, Jian Yuan
The Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), a major downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, functions as a transcriptional regulator and has an important role in cellular control of organ size and tumor growth. Elevated oncogenic activity of YAP1 has been clarified in different types of human cancers, which contributes to cancer cell survival and chemoresistance. However, the molecular mechanism of YAP1 overexpression in cancer is still not clear. Here we demonstrate that the deubiquitination enzyme USP9X deubiquitinates and stabilizes YAP1, thereby promoting cancer cell survival. Increased USP9X expression correlates with increased YAP1 protein in human breast cancer cell lines and patient samples. Moreover, depletion of USP9X increases YAP1 polyubiquitination, which in turn elevates YAP1 turnover and cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. Overall, our study establishes the USP9X-YAP1 axis as an important regulatory mechanism of breast cancer and provides a rationale for potential therapeutic interventions in the treatment of breast cancer.
Arresting of miR-186 and releasing of H19 by DDX43 facilitate tumorigenesis and CML progression Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-16 J. Lin, J.-C. Ma, J. Yang, J.-Y. Yin, X.-X. Chen, H. Guo, X.-M. Wen, T.-J. Zhang, W. Qian, J. Qian, Z.-Q. Deng
Cancer-testis (CT) antigens, rarely in normal tissues except testis, are expressed in many tumor types. In recent years, DDX43 has been shown to be expressed in several malignancies. However, the role of DDX43 during tumorigenesis is not well established. In the present study, we explored the function of DDX43 in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We found that DDX43 overexpression in CML cell lines enhanced survival and colony formation, inhibited cell apoptosis, promoted tumorigenesis, and CML progression. In contrast, silencing of DDX43 inhibited cell survival and tumorigenesis. Upregulated H19 and downregulated miR-186 were identified in DDX43-transfected cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-186 targeted DDX43, and overexpressed miR-186 increased apoptosis and decreased cell survival. We also showed that DDX43 regulated the expression of H19 through demethylation and silencing H19 inhibited cell survival. Taken together, these results indicate that DDX43 provides critical support to the progression of CML by enhancing cell survival, colony formation, and inhibiting cell apoptosis, thereby implicating DDX43 as a potential therapeutic target in CML.
Interaction between STAT3 and GLI1/tGLI1 oncogenic transcription factors promotes the aggressiveness of triple-negative breast cancers and HER2-enriched breast cancer Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-16 Sherona R. Sirkisoon, Richard L. Carpenter, Tadas Rimkus, Ashley Anderson, Alexandria Harrison, Allison M. Lange, Guangxu Jin, Kounosuke Watabe, Hui-Wen Lo
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), glioma oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1), and truncated GLI1 (tGLI1) are oncogenic transcription factors playing important roles in breast cancer. tGLI1 is a gain-of-function GLI1 isoform. Whether STAT3 physically and/or functionally interacts with GLI1/tGLI1 has not been explored. To address this knowledge gap, we analyzed 47 node-positive breast cancer specimens using immunohistochemical staining and found that phosphorylated-STAT3 (Y705), GLI1, and tGLI1 are co-overexpressed in the majority of triple-negative breast carcinomas (64%) and HER2-enriched (68%) breast carcinomas, and in lymph node metastases (65%). Using gene set enrichment analysis, we analyzed 710 breast tumors and found that STAT3 activation and GLI1/tGLI1 activation signatures are co-enriched in triple-negative subtypes of breast cancers and HER2-enriched subtypes of breast cancers, but not in luminal subtypes of breast cancers. Patients with high levels of STAT3 and GLI1/tGLI1 co-activation in their breast tumors had worse metastasis-free survival compared to those with low levels. Since these proteins co-overexpress in breast tumors, we examined whether they form complexes and observed that STAT3 interacted with both GLI1 and tGLI1. We further found that the STAT3-GLI1 and STAT3-tGLI1 complexes bind to both consensus GLI1-binding and STAT3-binding sites using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, and that the co-overexpression markedly activated a promoter controlled by GLI1-binding sites. To identify genes that can be directly co-activated by STAT3 and GLI1/tGLI1, we analyzed three ChIP-seq datasets and identified 34 potential target genes. Following validations using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and survival analysis, we identified three genes as novel transcriptional targets of STAT3 and GLI1/tGLI1, R-Ras2, Cep70, and UPF3A. Finally, we observed that co-overexpression of STAT3 with GLI1/tGLI1 promoted the ability of breast cancer cells to form mammospheres and that STAT3 only cooperates with tGLI1 in immortalized mammary epithelial cells. In summary, our study identified novel physical and functional cooperation between two families of oncogenic transcription factors, and the interaction contributes to aggressiveness of breast cancer cells and poor prognosis of triple-negative breast cancers and HER2-enriched breast cancers.
Metabolic features of cancer stem cells: the emerging role of lipid metabolism Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-15 Rita Mancini, Alessia Noto, Maria Elena Pisanu, Claudia De Vitis, Marcello Maugeri-Saccà, Gennaro Ciliberto
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are an uncommon subset of tumor cells capable of self-renewal, differentiating, and recreating the parental tumor when transplanted into the murine background. Over the past two decades, efforts toward understanding CSC biology culminated into identifying a set of signaling pathways sustaining “stemness”. Nevertheless, while metabolic rewiring is nowadays considered a hallmark of cancer, no consensus has been reached on the metabolic features underlying the plastic nature of CSCs, which are capable of residing in a dormant state, and able to rapidly proliferate when the need to repopulate the tumor mass arises. An emerging concept in the field of CSC metabolism is that these cells are extremely reliant on the activity of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, such as stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR). Indeed, SCD1 and HMG-CoAR have been described as key factors for the correct function of a number of concatenated pathways involved in CSC fate decision, such as Hippo and Wnt. In the present review, we describe metabolic futures of CSCs with a special focus on lipid metabolism, which until now represents an underappreciated force in maintaining CSCs and an attractive therapeutic target.
BRCA1 function in the intra-S checkpoint is activated by acetylation via a pCAF/SIRT1 axis Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-14 Tyler J. Lahusen, Seung-Jin Kim, Kai Miao, Zebin Huang, Xiaoling Xu, Chu-Xia Deng
Breast cancer associated gene 1 (BRCA1) function has been shown to be regulated by phosphorylation but the role of acetylation has not been determined. Therefore, we tested whether BRCA1 can be acetylated by the acetyltransferases P300/CBP-associated factor (pCAF), GCN5, and p300. p300 exhibited the highest level of BRCA1 acetylation; however, there was also a decrease in the total level of BRCA1. Therefore, we focused on pCAF and GCN5 because they both acetylated BRCA1 without affecting BRCA1 expression. Further analysis indicated that the acetylated form of BRCA1 is deacetylated by wild-type (WT) SIRT1, but not deacetylase mutant SIRT1, suggesting that SIRT1 is a specific deacetylase of BRCA1. We demonstrated that lysine 830 of BRCA1 is a preferential acetylation site by pCAF and tested its function in embryonic stem (ES) cells by changing lysine 830 to arginine using a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) system. After exposure to DNA damage-inducing UV radiation, the viability of BRCA1 K830R mutant cells is greater than the WT ES cells. Further analysis using additional cell lines indicated that the BRCA1 K830R mutation impairs the intra-S checkpoint. Also, checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) phosphorylation was less in K830R cells as compared with WT cells after UV exposure. These data suggest that acetylation of BRCA1 on lysine 830 activates BRCA1 function at the intra-S checkpoint after DNA damage.
Differential role of FL-BID and t-BID during verotoxin-1-induced apoptosis in Burkitt’s lymphoma cells Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-14 Justine Debernardi, Emilie Hollville, Marc Lipinski, Joëlle Wiels, Aude Robert
The globotriaosylceramide Gb3 is a glycosphingolipid expressed on a subpopulation of germinal center B lymphocytes which has been recognized as the B cell differentiation antigen CD77. Among tumoral cell types, Gb3/CD77 is strongly expressed in Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) cells as well as other solid tumors including breast, testicular and ovarian carcinomas. One known ligand of Gb3/CD77 is Verotoxin-1 (VT-1), a Shiga toxin produced in specific E. coli strains. Previously, we have reported that in BL cells, VT-1 induces apoptosis via a caspase-dependent and mitochondria-dependent pathway. Yet, the respective roles of various apoptogenic factors remained to be deciphered. Here, this apoptotic pathway was found to require cleavage of the BID protein by caspase-8 as well as activation of two other apoptogenic proteins, BAK and BAX. Surprisingly however, t-BID, the truncated form of BID resulting from caspase-8 cleavage, played no role in the conformational changes of BAK and BAX. Rather, their activation occurred under the control of full length BID (FL-BID). Indeed, introducing a non-cleavable form of BID (BID-D59A) into BID-deficient BL cells restored BAK and BAX activation following VT-1 treatment. Still, t-BID was involved along with FL-BID in the BAK-dependent and BAX-dependent cytosolic release of CYT C and SMAC/DIABLO from the mitochondrial intermembrane space: FL-BID was found to control the homo-oligomerization of both BAK and BAX, likely contributing to the initial release of CYT C and SMAC/DIABLO, while t-BID was needed for their hetero-oligomerization and ensuing release amplification. Together, our results reveal a functional cooperation between BAK and BAX during VT-1-induced apoptosis and, unexpectedly, that activation of caspase-8 and production of t-BID were not mandatory for initiation of the cell death process.
