The miR-96 and RARγ signaling axis governs androgen signaling and prostate cancer progression Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-17 Mark D. Long, Prashant K. Singh, James R. Russell, Gerard Llimos, Spencer Rosario, Abbas Rizvi, Patrick R. van den Berg, Jason Kirk, Lara E. Sucheston-Campbell, Dominic J. Smiraglia, Moray J. Campbell
Expression levels of retinoic acid receptor gamma (NR1B3/RARG, encodes RARγ) are commonly reduced in prostate cancer (PCa). Therefore, we sought to establish the cellular and gene regulatory consequences of reduced RARγ expression, and determine RARγ regulatory mechanisms. RARG shRNA approaches in non-malignant (RWPE-1 and HPr1-AR) and malignant (LNCaP) prostate models revealed that reducing RARγ levels, rather than adding exogenous retinoid ligand, had the greatest impact on prostate cell viability and gene expression. ChIP-Seq defined the RARγ cistrome, which was significantly enriched at active enhancers associated with AR binding sites. Reflecting a significant genomic role for RARγ to regulate androgen signaling, RARγ knockdown in HPr1-AR cells significantly regulated the magnitude of the AR transcriptome. RARγ downregulation was explained by increased miR-96 in PCa cell and mouse models, and TCGA PCa cohorts. Biochemical approaches confirmed that miR-96 directly regulated RARγ expression and function. Capture of the miR-96 targetome by biotin-miR-96 identified that RARγ and a number of RARγ interacting co-factors including TACC1 were all targeted by miR-96, and expression of these genes were prominently altered, positively and negatively, in the TCGA-PRAD cohort. Differential gene expression analyses between tumors in the TCGA-PRAD cohort with lower quartile expression levels of RARG and TACC1 and upper quartile miR-96, compared to the reverse, identified a gene network including several RARγ target genes (e.g., SOX15) that significantly associated with worse disease-free survival (hazard ratio 2.23, 95% CI 1.58 to 2.88, p = 0.015). In summary, miR-96 targets a RARγ network to govern AR signaling, PCa progression and disease outcome.
PRSS8 suppresses colorectal carcinogenesis and metastasis Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-16 Yonghua Bao, Yongchen Guo, Yiqiong Yang, Xiaonan Wei, Shanshan Zhang, Yongmeng Zhang, Kai Li, Ming Yuan, Dongli Guo, Virgilia Macias, Xiangdong Zhu, Wei Zhang, Wancai Yang
The serine protease PRSS8 has shown important physiological and pathological functions, but its roles in cancer initiation and progression are unclear. We developed and dynamically characterized a conditional knockout Prss8fl/fl, p-Villin-Cre+ mouse model. We found that genetic deficiency of the Prss8 gene caused spontaneous colitis and an inflamed rectum at an early age and caused intestinal tumors at a late age, which were linked to increased intestinal cell proliferation and migration but decreased cell differentiation. Increased PRSS8 expression inhibited cancer cell growth and metastasis in nude mice and inhibited cancer cell migration, invasion, colony formation and tumor sphere formation in vitro, but decreased PRSS8 expression facilitated malignancies in vivo and in vitro. Gene profiling on manipulated cancer cells and intestinal epithelial cells of Prss8 mouse models, gene set enrichment analysis and mechanistic studies revealed that PRSS8 targeted the Wnt/β-catenin, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and stem cell signaling pathways, which were further supported by the results from the TCGA data mining and validated by immunohistochemical staining on colorectal cancer tissue microarrays. In conclusion, PRSS8 is a novel tumor suppressor that plays critical roles in the suppression of colorectal carcinogenesis and metastasis.
KIFC1 regulated by miR-532-3p promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma via gankyrin/AKT signaling Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-16 Jihua Han, Fengyue Wang, Yaliang Lan, Jiabei Wang, Chunlei Nie, Yingjian Liang, Ruipeng Song, Tongsen Zheng, Shangha Pan, Tiemin Pei, Changming Xie, Guangchao Yang, Xirui Liu, Mingxi Zhu, Yan Wang, Yao Liu, Fanzheng Meng, Yifeng Cui, Bo Zhang, Yufeng Liu, Xianzhi Meng, Jiewu Zhang, Lianxin Liu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. The poor survival may be due to a high proportions of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Kinesin family member C1 (KIFC1) is highly expressed in a variety of neoplasms and is a potential marker for non-small cell lung cancer or ovarian adenocarcinoma metastasis. Nevertheless, the role of KIFC1 in HCC metastasis remains obscure. We investigated this in the present study using HCC cell lines and clinical specimens. Our results indicated that increased levels of KIFC1 were associated with poor prognosis and metastasis in HCC. In addition, KIFC1 induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and HCC metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. This tumorigenic effect depended on gankyrin; inhibiting gankyrin activity reversed EMT via activation of protein kinase B (AKT)/Twist family BHLH transcription factor 1 (AKT/TWIST1). We also found that KIFC1 was directly regulated by the microRNA miR-532-3p, whose downregulation was associated with metastatic progression in HCC. These results denote that a decrease in miR-532-3p levels results in increased KIFC1 expression in HCC, leading to metastasis via activation of the gankyrin/AKT/TWIST1 signaling pathway.
Inhibition of histone lysine-specific demethylase 1 elicits breast tumor immunity and enhances antitumor efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-15 Ye Qin, Shauna N. Vasilatos, Lin Chen, Hao Wu, Zhishen Cao, Yumei Fu, Min Huang, Anda M. Vlad, Binfeng Lu, Steffi Oesterreich, Nancy E. Davidson, Yi Huang
Immunotherapy strategies have been emerging as powerful weapons against cancer. Early clinical trials reveal that overall response to immunotherapy is low in breast cancer patients, suggesting that effective strategies to overcome resistance to immunotherapy are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated whether epigenetic reprograming by modulating histone methylation could enhance effector T lymphocyte trafficking and improve therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade in breast cancer with focus on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype. In silico analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data shows that expression of histone lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is inversely associated with the levels of cytotoxic T cell-attracting chemokines (C–C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), C–X–C motif chemokine ligand 9 and 10 (CXCL9, CXCL10)) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in clinical TNBC specimens. Tiling chromatin immunoprecipitation study showed that re-expression of chemokines by LSD1 inhibition is associated with increased H3K4me2 levels at proximal promoter regions. Rescue experiments using concurrent treatment with small interfering RNA or inhibitor of chemokine receptors blocked LSD1 inhibitor-enhanced CD8+ T cell migration, indicating a critical role of key T cell chemokines in LSD1-mediated CD8+ lymphocyte trafficking to the tumor microenvironment. In mice bearing TNBC xenograft tumors, anti-PD-1 antibody alone failed to elicit obvious therapeutic effect. However, combining LSD1 inhibitors with PD-1 antibody significantly suppressed tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis, which was associated with reduced Ki-67 level and augmented CD8+ T cell infiltration in xenograft tumors. Overall, these results suggest that LSD1 inhibition may be an effective adjuvant treatment with immunotherapy as a novel management strategy for poorly immunogenic breast tumors.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) beyond EGFR mutations per se is a common mechanism for acquired resistance to EGFR TKI Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-15 Chien-Hui Weng, Li-Yu Chen, Yu-Chin Lin, Jin-Yuan Shih, Yun-Chieh Lin, Ruo-Yu Tseng, An-Chieh Chiu, Yu-Hsuan Yeh, Chi Liu, Yi-Ting Lin, Jim-Min Fang, Ching-Chow Chen
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a major advance in treating NSCLC with EGFR-activating mutations. However, acquired resistance, due partially to secondary mutations limits their use. Here we report that NSCLC cells with acquired resistance to gefitinib or osimertinib (AZD9291) exhibit EMT features, with a decrease in E-cadherin, and increases in vimentin and stemness, without possessing any EGFR secondary mutations. Knockdown of E-cadherin in parental cells increased gefitinib resistance and stemness, while knockdown of vimentin in resistant cells resulted in opposite effects. Src activation and Hakai upregulation were found in gefitinib-resistant cells. Knockdown of Hakai elevated E-cadherin expression, attenuated stemness, and resensitized the cells to gefitinib. Clinical cancer specimens with acquired gefitinib resistance also showed a decrease in E-cadherin and an increase in Hakai expression. The dual HDAC and HMGR inhibitor JMF3086 inhibited the Src/Hakai and Hakai/E-cadherin interaction to reverse E-cadherin expression, and attenuated vimentin and stemness to restore gefitinib sensitivity. The EMT features of AZD9291-resistant H1975 cells were related to the upregulation of Zeb1. Both gefitinib and AZD9291 sensitivity was restored by JMF3086 through reversing EMT. Our study not only revealed a common mechanism of EMT in both gefitinib and AZD9291 resistance beyond EGFR mutations per se, but also provides a new strategy to overcome it.
A novel cross-talk between CXCR4 and PI4KIIIα in prostate cancer cells Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-15 Diego Sbrissa, Louie Semaan, Barani Govindarajan, Yanfeng Li, Nicholas J. Caruthers, Paul M. Stemmer, Michael L. Cher, Seema Sethi, Ulka Vaishampayan, Assia Shisheva, Sreenivasa R. Chinni
Chemokine signaling regulates cell migration and tumor metastasis. CXCL12, a member of the chemokine family, and its receptor, CXCR4, a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), are key mediators of prostate-cancer (PC) bone metastasis. In PC cells androgens activate CXCR4 gene expression and receptor signaling on lipid rafts, which induces protease expression and cancer cell invasion. To identify novel lipid-raft-associated CXCR4 regulators supporting invasion/metastasis, we performed a SILAC-based quantitative proteomic analysis of lipid-rafts derived from PC3 stable cell lines with overexpression or knockdown of CXCR4. This analysis identified the evolutionarily conserved phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα (PI4KIIIα), and SAC1 phosphatase that dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate as potential candidate CXCR4 regulators. CXCR4 interacted with PI4KIIIα membrane targeting machinery recruiting them to the plasma membrane for PI4P production. Consistent with this interaction, PI4KIIIα was found tightly linked to the CXCR4 induced PC cell invasion. Thus, ablation of PI4KIIIα in CXCR4-expressing PC3 cells reduced cellular invasion in response to a variety of chemokines. Immunofluorescence microscopy in CXCR4-expressing cells revealed localized production of PI4P on the invasive projections. Human tumor studies documented increased PI4KIIIα expression in metastatic tumors vs. the primary tumor counterparts, further supporting the PI4KIIIα role in tumor metastasis. Furthermore, we also identified an unexpected function of PI4KIIIα in GPCR signaling where CXCR4 regulates PI4KIIIα activity and mediate tumor metastasis. Altogether, our study identifies a novel cross-talk between PI4KIIIα and CXCR4 in promoting tumor metastasis and suggests that PI4KIIIα pharmacological targeting may have therapeutic benefit for advanced prostate cancer patients.
Correction: ZFPM2-AS1, a novel lncRNA, attenuates the p53 pathway and promotes gastric carcinogenesis by stabilizing MIF Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-14 Fanyang Kong, Xuan Deng, Xiangyu Kong, Yiqi Du, Lei Li, Huiyun Zhu, Yuxin Wang, Dacheng Xie, Shivani Guha, Zhaoshen Li, Ming Guan, Keping Xie
Correction: ZFPM2-AS1, a novel lncRNA, attenuates the p53 pathway and promotes gastric carcinogenesis by stabilizing MIF Correction: ZFPM2-AS1, a novel lncRNA, attenuates the p53 pathway and promotes gastric carcinogenesis by stabilizing MIF, Published online: 14 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41388-018-0412-z Correction: ZFPM2-AS1, a novel lncRNA, attenuates the p53 pathway and promotes gastric carcinogenesis by stabilizing MIF
Polo-like kinases and acute leukemia Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Oksana Goroshchuk, Iryna Kolosenko, Linda Vidarsdottir, Alireza Azimi, Caroline Palm-Apergi
Acute leukemia is a common malignancy among children and adults worldwide and many patients suffer from chronic health issues using current therapeutic approaches. Therefore, there is a great need for the development of novel and more specific therapies with fewer side effects. The family of Polo-like kinases (Plks) is a group of five serine/threonine kinases that play an important role in cell cycle regulation and are critical targets for therapeutic invention. Plk1 and Plk4 are novel targets for cancer therapy as leukemic cells often express higher levels than normal cells. In contrast, Plk2 and Plk3 are considered to be tumor suppressors. Several small molecule inhibitors have been developed for targeting Plk1 inhibition. Despite reaching phase III clinical trials, one of the ATP-competitive Plk1 inhibitor, volasertib, did not induce an objective clinical response and even caused lethal side effects in some patients. In order to improve the specificity of the Plk1 inhibitors and reduce off-target side effects, novel RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapies have been developed. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of action of the Plk family members in acute leukemia, describe preclinical studies and clinical trials involving Plk-targeting drugs and discuss novel approaches in Plk targeting.