SRSF10-mediated IL1RAP alternative splicing regulates cervical cancer oncogenesis via mIL1RAP-NF-κB-CD47 axis Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 Fei Liu, Miao Dai, Qinyang Xu, Xiaolu Zhu, Yang Zhou, Shuheng Jiang, Yahui Wang, Zhihong Ai, Li Ma, Yanli Zhang, Lipeng Hu, Qin Yang, Jun Li, Shujie Zhao, Zhigang Zhang, Yincheng Teng
Abstract High-risk human papillomavirus oncoproteins E6 and E7 are the major etiological factors of cervical cancer but are insufficient for malignant transformation of cervical cancer. Dysregulated alternative splicing, mainly ascribed to aberrant splicing factor levels and activities, contributes to most cancer hallmarks. However, do E6 and E7 regulate the expression of splicing factors? Does alternative splicing acts as an “accomplice” of E6E7 to promote cervical cancer progression? Here, we identified that the splicing factor SRSF10, which promotes tumorigenesis of cervix, was upregulated by E6E7 via E2F1 transcriptional activation. SRSF10 modulates the alternate terminator of interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein exon 13 to increase production of the membrane form of interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein. SRSF10-mediated mIL1RAP upregulates the expression of the “don’t eat me” signal CD47 to inhibit macrophage phagocytosis by promoting nuclear factor-κB activation, which is pivotal in inflammatory, immune, and tumorigenesis processes. Altogether, these data reveal a close relationship among HPV infection, alternative splicing and tumor immune evasion, and also suggests that the SRSF10-mIL1RAP-CD47 axis could be an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of cervical cancer.
p53 isoforms regulate premature aging in human cells Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 Natalia von Muhlinen, Izumi Horikawa, Fatima Alam, Kazunobu Isogaya, Delphine Lissa, Borek Vojtesek, David P Lane, Curtis C. Harris
Cellular senescence is a hallmark of normal aging and aging-related syndromes, including the premature aging disorder Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), a rare genetic disorder caused by a single mutation in the LMNA gene that results in the constitutive expression of a truncated splicing mutant of lamin A known as progerin. Progerin accumulation leads to increased cellular stresses including unrepaired DNA damage, activation of the p53 signaling pathway and accelerated senescence. We previously established that the p53 isoforms ∆133p53 and p53β regulate senescence in normal human cells. However, their role in premature aging is unknown. Here we report that p53 isoforms are expressed in primary fibroblasts derived from HGPS patients, are associated with their accelerated senescence and that their manipulation can restore the replication capacity of HGPS fibroblasts. We found that in near-senescent HGPS fibroblasts, which exhibit low levels of ∆133p53 and high levels of p53β, restoration of Δ133p53 expression was sufficient to extend replicative lifespan and delay senescence, despite progerin levels and abnormal nuclear morphology remaining unchanged. Conversely, Δ133p53 depletion or p53β overexpression accelerated the onset of senescence in otherwise proliferative HGPS fibroblasts. Our data indicate that Δ133p53 exerts its role by modulating full-length p53 (FLp53) signaling to extend the replicative lifespan and promotes the repair of spontaneous progerin-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We showed that Δ133p53 dominant-negative inhibition of FLp53 occurs directly at the p21/CDKN1A and miR-34a promoters, two p53 senescence-associated genes. In addition, Δ133p53 expression increased the expression of DNA repair RAD51, likely through upregulation of E2F1, a transcription factor that activates RAD51, to promote repair of DSBs. In summary, our data indicate that Δ133p53 modulates p53 signaling to repress progerin-induced early onset of senescence in HGPS cells. Therefore, restoration of ∆133p53 expression may be a novel therapeutic strategy to treat aging-associated phenotypes of HGPS in vivo.
The deubiquitylase USP15 regulates topoisomerase II alpha to maintain genome integrity Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 Andrew B. Fielding, Matthew Concannon, Sarah Darling, Emma V. Rusilowicz-Jones, Joseph J. Sacco, Ian A. Prior, Michael J. Clague, Sylvie Urbé, Judy M. Coulson
Ubiquitin-specific protease 15 (USP15) is a widely expressed deubiquitylase that has been implicated in diverse cellular processes in cancer. Here we identify topoisomerase II (TOP2A) as a novel protein that is regulated by USP15. TOP2A accumulates during G2 and functions to decatenate intertwined sister chromatids at prophase, ensuring the replicated genome can be accurately divided into daughter cells at anaphase. We show that USP15 is required for TOP2A accumulation, and that USP15 depletion leads to the formation of anaphase chromosome bridges. These bridges fail to decatenate, and at mitotic exit form micronuclei that are indicative of genome instability. We also describe the cell cycle-dependent behaviour for two major isoforms of USP15, which differ by a short serine-rich insertion that is retained in isoform-1 but not in isoform-2. Although USP15 is predominantly cytoplasmic in interphase, we show that both isoforms move into the nucleus at prophase, but that isoform-1 is phosphorylated on its unique S229 residue at mitotic entry. The micronuclei phenotype we observe on USP15 depletion can be rescued by either USP15 isoform and requires USP15 catalytic activity. Importantly, however, an S229D phospho-mimetic mutant of USP15 isoform-1 cannot rescue either the micronuclei phenotype, or accumulation of TOP2A. Thus, S229 phosphorylation selectively abrogates this role of USP15 in maintaining genome integrity in an isoform-specific manner. Finally, we show that USP15 isoform-1 is preferentially upregulated in a panel of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, and propose that isoform imbalance may contribute to genome instability in cancer. Our data provide the first example of isoform-specific deubiquitylase phospho-regulation and reveal a novel role for USP15 in guarding genome integrity.
Nucleolus as an emerging hub in maintenance of genome stability and cancer pathogenesis Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 Mikael S. Lindström, Deana Jurada, Sladana Bursac, Ines Orsolic, Jiri Bartek, Sinisa Volarevic
The nucleolus is the major site for synthesis of ribosomes, complex molecular machines that are responsible for protein synthesis. A wealth of research over the past 20 years has clearly indicated that both quantitative and qualitative alterations in ribosome biogenesis can drive the malignant phenotype via dysregulation of protein synthesis. However, numerous recent proteomic, genomic, and functional studies have implicated the nucleolus in the regulation of processes that are unrelated to ribosome biogenesis, including DNA-damage response, maintenance of genome stability and its spatial organization, epigenetic regulation, cell-cycle control, stress responses, senescence, global gene expression, as well as assembly or maturation of various ribonucleoprotein particles. In this review, the focus will be on features of rDNA genes, which make them highly vulnerable to DNA damage and intra- and interchromosomal recombination as well as built-in mechanisms that prevent and repair rDNA damage, and how dysregulation of this interplay affects genome-wide DNA stability, gene expression and the balance between euchromatin and heterochromatin. We will also present the most recent insights into how malfunction of these cellular processes may be a central driving force of human malignancies, and propose a promising new therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer.
Non-canonical activation of hedgehog in prostate cancer cells mediated by the interaction of transcriptionally active androgen receptor proteins with Gli3 Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 Na Li, Sarah Truong, Mannan Nouri, Jackson Moore, Nader Al Nakouzi, Amy Anne Lubik, Ralph Buttyan
Hedgehog (Hh) is an oncogenic signaling pathway that regulates the activity of Gli transcription factors. Canonical Hh is a Smoothened- (Smo-) driven process that alters the post-translational processing of Gli2/Gli3 proteins. Though evidence supports a role for Gli action in prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth and progression, there is little indication that Smo is involved. Here we describe a non-canonical means for activation of Gli transcription in PCa cells mediated by the binding of transcriptionally-active androgen receptors (ARs) to Gli3. Androgens stimulated reporter expression from a Gli-dependent promoter in a variety of AR + PCa cells and this activity was suppressed by an anti-androgen, Enz, or by AR knockdown. Androgens also upregulated expression of endogenous Gli-dependent genes. This activity was associated with increased intranuclear binding of Gli3 to AR that was antagonized by Enz. Fine mapping of the AR binding domain on Gli2 showed that AR recognizes the Gli protein processing domain (PPD) in the C-terminus. Mutations in the arginine-/serine repeat elements of the Gli2 PPD involved in phosphorylation and ubiquitinylation blocked the binding to AR. β-TrCP, a ubiquitin ligase that recognizes the Gli PPD, competed with AR for binding to this site. AR binding to Gli3 suppressed its proteolytic processing to the Gli3 repressor form (Gli3R) whereas AR knockdown increased Gli3R. Both full-length and truncated ARs were able to activate Gli transcription. Finally, we found that an ARbinding decoy polypeptide derived from the Gli2 C-terminus can compete with Gli3 for binding to AR. Exogenous overexpression of this decoy suppressed Gli transcriptional activity in PCa cells. Collectively, this work identifies a novel pathway for non-canonical activation of Hh signaling in PCa cells and identifies a means for interference that may have clinical relevance for PCa patients.
Decitibine improve the efficiency of anti-PD-1 therapy via activating the response to IFN/PD-L1 signal of lung cancer cells Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-09 Qi Lai, Haiyong Wang, Angui Li, Yinhui Xu, Liang Tang, Qiang Chen, Chunfang Zhang, Yang Gao, Jianfei Song, Zhenzong Du
IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 expression represents the existence of tumor-specific T cells, which predicts high-response rate to anti-PD-1/L1 therapy, but loss-of-function of IFN signals (e.g., JAK mutation) induces adaptive immune resistance in patients with low-response rate. Interferon regulatory factors (IRF) are frequently epigenetic silenced in carcinogenesis, while the role of methylation in anti-PD-1/L1 therapy remains unclear. We here investigated the methylation status of IFN-γ related genes IRF1/8 and IFN-α/β-related genes IRF3/7 in lung cancer tissues and found that only highly methylated IRF1 and 7 negatively correlated to cd274 (coding PD-L1) expression, similar to JAK mutation. Interestingly, decitibine (DAC) as methylation inhibitor could hypomethylate IRF1/7 to restore PD-L1 level. Meanwhile, IRF7 enhanced constitutive PD-L1 expression, which was independent of IFN-γ though directly promote transcription of PD-L1, leading to abrogating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generation which could be restored by anti-PD-L1 antibody, or siRNA-IRF7. The supplement of DAC to anti-PD-1 therapy in vivo improve the efficiency of anti-tumor with less methylated IRF1/7, more interferon-related genes expression (e.g., CXCL9) and IFN-γ/CD8+ T-cells infiltrations, suggesting that additional treatment of DAC could rescue the ability to response to IFN in lung cancer patients with anti-PD-1/L1 therapy resistance.