Overexpression of miR-489 derails mammary hierarchy structure and inhibits HER2/neu-induced tumorigenesis Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Y. Patel, M. Soni, A. Awagulerwitsch, M. J. Kern, S. Liu, N. Shah, U. P. Singh, H. Chen
Although it has been demonstrated that transformed progenitor cell population can contribute to tumor initiation, factors contributing to this malignant transformation are poorly known. Using in vitro and xenograft-based models, previous studies demonstrated that miR-489 acts as a tumor suppressor miRNA by targeting various oncogenic pathways. It has been demonstrated that miR-489 directly targets HER2 and inhibits the HER2 signaling pathway; however, its role in mammary gland development and HER2-induced tumor initiation hasn’t been studied. To dissect the role of miR-489, we sorted different populations of mammary epithelial cells and determined that miR-489 was highly expressed in mammary stem cells. MMTV-miR-489 mice that overexpressed miR-489 in mammary epithelial cells were developed and these mice exhibited an inhibition of mammary gland development in early ages with a specific impact on highly proliferative cells. Double transgenic MMTV-Her2-miR489 mice were then generated to observe how miR-489 overexpression affects HER2-induced tumorigenesis. miR-489 overexpression delayed HER2-induced tumor initiation significantly. Moreover, miR-489 overexpression inhibited tumor growth and lung metastasis. miR-489 overexpression reduced mammary progenitor cell population significantly in preneoplastic mammary glands of MMTV-Her2 mice which showed a putative transformed population in HER2-induced tumorigenesis. The miR-489 overexpression reduced CD49fhiCD61hi populations in tumors that have stem-like properties, and miR-489 overexpression altered the HER2 signaling pathway in mammary tumors. Altogether, these data indicate that the inhibition of HER2-induced tumorigenesis by miR-489 overexpression was due to altering progenitor cell populations while decreasing tumor growth and metastasis via influencing tumor promoting genes DEK and SHP2.
The role of PIP5K1α/pAKT and targeted inhibition of growth of subtypes of breast cancer using PIP5K1α inhibitor Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Martuza Sarwar, Azharuddin Sajid Syed Khaja, Mohammed Aleskandarany, Richard Karlsson, Maryam Althobiti, Niels Ødum, Nigel P. Mongan, Nisthman Dizeyi, Heather Johnson, Andrew R. Green, Ian O. Ellis, Emad A. Rakha, Jenny L Persson
Despite recent improvement in adjuvant therapies, triple-negative, and ER+ subtypes of breast cancer (BC) with metastatic potentials remain the leading cause of BC-related deaths. We investigated the role of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase alpha (PIP5Kα), a key upstream factor of PI3K/AKT, and the therapeutic effect of PIP5Kα inhibitor on subtypes of BC. The clinical importance of PIP5K1α and its association with survivals were analyzed using three BC cohorts from Nottingham (n = 913), KM plotter (n = 112) and TCGA (n = 817). Targeted overexpression or knockdown of PIP5K1α were introduced into BC cell lines. The effects of PIP5K1α and its inhibitor on growth and invasion of BC were confirmed by using in vitro assays including proliferation, migration, apoptosis and luciferase reporter assays and in vivo xenograft mouse models. All statistical tests were two-sided. PIP5K1α was associated with poor patient outcome in triple-negative BC (for PIP5K1α protein, p = 0.011 and for mRNA expression, p = 0.028, log-rank test). 29% of triple-negative BC had PIP5K1A gene amplification. Elevated level of PIP5K1α increased expression of pSer-473 AKT (p < 0.001) and invasiveness of triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells (p < 0.001). Conversely, inhibition of PIP5K1α using its inhibitor ISA-2011B, or via knockdown suppressed growth and invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 xenografts (mean vehicle-treated controls = 2160 mm3, and mean ISA-2011B-treated = 600 mm3, p < 0.001). ISA-2011B-treatment reduced expression of pSer-473 AKT (p < 0.001) and its downstream effectors including cyclin D1, VEGF and its receptors, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 (p < 0.001) in xenograft tumors. In ER+ cancer cells, PIP5K1α acted on pSer-473 AKT, and was in complexes with VEGFR2, serving as co-factor of ER-alpha to regulate activities of target genes including cyclin D1 and CDK1. Our study suggests that our developed PIP5K1α inhibitor has a great potential on refining targeted therapeutics for treatment of triple-negative and ER+ BC with abnormal PI3K/AKT pathways.
Identification of UAP1L1 as a critical factor for protein O-GlcNAcylation and cell proliferation in human hepatoma cells Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-10 Ching-Yu Lai, Hsuan Liu, Kai Xuan Tin, Yi Huang, Kun-Hai Yeh, Hubert W. Peng, Huan-Da Chen, Jun-Yu He, Yun-Jung Chiang, Chun-Shan Liu, Shih-Yen Weng, Mi-Hua Tao, Jeffrey Jong-Young Yen, Hsin-Fang Yang-Yen
Aged hepatocyte-specific-Mcl-1 knockout (MKO-hep) mice are prone to develop liver tumors mimicking human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we reported that a protein named UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase-1-like-1 (Uap1l1) is upregulated in the liver of young MKO-hep mice without any macroscopically detectable tumor nodules and is prominently expressed in the hepatic tumors developed in the aged MKO-hep mice. Intriguingly, human UAP1L1 is also significantly upregulated in a distinct subset of HCC tissues and patients with upregulated expression of UAP1L1 appeared to have poor prognosis. Overexpression of UAP1L1 significantly promoted, whereas UAP1L1 knockdown markedly reduced the proliferation of human hepatoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. UAP1L1 shows ~59% sequence identity to UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase-1 (UAP1), which is directly involved in the synthesis of the sugar donor (UDP-GlcNac) for N-acetylglucosamine modification (O-GlcNAcylation) of proteins. However, unlike UAP1, UAP1L1 harbors very limited UDP-GlcNAc synthesis activity. Moreover, although both UAP1 and UAP1L1 are required for O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT)-mediated protein O-GlcNAcylation, they appear to function distinctly from each other. UAP1L1 directly interacts with OGT, but does not seem to be an OGT substrate. In addition, UAP1L1 alone is not sufficient to activate OGT activity in vitro, suggesting that UAP1L1 may function together with other proteins to modulate OGT activity in vivo. Lastly, UAP1L1 knockdown attenuated c-MYC O-GlcNAcylation and protein stability, and overexpression of c-MYC significantly rescued the proliferation defect of UAP1L1 knockdown HepG2 cells, suggesting that c-MYC is one downstream target of UAP1L1 that contributes to UAP1L1-mediated cell proliferation, at least in HepG2 cells.
Transcriptomic analysis of CIC and ATXN1L reveal a functional relationship exploited by cancer Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-09 Derek Wong, Kohl Lounsbury, Amy Lum, Jungeun Song, Susanna Chan, Veronique LeBlanc, Suganthi Chittaranjan, Marco Marra, Stephen Yip
Aberrations in Capicua (CIC) have recently been implicated as a negative prognostic factor in a multitude of cancer types through activation of the MAPK signalling cascade and derepression of oncogenic ETS transcription factors. The Ataxin-family protein ATXN1L has previously been reported to interact with CIC in developmental and disease contexts to facilitate the repression of CIC target genes. To further investigate this relationship, we performed functional in vitro studies utilizing ATXN1LKO and CICKO human cell lines and characterized a reciprocal functional relationship between CIC and ATXN1L. Transcriptomic interrogation of the CIC–ATXN1–ATXN1L axis in low-grade glioma, prostate adenocarcinoma and stomach adenocarcinoma TCGA cohorts revealed context-dependent convergence of gene sets and pathways related to mitotic cell cycle and division. This study highlights the CIC–ATXN1–ATXN1L axis as a more potent regulator of the cell cycle than previously appreciated.
SIRT7 promotes thyroid tumorigenesis through phosphorylation and activation of Akt and p70S6K1 via DBC1/SIRT1 axis Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-09 Heng Li, Zhufang Tian, Yiping Qu, Qi Yang, Haixia Guan, Bingyin Shi, Meiju Ji, Peng Hou
SIRT7 is an NAD+-dependent histone/non-histone deacetylase, which is highly expressed in different types of cancer including thyroid cancer; however, its biological function in thyroid cancer is still undiscovered. In this study, we found that SIRT7 expression was elevated in papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs), and demonstrated that SIRT7 knockdown dramatically inhibited the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of thyroid cancer cells, and induced thyroid cancer cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conversely, SIRT7 re-expression markedly enhanced thyroid cancer cell growth, invasiveness and tumorigenic potential in nude mice. Further studies revealed that SIRT7 exerted an oncogenic function in thyroid tumorigenesis by phosphorylation of Akt and p70S6K1. Mechanistically, SIRT7 binds to the promoter of deleted in breast cancer-1 (DBC1), an endogenous inhibitor of SIRT1, and represses its transcription via deacetylation of H3K18Ac. This results in enhanced interactions between SIRT1 and Akt or p70S6K1, thereby promoting deacetylation and subsequent phosphorylation of Akt and p70S6K1 through a SIRT1-dependent manner. Altogether, our results show that DBC1 is a downstream target of SIRT7, and first uncover that SIRT7 promotes thyroid tumorigenesis through phosphorylation and activation of Akt and p70S6K1 via the modulation of DBC1/SIRT1 axis.
Compatibility of RUNX1/ETO fusion protein modules driving CD34+ human progenitor cell expansion Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-09 Linping Chen-Wichmann, Marina Shvartsman, Caro Preiss, Colin Hockings, Roland Windisch, Enric Redondo Monte, Georg Leubolt, Karsten Spiekermann, Jörn Lausen, Christian Brendel, Manuel Grez, Philipp A. Greif, Christian Wichmann
Chromosomal translocations represent frequent events in leukemia. In t(8;21)+ acute myeloid leukemia, RUNX1 is fused to nearly the entire ETO protein, which contains four conserved nervy homology regions, NHR1-4. Furthermore RUNX1/ETO interacts with ETO-homologous proteins via NHR2, thereby multiplying NHR domain contacts. As shown recently, RUNX1/ETO retains oncogenic activity upon either deletion of the NHR3 + 4 N-CoR/SMRT interaction domain or substitution of the NHR2 tetramer domain. Thus, we aimed to clarify the specificities of the NHR domains. A C-terminally NHR3 + 4 truncated RUNX1/ETO containing a heterologous, structurally highly related non-NHR2 tetramer interface translocated into the nucleus and bound to RUNX1 consensus motifs. However, it failed to interact with ETO-homologues, repress RUNX1 targets, and transform progenitors. Surprisingly, transforming capacity was fully restored by C-terminal fusion with ETO’s NHR4 zinc-finger or the repressor domain 3 of N-CoR, while other repression domains failed. With an inducible protein assembly system, we further demonstrated that NHR4 domain activity is critically required early in the establishment of progenitor cultures expressing the NHR2 exchanged truncated RUNX1/ETO. Together, we can show that NHR2 and NHR4 domains can be replaced by heterologous protein domains conferring tetramerization and repressor functions, thus showing that the NHR2 and NHR4 domain structures do not have irreplaceable functions concerning RUNX1/ETO activity for the establishment of human CD34+ cell expansion. We could resemble the function of RUNX1/ETO through modular recomposition with protein domains from RUNX1, ETO, BCR and N-CoR without any NHR2 and NHR4 sequences. As most transcriptional repressor proteins do not comprise tetramerization domains, our results provide a possible explanation as to the reason that RUNX1 is recurrently found translocated to ETO family members, which all contain tetramer together with transcriptional repressor moieties.