Ibrutinib inhibition of ERBB4 reduces cell growth in a WNT5A-dependent manner Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-05 Femina Rauf, Fernanda Festa, Jin G. Park, Mitchell Magee, Seron Eaton, Capria Rinaldi, Carlos Morales Betanzos, Laura Gonzalez-Malerva, Joshua LaBaer
Alterations in ERBB family members have been associated with many tumor malignancies. EGFR and ERBB2 have been extensively explored in clinical oncology and several drugs currently target them therapeutically. However, the significance of ERBB4 as a potential therapeutic target remains mostly unexplored, even though ERBB4 is overexpressed or mutated in many solid tumors. Using a unique functional protein microarray platform, we found that ibrutinib inhibits ERBB4 activity in the same nM range as its canonical target, BTK. Cell-based assays revealed that ibrutinib treatment inhibited cell growth and decreased phosphorylation of ERBB4 and downstream targets MEK and ERK in cancer cell lines with high levels of endogenous ERBB4. In vivo, ibrutinib-responsive mouse xenograft tumors showed decreased tumor volumes with ibrutinib treatment. Interestingly, global gene expression comparisons between responsive and non-responsive cells identified a signature featuring the WNT pathway that predicts growth responsiveness to ibrutinib. Non-responsive ERBB4-expressing cell lines featured elevated activity of the WNT pathway, through the overexpression of WNT5A. Moreover, inhibition of WNT5A expression led to an ibrutinib response in non-responsive cell lines. Our data show that inhibiting ERBB4 reduces cell growth in cells that have low WNT5A expression and reveal a link between the ERBB4 and WNT pathways.
Adipocyte-induced CD36 expression drives ovarian cancer progression and metastasis Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-05 Andras Ladanyi, Abir Mukherjee, Hilary A. Kenny, Alyssa Johnson, Anirban K. Mitra, Sinju Sundaresan, Kristin M. Nieman, Gloria Pascual, Salvador Aznar Benitah, Anthony Montag, S. Diane Yamada, Nada A. Abumrad, Ernst Lengyel
Ovarian cancer (OvCa) is characterized by widespread and rapid metastasis in the peritoneal cavity. Visceral adipocytes promote this process by providing fatty acids (FAs) for tumour growth. However, the exact mechanism of FA transfer from adipocytes to cancer cells remains unknown. This study shows that OvCa cells co-cultured with primary human omental adipocytes express high levels of the FA receptor, CD36, in the plasma membrane, thereby facilitating exogenous FA uptake. Depriving OvCa cells of adipocyte-derived FAs using CD36 inhibitors and short hairpin RNA knockdown prevented development of the adipocyte-induced malignant phenotype. Specifically, inhibition of CD36 attenuated adipocyte-induced cholesterol and lipid droplet accumulation and reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content. Metabolic analysis suggested that CD36 plays an essential role in the bioenergetic adaptation of OvCa cells in the adipocyte-rich microenvironment and governs their metabolic plasticity. Furthermore, the absence of CD36 affected cellular processes that play a causal role in peritoneal dissemination, including adhesion, invasion, migration and anchorage independent growth. Intraperitoneal injection of CD36-deficient cells or treatment with an anti-CD36 monoclonal antibody reduced tumour burden in mouse xenografts. Moreover, a matched cohort of primary and metastatic human ovarian tumours showed upregulation of CD36 in the metastatic tissues, a finding confirmed in three public gene expression data sets. These results suggest that omental adipocytes reprogram tumour metabolism through the upregulation of CD36 in OvCa cells. Targeting the stromal-tumour metabolic interface via CD36 inhibition may prove to be an effective treatment strategy against OvCa metastasis.
Decreased TGFBR3/betaglycan expression enhances the metastatic abilities of renal cell carcinoma cells through TGF-β-dependent and -independent mechanisms Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-02 Jun Nishida, Kohei Miyazono, Shogo Ehata
TGF-β regulates both the tumor-forming and migratory abilities of various types of cancer cells. However, it is unclear how the loss of TGF-β signaling components affects these abilities in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). In this study, we investigated the role of TGFBR3 (TGF-β type III receptor, also known as betaglycan) in ccRCC. Database analysis revealed decreased expression of TGFBR3 in ccRCC tissues, which correlated with poor prognosis in patients. Orthotopic inoculation experiments using immunocompromised mice indicated that low TGFBR3 expression in ccRCC cells enhanced primary tumor formation and lung metastasis. In the presence of TGFBR3, TGF-β2 decreased the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive ccRCC cell population, in which renal cancer-initiating cells are enriched. Loss of TGFBR3 also enhanced cell migration in cell culture and induced expression of several mesenchymal markers in a TGF-β-independent manner. Increased lamellipodium formation by FAK-PI3K signaling was observed with TGFBR3 downregulation, and this contributed to TGF-β-independent cell migration in ccRCC cells. Taken together, our findings reveal that loss of TGFBR3 endows ccRCC cells with multiple metastatic abilities through TGF-β-dependent and independent pathways.
Novel identification of STAT1 as a crucial mediator of ETV6-NTRK3-induced tumorigenesis Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-02 Jinah Park, Junil Kim, Bora Park, Kyung-Min Yang, Eun Jin Sun, Cristina E. Tognon, Poul H. Sorensen, Seong-Jin Kim
Chromosomal rearrangements that facilitate tumor formation and progression through activation of oncogenic tyrosine kinases are frequently observed in cancer. The ETV6-NTRK3 (EN) fusion has been implicated in various cancers, including infantile fibrosarcoma, secretory breast carcinoma, and acute myeloblastic leukemia, and has exhibited in vivo and in vitro transforming ability. In the present study, we analyzed transcriptome alterations using DNA microarray and RNA-Seq in EN-transduced NIH3T3 fibroblasts to identify the mechanisms that are involved in EN-mediated tumorigenesis. Through functional profile assessment of EN-regulated transcriptome alterations, we found that upregulated genes by EN were mainly associated with cell motion, membrane invagination, and cell proliferation, while downregulated genes were involved in cell adhesion, which correlated with the transforming potential and increased proliferation in EN-transduced cells. KEGG pathway analysis identified the JAK-STAT signaling pathway with the highest statistical significance. Moreover, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and gene regulatory network analysis identified the STAT1 transcription factor and its target genes as top EN-regulated molecules. We further demonstrated that EN enhanced STAT1 phosphorylation but attenuated STAT1 acetylation, eventually inhibiting the interaction between the NF-κB p65 subunit and acetylated STAT1. Consequently, nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and subsequent NF-κB activity were increased by EN. Notably, inhibition of STAT1 phosphorylation attenuated tumorigenic ability of EN in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, here we report, for the first time, STAT1 as a significant EN-regulated transcription factor and a crucial mediator of EN-induced tumorigenesis.
Targeting PLK1 overcomes T-DM1 resistance via CDK1-dependent phosphorylation and inactivation of Bcl-2/xL in HER2-positive breast cancer Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-02 Özge Saatci, Simone Borgoni, Özge Akbulut, Selvi Durmuş, Umar Raza, Erol Eyüpoğlu, Can Alkan, Aytekin Akyol, Özgür Kütük, Stefan Wiemann, Özgür Şahin
Trastuzumab-refractory, HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)-positive breast cancer is commonly treated with trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), an antibody–drug conjugate of trastuzumab and the microtubule-targeting agent, DM1. However, drug response reduces greatly over time due to acquisition of resistance whose molecular mechanisms are mostly unknown. Here, we uncovered a novel mechanism of resistance against T-DM1 by combining whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq), proteomics and a targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) sensitization screen for molecular level analysis of acquired and de novo T-DM1-resistant models of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. We identified Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), a mitotic kinase, as a resistance mediator whose genomic as well as pharmacological inhibition restored drug sensitivity. Both acquired and de novo resistant models exhibited synergistic growth inhibition upon combination of T-DM1 with a selective PLK1 inhibitor, volasertib, at a wide concentration range of the two drugs. Mechanistically, T-DM1 sensitization upon PLK1 inhibition with volasertib was initiated by a spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC)-dependent mitotic arrest, leading to caspase activation, followed by DNA damage through CDK1-dependent phosphorylation and inactivation of Bcl-2/xL. Furthermore, we showed that Ser70 phosphorylation of Bcl-2 directly regulates apoptosis by disrupting the binding to and sequestration of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim. Importantly, T-DM1 resistance signature or PLK1 expression correlated with cell cycle progression and DNA repair, and predicted a lower sensitivity to taxane/trastuzumab combination in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Finally, volasertib in combination with T-DM1 greatly synergized in models of T-DM1 resistance in terms of growth inhibition both in three dimensional (3D) cell culture and in vivo. Altogether, our results provide promising pre-clinical evidence for potential testing of T-DM1/volasertib combination in T-DM1 refractory HER2-positive breast cancer patients for whom there is currently no treatment available.
The oncogenic tyrosine kinase Lyn impairs the pro-apoptotic function of Bim Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-02 Lazaro E. Aira, Elodie Villa, Pascal Colosetti, Parvati Gamas, Laurie Signetti, Sandrine Obba, Emma Proics, Fabien Gautier, Béatrice Bailly-Maitre, Arnaud Jacquel, Guillaume Robert, Frédéric Luciano, Philippe P. Juin, Jean-Ehrland Ricci, Patrick Auberger, Sandrine Marchetti
Phosphorylation of Ser/Thr residues is a well-established modulating mechanism of the pro-apoptotic function of the BH3-only protein Bim. However, nothing is known about the putative tyrosine phosphorylation of this Bcl-2 family member and its potential impact on Bim function and subsequent Bax/Bak-mediated cytochrome c release and apoptosis. As we have previously shown that the tyrosine kinase Lyn could behave as an anti-apoptotic molecule, we investigated whether this Src family member could directly regulate the pro-apoptotic function of Bim. In the present study, we show that Bim is phosphorylated onto tyrosine residues 92 and 161 by Lyn, which results in an inhibition of its pro-apoptotic function. Mechanistically, we show that Lyn-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of Bim increases its interaction with anti-apoptotic members such as Bcl-xL, therefore limiting mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and subsequent apoptosis. Collectively, our data uncover one molecular mechanism through which the oncogenic tyrosine kinase Lyn negatively regulates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which may contribute to the transformation and/or the chemotherapeutic resistance of cancer cells.
PHLPP1 mediates melanoma metastasis suppression through repressing AKT2 activation Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-02-02 Yanlin Yu, Meng Dai, Andrew Lu, Ellen Yu, Glenn Merlino
PI3K/AKT pathway activation is thought to be a driving force in metastatic melanomas. Members of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain leucine-rich repeat protein Ser/Thr specific phosphatase family (PHLPP1 and PHLPP2) can regulate AKT activation. By dephosphorylating specific serine residues in the hydrophobic motif, PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 restrain AKT signalings, thereby regulating cell proliferation and survival. We here show that PHLPP1 expression was significantly downregulated or lost and correlated with metastatic potential in melanoma. Forcing expression of either PHLPP1 or PHLPP2 in melanoma cells inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation in soft agar; but PHLPP1 had the most profound inhibitory effect on metastasis. Moreover, expression of PH mutant forms of PHLPP1 continued to inhibit metastasis, whereas a phosphatase-dead C-terminal mutant did not. The introduction of activated PHLPP1-specific targets AKT2 or AKT3 also promoted melanoma metastasis, while the non-PHLPP1 target AKT1 did not. AKT2 and AKT3 could even rescue the PHLPP1-mediated inhibition of metastasis. An AKT inhibitor blocked the activity of AKT2 and inhibited AKT2-mediated tumor growth and metastasis in a preclinical mouse model. Our data demonstrate that PHLPP1 functions as a metastasis suppressor through its phosphatase activity, and suggest that PHLPP1 represents a novel diagnostic and therapeutic marker for metastatic melanoma.
Clofarabine inhibits Ewing sarcoma growth through a novel molecular mechanism involving direct binding to CD99 Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Haydar Çelik, Marika Sciandra, Bess Flashner, Elif Gelmez, Neslihan Kayraklıoğlu, David V. Allegakoen, Jeff R. Petro, Erin J. Conn, Sarah Hour, Jenny Han, Lalehan Oktay, Purushottam B. Tiwari, Mutlu Hayran, Brent T. Harris, Maria Cristina Manara, Jeffrey A. Toretsky, Katia Scotlandi, Aykut Üren
Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive bone and soft tissue malignancy that predominantly affects children and adolescents. CD99 is a cell surface protein that is highly expressed on ES cells and is required to maintain their malignancy. We screened small molecule libraries for binding to extracellular domain of recombinant CD99 and subsequent inhibition of ES cell growth. We identified two structurally similar FDA-approved compounds, clofarabine and cladribine that selectively inhibited the growth of ES cells in a panel of 14 ES vs. 28 non-ES cell lines. Both drugs inhibited CD99 dimerization and its interaction with downstream signaling components. A membrane-impermeable analog of clofarabine showed similar cytotoxicity in culture, suggesting that it can function through inhibiting CD99 independent of DNA metabolism. Both drugs drastically inhibited anchorage-independent growth of ES cells, but clofarabine was more effective in inhibiting growth of three different ES xenografts. Our findings provide a novel molecular mechanism for clofarabine that involves direct binding to a cell surface receptor CD99 and inhibiting its biological activities.
Aggressive serous epithelial ovarian cancer is potentially propagated by EpCAM+CD45+ phenotype Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-30 Md Zahid Akhter, Surender K Sharawat, Vikash Kumar, Veena Kochat, Zaffar Equbal, Mallika Ramakrishnan, Umesh Kumar, Sandeep Mathur, Lalit Kumar, Asok Mukhopadhyay
Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) patients often acquire resistance against common chemotherapeutic drugs like paclitaxel and cisplatin. The mechanism responsible for the same is ambiguous. We have identified a putative drug-resistant tumour cell phenotype (EpCAM+CD45+) in the ascitic fluid of EOC patients, which appears to originate from the primary tumour. These cells represent the major tumour burden and are more drug resistant compared to EpCAM+ tumour cells due to the over-expression of SIRT1, ABCA1 and BCL2 genes. We have found that the entire EpCAM+CD45+ population is highly invasive with signature mesenchymal gene expression and also consists of subpopulations of ovarian cancer stem cells (CD133+ and CD117+CD44+). Additionally, we demonstrate that the EpCAM+CD45+ tumour cells over-express major histocompatibility complex class I antigen, which enable them to evade the natural killer cell-mediated immune surveillance. Preliminary evidence obtained in OVCAR-5 cells suggests that exosomes, secreted by non-tumour cells of the ascitic fluid, play an important role in rendering drug resistance and invasive properties to the cancer cells. Identification of such aggressive tumour cells and deciphering their origin is important for designing better drug targets for EOC.
PAX8 activates a p53-p21-dependent pro-proliferative effect in high grade serous ovarian carcinoma Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-30 Dima Ghannam-Shahbari, Eyal Jacob, Reli Rachel Kakun, Tanya Wasserman, Lina Korsensky, Ofir Sternfeld, Juliana Kagan, Debora Rosa Bublik, Sarit Aviel-Ronen, Keren Levanon, Edmond Sabo, Sarit Larisch, Moshe Oren, Dov Hershkovitz, Ruth Perets
High grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common subtype of ovarian cancer and it is now widely accepted that this disease often originates from the fallopian tube epithelium. PAX8 is a fallopian tube lineage marker with an essential role in embryonal female genital tract development. In the adult fallopian tube, PAX8 is expressed in the fallopian tube secretory epithelial cell (FTSEC) and its expression is maintained through the process of FTSEC transformation to HGSC. We now report that PAX8 has a pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic role in HGSC. The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is mutated in close to 100% of HGSC; in the majority of cases, these are missense mutations that endow the mutant p53 protein with potential gain of function (GOF) oncogenic activities. We show that PAX8 positively regulates the expression of TP53 in HGSC and the pro-proliferative role of PAX8 is mediated by the GOF activity of mutant p53. Surprisingly, mutant p53 transcriptionally activates the expression of p21, which localizes to the cytoplasm of HGSC cells where it plays a non-canonical, pro-proliferative role. Together, our findings illustrate how TP53 mutations in HGSC subvert a normal regulatory pathway into a driver of tumor progression.
c-Src activity is differentially required by cancer cell motility modes Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-30 Jeremy S. Logue, Alexander X. Cartagena-Rivera, Richard S. Chadwick
Cancer cell migration requires that cells respond and adapt to their surroundings. In the absence of extracellular matrix cues, cancer cells will undergo a mesenchymal to ameboid transition, whereas a highly confining space will trigger a switch to “leader bleb-based” migration. To identify oncogenic signaling pathways mediating these transitions, we undertook a targeted screen using clinically useful inhibitors. Elevated Src activity was found to change actin and focal adhesion dynamics, whereas inhibiting Src triggered focal adhesion disassembly and blebbing. On non-adherent substrates and in collagen matrices, amoeboid-like, blebbing cells having high Src activity formed protrusions of the plasma membrane. To evaluate the role of Src in confined cells, we use a novel approach that places cells under a slab of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which is held at a defined height. Using this method, we find that leader bleb-based migration is resistant to Src inhibition. High Src activity was found to markedly change the architecture of cortical actomyosin, reduce cell mechanical properties, and the percentage of cells that undergo leader bleb-based migration. Thus, Src is a signal transducer that can potently influence transitions between migration modes with implications for the rational development of metastasis inhibitors.
MUC1-C activates polycomb repressive complexes and downregulates tumor suppressor genes in human cancer cells Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-30 Hasan Rajabi, Masayuki Hiraki, Donald Kufe
The PRC2 and PRC1 complexes are aberrantly expressed in human cancers and have been linked to decreases in patient survival. MUC1-C is an oncoprotein that is also overexpressed in diverse human cancers and is associated with a poor prognosis. Recent studies have supported a previously unreported function for MUC1-C in activating PRC2 and PRC1 in cancer cells. In the regulation of PRC2, MUC1-C (i) drives transcription of the EZH2 gene, (ii) binds directly to EZH2, and (iii) enhances occupancy of EZH2 on target gene promoters with an increase in H3K27 trimethylation. Regarding PRC1, which is recruited to PRC2 sites in the hierarchical model, MUC1-C induces BMI1 transcription, forms a complex with BMI1, and promotes H2A ubiquitylation. MUC1-C thereby contributes to the integration of PRC2 and PRC1-mediated repression of tumor suppressor genes, such as CDH1, CDKN2A, PTEN and BRCA1. Like PRC2 and PRC1, MUC1-C is associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program, cancer stem cell (CSC) state, and acquisition of anticancer drug resistance. In concert with these observations, targeting MUC1-C downregulates EZH2 and BMI1, inhibits EMT and the CSC state, and reverses drug resistance. These findings emphasize the significance of MUC1-C as a therapeutic target for inhibiting aberrant PRC function and reprogramming the epigenome in human cancers.
TRIM25 enhances cell growth and cell survival by modulating p53 signals via interaction with G3BP2 in prostate cancer Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-30 Ken-ichi Takayama, Takashi Suzuki, Tomoaki Tanaka, Tetsuya Fujimura, Satoru Takahashi, Tomohiko Urano, Kazuhiro Ikeda, Satoshi Inoue
Prostate cancer growth is promoted by the gene regulatory action of androgen receptor (AR) and its downstream signals. The aberrant dysfunction of tumor suppressor p53 has an important role in the prognosis of cancer. We previously found that androgen treatments translocate p53 to the cytoplasm. The mechanism of this translocation depends on sumoylation of p53 by complex of SUMO E3 ligase RanBP2 with androgen-induced GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 2 (G3BP2). Here, we identified tripartite motif-containing protein 25 (TRIM25)/estrogen-responsive finger protein (Efp) as a novel interacting partner of G3BP2 protein complex. Then, we demonstrated that TRIM25 knockdown resulted in p53 downstream activation for cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis induction in LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells. In contrast, overexpression of TRIM25 promoted prostate cancer cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis by docetaxel treatment in LNCaP cells. We observed that p53 activity was reduced by mechanism of G3BP2-mediated nuclear export in TRIM25-overexpressing prostate cancer cells. We also found TRIM25 is important for G3BP2/RanBP2-mediated p53 modification. Clinically, we newly demonstrated that TRIM25 is a prognostic factor for prostate cancer patients. Expression of TRIM25 is significantly associated with cytoplasmic p53 expression and G3BP2. Moreover, TRIM25 knockdown results in reduced tumor growth and increased p53 activity in the mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer. Thus, our findings show that overexpression of TRIM25 promoted prostate cancer cell proliferation and cell survival by modulating p53 nuclear export mechanism with G3BP2 interaction.