Cross-species genomics identifies DLG2 as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-09 Yang W. Shao, Geoffrey A. Wood, Jinchang Lu, Qing-Lian Tang, Jonathan Liu, Sam Molyneux, Yan Chen, Hui Fang, Hibret Adissu, Trevor McKee, Paul Waterhouse, Rama Khokha
Leveraging the conserved cancer genomes across mammals has the potential to transform driver gene discovery in orphan cancers. Here, we combine cross-species genomics with validation across human–dog–mouse systems to uncover a new bone tumor suppressor gene. Comparative genomics of spontaneous human and dog osteosarcomas (OS) expose Disks Large Homolog 2 (DLG2) as a tumor suppressor candidate. DLG2 copy number loss occurs in 42% of human and 56% of canine OS. Functional validation through pertinent human and canine OS DLG2-deficient cell lines identifies a regulatory role of DLG2 in cell division, migration and tumorigenesis. Moreover, osteoblast-specific deletion of Dlg2 in a clinically relevant genetically engineered mouse model leads to acceleration of OS development, establishing DLG2 as a critical determinant of OS. This widely applicable cross-species approach serves as a platform to expedite the search of cancer drivers in rare human malignancies, offering new targets for cancer therapy.
O-GlcNAcylation promotes colorectal cancer metastasis via the miR-101-O-GlcNAc/EZH2 regulatory feedback circuit Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-09 Mingzuo Jiang, Bing Xu, Xiaowei Li, Yulong Shang, Yi Chu, Weijie Wang, Di Chen, Nan Wu, Sijun Hu, Song Zhang, Mengbin Li, Kaichun Wu, Xiaoyong Yang, Jie Liang, Yongzhan Nie, Daiming Fan
Advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the deadliest cancers, and the 5-year survival rate of patients with metastasis is extremely low. The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered essential for metastatic CRC, but the fundamental molecular basis underlying this effect remains unknown. Here, we identified that O-GlcNAcylation, a unique posttranslational modification (PTM) involved in cancer metabolic reprogramming, increased the metastatic capability of CRC. The levels of O-GlcNAcylation were increased in the metastatic CRC tissues and cell lines, which likely promoted the EMT by enhancing EZH2 protein stability and function. The CRC patients with higher levels of O-GlcNAcylation exhibited greater lymph node metastasis potential and lower overall survival. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assays revealed that both O-GlcNAcylation transferase (OGT) and EZH2 are posttranscriptionally inhibited by microRNA-101. In addition, O-GlcNAcylation and H3K27me3 modification in the miR-101 promoter region further inhibited the transcription of miR-101, resulting in the upregulation of OGT and EZH2 in metastatic CRC, thus forming a vicious cycle. In this study, we demonstrated that O-GlcNAcylation, which is negatively regulated by microRNA-101, likely promotes CRC metastasis by enhancing EZH2 protein stability and function. Reducing O-GlcNAcylation may be a potential therapeutic strategy for metastatic CRC.
Dual role for miR-34a in the control of early progenitor proliferation and commitment in the mammary gland and in breast cancer Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-09 Paola Bonetti, Montserrat Climent, Fabiana Panebianco, Chiara Tordonato, Angela Santoro, Matteo Jacopo Marzi, Pier Giuseppe Pelicci, Andrea Ventura, Francesco Nicassio
The role of the tumour-suppressor miR-34 family in breast physiology and in mammary stem cells (MaSCs) is largely unknown. Here, we revealed that miR-34 family, and miR-34a in particular, is implicated in mammary epithelium homoeostasis. Expression of miR-34a occurs upon luminal commitment and differentiation and serves to inhibit the expansion of the pool of MaSCs and early progenitor cells, likely in a p53-independent fashion. Mutant mice (miR34-KO) and loss-of-function approaches revealed two separate functions of miR-34a, controlling both proliferation and fate commitment in mammary progenitors by modulating several pathways involved in epithelial cell plasticity and luminal-to-basal conversion. In particular, miR-34a acts as endogenous inhibitor of the Wnt/beta-catenin signalling pathway, targeting up to nine upstream regulators at the same time, thus modulating the expansion of the MaSCs/early progenitor pool. These multiple roles of miR-34a are maintained in a model of human breast cancer, in which chronic expression of miR-34a in triple-negative mesenchymal-like cells (enriched in cancer stem cells—CSCs) could promote a luminal-like differentiation programme, restrict the CSC pool, and inhibit tumour propagation. Hence, activation of miR-34a-dependent programmes could provide a therapeutic opportunity for the subset of breast cancers, which are rich in CSCs and respond poorly to conventional therapies.
Acquired SETD2 mutation and impaired CREB1 activation confer cisplatin resistance in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-09 In-Kyu Kim, Justine N. McCutcheon, Guanhua Rao, Stephen V. Liu, Yves Pommier, Marcin Skrzypski, Yu-Wen Zhang, Giuseppe Giaccone
Resistance to chemotherapy remains a critical barrier to effective cancer treatment. Although cisplatin is one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), mechanisms of resistance to this drug are not fully understood. Here, we report a novel cisplatin-resistance mechanism involving SET Domain Containing 2 (SETD2), a histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) trimethyltransferase, and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 (CREB1). A549 cells selected in vivo to give brain metastases exhibited cisplatin resistance and decreased expression of phosphorylated CREB1. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis identified a missense mutation in SETD2 (p.T1171K), and we demonstrated that SETD2-mediated trimethylation of H3K36 (H3K36me3) and CREB1 phosphorylation are critical for cellular sensitivity to cisplatin. Moreover, we showed that suppression of SETD2 or CREB1 and ectopic expression of mutant SETD2 conferred cisplatin resistance through inhibition of H3K36me3 and ERK activation in NSCLC cells. Our results provide evidence that SETD2 and CREB1 contribute to cisplatin cytotoxicity via regulation of the ERK signaling pathway, and their inactivation may lead to cisplatin resistance.
Poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(lysine) block copolymer–ubenimex conjugate targets aminopeptidase N and exerts an antitumor effect in hepatocellular carcinoma stem cells Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-08 Reishi Toshiyama, Masamitsu Konno, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Hiroyasu Takemoto, Takehiro Noda, Ayumu Asai, Jun Koseki, Naotsugu Haraguchi, Yuji Ueda, Katsunori Matsushita, Kei Asukai, Tomofumi Ohashi, Yoshifumi Iwagami, Daisaku Yamada, Daisuke Sakai, Tadafumi Asaoka, Toshihiro Kudo, Koichi Kawamoto, Kunihito Gotoh, Shogo Kobayashi, Taroh Satoh, Yuichiro Doki, Nobuhiro Nishiyama, Masaki Mori, Hideshi Ishii
Previous studies highlighted that aminopeptidase N (APN)/CD13 acts as a scavenger in the survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) stem cells by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Hence, it has been proposed that APN/CD13 inhibition can increase cellular ROS levels and sensitize cells to chemotherapeutic agents. Although ubenimex, also known as bestatin, competitively inhibits proteases such as APN/CD13 on the cellular membrane and it is clinically used for patients with acute myeloid leukemia and lymphedema, research has demonstrated that higher concentrations of the agent induce the death of APN/CD13+ HCC stem cells. In this study, we developed a poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(lysine) block copolymer–ubenimex conjugate (PEG-b-PLys(Ube)) to increase the efficacy of reagents in APN/CD13+ cancer stem cells. Exposure to PEG-b-PLys(Ube) increased the intracellular ROS concentration by inhibiting APN enzyme activity, permitting the induction of apoptosis and attenuation of HCC cell proliferation. In addition, PEG-b-PLys(Ube) exhibited a relatively stronger antitumor effect in mice than PEG-b-PLys alone or phosphate-buffered saline. Moreover, an isobologram analysis revealed that combinations of fluorouracil, cisplatin, or doxorubicin with PEG-b-PLys(Ube) exhibited synergistic effects. This study demonstrated that PEG-b-PLys(Ube) does not impair the properties of ubenimex and exerts a potent antitumor effect.
Hsp90β promotes aggressive vasculogenic mimicry via epithelial–mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-07 Jing Meng, Shuang Chen, Yue-yang Lei, Jing-xia Han, Wei-long Zhong, Xiao-rui Wang, Yan-rong Liu, Wan-feng Gao, Qiang Zhang, Qiang Tan, Hui-juan Liu, Hong-gang Zhou, Tao Sun, Cheng Yang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a typical hypervascular solid tumor. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formed by aggressive tumor cells to mimic vasculogenic networks plays an important role in the tumor malignancy of HCC. Hsp90β promotes endothelial cell-dependent angiogenesis in HCC. However, the relationship between Hsp90β and VM formation is unclear. In this study, we found that Hsp90β is positively correlated with VM and EMT marker proteins in HCC tissues and promotes tube formation, cell migration, and invasion in vitro. Hsp90β interacts with Twist1 and promotes its deubiquitination and stabilization to nuclear translocation and enhances the VE-cadherin promoter activity. Results of in vitro analysis indicate that Hsp90β enhances the tumor VM in tumor-burdened mice, and the Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-BEP800 suppresses VM formation by releasing Hsp90β and Twist1 interaction. This study provides a potential antitumor therapy for inhibiting VM by targeting Hsp90β in HCC.
ATP in the tumour microenvironment drives expression of nfP2X7, a key mediator of cancer cell survival Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-07 SM Gilbert, CJ Oliphant, S. Hassan, AL Peille, P. Bronsert, S. Falzoni, F. Di Virgilio, S. McNulty, R. Lara
The ATP-gated receptor P2X7 is expressed in multiple malignant tumours including neuroblastoma, melanoma, prostate, lung and breast. P2X7 has a significant role in mediating diverse cell responses, which upon dysregulation are associated with tumour initiation and development. The rapid, ATP-mediated activation of P2X7 induces a fast-inward cation current in cells. However, prolonged ATP-mediated activation of P2X7 leads to formation of a pore that increases membrane permeability and eventually causes cell death. This presents a potential paradox, as the tumour microenvironment contains extracellular ATP at levels sufficient to activate the P2X7 pore and trigger cell death. However, P2X7 expression is associated with enhanced cancer cell survival, proliferation and metastatic potential. At least one distinct conformational form of P2X7, termed non-pore functional P2X7 (nfP2X7), has been described, which is not able to form a functional pore. We demonstrate for the first time in this study that exposure to a high ATP concentration, equivalent to those measured in the tumour microenvironment, drives nfP2X7 expression and also that nfP2X7 is essential for tumour cell survival. We show that monoclonal antibodies raised against a P2X7 amino acid sequence (200–216), whose conformation is distinct from that of wild-type (WT) P2X7, bind specifically to nfP2X7 expressed on the surface of tumour cells. We also show that nfP2X7 is broadly expressed in patient-derived tumour sections from a wide range of cancers. Therefore, antibodies raised against E200 provide tools that can differentiate between forms of the P2X7 receptor that have a key role in cancer.
Vav proteins maintain epithelial traits in breast cancer cells using miR-200c-dependent and independent mechanisms Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-07 L. Francisco Lorenzo-Martín, Carmen Citterio, Mauricio Menacho-Márquez, Javier Conde, Romain M. Larive, Sonia Rodríguez-Fdez, Ramón García-Escudero, Javier Robles-Valero, Myriam Cuadrado, Isabel Fernández-Pisonero, Mercedes Dosil, María A. Sevilla, María J. Montero, Pedro M. Fernández-Salguero, Jesús M. Paramio, Xosé R. Bustelo
The bidirectional regulation of epithelial–mesenchymal transitions (EMT) is key in tumorigenesis. Rho GTPases regulate this process via canonical pathways that impinge on the stability of cell-to-cell contacts, cytoskeletal dynamics, and cell invasiveness. Here, we report that the Rho GTPase activators Vav2 and Vav3 utilize a new Rac1-dependent and miR-200c-dependent mechanism that maintains the epithelial state by limiting the abundance of the Zeb2 transcriptional repressor in breast cancer cells. In parallel, Vav proteins engage a mir-200c-independent expression prometastatic program that maintains epithelial cell traits only under 3D culture conditions. Consistent with this, the depletion of endogenous Vav proteins triggers mesenchymal features in epithelioid breast cancer cells. Conversely, the ectopic expression of an active version of Vav2 promotes mesenchymal-epithelial transitions using E-cadherin-dependent and independent mechanisms depending on the mesenchymal breast cancer cell line used. In silico analyses suggest that the negative Vav anti-EMT pathway is operative in luminal breast tumors. Gene signatures from the Vav-associated proepithelial and prometastatic programs have prognostic value in breast cancer patients.