A functional interplay between Δ133p53 and ΔNp63 in promoting glycolytic metabolism to fuel cancer cell proliferation Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-26 Lu Gong, Xiao Pan, Chuan-Bian Lim, Anna de Polo, John B. Little, Zhi-Min Yuan
Although ΔNp63 is known to promote cancer cell proliferation, the underlying mechanism behind its oncogenic function remains elusive. We report here a functional interplay between ΔNp63 and Δ133p53. These two proteins are co-overexpressed in a subset of human cancers and cooperate to promote cell proliferation. Mechanistically, Δ133p53 binds to ΔNp63 and utilizes its transactivation domain to upregulate GLUT1, GLUT4, and PGM expression driving glycolysis. While increased glycolysis provides cancer cells with anabolic metabolism critical for proliferation and survival, it can be harnessed for selective cancer cell killing. Indeed, we show that tumors overexpressing both ΔNp63 and Δ133p53 exhibit heightened sensitivity to vitamin C that accumulate to a lethal level due to accelerated uptake via overexpressed GLUT1. These observations offer a new therapeutic avenue that could be exploited for clinical applications.
CHTM1, a novel metabolic marker deregulated in human malignancies Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-26 Mansi Babbar, Ying Huang, Jie An, Steve K. Landas, M. Saeed Sheikh
A better understanding of the link between cellular metabolism and tumorigenesis is needed. Here, we report characterization of a novel protein named coiled-coil helix tumor and metabolism 1 (CHTM1). We have found that CHTM1 is associated with cancer and cellular metabolism. CHTM1 localizes to mitochondria and cytosol, and its deficiency in cancer cells results in decreased mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP levels as well as oxidative stress indicating mitochondrial dysfunction. CHTM1-deficient cancer cells display poor growth under glucose/glutamine-deprived conditions, whereas cells expressing increased levels of exogenous CHTM1 exhibit enhanced proliferation and survival under similar conditions. CHTM1 deficiency also leads to defects in lipid metabolism resulting in fatty acid accumulation, which explains poor growth of CHTM1-deficient cells under glucose/glutamine deprivation since nutrient deprivation increases dependency on lipids for energy generation. We also demonstrate that CHTM1 mediates its effect via the PKC, CREB, and PGC-1alpha signaling axis, and cytosolic accumulation of CHTM1 during nutrient deprivation appears to be important for its effect on cellular signaling events. Furthermore, analyses of tissue specimens from 71 breast and 97 colon cancer patients show CHTM1 expression to be upregulated in the majority of tumor specimens representing these malignancies. Collectively, our findings are highly significant because CHTM1 is a novel metabolic marker that is important for the growth of tumorigenic cells under limiting nutrient supplies and thus, links cellular metabolism and tumorigenesis.
Network analysis of SRC-1 reveals a novel transcription factor hub which regulates endocrine resistant breast cancer Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-25 Alacoque L. Browne, Sara Charmsaz, Damir Varešlija, Ailis Fagan, Nicola Cosgrove, Sinéad Cocchiglia, Siobhan Purcell, Elspeth Ward, Fiona Bane, Lance Hudson, Arnold D. Hill, Jason S. Carroll, Aisling M. Redmond, Leonie S. Young
Steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) interacts with nuclear receptors and other transcription factors (TFs) to initiate transcriptional networks and regulate downstream genes which enable the cancer cell to evade therapy and metastasise. Here we took a top–down discovery approach to map out the SRC-1 transcriptional network in endocrine resistant breast cancer. First, rapid immunoprecipitation mass spectrometry of endogenous proteins (RIME) was employed to uncover new SRC-1 TF partners. Next, RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was undertaken to investigate SRC-1 TF target genes. Molecular and patient-derived xenograft studies confirmed STAT1 as a new SRC-1 TF partner, important in the regulation of a cadre of four SRC-1 transcription targets, NFIA, SMAD2, E2F7 and ASCL1. Extended network analysis identified a downstream 79 gene network, the clinical relevance of which was investigated in RNAseq studies from matched primary and local-recurrence tumours from endocrine resistant patients. We propose that SRC-1 can partner with STAT1 independently of the estrogen receptor to initiate a transcriptional cascade and control regulation of key endocrine resistant genes.
A Carcinogen-induced mouse model recapitulates the molecular alterations of human muscle invasive bladder cancer Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-25 Damiano Fantini, Alexander P. Glaser, Kalen J. Rimar, Yiduo Wang, Matthew Schipma, Nobish Varghese, Alfred Rademaker, Amir Behdad, Aparna Yellapa, Yanni Yu, Christie Ching-Lin Sze, Lu Wang, Zibo Zhao, Susan E. Crawford, Deqing Hu, Jonathan D. Licht, Clayton K. Collings, Elizabeth Bartom, Dan Theodorescu, Ali Shilatifard, Joshua J. Meeks
The N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN) mouse model is an attractive model system of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) as it recapitulates the histology of human tumors in a background with intact immune system. However, it was unknown whether this carcinogen-induced model also mimicked human MIBC at the molecular and mutational level. In our study, we analyzed gene expression and mutational landscape of the BBN model by next-generation sequencing followed by a bioinformatic comparison to human MIBC using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and other repositories. BBN tumors showed overexpression of markers of basal cancer subtype, and had a high mutation burden with frequent Trp53 (80%), Kmt2d (70%), and Kmt2c (90%) mutations by exome sequencing, similar to human MIBC. Many variants corresponded to human cancer hotspot mutations, supporting their role as driver mutations. We extracted two novel mutational signatures from the BBN mouse genomes. The integrated analysis of mutation frequencies and signatures highlighted the contribution of aberrations to chromatin regulators and genetic instability in the BBN tumors. Together, our study revealed several similarities between human MIBC and the BBN mouse model, providing a strong rationale for its use in molecular and drug discovery studies.
PAX3-FOXO1 drives miR-486-5p and represses miR-221 contributing to pathogenesis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-25 Jason A. Hanna, Matthew R. Garcia, Alicia Lardennois, Patrick J. Leavey, Dino Maglic, Alexandre Fagnan, Jonathan C. Go, Jordan Roach, Yong-Dong Wang, David Finkelstein, Mark E. Hatley
Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in childhood and histologically resembles developing skeletal muscle. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is an aggressive subtype with a higher rate of metastasis and poorer prognosis. The majority of ARMS tumors (80%) harbor a PAX3-FOXO1 or less commonly a PAX7-FOXO1 fusion gene. The presence of either the PAX3-FOXO1 or PAX7-FOXO1 fusion gene foretells a poorer prognosis resulting in clinical re-classification as either fusion-positive (FP-RMS) or fusion-negative RMS (FN-RMS). The PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion genes result in the production of a rogue transcription factors that drive FP-RMS pathogenesis and block myogenic differentiation. Despite knowing the molecular driver of FP-RMS, targeted therapies have yet to make an impact for patients, highlighting the need for a greater understanding of the molecular consequences of PAX3-FOXO1 and its target genes including microRNAs. Here we show FP-RMS patient-derived xenografts and cell lines display a distinct microRNA expression pattern. We utilized both loss- and gain-of function approaches in human cell lines with knockdown of PAX3-FOXO1 in FP-RMS cell lines and expression of PAX3-FOXO1 in human myoblasts and identified microRNAs both positively and negatively regulated by the PAX3-FOXO1 fusion protein. We demonstrate PAX3-FOXO1 represses miR-221/222 that functions as a tumor suppressing microRNA through the negative regulation of CCND2, CDK6, and ERBB3. In contrast, miR-486-5p is transcriptionally activated by PAX3-FOXO1 and promotes FP-RMS proliferation, invasion, and clonogenic growth. Inhibition of miR-486-5p in FP-RMS xenografts decreased tumor growth, illustrating a proof of principle for future therapeutic intervention. Therefore, PAX3-FOXO1 regulates key microRNAs that may represent novel therapeutic vulnerabilities in FP-RMS.
Suppression of STING signaling through epigenetic silencing and missense mutation impedes DNA damage mediated cytokine production Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-25 Hiroyasu Konno, Shota Yamauchi, Anders Berglund, Ryan M. Putney, James J. Mulé, Glen N. Barber
The production of cytokines in response to DNA-damage events may be an important host defense response to help prevent the escape of pre-cancerous cells. The innate immune pathways involved in these events are known to be regulated by cellular molecules such as stimulator of interferon genes (STING), which controls type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to the presence of microbial DNA or cytosolic DNA that has escaped from the nucleus. STING signaling has been shown to be defective in a variety of cancers, such as colon cancer and melanoma, actions that may enable damaged cells to escape the immunosurveillance system. Here, we report through examination of databases that STING signaling may be commonly suppressed in a greater variety of tumors due to loss-of-function mutation or epigenetic silencing of the STING/cGAS promoter regions. In comparison, RNA activated innate immune pathways controlled by RIG-I/MDA5 were significantly less affected. Examination of reported missense STING variants confirmed that many exhibited a loss-of-function phenotype and could not activate cytokine production following exposure to cytosolic DNA or DNA-damage events. Our data imply that the STING signaling pathway may be recurrently suppressed by a number of mechanisms in a considerable variety of malignant disease and be a requirement for cellular transformation.