FGF18, a prominent player in FGF signaling, promotes gastric tumorigenesis through autocrine manner and is negatively regulated by miR-590-5p Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Jinglin Zhang, Yuhang Zhou, Tingting Huang, Feng Wu, Yi Pan, Yujuan Dong, Yan Wang, Aden K. Y. Chan, Liping Liu, Johnny S. H. Kwan, Alvin H. K. Cheung, Chi Chun Wong, Angela K. F. Lo, Alfred S. L. Cheng, Jun Yu, Kwok Wai Lo, Wei Kang, Ka Fai To
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors are significant components during fundamental cellular processes. FGF18 plays a distinctive role in modulating the activity of both tumor cells and tumor microenvironment. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the expression and functional role of FGF18 in gastric cancer (GC) and elucidate its regulatory mechanisms. The upregulation of FGF18 was detected in seven out of eleven (63.6%) GC cell lines. In primary GC samples, FGF18 was overexpressed in genomically stable and chromosomal instability subtypes of GC and its overexpression was associated with poor survival. Knocking down FGF18 inhibited tumor formation abilities, induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest and enhanced anti-cancer drug sensitivity. Expression microarray profiling revealed that silencing of FGF18 activated ATM pathway but quenched TGF-β pathway. The key factors that altered in the related signaling were validated by western blot and immunofluorescence. Meanwhile, treating GC cells with human recombinant FGF18 or FGF18-conditioned medium accelerated tumor growth through activation of ERK-MAPK signaling. FGF18 was further confirmed to be a direct target of tumor suppressor, miR-590-5p. Their expressions showed a negative correlation in primary GC samples and more importantly, re-overexpression of FGF18 partly abolished the tumor-suppressive effect of miR-590-5p. Our study not only identified that FGF18 serves as a novel prognostic marker and a therapeutic target in GC but also enriched the knowledge of FGF-FGFR signaling during gastric tumorigenesis.
Aurora A plays a dual role in migration and survival of human glioblastoma cells according to the CXCL12 concentration Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Estelle Willems, Matthias Dedobbeleer, Marina Digregorio, Arnaud Lombard, Nicolas Goffart, Paul Noel Lumapat, Jeremy Lambert, Priscilla Van den Ackerveken, Martyna Szpakowska, Andy Chevigné, Felix Scholtes, Bernard Rogister
Primary glioblastoma is the most frequent human brain tumor in adults and is generally fatal due to tumor recurrence. We previously demonstrated that glioblastoma-initiating cells invade the subventricular zones and promote their radio-resistance in response to the local release of the CXCL12 chemokine. In this work, we show that the mitotic Aurora A kinase (AurA) is activated through the CXCL12–CXCR4 pathway in an ERK1/2-dependent manner. Moreover, the CXCL12–ERK1/2 signaling induces the expression of Ajuba, the main cofactor of AurA, which allows the auto-phosphorylation of AurA. We show that AurA contributes to glioblastoma cell survival, radio-resistance, self-renewal, and proliferation regardless of the exogenous stimulation with CXCL12. On the other hand, AurA triggers the CXCL12-mediated migration of glioblastoma cells in vitro as well as the invasion of the subventricular zone in xenograft experiments. Moreover, AurA regulates cytoskeletal proteins (i.e., Actin and Vimentin) and favors the pro-migratory activity of the Rho-GTPase CDC42 in response to CXCL12. Altogether, these results show that AurA, a well-known kinase of the mitotic machinery, may play alternative roles in human glioblastoma according to the CXCL12 concentration.
Induction of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) suppresses glioblastoma growth by inhibiting the Hippo pathway transcriptional coactivators YAP/TAZ Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Zhijun Liu, Yiju Wei, Lei Zhang, Patricia P. Yee, Martin Johnson, Xuexin Zhang, Melissa Gulley, Jennifer M. Atkinson, Mohamed Trebak, Hong-Gang Wang, Wei Li
Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most aggressive brain cancers without effective therapeutics. The Hippo pathway transcriptional coactivators YAP/TAZ were implicated as drivers in GBM progression and could be therapeutic targets. Here we found in an unbiased screen of 1650 compounds that amlodipine is able to inhibit survival of GBM cells by suppressing YAP/TAZ activities. Instead of its known function as an L-type calcium channel blocker, we found that amlodipine is able to activate Ca2+ entry by enhancing store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Amlodipine as well as approaches that cause store depletion and activate SOCE trigger phosphorylation and activation of Lats1/2, which in turn phosphorylate YAP/TAZ and prevent their accumulation in the cell nucleus. Furthermore, we identified that protein kinase C (PKC) beta II is a major mediator of Ca2+-induced Lats1/2 activation. Ca2+ induces accumulation of PKC beta II in an actin cytoskeletal compartment. Such translocation depends on inverted formin-2 (INF2). Depletion of INF2 disrupts both PKC beta II translocation and Lats1/2 activation. Functionally, we found that elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ or PKC beta II expression inhibits YAP/TAZ-mediated gene transcription. In vivo PKC beta II expression inhibits GBM tumor growth and prolongs mouse survival through inhibition of YAP/TAZ in an orthotopic mouse xenograft model. Our studies indicate that Ca2+ is a crucial intracellular cue that regulates the Hippo pathway and that triggering SOCE could be a strategy to target YAP/TAZ in GBM.
Hypermethylated gene ANKDD1A is a candidate tumor suppressor that interacts with FIH1 and decreases HIF1α stability to inhibit cell autophagy in the glioblastoma multiforme hypoxia microenvironment Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Jianbo Feng, Yan Zhang, Xiaoling She, Yingnan Sun, Li Fan, Xing Ren, Haijuan Fu, Changhong Liu, Peiyao Li, Chunhua Zhao, Qiang Liu, Qing Liu, Guiyuan Li, Minghua Wu
Ectopic epigenetic mechanisms play important roles in facilitating tumorigenesis. Here, we first demonstrated that ANKDD1A is a functional tumor suppressor gene, especially in the hypoxia microenvironment. ANKDD1A directly interacts with FIH1 and inhibits the transcriptional activity of HIF1α by upregulating FIH1. In addition, ANKDD1A decreases the half-life of HIF1α by upregulating FIH1, decreases glucose uptake and lactate production, inhibits glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) autophagy, and induces apoptosis in GBM cells under hypoxia. Moreover, ANKDD1A is highly frequently methylated in GBM. The tumor-specific methylation of ANKDD1A indicates that it could be used as a potential epigenetic biomarker as well as a possible therapeutic target.
Immunoregulatory protein B7-H3 regulates cancer stem cell enrichment and drug resistance through MVP-mediated MEK activation Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Zixing Liu, Wenling Zhang, Joshua B. Phillips, Ritu Arora, Steven McClellan, Jiangfeng Li, Jin-Hwan Kim, Robert W. Sobol, Ming Tan
B7-H3 is a tumor-promoting glycoprotein that is expressed at low levels in most normal tissues, but is overexpressed in various human cancers which is associated with disease progression and poor patient outcome. Although numerous publications have reported the correlation between B7-H3 and cancer progression in many types of cancers, mechanistic studies on how B7-H3 regulates cancer malignancy are rare, and the mechanisms underlying the role of B7-H3 in drug resistance are almost unknown. Here we report a novel finding that upregulation of B7-H3 increases the breast cancer stem cell population and promotes cancer development. Depletion of B7-H3 in breast cancer significantly inhibits the cancer stem cells. By immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we found that B7-H3 is associated with the major vault protein (MVP) and activates MEK through MVP-enhancing B-RAF and MEK interaction. B7-H3 expression increases stem cell population by binding to MVP which regulates the activation of the MAPK kinase pathway. Depletion of MVP blocks the activation of MEK induced by B7-H3 and dramatically inhibits B7-H3 induced stem cells. This study reports novel functions of B7-H3 in regulating breast cancer stem cell enrichment. The novel mechanism for B7-H3-induced stem cell propagation by regulating MVP/MEK signaling axis independent of the classic Ras pathway may have important implications in the development of strategies for overcoming cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy.
RANBP9 affects cancer cells response to genotoxic stress and its overexpression is associated with worse response to platinum in NSCLC patients Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-03 Anna Tessari, Kareesma Parbhoo, Meghan Pawlikowski, Matteo Fassan, Eliana Rulli, Claudia Foray, Alessandra Fabbri, Valerio Embrione, Monica Ganzinelli, Marina Capece, Moray J. Campbell, Massimo Broggini, Krista La Perle, Gabriella Farina, Sara Cole, Mirko Marabese, Marianna Hernandez, Joseph M. Amann, Giancarlo Pruneri, David P. Carbone, Marina C. Garassino, Carlo M. Croce, Dario Palmieri, Vincenzo Coppola
Although limited by severe side effects and development of resistance, platinum-based therapies still represent the most common first-line treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, a crucial need in the clinical management of NSCLC is represented by the identification of cases sensitive to DNA damage response (DDR)-targeting drugs, such as cisplatin or PARP inhibitors. Here, we provide a molecular rationale for the stratification of NSCLC patients potentially benefitting from platinum compounds based on the expression levels of RANBP9, a recently identified player of the cellular DDR. RANBP9 was found overexpressed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in NSCLC compared to normal adjacent tissues (NATs) (n = 147). Moreover, a retrospective analysis of 132 platinum-treated patients from the multi-centric TAILOR trial showed that RANBP9 overexpression levels are associated with clinical response to platinum compounds [Progression Free Survival Hazard Ratio (RANBP9 high vs low) 1.73, 95% CI 1.15–2.59, p = 0.0084; Overall Survival HR (RANBP9 high vs low) 1.99, 95% CI 1.27–3.11, p = 0.003]. Accordingly, RANBP9 KO cells showed higher sensitivity to cisplatin in comparison with WT controls both in vitro and in vivo models. NSCLC RANBP9 KO cells were also more sensitive than control cells to the PARP inhibitor olaparib alone and in combination with cisplatin, due to defective ATM-dependent and hyper-activated PARP-dependent DDR. The current investigation paves the way to prospective studies to assess the clinical value of RANBP9 protein levels as prognostic and predictive biomarker of response to DDR-targeting drugs, leading to the development of new tools for the management of NSCLC patients.
Tumor penetrating peptides inhibiting MYC as a potent targeted therapeutic strategy for triple-negative breast cancers Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-03 Edina Wang, Anabel Sorolla, Paula T. Cunningham, Heique M. Bogdawa, Samuel Beck, Emily Golden, Robert E. Dewhurst, Laura Florez, Mark N. Cruickshank, Katrin Hoffmann, Richard M. Hopkins, Jonghwan Kim, Andrew J. Woo, Paul M. Watt, Pilar Blancafort
Overexpression of MYC oncogene is highly prevalent in many malignancies such as aggressive triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) and it is associated with very poor outcome. Despite decades of research, attempts to effectively inhibit MYC, particularly with small molecules, still remain challenging due to the featureless nature of its protein structure. Herein, we describe the engineering of the dominant-negative MYC peptide (OmoMYC) linked to a functional penetrating ‘Phylomer’ peptide (FPPa) as a therapeutic strategy to inhibit MYC in TNBC. We found FPPa-OmoMYC to be a potent inducer of apoptosis (with IC50 from 1–2 µM) in TNBC cells with negligible effects in non-tumorigenic cells. Transcriptome analysis of FPPa-OmoMYC-treated cells indicated that the fusion protein inhibited MYC-dependent networks, inducing dynamic changes in transcriptional, metabolic, and apoptotic processes. We demonstrated the efficacy of FPPa-OmoMYC in inhibiting breast cancer growth when injected orthotopically in TNBC allografts. Lastly, we identified strong pharmacological synergisms between FPPa-OmoMYC and chemotherapeutic agents. This study highlights a novel therapeutic approach to target highly aggressive and chemoresistant MYC-activated cancers.
Long noncoding RNA PVT1-214 promotes proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer by stabilizing Lin28 and interacting with miR-128 Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-03 Feng He, Zhi Song, Huacui Chen, Zhuanpeng Chen, Ping Yang, Wanglin Li, Zhi Yang, Tong Zhang, Fei Wang, Jianchang Wei, Fang Wei, Qiang Wang, Jie Cao
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in human cancer, but their mechanisms of action are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated lncRNA alterations that contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC) through microarray expression profiling in CRC patient samples. Here, we report that the CRC-associated lncRNA PVT1-214 is a key regulator of CRC development and progression; patients with high PVT1-214 expression had a shorter survival and poorer prognosis. In vitro and in vivo investigation of the role of PVT1-214 revealed a complex integrated phenotype affecting cell growth, stem-like properties, migration, and invasion. Furthermore, using RNA pull-down and mass spectrometry, we found that Lin28 (also known as Lin28A), a highly conserved RNA-binding protein, is associated with PVT1-214. Strikingly, we found that PVT1-214 not only upregulated Lin28 protein expression in CRC cells by stabilizing Lin28, but also participated in crosstalk with Lin28 mRNA through competition for miR-128 binding, imposing an additional level of post-transcriptional regulation. In addition, we further show that PVT1-214 repressed expression of let-7 family miRNAs, which was abrogated by Lin28 knockdown. Taken together, our findings support a model in which the PVT1-214/Lin28/let-7 axis serves as a critical regulator of CRC pathogenesis, which may simulate a new direction for CRC therapeutic development.
The Lim1 oncogene as a new therapeutic target for metastatic human renal cell carcinoma Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-03 Imène Hamaidi, Catherine Coquard, Sabrina Danilin, Valérian Dormoy, Claire Béraud, Sylvie Rothhut, Mariette Barthelmebs, Nadia Benkirane-Jessel, Véronique Lindner, Hervé Lang, Thierry Massfelder
Metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCC) remains incurable despite advances in the development of anti-angiogenic targeted therapies and the emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors. We have previously shown that the sonic hedgehog-Gli signaling pathway is oncogenic in CCC allowing us to identify the developmental Lim1 transcription factor as a Gli target and as a new oncogene in CCC regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis, and promoting tumor growth. In this previous study, preliminary in vitro results also suggested that Lim1 may be implicated in metastatic spread. Here we investigated the potential pro-metastatic role of Lim1 in advanced CCC (1) in vitro using a panel of CCC cell lines expressing or not the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene either naturally or by gene transfer and (2) ex vivo in 30 CCC metastatic tissues, including lymph nodes, lung, skin, bone, and adrenal metastases, and (3) in vivo, using a metastatic model by intravenous injection of siRNA-transfected cells into Balb/c nude. Our in vitro results reveal that Lim1 knockdown time-dependently decreased CCC cell motility, migration, invasion, and clonogenicity by up to 50% regardless of their VHL status. Investigating the molecular machinery involved in these processes, we identified a large panel of Lim1 targets known to be involved in cell adhesion (paxillin and fibronectin), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (Twist1/2 and snail), invasion (MMP1/2/3/8/9), and metastatic progression (CXCR4, SDF-1, and ANG-1). Importantly, Lim1 was found constitutively expressed in all metastatic tissues. The H-score in metastatic tissues being significantly superior to the score in the corresponding primary tumor tissues (P value = 0.009). Furthermore, we showed that Lim1 silencing decreases pulmonary metastasis development in terms of number and size in the in vivo metastatic model of human CCC. Taken together, these experiments strengthen the potential therapeutic value of Lim1 targeting as a promising novel approach for treating metastatic human CCC.
Mouse ER+/PIK3CAH1047R breast cancers caused by exogenous estrogen are heterogeneously dependent on estrogen and undergo BIM-dependent apoptosis with BH3 and PI3K agents Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-03 Elias E. Stratikopoulos, Nicole Kiess, Matthias Szabolcs, Sarah Pegno, Cheung Kakit, Xuewei Wu, Poulikos I. Poulikakos, Pamela Cheung, Hank Schmidt, Ramon Parsons
Estrogen dependence is major driver of ER + breast cancer, which is associated with PI3K mutation. PI3K inhibition (PI3Ki) can restore dependence on ER signaling for some hormone therapy-resistant ER + breast cancers, but is ineffective in others. Here we show that short-term supplementation with estrogen strongly enhanced Pik3caH1047R−induced mammary tumorigenesis in mice that resulted exclusively in ER + tumors, demonstrating the cooperation of the hormone and the oncogene in tumor development. Similar to human ER + breast cancers that are endocrine-dependent or endocrine-independent at diagnosis, tumor lines from this model retained ER expression but were sensitive or resistant to hormonal therapies. PI3Ki did not induce cell death but did cause upregulation of the pro-apoptotic gene BIM. BH3 mimetics or PI3Ki were unable to restore hormone sensitivity in several resistant mouse and human tumor lines. Importantly however, combination of PI3Ki and BH3 mimetics had a profound, BIM-dependent cytotoxic effect in PIK3CA-mutant cancer cells while sparing normal cells. We propose that addition of BH3 mimetics offers a therapeutic strategy to markedly improve the cytotoxic activity of PI3Ki in hormonal therapy-resistant and ER−independent PIK3CA-mutant breast cancer.
KDM8/JMJD5 as a dual coactivator of AR and PKM2 integrates AR/EZH2 network and tumor metabolism in CRPC Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-02 Hung-Jung Wang, Mamata Pochampalli, Ling-Yu Wang, June X Zou, Pei-Shan Li, Sheng-Chieh Hsu, Bi-Juan Wang, Shih-Han Huang, Ping Yang, Joy C. Yang, Cheng-Ying Chu, Chia-Ling Hsieh, Shian-Ying Sung, Chien-Feng Li, Clifford G. Tepper, David K. Ann, Allen C. Gao, Christopher P. Evans, Yoshihiro Izumiya, Chi-Pin Chuu, Wen-Ching Wang, Hong-Wu Chen, Hsing-Jien Kung
During the evolution into castration or therapy resistance, prostate cancer cells reprogram the androgen responses to cope with the diminishing level of androgens, and undergo metabolic adaption to the nutritionally deprived and hypoxia conditions. AR (androgen receptor) and PKM2 (pyruvate kinase M2) have key roles in these processes. We report in this study, KDM8/JMJD5, a histone lysine demethylase/dioxygnase, exhibits a novel property as a dual coactivator of AR and PKM2 and as such, it is a potent inducer of castration and therapy resistance. Previously, we showed that KDM8 is involved in the regulation of cell cycle and tumor metabolism in breast cancer cells. Its role in prostate cancer has not been explored. Here, we show that KDM8’s oncogenic properties in prostate cancer come from its direct interaction (1) with AR to affect androgen response and (2) with PKM2 to regulate tumor metabolism. The interaction with AR leads to the elevated expression of androgen response genes in androgen-deprived conditions. They include ANCCA/ATAD2 and EZH2, which are directly targeted by KDM8 and involved in sustaining the survival of the cells under hormone-deprived conditions. Notably, in enzalutamide-resistant cells, the expressions of both KDM8 and EZH2 are further elevated, so are neuroendocrine markers. Consequently, EZH2 inhibitors or KDM8 knockdown both resensitize the cells toward enzalutamide. In the cytosol, KDM8 associates with PKM2, the gatekeeper of pyruvate flux and translocates PKM2 into the nucleus, where the KDM8/PKM2 complex serves as a coactivator of HIF-1α to upregulate glycolytic genes. Using shRNA knockdown, we validate KDM8’s functions as a regulator for both androgen-responsive and metabolic genes. KDM8 thus presents itself as an ideal therapeutic target for metabolic adaptation and castration-resistance of prostate cancer cells.
Sno-derived RNAs are prevalent molecular markers of cancer immunity Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-02 Ryan D. Chow, Sidi Chen
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) constitute a family of noncoding RNAs that are classically known as guide RNAs for processing and modification of ribosomal RNAs. Recently, it was discovered that snoRNAs can be further processed into sno-derived RNAs (sdRNAs), some of which are known to exhibit microRNA-like properties. SdRNAs have been implicated in human cancer; however, a systems-level sdRNA landscape in human cancers is lacking. Through integrative analysis of ~22 nt size-selected smRNA-seq datasets from 10,262 patient samples across 32 cancer types, we mapped a pan-cancer sdRNAome and interrogated its signatures in multiple clinically relevant features, particularly cancer immunity and clinical outcome. Aggregating sdRNA abundances by parental snoRNAs, these expression signatures alone are sufficient to distinguish patients with distinct cancer types. Interestingly, a large panel of sdRNAs are significantly correlated with features of the tumor-immune microenvironment, such as immunosuppressive markers, CD8+ T cell infiltration, cytolytic T cell activity, and tumor vasculature. A set of individual sdRNAs with tumor-immune signatures can also stratify patient survival. These findings implicate snoRNAs and their derivative sdRNAs as a class of prevalent noncoding molecular markers of human cancer immunity.
PTBP3 splicing factor promotes hepatocellular carcinoma by destroying the splicing balance of NEAT1 and pre-miR-612 Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 Xisheng Yang, Shibin Qu, Lin Wang, Hongtao Zhang, Zhaoxu Yang, Jianlin Wang, Bin Dai, Kaishan Tao, Runze Shang, Zhengcai Liu, Xiao Li, Zhuochao Zhang, Congcong Xia, Ben Ma, Wei Liu, Haimin Li, Kefeng Dou
Nuclear-enriched RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are mainly involved in transcriptional regulation, which is a critical checkpoint to tune gene diversity and expression levels. We analyzed nuclear RBPs in human HCC tissues and matched normal control tissues. Based on the gene expression levels, PTBP3 was identified as top-ranked in the nuclei of HCC cells. HCC cell lines then were transfected with siRNAs or lentiviral vectors. PTBP3 promoted HCC cell proliferation and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and qRT-PCR assays verified that PTBP3 protein recruited abundant lnc-NEAT1 splicing variants (NEAT1_1 and NEAT1_2) and pre-miR-612 (precursor of miR-612) in the nucleus. NEAT1_1, NEAT1_2 and miR-612 expression levels were determined by PTBP3. Correlational analyses revealed that PTBP3 was positively correlated with NEAT1, but it was inversely correlated with miR-612 in HCC. The P53/CCND1 and AKT2/EMT pathways were determined by NEAT1 and miR-612 respectively in HCC. The PTBP3high and NEAT1high/miR-612low patients had a shorter overall survival. Therefore, nuclear-enriched RBP, PTBP3, promotes HCC cell malignant growth and metastasis by regulating the balance of splicing variants (NEAT1_1, NEAT1_2 and miR-612) in HCC.
Hippo signaling dysfunction induces cancer cell addiction to YAP Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 Han Han, Bing Yang, Hiroki J Nakaoka, Jiadong Yang, Yifan Zhao, Kathern Le Nguyen, Amell Taffy Bishara, Tejas Krishen Mandalia, Wenqi Wang
Over the past decades, the Hippo has been established as a crucial pathway involved in organ size control and cancer suppression. Dysregulation of Hippo signaling and hyperactivation of its downstream effector YAP are frequently associated with various human cancers. However, the underlying significance of such YAP activation in cancer development and therapy has not been fully characterized. In this study, we reported that the Hippo signaling deficiency can lead to a YAP-dependent oncogene addiction for cancer cells. Through a clinical compound library screen, we identified histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as putative inhibitors to suppress YAP expression. Importantly, HDAC inhibitors specifically targeted the viability and xenograft tumor growth for the cancer cells in which YAP is constitutively active. Taken together, our results not only establish an active YAP-induced oncogene addiction in cancer cells, but also lay the foundation to develop targeted therapies for the cancers with Hippo dysfunction and YAP activation.