The miR-17/92 cluster is involved in the molecular etiology of the SCLL syndrome driven by the BCR-FGFR1 chimeric kinase Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-25 Tianxiang Hu, Yating Chong, Haiyan Qin, Eiko Kitamura, Chang-Sheng Chang, Jeane Silva, Mingqiang Ren, John K Cowell
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have pathogenic roles in the development of a variety of leukemias. Here we identify miRNAs that have important roles in the development of B lymphomas resulting from the expression of the chimeric BCR-FGFR1 kinase. The miR-17/92 cluster was particularly implicated and forced expression resulted in increased cell proliferation, while inhibiting its function using miRNA sponges reduced cell growth and induced apoptosis. Cells treated with the potent BGJ389 FGFR1 inhibitor led to miR-17/92 downregulation, suggesting regulation by FGFR1. Transient luciferase reporter assays and qRT-PCR detection of endogenous miR-17/92 expression in stable transduced cell lines demonstrated that BCR-FGFR1 can regulate miR-17/92 expression. This positive association of miR-17/92 with BCR-FGFR1 was also confirmed in primary mouse SCLL tissues and primary human CLL samples. miR-17/92 promotes cell proliferation and survival by targeting CDKN1A and PTEN in B-lymphoma cell lines and primary tumors. An inverse correlation in expression levels was seen between miR-17/92 and both CDKN1A and PTEN in two cohorts of CLL patients. Finally, in vivo engraftment studies demonstrated that manipulation of miR-17/92 was sufficient to affect BCR-FGFR1-driven leukemogenesis. Overall, our results define miR-17/92 as a downstream effector of FGFR1 in BCR-FGFR1-driven B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia.
Wild-type and mutated IDH1/2 enzymes and therapy responses Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-25 Remco J. Molenaar, Jaroslaw P. Maciejewski, Johanna W. Wilmink, Cornelis J. F. van Noorden
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) are key enzymes in cellular metabolism, epigenetic regulation, redox states, and DNA repair. IDH1/2 mutations are causal in the development and/or progression of various types of cancer due to supraphysiological production of d-2-hydroxyglutarate. In various tumor types, IDH1/2-mutated cancers predict for improved responses to treatment with irradiation or chemotherapy. The present review discusses the molecular basis of the sensitivity of IDH1/2-mutated cancers with respect to the function of mutated IDH1/2 in cellular processes and their interactions with novel IDH1/2-mutant inhibitors. Finally, lessons learned from IDH1/2 mutations for future clinical applications in IDH1/2 wild-type cancers are discussed.
PTEN loss in the fallopian tube induces hyperplasia and ovarian tumor formation Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-25 Angela Russo, Austin A. Czarnecki, Matthew Dean, Dimple A. Modi, Daniel D. Lantvit, Laura Hardy, Seth Baligod, David A. Davis, Jian-Jun Wei, Joanna E. Burdette
The signaling events involved in the onset of ovarian cancer from the fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) are crucial for early detection and treatment of the disease, but they remain poorly defined. Conditional homozygous knockout of PTEN mediated by PAX8-cre recombinase was sufficient to drive endometrioid and serous borderline ovarian carcinoma, providing the first model of FTE-derived borderline tumors. In addition, heterozygous PTEN deletion in the FTE resulted in hyperplasia, providing a model to study early events of human ovarian pathogenesis. To uncover the mechanism underlying the invasion of cancerous oviductal cells to the ovary, PTEN-deficient murine oviductal cells were developed and tagged with green fluorescent protein. Loss of PTEN increased cell migration, invasion, and upregulated WNT4, a key regulator of Müllerian duct development during embryogenesis. Further investigation revealed that WNT4 was required for increased migration and colonization of the ovary by PTEN-deficient oviductal cells in a β-catenin independent manner. Human tumor microarrays and ovarian cancer cells lines confirmed WNT4 expression in cancer and its role in migration. Together, these findings provide a novel model to study the mechanism of fallopian tube tumor initiation and invasion to the ovary mediated by loss of PTEN, which may help to define early events of human ovarian carcinogenesis.
The tumor suppressor Hic1 maintains chromosomal stability independent of Tp53 Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-25 Anette Szczepny, Kirstyn Carey, Lisa McKenzie, W. Samantha N. Jayasekara, Fernando Rossello, Alvaro Gonzalez-Rajal, Andrew S. McCaw, Dean Popovski, Die Wang, Anthony J. Sadler, Annabelle Mahar, Prudence A. Russell, Gavin Wright, Rachael A. McCloy, Daniel J. Garama, Daniel J. Gough, Stephen B. Baylin, Andrew Burgess, Jason E. Cain, D. Neil Watkins
Hypermethylated-in-Cancer 1 (Hic1) is a tumor suppressor gene frequently inactivated by epigenetic silencing and loss-of-heterozygosity in a broad range of cancers. Loss of HIC1, a sequence-specific zinc finger transcriptional repressor, results in deregulation of genes that promote a malignant phenotype in a lineage-specific manner. In particular, upregulation of the HIC1 target gene SIRT1, a histone deacetylase, can promote tumor growth by inactivating TP53. An alternate line of evidence suggests that HIC1 can promote the repair of DNA double strand breaks through an interaction with MTA1, a component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex. Using a conditional knockout mouse model of tumor initiation, we now show that inactivation of Hic1 results in cell cycle arrest, premature senescence, chromosomal instability and spontaneous transformation in vitro. This phenocopies the effects of deleting Brca1, a component of the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These effects did not appear to be mediated by deregulation of Hic1 target gene expression or loss of Tp53 function, and rather support a role for Hic1 in maintaining genome integrity during sustained replicative stress. Loss of Hic1 function also cooperated with activation of oncogenic KRas in the adult airway epithelium of mice, resulting in the formation of highly pleomorphic adenocarcinomas with a micropapillary phenotype in vivo. These results suggest that loss of Hic1 expression in the early stages of tumor formation may contribute to malignant transformation through the acquisition of chromosomal instability.
IGF1R signaling drives antiestrogen resistance through PAK2/PIX activation in luminal breast cancer Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-22 Yinghui Zhang, Lynn Wester, Jichao He, Tamar Geiger, Marja Moerkens, Ram Siddappa, Jean A. Helmijr, Mieke M. Timmermans, Maxime P. Look, Caroline H. M. van Deurzen, John W. M. Martens, Chantal Pont, Marjo de Graauw, Erik H. J. Danen, Els M. J. J. Berns, John H. N. Meerman, Maurice P. H. M. Jansen, Bob van de Water
Antiestrogen resistance in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer is associated with increased expression and activity of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R). Here, a kinome siRNA screen has identified 10 regulators of IGF1R-mediated antiestrogen with clinical significance. These include the tamoxifen resistance suppressors BMPR1B, CDK10, CDK5, EIF2AK1, and MAP2K5, and the tamoxifen resistance inducers CHEK1, PAK2, RPS6KC1, TTK, and TXK. The p21-activated kinase 2, PAK2, is the strongest resistance inducer. Silencing of the tamoxifen resistance inducing genes, particularly PAK2, attenuates IGF1R-mediated resistance to tamoxifen and fulvestrant. High expression of PAK2 in ER+ metastatic breast cancer patients is correlated with unfavorable outcome after first-line tamoxifen monotherapy. Phospho-proteomics has defined PAK2 and the PAK-interacting exchange factors PIXα/β as downstream targets of IGF1R signaling, which are independent from PI3K/ATK and MAPK/ERK pathways. PAK2 and PIXα/β modulate IGF1R signaling-driven cell scattering. Targeting PIXα/β entirely mimics the effect of PAK2 silencing on antiestrogen re-sensitization. These data indicate PAK2/PIX as an effector pathway in IGF1R-mediated antiestrogen resistance.
CRTC1-MAML2 fusion-induced lncRNA LINC00473 expression maintains the growth and survival of human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-22 Zirong Chen, Shuibin Lin, Jian-Liang Li, Wei Ni, Ruifeng Guo, Jianrong Lu, Frederic J. Kaye, Lizi Wu
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) arises in many glandular tissues and contributes to the most common malignant salivary gland cancers. MEC is specifically associated with a unique t(11;19) translocation and the resulting CRTC1-MAML2 fusion is a major oncogenic driver for MEC initiation and maintenance. However, the molecular basis underlying the CRTC1-MAML2 oncogenic functions remains elusive. Through gene expression profiling analysis, we observed that LINC00473, a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), was the top down-regulated target in CRTC1-MAML2-depleted human MEC cells. LncRNAs belong to a new class of non-coding RNAs with emerging roles in tumorigenesis and progression, but remain poorly characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of LINC00473 in mediating CRTC1-MAML2 oncogenic activity in human MEC. We found that LINC00473 transcription was significantly induced in human CRTC1-MAML2-positive MEC cell lines and primary MEC tumors, and was tightly correlated with the CRTC1-MAML2 RNA level. LINC00473 induction was dependent on the ability of CRTC1-MAML2 to activate CREB-mediated transcription. Depletion of LINC00473 significantly reduced the proliferation and survival of human MEC cells in vitro and blocked the in vivo tumor growth in a human MEC xenograft model. RNA in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated a predominantly nuclear localization pattern for LINC00473 in human MEC cells. Furthermore, gene expression profiling revealed that LINC00473 depletion resulted in differential expression of genes important in cancer cell growth and survival. LINC00473 likely regulates gene expression in part through its ability to bind to a cAMP signaling pathway component NONO, enhancing the ability of CRTC1-MAML2 to activate CREB-mediated transcription. Our overall results demonstrate that LINC00473 is a downstream target and an important mediator of the CRTC1-MAML2 oncoprotein. Therefore, LINC00473 acts as a promising biomarker and therapeutic target for human CRTC1-MAML2-positive MECs.