Correction: Energy-dependent nucleolar localization of p53 in vitro requires two discrete regions within the p53 carboxyl terminus Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 O Karni-Schmidt, A Friedler, A Zupnick, K McKinney, M Mattia, R Beckerman, P Bouvet, M Sheetz, A Fersht, C Prives
Correction: Energy-dependent nucleolar localization of p53 in vitro requires two discrete regions within the p53 carboxyl terminus Correction: Energy-dependent nucleolar localization of p53 in vitro requires two discrete regions within the p53 carboxyl terminus, Published online: 01 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41388-018-0321-1 Correction: Energy-dependent nucleolar localization of p53 in vitro requires two discrete regions within the p53 carboxyl terminus
Coronin 1C promotes triple-negative breast cancer invasiveness through regulation of MT1-MMP traffic and invadopodia function Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-31 Alessia Castagnino, Antonio Castro-Castro, Marie Irondelle, Alan Guichard, Catalina Lodillinsky, Laetitia Fuhrmann, Sophie Vacher, Sonia Agüera-González, Anna Zagryazhskaya-Masson, Maryse Romao, Carole El Kesrouani, Angelika A. Noegel, Thierry Dubois, Graça Raposo, James E. Bear, Christoph S. Clemen, Anne Vincent-Salomon, Ivan Bièche, Philippe Chavrier
Membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), a membrane-tethered protease, is key for matrix breakdown during cancer invasion and metastasis. Assembly of branched actin networks by the Arp2/3 complex is required for MT1-MMP traffic and formation of matrix-degradative invadopodia. Contrasting with the well-established role of actin filament branching factor cortactin in invadopodia function during cancer cell invasion, the contribution of coronin-family debranching factors to invadopodia-based matrix remodeling is not known. Here, we investigated the contribution of coronin 1C to the invasive potential of breast cancer cells. We report that expression of coronin 1C is elevated in invasive human breast cancers, correlates positively with MT1-MMP expression in relation with increased metastatic risk and is a new independent prognostic factor in breast cancer. We provide evidence that, akin to cortactin, coronin 1C is required for invadopodia formation and matrix degradation by breast cancer cells lines and for 3D collagen invasion by multicellular spheroids. Using intravital imaging of orthotopic human breast tumor xenografts, we find that coronin 1C accumulates in structures forming in association with collagen fibrils in the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, we establish the role of coronin 1C in the regulation of positioning and trafficking of MT1-MMP-positive endolysosomes. These results identify coronin 1C as a novel player of the multi-faceted mechanism responsible for invadopodia formation, MT1-MMP surface exposure and invasiveness in breast cancer cells.
GPR55 signalling promotes proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells and tumour growth in mice, and its inhibition increases effects of gemcitabine Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-30 R. Ferro, A. Adamska, R. Lattanzio, I. Mavrommati, C. E. Edling, S. A. Arifin, C. A. Fyffe, G. Sala, L. Sacchetto, G. Chiorino, V. De Laurenzi, M. Piantelli, O. J. Sansom, T. Maffucci, M. Falasca
The life expectancy for pancreatic cancer patients has seen no substantial changes in the last 40 years as very few and mostly just palliative treatments are available. As the five years survival rate remains around 5%, the identification of novel pharmacological targets and development of new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of the G protein-coupled receptor GPR55, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, reduces pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo and we propose that this may represent a novel strategy to inhibit pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) progression. Specifically, we show that genetic ablation of Gpr55 in the KRASWT/G12D/TP53WT/R172H/Pdx1-Cre+/+ (KPC) mouse model of PDAC significantly prolonged survival. Importantly, KPC mice treated with a combination of the GPR55 antagonist Cannabidiol (CBD) and gemcitabine (GEM, one of the most used drugs to treat PDAC), survived nearly three times longer compared to mice treated with vehicle or GEM alone. Mechanistically, knockdown or pharmacologic inhibition of GPR55 reduced anchorage-dependent and independent growth, cell cycle progression, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling and protein levels of ribonucleotide reductases in PDAC cells. Consistent with this, genetic ablation of Gpr55 reduced proliferation of tumour cells, MAPK signalling and ribonucleotide reductase M1 levels in KPC mice. Combination of CBD and GEM inhibited tumour cell proliferation in KPC mice and it opposed mechanisms involved in development of resistance to GEM in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that the tumour suppressor p53 regulates GPR55 protein expression through modulation of the microRNA miR34b-3p. Our results demonstrate the important role played by GPR55 downstream of p53 in PDAC progression. Moreover our data indicate that combination of CBD and GEM, both currently approved for medical use, might be tested in clinical trials as a novel promising treatment to improve PDAC patients’ outcome.
Differential regulation of the sphere formation and maintenance of cancer-initiating cells of malignant mesothelioma via CD44 and ALK4 signaling pathways Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-30 Yoshiya Ohno, Serina Shingyoku, Sakina Miyake, Aya Tanaka, Sena Fudesaka, Yuta Shimizu, Ai Yoshifuji, Yuki Yamawaki, Sachiyo Yoshida, Saya Tanaka, Kazuma Sakura, Toshiyuki Tanaka
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) has a poor prognosis and is largely resistant to standard treatments, so it is important to seek novel therapeutic strategies for this disease. Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) were previously identified in MM using stem cell-associated markers in combination with spheroid cultures. However, the mechanisms underlying the induction and maintenance of CICs in MM remain to be fully explored. Here we showed that the CICs, which had high aldehyde dehydrogenase levels (ALDHbright) and stem cell-associated genes, were expanded in MM cells cultured under sphere-forming conditions. The MM spheroids also initiated tumors in immunodeficient mice more efficiently than did conventional adherent MM cells. In the MM spheroids, the expression of hyaluronan (HA) synthases was upregulated. Inhibiting the HA synthesis or CD44 functions by gene knockdown or neutralizing antibody abolished the formation of large-sized spheroids and the expansion of ALDHbright CICs. The expression of activin-A was also increased in the spheroids, and type I activin-A receptor subunit (ALK4) was upregulated in the ALDHbright CICs. The neutralization of activin-A or functional inactivation of ALK4 diminished the ALDHbright CICs without affecting spheroid formation. The knockdown of CD44 or ALK4 strongly suppressed the tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. These results together suggest that the HA–CD44 and activin-A–ALK4 pathways differentially regulate the spheroid formation and maintenance of ALDHbright CICs in MM cells, and that both pathways play critical roles in tumor growth in immunodeficient hosts. Our findings provide a novel therapeutic option for MM that targets signaling pathways that promote the CIC compartment through CD44 and ALK4.
CAB39L elicited an anti-Warburg effect via a LKB1-AMPK-PGC1α axis to inhibit gastric tumorigenesis Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-27 Weilin Li, Chi Chun Wong, Xiaoming Zhang, Wei Kang, Geicho Nakatsu, Qinfu Zhao, Huarong Chen, Minnie Yin Yin Go, Philip Wai Yan Chiu, Xiaohong Wang, Jiafu Ji, Xiaona Li, Zongwei Cai, Enders Kwok Wai Ng, Jun Yu
Metabolic dysfunction is a hallmark of gastric cancer (GC). In this study, we reported the identification of Calcium Binding Protein 39-Like (CAB39L) as a novel regulator of tumor metabolism in GC. CAB39L mRNA was frequently silenced by promoter methylation in GC cell lines and tissues. Functional studies suggested that CAB39L functions as a tumor suppressor, as overexpression of CAB39L elicited suppression of multiple cancer phenotypes both in GC cells and an orthotopic mouse model; whilst its knockdown promoted tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, CAB39L interacted with LKB1-STRAD complex and induced LKB1, leading to the phosphorylation and activation of AMPKα/β. LKB1-AMPK activation in GC cell lines was tumor suppressive, as metformin (an AMPK activator) inhibited GC cell growth in the CAB39L-silenced cells. Moreover, knockdown of LKB1 reversed growth inhibitory effect of CAB39L, indicating that tumor suppression by CAB39L depended on LKB1-AMPK. RNAseq and gene set enrichment analysis revealed that CAB39L was closely correlated with oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis. Consistently, CAB39L-induced p-AMPK elicited PGC1α phosphorylation and increased the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial respiration complexes. Accordingly, CAB39L reversed the Warburg effect in GC, as evidenced by enhanced oxygen consumption rate and reduced extracellular acidification rate; inversely, CAB39L knockdown promoted a metabolic shift towards the Warburg phenotype. In GC patients, CAB39L promoter hypermethylation was correlated with poor prognosis. Our data demonstrate that CAB39L is a novel tumor suppressor which suppresses tumorigenesis by promoting LKB1-AMPK-PGC1α axis, thereby preventing a metabolic shift that drives carcinogenesis. CAB39L methylation is a potential prognostic biomarker for GC patients.
BRCA1 deficiency sensitizes breast cancer cells to bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) inhibition Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-24 Baoyuan Zhang, Junfang Lyu, Yifan Liu, Changjie Wu, Eun Ju Yang, Lakhansing Pardeshi, Kaeling Tan, Koon Ho Wong, Qiang Chen, Xiaoling Xu, Chu-Xia Deng, Joong Sup Shim
BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor frequently mutated in breast and ovarian cancer, serving it as a target for therapeutic exploitation. Here, we show that BRCA1 has a synthetic lethality interaction with an epigenetics regulator, bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET). BET inhibition led to gene expression changes reversing MYC-dependent transcription repression of a redox regulator, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), via switching the promoter occupant from MYC to MondoA:MLX complex. Reversing the MYC-TXNIP axis inhibited thioredoxin activity and elevated cellular oxidative stress, causing DNA damages that are detrimental to BRCA1-deficient breast cancer cells. Tumor xenograft models and breast cancer clinical data analyses further demonstrated an in vivo synthetic lethality interaction and clinical association between BET/TXNIP and BRCA1 deficiency in the survival of breast cancer patients.
Nuclear receptor ERRα and transcription factor ERG form a reciprocal loop in the regulation of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene in prostate cancer Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-24 Zhenyu Xu, Yuliang Wang, Zhan Gang Xiao, Chang Zou, Xian Zhang, Zhu Wang, Dinglan Wu, Shan Yu, Franky Leung Chan
The TMPRSS2:ERG (T:E) fusion gene is generally believed to be mainly regulated by the activated androgen receptor (AR) signaling in androgen-dependent prostate cancer. However, its persistent expression in castration-resistant and neuroendocrine prostate cancers implies that other transcription factors might also regulate its expression. Here, we showed that up-regulation of nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) was closely associated with the oncogenic transcription factor ERG expression in prostate cancer, and their increased coexpression patterns were closely associated with high Gleason scores and metastasis in patients. Both ERRα and ERG exhibited a positive expression correlation in a castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) xenograft model VCaP-CRPC. We showed that ERRα could directly transactivate T:E fusion gene in both AR-positive and -negative prostate cancer cells via both ERR-binding element- and AR-binding element-dependent manners. Ectopic T:E expression under ERRα regulation could promote both in vitro invasion and in vivo metastasis capacities of AR-negative prostatic cells. Intriguingly, ERG expressed by the T:E fusion could also transactivate the ERRα (ESRRA) gene. Hereby, ERRα and ERG can synergistically regulate each other and form a reciprocal regulatory loop to promote the advanced growth of prostate cancer. Inhibition of ERRα activity by ERRα inverse agonist could suppress T:E expression in prostate cancer cells, implicating that targeting ERRα could be a potential therapeutic strategy for treating the aggressive T:E-positive prostate cancer.
Adam12 and lnc015192 act as ceRNAs in breast cancer by regulating miR-34a Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-24 Xiaojia Huang, Xinhua Xie, Peng Liu, Lu Yang, Bo Chen, Cailu Song, Hailin Tang, Xiaoming Xie
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are reported to play vital roles in the progress of multiple cancers. However, the functions of lncRNAs in breast cancer remain to be discovered. We performed microarrays to identify the differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs in breast tissues with or without miR-34a knockout. To explore the functions of the differentially expressed mRNA and lncRNA in breast cancer, we conducted a series of experiments. We found that Adam12 and lnc015192 were significantly upregulated in miR-34a knockout breast tissues. Knockdown of Adam12 and lnc015192 inhibited breast cancer cell migration, invasion, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Further experiments revealed that lnc015192 regulated Adam12 expression by functioning as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for miR-34a. In summary, our study demonstrate that Adam12 and lnc015192 promote breast cancer metastasis partly by sponging miR-34a through the ceRNA mechanism.
DNA polymerase gamma (Polγ) deficiency triggers a selective mTORC2 prosurvival autophagy response via mitochondria-mediated ROS signaling Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Sanjit K. Dhar, Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu, Bithika Dhar, Jing Chen, Izumi Tadahide, Haining Zhu, Tianyan Gao, Daret K. St. Clair
Autophagy is a highly regulated evolutionarily conserved metabolic process induced by stress and energy deprivation. Here, we show that DNA polymerase gamma (Polγ) deficiency activates a selective prosurvival autophagic response via mitochondria-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) activities. In keratinocytes, Polγ deficiency causes metabolic adaptation that triggers cytosolic sensing of energy demand for survival. Knockdown of Polγ causes mitochondrial stress, decreases mitochondrial energy production, increases glycolysis, increases the expression of autophagy-associated genes, and enhances AKT phosphorylation and cell proliferation. Deficiency of Polγ preferentially activates mTORC2 formation to increase autophagy and cell proliferation, and knocking down Rictor abrogates these responses. Overexpression of Rictor, but not Raptor, reactivates autophagy in Polγ-deficient cells. Importantly, inhibition of ROS by a mitochondria-selective ROS scavenger abolishes autophagy and cell proliferation. These results identify Rictor as a critical link between mitochondrial stress, ROS, and autophagy. They represent a major shift in our understanding of the prosurvival role of the mTOR complexes and highlight mitochondria-mediated ROS as a prosurvival autophagy regulator during cancer development.
A SIRT1-centered circuitry regulates breast cancer stemness and metastasis Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Lei Shi, Xiaolong Tang, Minxian Qian, Zuojun Liu, Fanbiao Meng, Li Fu, Zimei Wang, Wei-Guo Zhu, Jian-Dong Huang, Zhongjun Zhou, Baohua Liu
Cancer stem cell (CSC)-dictated intratumor heterogeneity accounts for the majority of drug-resistance and distant metastases of breast cancers. Here, we identify a SIRT1-PRRX1-KLF4-ALDH1 circuitry, which couples CSCs, chemo-resistance, metastasis and aging. Pro-longevity protein SIRT1 deacetylates and stabilizes the epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) inducer PRRX1, which inhibits the transcription of core stemness factor KLF4. Loss of SIRT1 destabilizes PRRX1, disinhibits KLF4, and activates the transcription of ALDH1, which induces and functionally marks CSCs, resulting in chemo-resistance and metastatic relapse. Clinically, the level of PRRX1 is positively linked to SIRT1, whereas KLF4 is reversely correlated. Importantly, KLF4 inhibitor Kenpaullone sensitizes breast cancer cells and xenograft tumors to Paclitaxel and improves therapeutic effects. Our findings delineate a SIRT1-centered circuitry that regulates CSC origination, and targeting this pathway might be a promising therapeutic strategy.
Intrathymic Notch3 and CXCR4 combinatorial interplay facilitates T-cell leukemia propagation Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Francesca Ferrandino, Giovanni Bernardini, Georgia Tsaouli, Paola Grazioli, Antonio Francesco Campese, Claudia Noce, Ambra Ciuffetta, Alessandra Vacca, Zein Mersini Besharat, Diana Bellavia, Isabella Screpanti, Maria Pia Felli
Notch hyperactivation dominates T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia development, but the mechanisms underlying “pre-leukemic” cell dissemination are still unclear. Here we describe how deregulated Notch3 signaling enhances CXCR4 cell-surface expression and migratory ability of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes, possibly contributing to “pre-leukemic” cell propagation, early in disease progression. In transgenic mice overexpressing the constitutively active Notch3 intracellular domain, we detect the progressive increase in circulating blood and bone marrow of CD4+CD8+ cells, characterized by high and combined surface expression of Notch3 and CXCR4. We report for the first time that transplantation of such CD4+CD8+ cells reveals their competence in infiltrating spleen and bone marrow of immunocompromised recipient mice. We also show that CXCR4 surface expression is central to the migratory ability of CD4+CD8+ cells and such an expression is regulated by Notch3 through β-arrestin in human leukemia cells. De novo, we propose that hyperactive Notch3 signaling by boosting CXCR4-dependent migration promotes anomalous egression of CD4+CD8+ cells from the thymus in early leukemia stages. In fact, in vivo CXCR4 antagonism prevents bone marrow colonization by such CD4+CD8+ cells in young Notch3 transgenic mice. Therefore, our data suggest that combined therapies precociously counteracting intrathymic Notch3/CXCR4 crosstalk may prevent dissemination of “pre-leukemic” CD4+CD8+ cells, by a “thymus-autonomous” mechanism.
USP17 mediates macrophage-promoted inflammation and stemness in lung cancer cells by regulating TRAF2/TRAF3 complex formation Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Chih-Hao Lu, Da-Wei Yeh, Chao-Yang Lai, Yi-Ling Liu, Li-Rung Huang, Alan Yueh-Luen Lee, S.-L. Catherine Jin, Tsung-Hsien Chuang
Macrophage accumulation and inflammation in the lung owing to stresses and diseases is a cause of lung cancer development. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between macrophages and cancer cells, which drive inflammation and stemness in cancers, are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the expression of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 17 (USP17) in lung cancers, and role of elevated USP17 in the interaction between macrophages and lung cancer cells. USP17 expression in lung cancers was associated with poor prognosis, macrophage, and inflammatory marker expressions. Macrophages promoted USP17 expression in cancer cells. TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) 2-binding and TRAF3-binding motifs were identified in USP17, through which it interacted with and disrupted the TRAF2/TRAF3 complex. This stabilized its client proteins, enhanced inflammation and stemness in cancer cells, and promoted macrophage recruitment. In different animal studies, co-injection of macrophages with cancer cells promoted USP17 expression in tumors and tumor growth. Conversely, depletion of macrophages in host animals by clodronate liposomes reduced USP17 expression and tumor growth. In addition, overexpression of USP17 in cancer cells promoted tumor growth and inflammation-associated and stemness-associated gene expressions in tumors. These results suggested that USP17 drives a positive-feedback interaction between macrophages and cancer cells to enhance inflammation and stemness in cancer cells, and promotes lung cancer growth.
The Myb-related protein MYPOP is a novel intrinsic host restriction factor of oncogenic human papillomaviruses Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-17 Elena Wüstenhagen, Fatima Boukhallouk, Inka Negwer, Krishnaraj Rajalingam, Frank Stubenrauch, Luise Florin
The skin represents a physical and chemical barrier against invading pathogens, which is additionally supported by restriction factors that provide intrinsic cellular immunity. These factors detect viruses to block their replication cycle. Here, we uncover the Myb-related transcription factor, partner of profilin (MYPOP) as a novel antiviral protein. It is highly expressed in the epithelium and binds to the minor capsid protein L2 and the DNA of human papillomaviruses (HPV), which are the primary causative agents of cervical cancer and other tumors. The early promoter activity and early gene expression of the oncogenic HPV types 16 and 18 is potently silenced by MYPOP. Cellular MYPOP-depletion relieves the restriction of HPV16 infection, demonstrating that MYPOP acts as a restriction factor. Interestingly, we found that MYPOP protein levels are significantly reduced in diverse HPV-transformed cell lines and in HPV-induced cervical cancer. Decades ago it became clear that the early oncoproteins E6 and E7 cooperate to immortalize keratinocytes by promoting degradation of tumor suppressor proteins. Our findings suggest that E7 stimulates MYPOP degradation. Moreover, overexpression of MYPOP blocks colony formation of HPV and non-virally transformed keratinocytes, suggesting that MYPOP exhibits tumor suppressor properties.
FMNL1 mediates nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell aggressiveness by epigenetically upregulating MTA1 Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-16 Wen-Hui Chen, Mu-Yan Cai, Jia-Xing Zhang, Feng-Wei Wang, Lin-Quan Tang, Yi-Ji Liao, Xiao-Han Jin, Chen-Yuan Wang, Ling Guo, Yi-Guo Jiang, Cai-Ping Ren, Hai-Qiang Mai, Mu-Sheng Zeng, Hsiang-Fu Kung, Chao-Nan Qian, Dan Xie
It has been suggested that formin-like protein 1 (FMNL1) plays an important role in the pathogenic process of several hematopoietic malignancies. In this study, we performed a series of in vivo and in vitro assays to elucidate the biological functions of FMNL1 and underlying mechanisms in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) pathogenesis. Herein, we report that high expression of FMNL1 in NPC is positively associated with an aggressive disease and/or poor patient survival. Ectopic overexpression of FMNL1 in NPC cells substantially promoted cell invadopodia formation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasiveness, whereas depletion of FMNL1 potently suppressed NPC cells invadopodia formation, EMT, and invasive/metastatic capacities. We further show that FMNL1 could enhance NPC cell aggressiveness by increasing a key downstream target, the metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) gene. Importantly, ectopic overexpression of FMNL1 in NPC cells markedly improved the binding of HDAC1 with Profilin2 in the cytoplasm and suppressed the enrichment of HDAC1 on the promoter of MTA1 and thereby, leading to an increased MTA1 transcription and expression. Furthermore, in addition to the amplification of FMNL1 gene, decreased level of miR-16 in NPCs is another critical mechanism to upregulate FMNL1 expression. These results, collectively, provide first-line of evidences that high expression of FMNL1, resulted from decreased miR-16 and/or MTA1 amplification, has a potent oncogenic role to drive the development and aggressive process of NPC by upregulating MTA1, and FMNL1 might be employed as a new prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for human NPC.
Methylation of Aurora kinase A by MMSET reduces p53 stability and regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-16 Jin Woo Park, Yun-Cheol Chae, Ji-Young Kim, Hyein Oh, Sang-Beom Seo
The histone methyltransferase multiple myeloma SET domain protein (MMSET/WHSC1) is highly expressed in diverse tumor types, and its expression appears to be involved in cell proliferation. In this study, we report that MMSET interacts with and methylates Aurora kinase A (AURKA). We show that MMSET-mediated methylation of AURKA induces interaction with p53 as well as enhanced kinase activity of AURKA, which results in the proteasomal degradation of p53. MMSET-mediated p53 degradation increases cell proliferation and results in oncogenic activity. Furthermore, knockdown of MMSET potently inhibits tumorigenic cells and renders them sensitive to growth inhibition by the therapeutic drug, alisertib (AURKA inhibitor). Taken together, our results suggest that MMSET is a regulator of p53 stability via methylation of AURKA in proliferating cells and might be a potential therapeutic target in solid tumors.
Bruton’s tyrosine kinase potentiates ALK signaling and serves as a potential therapeutic target of neuroblastoma Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-16 Tianfeng Li, Yi Deng, Yu Shi, Ruijun Tian, Yonglong Chen, Lin Zou, Julhash U. Kazi, Lars Rönnstrand, Bo Feng, Sun On Chan, Wai Yee Chan, Jianmin Sun, Hui Zhao
Aberrant activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) can cause sporadic and familial neuroblastoma. Using a proteomics approach, we identified Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) as a novel ALK interaction partner, and the physical interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. BTK is expressed in neuroblastoma cell lines and tumor tissues. Its high expression correlates with poor relapse-free survival probability of neuroblastoma patients. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that BTK potentiates ALK-mediated signaling in neuroblastoma, and increases ALK stability by reducing ALK ubiquitination. Both ALKWT and ALKF1174L can induce BTK phosphorylation and higher capacity of ALKF1174L is observed. Furthermore, the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib can effectively inhibit the growth of neuroblastoma xenograft in nude mice, and the combination of ibrutinib and the ALK inhibitor crizotinib further enhances the inhibition. Our study provides strong rationale for clinical trial of ALK-positive neuroblastoma using ibrutinib or the combination of ibrutinib and ALK inhibitors.