The BET bromodomain inhibitor CPI203 overcomes resistance to ABT-199 (venetoclax) by downregulation of BFL-1/A1 in in vitro and in vivo models of MYC+/BCL2+ double hit lymphoma Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-22 A. Esteve-Arenys, J. G. Valero, A. Chamorro-Jorganes, D. Gonzalez, V. Rodriguez, I. Dlouhy, I. Salaverria, E. Campo, D. Colomer, A. Martinez, G. Rymkiewicz, P. Pérez-Galán, A. Lopez-Guillermo, G. Roué
High-grade B-cell lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements, mostly known as double-hit lymphoma (DHL), is a rare entity characterized by morphologic and molecular features between Burkitt lymphoma and the clinically manageable diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). DHL patients usually undergo a rapidly progressing clinical course associated with resistance to standard chemo-immunotherapy. As a consequence, the prognosis of this entity is particularly poor with a median overall survival inferior to 1 year. ABT-199 (venetoclax) is a potent and selective small-molecule antagonist of BCL-2 recently approved for the treatment of a specific subtype of lymphoid neoplasm. In this study, we demonstrate that single-agent ABT-199 efficiently displaces BAX from BCL-2 complexes but fails to maintain a significant antitumor activity over time in most MYC+/BCL2+DHL cell lines and primary cultures, as well as in a xenograft mouse model of the disease. We further identify the accumulation of the BCL2-like protein BFL-1 to be a major mechanism involved in acquired resistance to ABT-199. Noteworthy, this phenomenon can be counteracted by the BET bromodomain inhibitor CPI203, since gene expression profiling identifies BCL2A1, the BFL-1 coding gene, as one of the top apoptosis-related gene modulated by this compound. Upon CPI203 treatment, simultaneous downregulation of MYC and BFL-1 further overcomes resistance to ABT-199 both in vitro and in vivo, engaging synergistic caspase-mediated apoptosis in DHL cultures and tumor xenografts. Together, these findings highlight the relevance of BFL-1 in DH lymphoma-associated drug resistance and support the combined use of a BCL-2 antagonist and a BET inhibitor as a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with aggressive DHL.
MicroRNA-146b promotes PI3K/AKT pathway hyperactivation and thyroid cancer progression by targeting PTEN Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-22 Julia Ramírez-Moya, León Wert-Lamas, Pilar Santisteban
Recent studies have shown that miR-146b is the most upregulated microRNA in thyroid cancer and has a central role in cancer progression through mechanisms that remain largely unidentified. As phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase-B (PI3K/AKT) signaling is a fundamental oncogenic driver in many thyroid cancers, we explored a potential role for miR-146b and its target genes in PI3K/AKT activation. Among the predicted target genes of miR-146b, we found the tumor-suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Constitutive overexpression of miR-146b in thyroid epithelial cell lines significantly decreased PTEN mRNA and protein levels by direct binding to its 3′-UTR. This was accompanied by PI3K/AKT hyperactivation, leading to the exclusion of FOXO1 and p27 from the nucleus and a corresponding increase in cellular proliferation. Moreover, miR-146b overexpression led to protection from apoptosis and an increased migration and invasion potential, regulating genes involved in epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Notably, with the single exception of E-cadherin expression, all of these outcomes could be reversed by PTEN coexpression. Further analysis showed that miR-146b directly inhibits E-cadherin expression through binding to its 3′-UTR. Interestingly, miR-146b inhibition in human thyroid tumor xenografts, using a synthetic and clinically amenable molecule, blocked tumor growth when delivered intratumorally. Importantly, this inhibition increased PTEN protein levels. In conclusion, our data define a novel mechanism of PI3K/AKT hyperactivation and outline a regulatory role for miR-146b in suppressing PTEN expression, a frequent observation in thyroid cancer. Both events are related to a more aggressive tumoral phenotype. Targeting miR-146b therefore represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of this disease.
Growth arrest and apoptosis induction in androgen receptor-positive human breast cancer cells by inhibition of USP14-mediated androgen receptor deubiquitination Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-22 Yuning Liao, Xiaohong Xia, Ningning Liu, Jianyu Cai, Zhiqiang Guo, Yanling Li, Lili Jiang, Q. Ping Dou, Daolin Tang, Hongbiao Huang, Jinbao Liu
It has been well known that androgen receptor (AR) is critical to prostate cancer development and progression. It has also been documented that AR is expressed in more than 60% of breast tumors, which promotes the growth of estrogen receptor-negative (ER–)/AR-positive (AR+) breast cancer cells. Thus, AR might be a potential therapeutic target for AR-positive/ER-negative breast cancer patients. Previously we reported that in prostate cancer cells proteasome-associated deubiquitinase ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) stabilized AR protein level by removing its ubiquitin chain. In the current study, we studied the USP14-AR protein interaction and cell proliferation status after USP14 reduction or inhibition in breast cancer cells, and our results support the conclusion that targeting USP14 is a novel strategy for treating AR-responsive breast cancer. We found that inhibition of USP14 accelerated the K48-ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of AR protein. Additionally, both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of USP14 significantly suppressed cell proliferation in AR-responsive breast cancer cells by blocking G0/G1 to S phase transition and inducing apoptosis. Moreover, AR overexpression inhibited USP14 inhibition-induced events, suggesting that AR deubiquitination by USP14 is critical for breast cancer growth and USP14 inhibition is a possible strategy to treat AR-positive breast cancer.
Hic-5 regulates fibrillar adhesion formation to control tumor extracellular matrix remodeling through interaction with tensin1 Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-19 Gregory J. Goreczny, Ian J. Forsythe, Christopher E. Turner
The linearization of the stromal extracellular matrix (ECM) by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) facilitates tumor cell growth and metastasis. However, the mechanism by which the ECM is remodeled is not fully understood. Hic-5 (TGFβ1i1), a focal adhesion scaffold protein, has previously been reported to be crucial for stromal ECM deposition and remodeling in vivo. Herein we show that CAFs lacking Hic-5 exhibit a significant reduction in the ability to form fibrillar adhesions, a specialized form of focal adhesion that promote fibronectin fibrillogenesis. Hic-5 was found to promote fibrillar adhesion formation through a newly characterized interaction with tensin1. Furthermore, Src-dependent phosphorylation of Hic-5 facilitated the interaction with tensin1 to prevent β1 integrin internalization and trafficking to the lysosome. The interaction between Hic-5 and tensin1 was mechanosensitive, promoting fibrillar adhesion formation and fibronectin fibrillogenesis in a rigidity-dependent fashion. Importantly, this Src-dependent mechanism was conserved in three-dimensional (3D) ECM environments. Immunohistochemistry of tensin1 showed enrichment in CAFs in vivo, which was abrogated upon deletion of Hic-5. Interestingly, elevated Hic-5 expression correlates with reduced distant metastasis-free survival in patients with basal-like, HER2+ and grade 3 tumors. Thus, we have identified Hic-5 as a crucial regulator of ECM remodeling in CAFs by promoting fibrillar adhesion formation through a novel interaction with tensin1.
TWIST1 induces expression of discoidin domain receptor 2 to promote ovarian cancer metastasis Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-19 Whitney R. Grither, Laura M. Divine, Eric H. Meller, Daniel J. Wilke, Riva A. Desai, Andrew J. Loza, Peinan Zhao, Anne Lohrey, Gregory D. Longmore, Katherine C. Fuh
The mesenchymal gene program has been shown to promote the metastatic progression of ovarian cancer; however, specific proteins induced by this program that lead to these metastatic behaviors have not been identified. Using patient derived tumor cells and established human ovarian tumor cell lines, we find that the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition inducing factor TWIST1 drives expression of discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2), a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that recognizes fibrillar collagen as ligand. The expression and action of DDR2 was critical for mesothelial cell clearance, invasion and migration in ovarian tumor cells. It does so, in part, by upregulating expression and activity of matrix remodeling enzymes that lead to increased cleavage of fibronectin and spreading of tumor cells. Additionally, DDR2 stabilizes SNAIL1, allowing for sustained mesenchymal phenotype. In patient derived ovarian cancer specimens, DDR2 expression correlated with enhanced invasiveness. DDR2 expression was associated with advanced stage ovarian tumors and metastases. In vivo studies demonstrated that the presence of DDR2 is critical for ovarian cancer metastasis. These findings indicate that the collagen receptor DDR2 is critical for multiple steps of ovarian cancer progression to metastasis, and thus, identifies DDR2 as a potential new target for the treatment of metastatic ovarian cancer.
LTBP3 promotes early metastatic events during cancer cell dissemination Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-19 Elena I. Deryugina, Ewa Zajac, Lior Zilberberg, Tomoki Muramatsu, Grishma Joshi, Branka Dabovic, Daniel Rifkin, James P. Quigley
Latent transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-binding proteins (LTBPs) are important for the secretion, activation, and function of mature TGFβ, especially so in cancer cell physiology. However, specific roles of the LTBPs remain understudied in the context of the primary tumor microenvironment. Herein, we investigated the role of LTBP3 in the distinct processes involved in cancer metastasis. By using three human tumor cell lines of different tissue origin (epidermoid HEp-3 and prostate PC-3 carcinomas and HT-1080 fibrosarcoma) and several metastasis models conducted in both mammalian and avian settings, we show that LTBP3 is involved in the early dissemination of primary cancer cells, namely in the intravasation step of the metastatic cascade. Knockdown of LTBP3 in all tested cell lines led to significant inhibition of tumor cell intravasation, but did not affect primary tumor growth. LTBP3 was dispensable in the late steps of carcinoma cell metastasis that follow tumor cell intravasation, including vascular arrest, extravasation, and tissue colonization. However, LTBP3 depletion diminished the angiogenesis-inducing potential of HEp-3 cells in vivo, which was restorable by exogenous delivery of LTBP3 protein. A similar compensatory approach rescued the dampened intravasation of LTBP3-deficient HEp-3 cells, suggesting that LTBP3 regulates the induction of the intravasation-supporting angiogenic vasculature within developing primary tumors. Using our recently developed microtumor model, we confirmed that LTBP3 loss resulted in the development of intratumoral vessels with an abnormal microarchitecture incompatible with efficient intravasation of HEp-3 carcinoma cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that LTBP3 represents a novel oncotarget that has distinctive functions in the regulation of angiogenesis-dependent tumor cell intravasation, a critical process during early cancer dissemination. Our experimental data are also consistent with the survival prognostic value of LTBP3 expression in early-stage head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, further indicating a specific role for LTBP3 in cancer progression toward metastatic disease.