Epithelial–mesenchymal-transition-inducing transcription factors: new targets for tackling chemoresistance in cancer? Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-12 Jente van Staalduinen, David Baker, Peter ten Dijke, Hans van Dam
Chemoresistance remains a major complication of cancer treatments. Recent data provide strong evidence that chemoresistance is linked to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), a latent developmental process, which is re-activated during cancer progression. EMT involves transcriptional reprogramming and is driven by specific EMT transcription factors (EMT-TFs). In this review, we provide support for the idea that EMT-TFs contribute to the development of resistance against cancer therapy and discuss how EMT-TFs might be targeted to advance novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of cancer.
LINC01638 lncRNA activates MTDH-Twist1 signaling by preventing SPOP-mediated c-Myc degradation in triple-negative breast cancer Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-12 Liyun Luo, Hailin Tang, Li Ling, Nan Li, Xiaoting Jia, Zhijie Zhang, Xiaorong Wang, Lejuan Shi, Jiang Yin, Ni Qiu, Hao Liu, Ying Song, Kai Luo, Hongsheng Li, Zhimin He, Guopei Zheng, Xiaoming Xie
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) continues to be a serious health problem. The potential involvement of lncRNAs in TNBC progression remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrated that LINC01638 is highly expressed in TNBC tissues and cells. LINC01638 maintains the mesenchymal traits of TNBC cells, including an enriched epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) signature and cancer stem cell-like state. LINC01638 knockdown suppresses tumor proliferation and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. LINC01638 overexpression predicts a poor outcome of breast cancer patients. Mechanistically, LINC01638 interacts with c-Myc to prevent SPOP-mediated c-Myc ubiquitination and degradation. C-Myc transcriptionally enhances MTDH (metadherin) expression and subsequently activates Twist1 expression to induce EMT. Our findings describe LINC01638-mediated signal transduction and highlight the crucial role of LINC01638 in TNBC progression.
CPT1A-mediated fatty acid oxidation promotes colorectal cancer cell metastasis by inhibiting anoikis Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 Ying-nan Wang, Zhao-lei Zeng, Jiahuan Lu, Yun Wang, Ze-xian Liu, Ming-ming He, Qi Zhao, Zi-xian Wang, Ting Li, Yun-xin Lu, Qi-nian Wu, Kai Yu, Feng Wang, Heng-Ying Pu, Bo Li, Wei-hua Jia, Ming shi, Dan Xie, Tie-bang Kang, Peng Huang, Huai-qiang Ju, Rui-hua Xu
Anoikis is a critical obstacle to cancer metastasis. Colorectal cancer (CRC) exhibits a high rate of metastasis, leading to death, and the mechanisms involved in anoikis resistance are still unclear. We identified that the fatty acid oxidation (FAO) pathway was activated in detached CRC cells. Multiple genes in the FAO pathway, specifically the rate-limiting enzyme CPT1A, were upregulated in CRC cells grown in suspension. Reactive oxygen species elimination mediated by CPT1A in CRC cells was vital to anoikis resistance. In vivo experiments showed that CPT1A-suppressed CRC cells colonized the lung at a much lower rate than normal CRC cells, suggesting that CPT1A-mediated FAO activation increased metastatic capacity. In clinical tissue specimens from CRC patients, elevated expression of CPT1A was observed in metastatic sites compared with primary sites. Our results demonstrate that CPT1A-mediated FAO activation induces CRC cells to resist anoikis, suggesting that CPT1A is an attractive target for treating metastatic CRC.
Notch signaling promotes a HIF2α-driven hypoxic response in multiple tumor cell types Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 Anders P. Mutvei, Sebastian K.-J. Landor, Rhys Fox, Eike-Benjamin Braune, Yat Long Tsoi, Yee Peng Phoon, Cecilia Sahlgren, Johan Hartman, Jonas Bergh, Shaobo Jin, Urban Lendahl
Hyperactivation of Notch signaling and the cellular hypoxic response are frequently observed in cancers, with increasing reports of connections to tumor initiation and progression. The two signaling mechanisms are known to intersect, but while it is well established that hypoxia regulates Notch signaling, less is known about whether Notch can regulate the cellular hypoxic response. We now report that Notch signaling specifically controls expression of HIF2α, a key mediator of the cellular hypoxic response. Transcriptional upregulation of HIF2α by Notch under normoxic conditions leads to elevated HIF2α protein levels in primary breast cancer cells as well as in human breast cancer, medulloblastoma, and renal cell carcinoma cell lines. The elevated level of HIF2α protein was in certain tumor cell types accompanied by downregulation of HIF1α protein levels, indicating that high Notch signaling may drive a HIF1α-to-HIF2α switch. At the transcriptome level, the presence of HIF2α was required for approximately 21% of all Notch-induced genes: among the 1062 genes that were upregulated by Notch in medulloblastoma cells during normoxia, upregulation was abrogated in 227 genes when HIF2α expression was knocked down by HIF2α siRNA. In conclusion, our data show that Notch signaling affects the hypoxic response via regulation of HIF2α, which may be important for future cancer therapies.
RNA-seq analysis identifies different transcriptomic types and developmental trajectories of primary melanomas Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 Manfred Kunz, Henry Löffler-Wirth, Michael Dannemann, Edith Willscher, Gero Doose, Janet Kelso, Tina Kottek, Birgit Nickel, Lydia Hopp, Jenny Landsberg, Steve Hoffmann, Thomas Tüting, Paola Zigrino, Cornelia Mauch, Jochen Utikal, Mirjana Ziemer, Hans-Joachim Schulze, Michael Hölzel, Alexander Roesch, Susanne Kneitz, Svenja Meierjohann, Anja Bosserhoff, Hans Binder, Manfred Schartl
Recent studies revealed trajectories of mutational events in early melanomagenesis, but the accompanying changes in gene expression are far less understood. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive RNA-seq analysis of laser-microdissected melanocytic nevi (n = 23) and primary melanoma samples (n = 57) and characterized the molecular mechanisms of early melanoma development. Using self-organizing maps, unsupervised clustering, and analysis of pseudotime (PT) dynamics to identify evolutionary trajectories, we describe here two transcriptomic types of melanocytic nevi (N1 and N2) and primary melanomas (M1 and M2). N1/M1 lesions are characterized by pigmentation-type and MITF gene signatures, and a high prevalence of NRAS mutations in M1 melanomas. N2/M2 lesions are characterized by inflammatory-type and AXL gene signatures with an equal distribution of wild-type and mutated BRAF and low prevalence of NRAS mutations in M2 melanomas. Interestingly, N1 nevi and M1 melanomas and N2 nevi and M2 melanomas, respectively, cluster together, but there is no clustering in a stage-dependent manner. Transcriptional signatures of M1 melanomas harbor signatures of BRAF/MEK inhibitor resistance and M2 melanomas harbor signatures of anti-PD-1 antibody treatment resistance. Pseudotime dynamics of nevus and melanoma samples are suggestive for a switch-like immune-escape mechanism in melanoma development with downregulation of immune genes paralleled by an increasing expression of a cell cycle signature in late-stage melanomas. Taken together, the transcriptome analysis identifies gene signatures and mechanisms underlying development of melanoma in early and late stages with relevance for diagnostics and therapy.
PSTPIP2 connects DNA methylation to macrophage polarization in CCL4-induced mouse model of hepatic fibrosis Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 Yang Yang, Xiao-qin Wu, Wan-xia Li, Hui-min Huang, Hai-di Li, Xue-yin Pan, Xiao-feng Li, Cheng Huang, Xiao-ming Meng, Lei Zhang, Xiong-wen Lv, Hua Wang, Jun Li
Macrophages play a crucial role in the progression of hepatic fibrosis (HF). In macrophages, epigenetic mechanisms are increasingly being recognized as crucial controllers of their phenotype. However, the functions of macrophage DNA methylation in experimental models of hepatic fibrosis have not been fully addressed. Here, we analyzed isolated hepatic macrophages DNA methylation from CCL4-induced (4 weeks) mice using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS). We identified and validated the methylation status of 26 gene promoter regions associated with CpG islands. We further investigated the function of PSTPIP2 in HF by hepatic-adeno-associated virus (AAV9)–PSTPIP2 overexpression. The molecular mechanisms underlying PSTPIPS2-regulated HF were further explored in mice and RAW264.7 cell line. RRBS results show hypermethylation of PSTPIP2 (chr18: 77,843,840–77,843,968) in the 5’-UTR region. PSTPIP2 expression was significantly decreased in isolated hepatic macrophages from CCL4-induced mice. PSTPIP2 hypermethylation is mediated by the methyltransferases DNMT3a and DNMT3b in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell line. Further investigation indicated that specific overexpression of PSTPIP2 in C57BL/6 mice reduced the inflammatory response and ameliorated liver fibrosis. These data indicated that hypermethylation of PSTPIP2 caused a mixed induction of hepatic classical macrophage (M1) and alternative macrophage (M2) biomarkers in CCL4-induced HF mice. Furthermore, overexpression of PSTPIP2 inhibited the expression of M1 markers by suppressing STAT1 activity, and enhanced the expression of M2 markers by promoting STAT6 activity. In contrast, knockdown of PSTPIP2 promoted M1 polarization and suppressed M2 polarization in vitro. Adding PSTPIP2 expression alleviates liver fibrosis and hepatic inflammation in mice by regulating macrophage polarization.
Silencing of MUC20 suppresses the malignant character of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells through inhibition of the HGF/MET pathway Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 Syue-Ting Chen, Ting-Chun Kuo, Ying-Yu Liao, Mei-Chun Lin, Yu-Wen Tien, Min-Chuan Huang
Mucins are heavily glycosylated proteins that play critical roles in the pathogenesis of tumour malignancies. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterised by the aberrant expression of mucins. However, the role of mucin (MUC) 20 in PDAC remains unclear. PDAC is usually surrounded by a dense fibrotic stroma consisting of an extracellular matrix and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). The stroma creates a nutrient-deprived, hypoxic, and acidic microenvironment, and promotes the malignant behaviours of PDAC cells. In this study, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that high MUC20 expression correlated with poor progression-free survival and high local recurrence rate of PDAC patients (n = 61). The expression of MUC20 was induced by serum deprivation, hypoxia, and acidic pH in PDAC cells. MUC20 knockdown with siRNA decreased cell viability, as well as migration and invasion induced by PSCs in HPAC and HPAF-II cells. In intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and orthotopic injection models, MUC20 knockdown decreased tumour growth in immunodeficient mice. Phospho-RTK array and western blot analysis indicated that MUC20 knockdown decreased HGF-mediated phosphorylation of MET in PDAC cells. Moreover, HGF-induced malignant phenotypes could be suppressed by MUC20 knockdown. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed the physical association of MUC20 and MET. These findings suggest that MUC20 knockdown suppresses the malignant phenotypes of PDAC cells at least partially through the inhibition of the HGF/MET pathway and that MUC20 could act as a potential therapeutic target.
Nuclear respiratory factor 1 promotes spheroid survival and mesenchymal transition in mammary epithelial cells Oncogene (IF 6.854) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 Yuanshuai Zhou, Zhongjuan Xu, Daniel Quan, Fan Zhang, Hai Zhang, Tongqian Xiao, Shulan Hou, Hong Qiao, Olivier Harismendy, Jean Y. J. Wang, Guangli Suo
Epithelial cells aggregate into spheroids when deprived of matrix, and the proclivity for spheroid formation and survival is a hallmark of normal and tumorigenic mammary stem cells. We show here that Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1 (NRF1) is a spheroid promoter by in silico identification of this transcription factor as highly connected to top shRNA-hits deduced from re-iterative selections for shRNAs enriched in MCF10A spheroids. NRF1-promoted spheroid survival is linked to its stimulation of mitochondrial OXPHOS, cell migration, invasion, and mesenchymal transition. Conversely, NRF1 knockdown in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells reduced spheroids, migration, invasion, and mesenchymal marker expression. NRF1 knockdown also reduced tumor burden in mammary fat pads and lungs of orthotopic- or tail vein-transplanted mice. With the Luminal A subtype of breast cancer, higher NRF1 expression is associated with lower survival. These results show that NRF1, an activator of mitochondrial metabolism, supports mammary spheroid survival and tumor development.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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