FYN promotes mesenchymal phenotypes of basal type breast cancer cells through STAT5/NOTCH2 signaling node Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-19 Ga-Hang Lee, Ki-Chun Yoo, Yoojeong An, Hae-June Lee, Minyoung Lee, Nizam Uddin, Min-Jung Kim, In-Gyu Kim, Yongjoon Suh, Su-Jae Lee
Basal type breast cancer is the most aggressive and has mesenchymal features with a high metastatic ability. However, the signaling node that determines the basal type features in breast cancer remains obscure. Here, we report that FYN among SRC family kinases is required for the maintenance of basal type breast cancer subtype. Importantly, FYN enhanced NOTCH2 activation in basal type breast cancer cells through STAT5-mediated upregulation of Jagged-1 and DLL4 NOTCH ligands, thereby contributed to mesenchymal phenotypes. In addition, we found that high levels of FYN persist in basal type breast cancer cells by a positive feedback loop between FYN and STAT5. FYN interacted directly with STAT5 and increased p-STAT5 that further acts as a transcription factor for FYN. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a pivotal role of FYN and its downstream effectors in maintaining the basal type features in breast cancer.
Distinct dependencies on receptor tyrosine kinases in the regulation of MAPK signaling between BRAF V600E and non-V600E mutant lung cancers Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-19 Hiroshi Kotani, Yuta Adachi, Hidenori Kitai, Shuta Tomida, Hideaki Bando, Anthony C. Faber, Takayuki Yoshino, Dominic C. Voon, Seiji Yano, Hiromichi Ebi
BRAF is one of the most frequently mutated genes across a number of different cancers, with the best-characterized mutation being V600E. Despite the successes of treating BRAF mutant V600E lung cancer with BRAF pathway inhibitors, treatment strategies targeting tumors with non-V600E mutations are yet to be established. We studied cellular signaling differences between lung cancers with different BRAF mutations and determined their sensitivities to BRAF pathway inhibitors. Here, we observed that MEK inhibition induced feedback activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) EGFR, and in some cases the RTK FGFR, resulting in transient suppression of ERK phosphorylation in BRAF non-V600E, but not BRAF V600E, mutant cells. Furthermore, we found that both EGFR and FGFR activated the MEK/ERK pathway, despite the presence of BRAF non-V600E mutations with elevated kinase activity. Moreover, in BRAF non-V600E mutants with impaired kinase activities, EGFR had even greater control over the MEK/ERK pathway, essentially contributing completely to the tonic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal. Accordingly, the combination of MEK inhibitor with EGFR inhibitor was effective at shrinking tumors in mouse model of BRAF non-V600E mutant lung cancer. Furthermore, the results were recapitulated with a clinically relevant dual inhibitor of EGFR and RAF, BGB-283. Overall, although BRAF V600E mutant cells are sensitive to BRAF inhibition, non-V600E mutant cancer cells are reliant on RTKs for their MAPK activation and inhibiting both MEK and RTKs are necessary in these cancers. Our findings provide evidence of critical survival signals in BRAF non-V600E mutant cancers, which could pave the way for effective treatment of these cancers.
Loss of Cdk5 in breast cancer cells promotes ROS-mediated cell death through dysregulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-19 Saranya NavaneethaKrishnan, Jesusa L. Rosales, Ki-Young Lee
Cdk5, which plays a role in the development and progression of many human cancers, localizes in the mitochondria, a key determinant of apoptotic cell death. Cdk5 is upregulated in breast cancer cells but it was shown that Cdk5 loss increases chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanism by which Cdk5 loss promotes cell death remains unclear. Here, we investigate the possibility that Cdk5 loss activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that Cdk5-deficient breast cancer cells exhibit increased mitochondrial depolarization, mitochondrial ROS levels, and mitochondrial fragmentation that is associated with an increase in both intracellular Ca2+ level and calcineurin activity, and DRP1 S637 dephosphorylation. These events accompany increased apoptosis, indicating that Cdk5 loss promotes mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. To define this apoptotic pathway, we utilized various inhibitors of mitochondrial function. Apoptosis is completely prevented by mPTP inhibition, almost fully inhibited by blocking ROS and unaffected by inhibition of mitochondrial fission, suggesting that apoptosis in breast cancer cells due to Cdk5 loss occurs via a novel mPTP-dependent mechanism that acts primarily through ROS increase.
Piperlongumine and p53-reactivator APR-246 selectively induce cell death in HNSCC by targeting GSTP1 Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-18 Wei Hang, Zhi-Xian Yin, Gang Liu, Qinghua Zeng, Xiang-Feng Shen, Qian-Hui Sun, Dong-Dong Li, Yong-Ping Jian, Yang-He Zhang, Yi-Shu Wang, Cheng-Shi Quan, Rui-Xun Zhao, Yu-Lin Li, Zhi-Xiang Xu
TP53 mutations frequently occur in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients without human papillomavirus infection. The recurrence rate for these patients is distinctly high. It has been actively explored to identify agents that target TP53 mutations and restore wild-type (WT) TP53 activities in HNSCC. PRIMA-1 (p53-reactivation and induction of massive apoptosis-1) and its methylated analogue PRIMA-1Met (also called APR-246) were found to be able to reestablish the DNA-binding activity of p53 mutants and reinstate the functions of WT p53. Herein we report that piperlongumine (PL), an alkaloid isolated from Piper longum L., synergizes with APR-246 to selectively induce apoptosis and autophagic cell death in HNSCC cells, whereas primary and immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts and spontaneously immortalized non-tumorigenic human skin keratinocytes (HaCat) are spared from the damage by the co-treatment. Interestingly, PL-sensitized HNSCC cells to APR-246 are TP53 mutation-independent. Instead, we demonstrated that glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), a GST family member that catalyzes the conjugation of GSH with electrophilic compounds to fulfill its detoxification function, is highly expressed in HNSCC tissues. Administration of PL and APR-246 significantly suppresses GSTP1 activity, resulting in the accumulation of ROS, depletion of GSH, elevation of GSSG, and DNA damage. Ectopic expression of GSTP1 or pre-treatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) abrogates the ROS elevation and decreases DNA damage, apoptosis, and autophagic cell death prompted by PL/APR-246. In addition, administration of PL and APR-246 impedes UMSCC10A xenograft tumor growth in SCID mice. Taken together, our data suggest that HNSCC cells are selectively sensitive to the combination of PL and APR-246 due to a remarkably synergistic effect of the co-treatment in the induction of ROS by suppression of GSTP1.
Mutant p53 gain of function underlies high expression levels of colorectal cancer stem cells markers Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-18 Hilla Solomon, Nathan Dinowitz, Ioannis S. Pateras, Tomer Cooks, Yoav Shetzer, Alina Molchadsky, Meital Charni, Stav Rabani, Gabriela Koifman, Ohad Tarcic, Ziv Porat, Ira Kogan-Sakin, Naomi Goldfinger, Moshe Oren, Curtis C. Harris, Vassilis G. Gorgoulis, Varda Rotter
Emerging notion in carcinogenesis ascribes tumor initiation and aggressiveness to cancer stem cells (CSCs). Specifically, colorectal cancer (CRC) development was shown to be compatible with CSCs hypothesis. Mutations in p53 are highly frequent in CRC, and are known to facilitate tumor development and aggressiveness. Yet, the link between mutant p53 and colorectal CSCs is not well-established. In the present study, we set to examine whether oncogenic mutant p53 proteins may augment colorectal CSCs phenotype. By genetic manipulation of mutant p53 in several cellular systems, we demonstrated that mutant p53 enhances colorectal tumorigenesis. Moreover, mutant p53-expressing cell lines harbor larger sub-populations of cells highly expressing the known colorectal CSCs markers: CD44, Lgr5, and ALDH. This elevated expression is mediated by mutant p53 binding to CD44, Lgr5, and ALDH1A1 promoter sequences. Furthermore, ALDH1 was found to be involved in mutant p53-dependent chemotherapy resistance. Finally, analysis of ALDH1 and CD44 in human CRC biopsies indicated a positive correlation between their expression and the presence of oncogenic p53 missense mutations. These findings suggest novel insights pertaining the mechanism by which mutant p53 enhances CRC development, which involves the expansion of CSCs sub-populations within CRC tumors, and underscore the importance of targeting these sub-populations for CRC therapy.
MiRNA-646-mediated reciprocal repression between HIF-1α and MIIP contributes to tumorigenesis of pancreatic cancer Oncogene (IF 7.519) Pub Date : 2018-01-18 Yi Niu, Yan Jin, Shi-Chang Deng, Shi-Jiang Deng, Shuai Zhu, Yang Liu, Xiang Li, Chi He, Ming-Liang Liu, Zhu Zeng, Heng-Yu Chen, Jian-Xin Zhong, Zeng Ye, Chun-You Wang, Gang Zhao
Migration and invasion inhibitory protein (MIIP) is recently identified as an inhibitor in tumor development. However, the regulatory mechanism and biological contributions of MIIP in pancreatic cancer (PC) have been not elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated a negative feedback of MIIP and hypoxia-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α), which was mediated by a hypoxia-induced microRNA. Compared with paracarcinoma tissues, MIIP was downregulated in PC tissues. Overexpression of MIIP significantly impeded the proliferation and invasion of PC cells both in vitro and in mouse xenograft models. We further verified MIIP was downregulated under hypoxia in a HIF-1α-mediated manner. Interestingly, although MIIP promoter containing two putative hypoxia response elements (HREs), the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assays did not support an active interaction between HIF-1α and MIIP promoter. Meanwhile, microRNA array revealed a hypoxia-induced microRNA, miR-646, impaired stability of MIIP mRNA and consequently inhibited its expression by targeting the coding sequence (CDS). Coincidently, knockdown of miR-646 significantly repressed proliferation and invasion ability of PC cells both in vitro and in vivo by upregulating MIIP expression. Besides, ChIP and luciferase reporter assays further validated that HIF-1α activated transcription of miR-646 in hypoxia condition. Therefore, these results suggested HIF-1α indirectly regulated MIIP expression in post-transcriptional level through upregulating miR-646 transcription. Conversely, our results further revealed that MIIP suppressed deacetylase ability of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) to promote the acetylation and degradation of HIF-1α, by which impairing HIF-1α accumulation. What is more, a specific relationship between downregulated MIIP and upregulated miR-646 expression was validated in PC samples. Moreover, the dysregulated miR-646 and MIIP expression was correlated with advanced tumor stage, lymphatic invasion, metastasis and shorter overall survival in PC patients. Together, our results highlight that the reciprocal loop of HIF-1α/miR-646/MIIP might be implemented as an applicable target for pancreatic cancer therapy.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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